Science.gov

Sample records for accessory breast tissue

  1. Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.

    PubMed

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

    2014-01-01

    Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

  2. Anatomic and clinical rationale of the V-sign to detect accessory axillary breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Naraynsingh, Vijay; Cawich, Shamir O; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip; Hassranah, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The potential for breast cancer to present with lymphatic metastases, has instilled anxiety when women present with axillary masses. We discuss a simple and reliable clinical sign that can help clinicians to distinguish between axillary nodal metastases and accessory axillary breast tissue. Awareness and recognition of the "V-sign" can allay anxiety in women with accessary axillary breast tissue and prevent costly investigations in most cases. PMID:24591849

  3. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:22804110

  4. Fibroadenomatosis involving bilateral breasts and axillary accessory breast tissues in a renal transplant recipient given cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Bulakci, Mesut; Gocmez, Ahmet; Demir, Ali Aslan; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Tukenmez, Mustafa; Yavuz, Ekrem; Acunas, Gulden

    2014-10-01

    We present the mammographic and sonographic findings in a case of fibroadenomatosis involving both breasts and axillae in a renal transplant patient after 16 years of treatment with cyclosporin A. Awareness of the fact that cyclosporin A may induce the formation of fibroadenomas, including in accessory breast tissue, is important for correct diagnosis and preventing unnecessary intervention. PMID:25131521

  5. [Accessory breast on the vulva].

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gijón, E; Yuste-Chaves, M; Santos-Briz, A; Esteban-Velasco, C; de Unamuno-Pérez, P

    2012-04-01

    We describe a 24-year-old woman with a subcutaneous swelling in the left inferior pubic region. Histology revealed ectopic breast tissue. Vulvar tumors are uncommon and the presence of ectopic breast tissue in this region is extremely rare. In these cases, patients usually consult for a mass that varies in size with hormonal changes, typically during pregnancy or breast-feeding, or that has associated neoplastic changes. In our patient, the mass had grown progressively with no identifiable underlying hormonal association or neoplasm. We therefore classified it as ectopic breast tissue presenting as a subcutaneous mass. PMID:21798481

  6. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  7. Fungating accessory breast carcinoma in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-03-01

    Three cases of fungating accessory breast carcinoma out of a total of 22 malignant breast formations seen and treated in Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January 1977 and November 1981 are described. The clinical presentations, features and histologic findings are presented. The methods of management and the need for close observation as well as follow up for at least two years is emphasized. A frequency of 14% as seen in this series appears so high that one cannot describe the occurrence of malignant changes in the accessory breast as rare. PMID:6328710

  8. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with bilateral primary invasive breast carcinomas: a report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jin-Yan; Yang, Cui-Cui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yi-Ling; Li, Shuai; Li, Wei-Dong; Li, Ya-Qing; Lang, Rong-Gang; Fan, Yu; Paulos, Estifanos; Zhang, Xin-Min; Fu, Li

    2012-09-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified, IDC-NOS) and an accessory breast carcinoma (IDC-NOS) incidentally identified in her left axilla. The ectopic breast tissue in her right axilla presented with adenosis. The patient was surgically treated, followed by postoperative docetaxel epirubicin (TE) chemotherapy. The second case was a 53-year-old Chinese female with bilateral breast cancer (apocrine carcinoma) accompanied by an accessory breast carcinoma (IDC-NOS) in her right axilla that was also incidentally identified. The patient was surgically treated after three doses of cyclophosphamide epirubicin docetaxel (CET) neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy of the same regimen. PMID:23691479

  9. The use of microdebrider for the treatment of accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Jeremy, Sun Mingfa; Jack, Chong Si; Vincent, Yeow Kok Leng; Evan, Woo Kok Yen

    2012-11-01

    Accessory axillary breast tissue can be fairly common occurring in 2-6% of women. Treatment modalities thus far include direct excision as well as liposuction. While direct excision allows for accessible and adequate tissue resection, it results in long unsightly scars and the creation of significant amount of dead space. This may be complicated by seroma and haematoma formation. Liposuction is not without its drawbacks either. It is often very difficult to remove fibro-glandular breast tissue resulting in inadequate excision, thus leaving behind a visible core of breast tissue. This has led some surgeons to use a combination of direct excision and liposuction to manage accessory axillary breast tissue. Hence, we present the use of the microdebrider for sharp and precise excision of accessory axillary breast tissue. This day procedure can be performed through a single 5-mm incision which is well hidden in the axillary skin folds while allowing the operator the amount of control needed to accurately remove fibro-glandular breast tissue and restore an aesthetically pleasing contour to the axilla. PMID:22735506

  10. Giant accessory breast: a rare occurrence reported, with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Bharati; Subramaniam, Narayana; Chandrashekhar, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Polymastia, or the presence of supranumerary breasts, occurs in 2-6% of the female population, the spectrum of the disorder ranging between a small mole and a fully functional ectopic breast. They are often asymptomatic but require treatment when symptomatic or if they harbour malignancy. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman with an accessory breast in the left inframammary fold, which increased in size over the decade following her first pregnancy, to reach a size almost three times that of her right breast. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration and ultrasound was suggestive of accessory breast tissue, distinct from the left breast. Intraoperatively, a 14×10×8 cm accessory breast was found in the inframammary fold, distinct from the left breast and having an accessory nipple areola complex as well. A simple mastectomy was performed with trimming and rotation of the inframammary flap. The patient was happy with the cosmetic outcome. This article also reviews the literature and covers classification of polymastia, diagnostic complexities and challenges associated with surgery. PMID:26542818

  11. Invasive ductal carcinoma arising from dense accessory breast visualized with 99mTc-MIBI breast-specific γ imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Sung, Sun Hee; Moon, Byung In; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2014-08-01

    Primary accessory breast cancer is extremely rare, and the diagnostic efficacy of Tc-MIBI breast-specific γ imaging (BSGI) has not been reported elsewhere. We present a case of primary carcinoma arising from dense accessory breast that was visualized with BSGI. A 43-year-old female patient with a palpable axillary mass underwent mammography, which showed dense parenchyma on both of the anatomic and accessory breasts with no abnormality. Subsequent BSGI showed no abnormal uptake in bilateral anatomic breasts, but focal abnormal uptake was noted in the accessory breast. Permanent pathologic evaluation confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified type) of the accessory breast. PMID:24445272

  12. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions. PMID:26863057

  13. Primary breast adenocarcinoma in ectopic breast tissue in the vulva.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Jason; Dua, Anahita; Dowdy, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. An even rarer occurrence is accessory breast tissue afflicted with breast carcinoma. We present a brief report discussing diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with primary breast adenocarcinoma in vulval supranumerary tissue. Brief Report. A 60-year-old Caucasian female presented with a lesion in her left vulva that she first identified during adolescence. The lesion began to grow and ulcerate prompting her to receive treatment. Biopsy was inconclusive, and metastatic workup was negative, so her lesion was treated as an isolated breast lump and removed via wide local excision. Conclusion. Primary breast adenocarcinoma of the vulva is exceedingly rare. A paucity of the literature on this topic unfortunately means that strong evidence does not exist detailing the best management of this patient cohort. However, given that histological data confirms these cancers are virtually the same as breast cancers, it logically follows that the best treatment practices for breast cancer may be applied to treat these patients presenting with primary vulva cancers of ectopic breast tissue. PMID:24066246

  14. Unusual presentation of multiple fibroadenomas in bilateral breasts and axillary accessory breast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Rong; Bevan, Scott; Sun, Ping; Lu, Jim Z; Peng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case with a total of 50 fibroadenomas simultaneously presented in bilateral breasts and left axillary accessory breast, up to 8 cm in size, in a 20 year-old Chinese woman. The histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of the fibroadenomas are described and possible underlying pathogenesis is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case with such a large number of bilateral multiple breast fibroadenomas in a young female reported in the literature. PMID:22553423

  15. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

  16. A Rare Presentation Of An Ectopic Breast Tissue In Axilla.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Radhika; Singh, R N

    2015-10-01

    Accessory breast tissue is rare accounting to less than 1% cases seen in females. It is usually bilateral. We report a case of 24-year-old woman with a lump in the left axilla in view of its rarity and made a differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma, which following the investigations and histopathological report was confirmed as revealed fibroadenoma in the axilla. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis for all axillary swellings. PMID:26812754

  17. [Cancer in ectopic breast tissue].

    PubMed

    Røikjer, Johan; Lindmark, Ida; Knudsen, Thor

    2015-06-15

    Two different forms of ectopic breast tissue exist in human beings: supernumerary and aberrant. Both forms are usually seen alongside the milk lines, which extend from the upper limbs to the inguinal region where they give rise to mammary glands, areolas and nipples. Although ectopic- and orthotopic breast tissue are placed in different areas of the body, they still share the same ability to undergo pathological degeneration. The focus of this case report is to shed light on this unusual form of breast cancer, and raise the level of awareness in cases with lumps located in the milk lines. PMID:26101129

  18. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; ... If you are having breast reconstruction at the same time as mastectomy, the surgeon may do either of the following: Skin-sparing mastectomy. This means ...

  19. Optical diffuse reflectance accessory for measurements of skin tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

    1995-02-01

    An optimized accessory for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin tissue in the near-infrared spectral range is presented. The device includes an on-axis ellipsoidal collecting mirror with efficient illumination optics for small sampling areas of bulky body specimens. The optical design is supported by the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the reflectance characteristics of skin tissue. Because the results evolved from efforts to measure blood glucose noninvasively, the main emphasis is placed on the long-wavelength near-infrared range where sufficient penetration depth for radiation into tissue is still available. The accessory is applied for in vivo diffuse reflectance measurements.

  20. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG ... is medicine that keeps you asleep and pain-free. For TRAM surgery: The surgeon makes a cut ( ...

  1. [Accessory mitral tissue responsible for left ventricular outflow obstruction. Reports of 7 cases].

    PubMed

    Arnaud-Crozat, E; Nottin, R; Chambran, P; Serraf, A; Verrier, J F; Detroux, M; Lacour-Gayet, F; Planche, C; Langlois, J; Binet, J P

    1990-09-01

    The authors report the medico-surgical experience of Marie Lannelongue hospital of a rare condition: accessory mitral valve tissue. Seven patients aged 2 to 28 years (average: 8.7 years) had left ventricular outflow obstruction due to accessory mitral valve tissue. The diagnostic was not obvious clinically and was based on the association of echocardiographic and angiographic data. This condition was associated with another intra-cardiac malformation in 6 of the 7 patients. Surgical treatment included resection of the accessory mitral valve tissue by an aortic or combined aorto-left atrial approach, together with correction of the associated intracardiac abnormality. The postoperative results were excellent with the regression of the ventriculo-aortic pressure gradient and the physiological integrity of the mitral valve. PMID:2122834

  2. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options. PMID:23813993

  3. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options. PMID:23813993

  4. Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

  5. Differences in breast tissue oxygenation following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dornfeld, Ken; Gessert, Charles E; Renier, Colleen M; McNaney, David D; Urias, Rodolfo E; Knowles, Denise M; Beauduy, Jean L; Widell, Sherry L; McDonald, Bonita L

    2011-08-01

    Tissue perfusion and oxygenation changes following radiotherapy may result from and/or contribute to the toxicity of treatment. Breast tissue oxygenation levels were determined in the treated and non-treated breast 1 year after radiotherapy for breast conserving treatment. Transcutaneous oxygenation varied between subjects in both treated and non-treated breast. Subjects without diabetes mellitus (n=16) had an average oxygenation level of 64.8 ± 19.9mmHg in the irradiated breast and an average of 72.3 ± 18.1mmHg (p=0.018) at the corresponding location in the control breast. Patients with diabetes (n=4) showed a different oxygenation pattern, with lower oxygenation levels in control tissue and no decrease in the irradiated breast. This study suggests oxygenation levels in normal tissues vary between patients and may respond differently after radiotherapy. PMID:21356563

  6. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass. PMID:26355587

  7. [Axillary web syndrome--a variant of Mondor's disease, following excision of an accessory breast].

    PubMed

    Shoham, Yaron; Rosenberg, Nir; Krieger, Yuval; Silberstein, Eldad; Arnon, Ofer; Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Alex

    2011-12-01

    Cording, an unusual form of superficial thrombophlebitis, is a variant of the disease first described by Fage in 1870 and subsequently characterized by Henry Mondor in 1939 as sclerosing thrombophlebitis of the subcutaneous veins of the anterior chest wall. Similar lesions have also been found in the penis, groin, abdomen, arm, and axilla and have been reported under a variety of names. In the axilla the condition is termed axillary web syndrome (AWS) and is seen after axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy. A recent report suggests that pathophysiology of AWS is lymphatic in origin rather than venous. We report a unique case of unilateral AWS after excision of an axillary accessory breast and discuss the pathophysiology. PMID:22352279

  8. Transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS): a biomarker of breast tissue density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Kristina M.; Knight, Julia A.; Jong, Roberta; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-08-01

    A primary goal of preventive oncology is the identification of women at increased risk for breast cancer who would benefit most from risk reducing interventions. An established physical risk assessment technique is the use of mammography to quantify the dense tissue content of the breast. Women with a majority of the breast occupied by dense tissue are at four to six times greater risk of breast cancer than women with the least density. The main drawback of mammography is that it requires exposure to ionising radiation and there are concerns regarding use in young women. Another potential physical risk assessment is Transillumination Breast Spectroscopy (TIBS). TIBS uses non-ionizing optical radiation to measure bulk tissue properties and thus is applicable to women of any age. This study examines the feasibility of using TIBS in vivo to detect mammographic density as an interim indicator of breast cancer risk. TIBS measurements were completed on 300 women with radiological normal mammograms. White light (625 to 1060 nm) was delivered to the breast tissue and transmitted light was detected on the opposite side of the breast. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the spectral data and generate individual 'risk' scores. Agreement between the obtained 'risk' scores and mammographic density was established using density cluster analysis, the Kappa statistic and logistic regression. The agreement between breast density assessed by mammography and by TIBS was statistically significant for all 'risk' scores. Logistic regression indicated a strong association between the TIBS scores and mammographic density. TIBS provides an alternative to x-ray derived mammographic density as a biomarker of breast density and hence cancer risk.

  9. VOLUMETRIC LOCALISATION OF DENSE BREAST TISSUE USING BREAST TOMOSYNTHESIS DATA.

    PubMed

    Dustler, M; Petersson, H; Timberg, P

    2016-06-01

    This study attempted to use combined data from reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volumes and density estimation of projection images to localise dense tissue inside the breast, using the assumption that the breast can be treated as consisting of only two types of tissue: fibroglandular (dense) and adipose (fatty). To be able to verify results, software breast phantoms generated using fractal Perlin noise were employed. Projection images were created using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo package. Dense tissue volume was estimated from the central projection image. The density image was used to determine the number of dense voxels at each pixel location, which were then placed using the DBT image as a template. The method proved capable of accurately determining the composition of 75±5 % of voxels. PMID:26922782

  10. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation

  11. Whole breast tissue characterization with ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steve; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    A number of clinical trials have shown that screening ultrasound, supplemental to mammography, detects additional cancers in women with dense breasts. However, labor intensity, operator dependence and high recall rates have limited adoption. This paper describes the use of ultrasound tomography for whole-breast tissue stiffness measurements as a first step toward addressing the issue of high recall rates. The validation of the technique using an anthropomorphic phantom is described. In-vivo applications are demonstrated on 13 breast masses, indicating that lesion stiffness correlates with lesion type as expected. Comparison of lesion stiffness measurements with standard elastography was available for 11 masses and showed a strong correlation between the 2 measures. It is concluded that ultrasound tomography can map out the 3 dimensional distribution of tissue stiffness over the whole breast. Such a capability is well suited for screening where additional characterization may improve the specificity of screening ultrasound, thereby lowering barriers to acceptance.

  12. Supernumerary breast masquerading as metastasis on serial 67Ga scan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yum-Kung; Yang, Rong-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Pei

    2013-01-01

    We report the incidental discovery of supernumerary breast changes on sequential ⁶⁷Ga scans in a woman with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans excised 5 years before. The appearance of the accessory breast fluctuated with physiological ⁶⁷Ga uptake of the breast tissue was evident. Awareness of the concomitant changes in accessory breast with breast tissue could help narrow the differential diagnosis. PMID:23242056

  13. Grading Breast Cancer Tissues Using Molecular Portraits*

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Niclas; Carlsson, Petter; James, Peter; Hansson, Karin; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmström, Per; Fernö, Mårten; Ryden, Lisa; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor progression and prognosis in breast cancer patients are difficult to assess using current clinical and laboratory parameters, where a pathological grading is indicative of tumor aggressiveness. This grading is based on assessments of nuclear grade, tubule formation, and mitotic rate. We report here the first protein signatures associated with histological grades of breast cancer, determined using a novel affinity proteomics approach. We profiled 52 breast cancer tissue samples by combining nine antibodies and label-free LC-MS/MS, which generated detailed quantified proteomic maps representing 1,388 proteins. The results showed that we could define in-depth molecular portraits of histologically graded breast cancer tumors. Consequently, a 49-plex candidate tissue protein signature was defined that discriminated between histological grades 1, 2, and 3 of breast cancer tumors with high accuracy. Highly biologically relevant proteins were identified, and the differentially expressed proteins indicated further support for the current hypothesis regarding remodeling of the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. The protein signature was corroborated using meta-analysis of transcriptional profiling data from an independent patient cohort. In addition, the potential for using the markers to estimate the likelihood of long-term metastasis-free survival was also indicated. Taken together, these molecular portraits could pave the way for improved classification and prognostication of breast cancer. PMID:23982162

  14. Generation of 3D synthetic breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are an emergent approach for the rapid evaluation and comparison of various breast imaging technologies and techniques using computer-based modeling tools. A fundamental requirement of this approach for mammography is the use of realistic looking breast anatomy in the studies to produce clinically relevant results. In this work, a biologically inspired approach has been used to simulate realistic synthetic breast phantom blocks for use in virtual clinical trials. A variety of high and low frequency features (including Cooper's ligaments, blood vessels and glandular tissue) have been extracted from clinical digital breast tomosynthesis images and used to simulate synthetic breast blocks. The appearance of the phantom blocks was validated by presenting a selection of simulated 2D and DBT images interleaved with real images to a team of experienced readers for rating using an ROC paradigm. The average areas under the curve for 2D and DBT images were 0.53+/-.04 and 0.55+/-.07 respectively; errors are the standard errors of the mean. The values indicate that the observers had difficulty in differentiating the real images from simulated images. The statistical properties of simulated images of the phantom blocks were evaluated by means of power spectrum analysis. The power spectrum curves for real and simulated images closely match and overlap indicating good agreement.

  15. Evidence That Breast Tissue Stiffness Is Associated with Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Norman F.; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J.; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J.; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. Results After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. Conclusion An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement. PMID:25010427

  16. Using Data Fusion to Characterize Breast Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    New ultrasound data, obtained with a circular experimental scanner, are compared with data obtained with standard X-ray CT. Ultrasound data obtained by scanning fixed breast tissue were used to generate images of sound speed and reflectivity. The ultrasound images exhibit approximately 1 mm resolution and about 20 dB of dynamic range. All data were obtained in a circular geometry. X-ray CT scans were used to generate X-ray images corresponding to the same 'slices' obtained with the ultrasound scanner. The good match of sensitivity, resolution and angular coverage between the ultrasound and X-ray data makes possible a direct comparison of the three types of images. We present the results of such a comparison for an excised breast fixed in formalin. The results are presented visually using various types of data fusion. A general correspondence between the sound speed, reflectivity and X-ray morphologies is found. The degree to which data fusion can help characterize tissue is assessed by examining the quantitative correlations between the ultrasound and X-ray images.

  17. Analysis of human breast tissues with Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Jianhong; Yu, Fan; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was used to study normal, benign and malignant human breast tissues. The Raman spectrum of normal breast tissue recorded with 514.5 nm line of Ar + laser excitation contains features attributed to carotenoids and lipids. The CH II bending mode near 1447 cm -1 in normal tissue shifts up to 1454 cm -1 in diseased tissues (benign and malignant). The band near 1660 cm -1 in normal tissue is narrow and sharp; whereas the band is broaden in the diseased tissues. In the region of C-H stretching mode, the 2902-/2860-cm -1 intensity ratio shows differences among normal, benign and malignant breast tissues. The ratio is the smallest in carcinoma tissue. The observed spectra differences may be used to probe breast lesion. The results show that Raman spectroscopic technique may have clinical applications.

  18. Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Differentially Expands Breast Progenitors in Tissue Adjacent to Tumors Compared to Healthy Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Laliberte, Mike; Blelloch, Sarah; Ratanshi, Imran; Safneck, Janice; Buchel, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autologous fat grafts supplemented with adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction are used in reconstructive and cosmetic breast procedures. Stromal vascular fraction contains adipose-derived stem cells that are thought to encourage wound healing, tissue regeneration, and graft retention. Although use of stromal vascular fraction has provided exciting perspectives for aesthetic procedures, no studies have yet been conducted to determine whether its cells contribute to breast tissue regeneration. The authors examined the effect of these cells on the expansion of human breast epithelial progenitors. Methods: From patients undergoing reconstructive breast surgery following mastectomies, abdominal fat, matching tissue adjacent to breast tumors, and the contralateral non–tumor-containing breast tissue were obtained. Ex vivo co-cultures using breast epithelial cells and the stromal vascular fraction cells were used to study the expansion potential of breast progenitors. Breast reduction samples were collected as a source of healthy breast cells. Results: The authors observed that progenitors present in healthy breast tissue or contralateral non–tumor-containing breast tissue showed significant and robust expansion in the presence of stromal vascular fraction (5.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively). Whereas the healthy progenitors expanded up to 3-fold without the stromal vascular fraction cells, the expansion of tissue adjacent to breast tumor progenitors required the presence of stromal vascular fraction cells, leading to a 7-fold expansion, which was significantly higher than the expansion of healthy progenitors with stromal vascular fraction. Conclusions: The use of stromal vascular fraction might be more beneficial to reconstructive operations following mastectomies compared with cosmetic corrections of the healthy breast. Future studies are required to examine the potential risk factors associated with its use. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

  19. Molecular Portrait of the Normal Human Breast Tissue and Its Influence on Breast Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margan, Madalin Marius; Jitariu, Andreea Adriana; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Nica, Cristian; Raica, Marius

    2016-06-01

    Normal human breast tissue consists of epithelial and nonepithelial cells with different molecular profiles and differentiation grades. This molecular heterogeneity is known to yield abnormal clones that may contribute to the development of breast carcinomas. Stem cells that are found in developing and mature breast tissue are either positive or negative for cytokeratin 19 depending on their subtype. These cells are able to generate carcinogenesis along with mature cells. However, scientific data remains controversial regarding the monoclonal or polyclonal origin of breast carcinomas. The majority of breast carcinomas originate from epithelial cells that normally express BRCA1. The consecutive loss of the BRCA1 gene leads to various abnormalities in epithelial cells. Normal breast epithelial cells also express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1α and HIF-2α that are associated with a high metastatic rate and a poor prognosis for malignant lesions. The nuclear expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in normal human breast tissue is maintained in malignant tissue as well. Several controversies regarding the ability of ER and PR status to predict breast cancer outcome remain. Both ER and PR act as modulators of cell activity in normal human breast tissue. Ki-67 positivity is strongly correlated with tumor grade although its specific role in applied therapy requires further studies. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncoprotein is less expressed in normal human breast specimens but is highly expressed in certain malignant lesions of the breast. Unlike HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor expression is similar in both normal and malignant tissues. Molecular heterogeneity is not only found in breast carcinomas but also in normal breast tissue. Therefore, the molecular mapping of normal human breast tissue might represent a key research area to fully elucidate the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:27382385

  20. Molecular Portrait of the Normal Human Breast Tissue and Its Influence on Breast Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Margan, Madalin Marius; Jitariu, Andreea Adriana; Nica, Cristian; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Normal human breast tissue consists of epithelial and nonepithelial cells with different molecular profiles and differentiation grades. This molecular heterogeneity is known to yield abnormal clones that may contribute to the development of breast carcinomas. Stem cells that are found in developing and mature breast tissue are either positive or negative for cytokeratin 19 depending on their subtype. These cells are able to generate carcinogenesis along with mature cells. However, scientific data remains controversial regarding the monoclonal or polyclonal origin of breast carcinomas. The majority of breast carcinomas originate from epithelial cells that normally express BRCA1. The consecutive loss of the BRCA1 gene leads to various abnormalities in epithelial cells. Normal breast epithelial cells also express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1α and HIF-2α that are associated with a high metastatic rate and a poor prognosis for malignant lesions. The nuclear expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in normal human breast tissue is maintained in malignant tissue as well. Several controversies regarding the ability of ER and PR status to predict breast cancer outcome remain. Both ER and PR act as modulators of cell activity in normal human breast tissue. Ki-67 positivity is strongly correlated with tumor grade although its specific role in applied therapy requires further studies. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncoprotein is less expressed in normal human breast specimens but is highly expressed in certain malignant lesions of the breast. Unlike HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor expression is similar in both normal and malignant tissues. Molecular heterogeneity is not only found in breast carcinomas but also in normal breast tissue. Therefore, the molecular mapping of normal human breast tissue might represent a key research area to fully elucidate the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:27382385

  1. Breast Tissue 3D Segmentation and Visualization on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangfei; Sun, Feifei

    2013-01-01

    Tissue segmentation and visualization are useful for breast lesion detection and quantitative analysis. In this paper, a 3D segmentation algorithm based on Kernel-based Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is proposed to separate the breast MR images into different tissues. Then, an improved volume rendering algorithm based on a new transfer function model is applied to implement 3D breast visualization. Experimental results have been shown visually and have achieved reasonable consistency. PMID:23983676

  2. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  3. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins. PMID:26535413

  4. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denser Breast Tissue Previous research has linked higher density to increased risk of breast cancer To use ... reported data about diet. They also rated the density of the women's breast tissue as seen on ...

  5. Atlas-Based Probabilistic Fibroglandular Tissue Segmentation in Breast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan; Kontos, Despina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an atlas-aided probabilistic model-based segmentation method for estimating the fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI, where a novel fibroglandular tissue atlas is learned to aid the segmentation. The atlas represents a pixel-wise likelihood of being fibroglandular tissue in the breast, which is derived by combining deformable image warping, using aligned breast contour points as landmarks, with a kernel density estimation technique. A mixture multivariate model is learned to characterize the breast tissue using MR image features, and the segmentation is subsequently based on examining the posterior probability where the learned atlas is incorporated as the prior probability. In our experiments, the algorithm-generated segmentation results of 10 cases are compared to the manual segmentations, verified by an experienced breast imaging radiologist, to assess the accuracy of the algorithm, where the Dice’s Similarity Coefficient (DSC) shows a 0.85 agreement. The proposed automated segmentation method could be used to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in the breast for breast cancer risk estimation. PMID:23286078

  6. Analysis of breast tissue calcifications using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Rebecca N.; Rogers, Keith D.; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nicholas

    2007-07-01

    Microalcifications can be found in both benign and malignant breast lesions and their composition can indicate the disease state. Type I microcalcifications are composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) and are associated mainly with benign tissue, whereas hydroxyapatite (HAP) can be present in both tissue types. As current practices such as mammography and histopathology examine the morphology of the specimen, they can not reliably distinguish between the two types of calcification, which frequently are the only mammographic features that indicate the presence of a cancerous lesion. Analysis of tissue by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) allows biochemical information to be achieved from the sample. Spectral maps have been carried out on paraffinized sections of breast tissue from 9 patients of different pathology types containing calcification. The chemical composition of the calcifications and surrounding tissue has been analysed and correlated with tissue pathology. This preliminary study has demonstrated the ability to conduct FTIR in paraffinized sections of breast tissue, and initial observations show a correlation between HAP carbonate substitution and tissue pathology. It is hoped that this and further studies will give insight into how the calcifications are linked to the disease process and will give an increased understanding of the significance of calcifications in breast tissue. If type II microcalcifications can be differentiated in benign and malignant tissue by spectroscopic techniques, this may have positive implications in early diagnosis if the techniques can be applied in vivo and spectroscopy of paraffin sections enables biochemical information to accompany histopathology of the sample.

  7. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  8. The Microbiota of Breast Tissue and Its Association with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urbaniak, Camilla; Gloor, Gregory B.; Brackstone, Muriel; Scott, Leslie; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. Along with genetics, the environment contributes to disease development, but what these exact environmental factors are remains unknown. We have previously shown that breast tissue is not sterile but contains a diverse population of bacteria. We thus believe that the host's local microbiome could be modulating the risk of breast cancer development. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we show that bacterial profiles differ between normal adjacent tissue from women with breast cancer and tissue from healthy controls. Women with breast cancer had higher relative abundances of Bacillus, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus. Escherichia coli (a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family) and Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from breast cancer patients, were shown to induce DNA double-stranded breaks in HeLa cells using the histone-2AX (H2AX) phosphorylation (γ-H2AX) assay. We also found that microbial profiles are similar between normal adjacent tissue and tissue sampled directly from the tumor. This study raises important questions as to what role the breast microbiome plays in disease development or progression and how we can manipulate this for possible therapeutics or prevention. IMPORTANCE This study shows that different bacterial profiles in breast tissue exist between healthy women and those with breast cancer. Higher relative abundances of bacteria that had the ability to cause DNA damage in vitro were detected in breast cancer patients, as was a decrease in some lactic acid bacteria, known for their beneficial health effects, including anticarcinogenic properties. This study raises important questions as to the role of the mammary microbiome in modulating the risk of breast cancer development. PMID:27342554

  9. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  10. Visualization of basement membranes in normal breast and breast cancer tissues using multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIUFENG; CHEN, GANG; QIU, JINGTING; LU, JIANPING; ZHU, WEIFENG; CHEN, JIANXIN; ZHUO, SHUANGMU; YAN, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Since basement membranes represent a critical barrier during breast cancer progression, timely imaging of these signposts is essential for early diagnosis of breast cancer. A label-free method using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence signals and second harmonic generation signals for analyzing the morphology of basement membrane in normal and cancerous breast tissues is likely to enable a better understanding of the pathophysiology of breast cancer and facilitate improved clinical management and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether MPM has the potential for label-free assessment of the morphology of basement membrane in normal and cancerous breast tissues. A total of 60 tissue section samples (comprising 30 fresh breast cancer specimens and 30 normal breast tissues) were first imaged (fresh, unfixed and unstained) with MPM and are then processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Comparisons were made between MPM imaging and gold standard sections for each specimen stained with H&E. Simply by visualizing morphological features appearing on multiphoton images, cancerous lesions may be readily identified by the loss of basement membrane and tumor cells characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. These results suggest that MPM has potential as a label-free method of imaging the morphology of basement membranes and cell features to effectively distinguish between normal and cancerous breast tissues. PMID:27313695

  11. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  12. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line.

    PubMed

    Tauchen, Alexander J; Kueberuwa, Essie; Schiffman, Kenneth; Mudaliar, Kumaran M; Noland, Shelley S

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the "milk line" on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm. PMID:26783489

  13. Genomic Changes in Normal Breast Tissue in Women at Normal Risk or at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer develops through the accumulation of molecular abnormalities in normal breast tissue, resulting from exposure to estrogens and other carcinogens beginning at adolescence and continuing throughout life. These molecular changes may take a variety of forms, including numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic changes, and gene expression alterations. To characterize these abnormalities, a review of the literature has been conducted to define the molecular changes in each of the above major genomic categories in normal breast tissue considered to be either at normal risk or at high risk for sporadic breast cancer. This review indicates that normal risk breast tissues (such as reduction mammoplasty) contain evidence of early breast carcinogenesis including loss of heterozygosity, DNA methylation of tumor suppressor and other genes, and telomere shortening. In normal tissues at high risk for breast cancer (such as normal breast tissue adjacent to breast cancer or the contralateral breast), these changes persist, and are increased and accompanied by aneuploidy, increased genomic instability, a wide range of gene expression differences, development of large cancerized fields, and increased proliferation. These changes are consistent with early and long-standing exposure to carcinogens, especially estrogens. A model for the breast carcinogenic pathway in normal risk and high-risk breast tissues is proposed. These findings should clarify our understanding of breast carcinogenesis in normal breast tissue and promote development of improved methods for risk assessment and breast cancer prevention in women. PMID:27559297

  14. Tissue-Based Metabolomics to Analyze the Breast Cancer Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Budczies, Jan; Denkert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics have been developed into mature technologies that can be utilized to analyze hundreds of biological samples in a high-throughput manner. Over the past few years, both technologies were utilized to analyze large cohorts of fresh frozen breast cancer tissues. Metabolite biomarkers were shown to separate breast cancer tissues from normal breast tissues with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the metabolome differed between hormone receptor positive (HR+) and hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancer, but was unchanged in HER2+ tumors compared to HER2- tumors. New metabolism-related biomarkers were discovered including the 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase ABAT, where low mRNA expression led to an accumulation of beta-alanine and shortened relapse-free survival. The glutamate-to-glutamine ratio (GGR) represents another new biomarker that was increased in 88 % of HR- tumors and 56 % of HR+ tumors compared to normal breast tissues. The GGR might help to stratify patients for the treatment with specific glutaminase inhibitors that were recently developed and are currently being tested in phase I clinical studies. Surprisingly, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), initially found to accumulate in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutated gliomas and leukemias and described as an oncometabolite, was detected to be drastically increased in several breast carcinomas in the absence of IDH mutations. In summary, metabolomics analysis of breast cancer tissues is a reliable method and has produced many new biological insights that may impact breast cancer diagnostics and treatment over the coming years. PMID:27557538

  15. INDIVIDUALISED CALCULATION OF TISSUE IMPARTED ENERGY IN BREAST TOMOSYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Geeraert, N; Klausz, R; Muller, S; Bloch, I; Bosmans, H

    2016-06-01

    The imparted energy to the glandular tissue in the breast (glandular imparted energy, GIE) is proposed for an improved assessment of the individual radiation-induced risk resulting from X-ray breast imaging. GIE is computed from an estimation of the quantity and localisation of glandular tissue in the breast. After a digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisition, the volumetric glandular content (volumetric breast density, VBD) is computed from the central X-ray projection. The glandular tissue distribution is determined by labelling the DBT voxels to ensure the conservation of the VBD. Finally, the GIE is calculated by Monte Carlo computation on the resulting tissue-labelled DBT volume. For verification, the method was applied to 10 breast-shaped digital phantoms made of different glandular spheres in an adipose background, and to a digital anthropomorphic phantom. Results were compared to direct GIE computations on the phantoms considered as 'ground-truth'. The major limitations in accuracy are those of DBT, in particular the limited z-resolution. However, for most phantoms, the results can be considered as acceptable. PMID:27127209

  16. Nonlinear Elasto-Mammography for Characterization of Breast Tissue Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. G.; Liu, Y.; Wang, G.; Sun, L. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical behavior of normal and cancerous tissues has important implication in the diagnosis of breast tumor. The present work extends the authors' nonlinear elastography framework to incorporate the conventional X-ray mammography, where the projection of displacement information is acquired instead of full three-dimensional (3D) vector. The elastic parameters of normal and cancerous breast tissues are identified by minimizing the difference between the measurement and the corresponding computational prediction. An adjoint method is derived to calculate the gradient of the objective function. Simulations are conducted on a 3D breast phantom consisting of the fatty tissue, glandular tissue, and cancerous tumor, whose mechanical responses are hyperelastic in nature. The material parameters are identified with consideration of measurement error. The results demonstrate that the projective displacements acquired in X-ray mammography provide sufficient constitutive information of the tumor and prove the usability and robustness of the proposed method and algorithm. PMID:22235197

  17. Elasto-Mammography: Elastic Property Reconstruction in Breast Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. G.; Liu, Y.; Wang, G.; Sun, L. Z.

    2008-02-15

    Mammography is the primary method for screening and detecting breast cancers. However, it frequently fails to detect small tumors and is not quite specific in terms of tumor benignity and malignancy. The objective of this paper is to develop a new imaging modality called elasto-mammography that generates the modulus elastograms based on conventional mammographs. A new elastic reconstruction method is described based on elastography and mammography for breast tissues. Elastic distribution can be reconstructed through the measurement of displacement provided by mammographic projection. It is shown that the proposed elasto-mammography provides higher sensitivity and specificity than the conventional mammography on its own for breast cancer diagnosis.

  18. Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M.; Choi, K. Yeon; Sun, Dejun; Nuovo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease. PMID:24750974

  19. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY AND GENE EXPRESSION: ANALYSIS OF NORMAL BREAST TISSUE SURROUNDING BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Williams, Tyisha; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wesolowska, Ewa; Boyd, Norman F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies of breast tissue gene expression have demonstrated that the extratumoral microenvironment has substantial variability across individuals, some of which can be attributed to epidemiologic factors. To evaluate how mammographic density (MD) and breast tissue composition relate to extratumoral microenvironment gene expression, we used data on 121 breast cancer patients from the population-based Polish Women's Breast Cancer Study. Design Breast cancer cases were classified based on a previously reported, biologically-defined extratumoral gene expression signature with two subtypes: an Active subtype, which is associated with high expression of genes related to fibrosis and wound response, and an Inactive subtype, which has high expression of cellular adhesion genes. MD of the contralateral breast was assessed using pre-treatment mammograms and a quantitative, reliable computer-assisted thresholding method. Breast tissue composition was evaluated based on digital image analysis of tissue sections. Results The Inactive extratumoral subtype was associated with significantly higher percentage mammographic density (PD) and dense area (DA) in univariate analysis (PD: p=0.001; DA: p=0.049) and in multivariable analyses adjusted for age and body mass index (PD: p=0.004; DA: p=0.049). Inactive/higher MD tissue was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of stroma and a significantly lower percentage of adipose tissue, with no significant change in epithelial content. Analysis of published gene expression signatures suggested that Inactive/higher MD tissue expressed increased estrogen response and decreased TGF-β signaling. Conclusions By linking novel molecular phenotypes with MD, our results indicate that MD reflects broad transcriptional changes, including changes in both epithelia- and stroma-derived signaling. PMID:23918601

  1. Disposition of hop prenylflavonoids in human breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Li, Jinghu; Nikolic, Dejan; Roche, Nathalie; Blondeel, Phillip; Possemiers, Sam; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; Heyerick, Arne; van Breemen, Richard B.; Depypere, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Hop-derived products may contain xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IX), and the potent phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). To evaluate the potential health effects of these prenylflavonoids on breast tissue, their concentration, nature of metabolites, and biodistribution were assessed and compared to 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure. In this dietary intervention study, women were randomly allocated to hop (n=11; 2.04 mg XN, 1.20 mg IX, and 0.1 mg 8-PN per supplement) or control (n=10). After a run-in of ≥4d, 3 supplements were taken daily during 5d preceding an aesthetic breast reduction. Blood and breast biopsies were analyzed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Upon hop administration, XN and IX concentrations ranged between 0.72–17.65 nmol/L and 3.30–31.50 nmol/L, and between 0.26– 5.14 pmol/g and 1.16–83.67 pmol/g in hydrolyzed serum and breast tissue, respectively. 8-PN however, was only detected in samples of moderate and strong 8-PN producers (0.43–7.06 nmol/L and 0.78–4.83 pmol/g). Phase I metabolism appeared to be minor (~10%), whereas extensive glucuronidation was observed (>90%). Total prenylflavonoids showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 38/62 and their derived E2-equivalents were negligible compared to E2 in adipose (384.6±118.8 fmol/g, P=0.009) and glandular (241.6±93.1 fmol/g, P<0.001) tissue, respectively. Consequently, low doses of prenylflavonoids are unlikely to elicit estrogenic responses in breast tissue. PMID:20486208

  2. Disposition of hop prenylflavonoids in human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Selin; Li, Jinghu; Nikolic, Dejan; Roche, Nathalie; Blondeel, Phillip; Possemiers, Sam; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; Heyerick, Arne; van Breemen, Richard B; Depypere, Herman

    2010-07-01

    Hop-derived products may contain xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IX), and the potent phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). To evaluate the potential health effects of these prenylflavonoids on breast tissue, their concentration, nature of metabolites, and biodistribution were assessed and compared with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) exposure. In this dietary intervention study, women were randomly allocated to hop (n=11; 2.04 mg XN, 1.20 mg IX, and 0.1 mg 8-PN per supplement) or control (n=10). After a run-in of >or=4 days, three supplements were taken daily for 5 days preceding an aesthetic breast reduction. Blood and breast biopsies were analyzed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Upon hop administration, XN and IX concentrations ranged between 0.72 and 17.65 nmol/L and 3.30 and 31.50 nmol/L, and between 0.26 and 5.14 pmol/g and 1.16 and 83.67 pmol/g in hydrolyzed serum and breast tissue, respectively. 8-PN however, was only detected in samples of moderate and strong 8-PN producers (0.43-7.06 nmol/L and 0.78-4.83 pmol/g). Phase I metabolism appeared to be minor (approximately 10%), whereas extensive glucuronidation was observed (> 90%). Total prenylflavonoids showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 38/62 and their derived E(2)-equivalents were negligible compared with E(2) in adipose (384.6+/-118.8 fmol/g, p=0.009) and glandular (241.6+/-93.1 fmol/g, p<0.001) tissue, respectively. Consequently, low doses of prenylflavonoids are unlikely to elicit estrogenic responses in breast tissue. PMID:20486208

  3. Antibiotic residues distribute uniformly in broiler chicken breast muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Herrera, Ixchel; Donoghue, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Use of antibiotics by the poultry industry has the potential to produce residues in edible tissues. In order to protect consumers, the U.S. federal government performs extensive evaluations to quantify residues in edible tissues to ensure that concentrations do not exceed the tolerance level. However, in the case of muscle tissue, the regulatory process does not differentiate between different edible muscle types in poultry. Previous studies performed by our laboratory determined higher fluoroquinolone residue concentrations in breast versus thigh muscle. Thus, if thigh tissues were used for residue monitoring, it would not accurately depict the higher concentrations. It is also possible that residue concentrations vary within tissues. To evaluate this possibility, fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues were determined for different breast sections. One hundred sixty chickens were randomly divided into four groups and dosed at 33 days of age with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, enrofloxacin (Baytril), at either 25 ppm for 3 days, 25 ppm for 7 days, 50 ppm for 3 days, or 50 ppm for 7 days. Breast fillets were collected from each bird (n = 5 birds per day per group) during the dosing and withdrawal period. Each breast was divided into four sections (upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right) that were analyzed as individual samples for determination of fluoroquinolone concentration. Our results indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the levels of enrofloxacin residues between breast sections during the dosing or withdrawal periods. Consequently, samples can be collected from any breast section to evaluate fluoroquinolone residue concentrations during the regulatory monitoring process. PMID:18236689

  4. Diffraction tomography applied to simulated ultrasound through breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, David H.

    2002-11-01

    Diffraction tomography is used to obtain images of sound speed and attenuation of a slice of breast tissue obtained from the Visible Woman data set. Simulated ultrasound data was generated using an acoustic propagation code run on the ASCI Blue Pacific computer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Data was generated for a slice of healthy tissue, and a slice with simulated lesions to determine the ability of the imaging method to detect various abnormalities in the breast. In addition, the time reversal operator for the slice was constructed from the data and the eigenfunctions backpropagated into the slice as first suggested by Mast [Mast, Nachman, and Waag, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(2)] to identify structures associated with each time reversal mode for both the healthy tissue and tissue with lesions.

  5. Breast tissue decomposition with spectral distortion correction: A postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Zhao, Bo; Baturin, Pavlo; Behroozi, Farnaz; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an accurate measurement of water, lipid, and protein composition of breast tissue using a photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT) with spectral distortion corrections. Methods: Thirty-eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based photon-counting spectral CT system at 100 kV. The energy-resolving capability of the photon-counting detector was used to separate photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose for each breast ranged from 1.8 to 2.2 mGy. Two spectral distortion correction techniques were implemented, respectively, on the raw images to correct the nonlinear detector response due to pulse pileup and charge-sharing artifacts. Dual energy decomposition was then used to characterize each breast in terms of water, lipid, and protein content. In the meantime, the breasts were chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein components to provide a gold standard for comparison with dual energy decomposition results. Results: The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was determined by comparing to the reference standard from chemical analysis. The averaged root-mean-square error in percentage composition was reduced from 15.5% to 2.8% after spectral distortion corrections. Conclusions: The results indicate that spectral CT can be used to quantify the water, lipid, and protein content in breast tissue. The accuracy of the compositional analysis depends on the applied spectral distortion correction technique. PMID:25281953

  6. Breast tissue decomposition with spectral distortion correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Zhao, Bo; Baturin, Pavlo; Behroozi, Farnaz; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an accurate measurement of water, lipid, and protein composition of breast tissue using a photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT) with spectral distortion corrections. Methods: Thirty-eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based photon-counting spectral CT system at 100 kV. The energy-resolving capability of the photon-counting detector was used to separate photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose for each breast ranged from 1.8 to 2.2 mGy. Two spectral distortion correction techniques were implemented, respectively, on the raw images to correct the nonlinear detector response due to pulse pileup and charge-sharing artifacts. Dual energy decomposition was then used to characterize each breast in terms of water, lipid, and protein content. In the meantime, the breasts were chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein components to provide a gold standard for comparison with dual energy decomposition results. Results: The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was determined by comparing to the reference standard from chemical analysis. The averaged root-mean-square error in percentage composition was reduced from 15.5% to 2.8% after spectral distortion corrections. Conclusions: The results indicate that spectral CT can be used to quantify the water, lipid, and protein content in breast tissue. The accuracy of the compositional analysis depends on the applied spectral distortion correction technique.

  7. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  8. Differential effects of progestins on breast tissue enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, J R

    2003-12-10

    There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E2) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E2 formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway' that transforms androgens into estrogens and the 'sulfatase pathway' that converts estrone sulfate (E1S) into estrone (E1) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E1 to potent biologically active E2 via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. One of the possible means of blocking E2 effects in breast cancer is to use anti-estrogens, which act by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Another option is to block E2 using anti-enzymes (anti-sulfatase, anti-aromatase, or anti-17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD). Various progestins (e.g. promegestone, nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, 17-deacetyl norgestimate, dydrogesterone and its 20-dihydro derivative), as well as tibolone and its metabolites, have been shown to inhibit estrone sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Some progestins and tibolone can also stimulate sulfotransferase activity. These various progestins may therefore provide a new option for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14670645

  9. Uptake and distribution of fluorescently labeled cobalamin in neoplastic and healthy breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Michelle J.; McGreevy, James M.; Holden, Joseph A.; West, Frederick G.; Grissom, Charles B.

    2000-05-01

    Fluorescent analogs of cobalamin (vitamin B12) have been developed as diagnostic markers of cancer cells. These compounds are recognized by transcobalamin, a cobalamin transport protein, with high affinity, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. The cellular sequestration and gross distribution of fluorescent cobalamin bioconjugates in breast tissue is being examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The distribution of each compound is being evaluated in proliferative and non-proliferative tissue, i.e. normal tissue and breast carcinoma. The results of preliminary studies suggest that fluorescent analogs of cobalamin may be a useful tool in therapeutic breast operations to define tumor margins and to distinguish neoplastic breast tissue from healthy breast tissue.

  10. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts before submitting any insurance claims. For a list of companies that sell breast prostheses and other accessories, see Breast Prostheses and Hair Loss Accessories List . Going flat Some women who do not have ...

  11. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

    2004-07-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

  12. A tissue stabilization device for MRI-guided breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Patriciu, Alexandru; Chen, Maggie; Iranpanah, Behzad; Sirouspour, Shahin

    2014-09-01

    We present a breast tissue stabilization device that can be used in magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy. The device employs adjustable support plates with an optimized geometry to minimize the biopsy target displacement using smaller compression than the conventional parallel plates approach. It is expected that the reduced compression will cause less patient discomfort and improve image quality by enhancing the contrast intake. Precomputed optimal positions of the stabilization plates for a given biopsy target location are provided in a look-up table. The results of several experiments with a prototype of the device carried out on chicken breast tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design when compared with conventional stabilization methods. The proposed stabilization mechanism provides excellent flexibility in selecting the needle insertion point and can be used in manual as well as robot-assisted biopsy procedures. PMID:25023957

  13. Proteome profiling reveals tissue-specific protein expression in male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Quanmei; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-05-01

    Male accessory gland (MAG) and female accessory gland (FAG) of the reproductive system are, respectively, responsible for producing seminal proteins and adhesive proteins during copulation and ovulation. Seminal proteins are ejaculated to female along with sperms, whereas adhesive proteins are excreted along with eggs. Proteins from the male and female reproductive organs are usually indicative of rapid adaptive evolution. Understanding the reproductive isolation and species divergence requires identifying reproduction-related proteins from many different species. Here, we present our proteomic analyses of male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Using LC/MS-MS, we identified 2133 MAG proteins and 1872 FAG proteins. In total, 652 proteins were significant more abundant in the MAG than in the FAG, including growth factors, odorant-binding proteins, enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Growth factors and odorant-binding proteins are potential signaling molecules, whereas most of proteins of unknown function were found to be Lepidoptera-specific proteins with high evolutionary rates. Microarray experiments and semi-quantitative RT-PCR validated that MAG-specific proteins were expressed exclusively in male moths. Totally, 192 proteins were considered as FAG-specific proteins, including protease inhibitors, enzymes, and other proteins. Protease inhibitors were found to be the most abundant FAG-specific proteins, which may protect eggs from infection by inhibiting pathogen-derived proteases. These results provide comprehensive insights into copulation and oviposition. Moreover, the newly identified Lepidoptera-specific MAG proteins provide useful data for future research on the evolution of reproductive proteins in insects. PMID:26822097

  14. Automatic tissue segmentation of breast biopsies imaged by QPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Nguyen, Tan; Kandel, Mikhail; Marcias, Virgilia; Do, Minh; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    The current tissue evaluation method for breast cancer would greatly benefit from higher throughput and less inter-observer variation. Since quantitative phase imaging (QPI) measures physical parameters of tissue, it can be used to find quantitative markers, eliminating observer subjectivity. Furthermore, since the pixel values in QPI remain the same regardless of the instrument used, classifiers can be built to segment various tissue components without need for color calibration. In this work we use a texton-based approach to segment QPI images of breast tissue into various tissue components (epithelium, stroma or lumen). A tissue microarray comprising of 900 unstained cores from 400 different patients was imaged using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy. The training data were generated by manually segmenting the images for 36 cores and labelling each pixel (epithelium, stroma or lumen.). For each pixel in the data, a response vector was generated by the Leung-Malik (LM) filter bank and these responses were clustered using the k-means algorithm to find the centers (called textons). A random forest classifier was then trained to find the relationship between a pixel's label and the histogram of these textons in that pixel's neighborhood. The segmentation was carried out on the validation set by calculating the texton histogram in a pixel's neighborhood and generating a label based on the model learnt during training. Segmentation of the tissue into various components is an important step toward efficiently computing parameters that are markers of disease. Automated segmentation, followed by diagnosis, can improve the accuracy and speed of analysis leading to better health outcomes.

  15. Carcinoma originating from aberrant breast tissue of the right upper anterior chest wall : a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Rho, J. Y.; Juhng, S. K.; Yoon, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aberrant breast tissue is usually found in proximity to the normal breast, that is, in the axillary, sternal or clavicular regions. Carcinoma occurs more frequently in the aberrant tissue of the axilla than the extra-axillary site though the overall incidence of tumors of aberrant breast tissue is low. To our knowledge, studies regarding the carcinoma of aberrant breast tissue of the extra-axillary site have been reported rarely. Here we report a recent case of carcinoma originating from the extra-axillary aberrant breast tissue, presenting as a subcutaneous nodule on the right upper anterior chest wall. It is suggested that subcutaneous nodules of uncertain origin around the periphery of the breast should be suspected for breast carcinoma as a differential diagnosis and treated properly. PMID:11511802

  16. The Microbiome of Aseptically Collected Human Breast Tissue in Benign and Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hieken, Tina J.; Chen, Jun; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Walther-Antonio, Marina; Johnson, Stephen; Ramaker, Sheri; Xiao, Jian; Radisky, Derek C.; Knutson, Keith L.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Yao, Janet Z.; Baddour, Larry M.; Chia, Nicholas; Degnim, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Globally breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. The breast consists of epithelium, stroma and a mucosal immune system that make up a complex microenvironment. Growing awareness of the role of microbes in the microenvironment recently has led to a series of findings important for human health. The microbiome has been implicated in cancer development and progression at a variety of body sites including stomach, colon, liver, lung, and skin. In this study, we assessed breast tissue microbial signatures in intraoperatively obtained samples using 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing. Our results indicate a distinct breast tissue microbiome that is different from the microbiota of breast skin tissue, breast skin swabs, and buccal swabs. Furthermore, we identify distinct microbial communities in breast tissues from women with cancer as compared to women with benign breast disease. Malignancy correlated with enrichment in taxa of lower abundance including the genera Fusobacterium, Atopobium, Gluconacetobacter, Hydrogenophaga and Lactobacillus. This work confirms the existence of a distinct breast microbiome and differences between the breast tissue microbiome in benign and malignant disease. These data provide a foundation for future investigation on the role of the breast microbiome in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer prevention. PMID:27485780

  17. The Microbiome of Aseptically Collected Human Breast Tissue in Benign and Malignant Disease.

    PubMed

    Hieken, Tina J; Chen, Jun; Hoskin, Tanya L; Walther-Antonio, Marina; Johnson, Stephen; Ramaker, Sheri; Xiao, Jian; Radisky, Derek C; Knutson, Keith L; Kalari, Krishna R; Yao, Janet Z; Baddour, Larry M; Chia, Nicholas; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    Globally breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. The breast consists of epithelium, stroma and a mucosal immune system that make up a complex microenvironment. Growing awareness of the role of microbes in the microenvironment recently has led to a series of findings important for human health. The microbiome has been implicated in cancer development and progression at a variety of body sites including stomach, colon, liver, lung, and skin. In this study, we assessed breast tissue microbial signatures in intraoperatively obtained samples using 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing. Our results indicate a distinct breast tissue microbiome that is different from the microbiota of breast skin tissue, breast skin swabs, and buccal swabs. Furthermore, we identify distinct microbial communities in breast tissues from women with cancer as compared to women with benign breast disease. Malignancy correlated with enrichment in taxa of lower abundance including the genera Fusobacterium, Atopobium, Gluconacetobacter, Hydrogenophaga and Lactobacillus. This work confirms the existence of a distinct breast microbiome and differences between the breast tissue microbiome in benign and malignant disease. These data provide a foundation for future investigation on the role of the breast microbiome in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer prevention. PMID:27485780

  18. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  20. Initial study of breast tissue retraction toward image guided breast surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Michael J.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Ondrake, Janet E.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Sun, Kay; Miga, Michael I.

    2012-02-01

    Image-guided surgery may reduce the re-excision rate in breast-conserving tumor-resection surgery, but image guidance is difficult since the breast undergoes significant deformation during the procedure. In addition, any imaging performed preoperatively is usually conducted in a very different presentation to that in surgery. Biomechanical models combined with low-cost ultrasound imaging and laser range scanning may provide an inexpensive way to provide intraoperative guidance information while also compensating for soft tissue deformations that occur during breast-conserving surgery. One major cause of deformation occurs after an incision into the tissue is made and the skin flap is pulled back with the use of retractors. Since the next step in the surgery would be to start building a surgical plane around the tumor to remove cancerous tissue, in an image-guidance environment, it would be necessary to have a model that corrects for the deformation caused by the surgeon to properly guide the application of resection tools. In this preliminary study, two anthropomorphic breast phantoms were made, and retractions were performed on both with improvised retractors. One phantom underwent a deeper retraction that the other. A laser range scanner (LRS) was used to monitor phantom tissue change before and after retraction. The surface data acquired with the LRS and retractors were then used to drive the solution of a finite element model. The results indicate an encouraging level of agreement between model predictions and data. The surface target error for the phantom with the deep retraction was 2.2 +/- 1.2 mm (n=47 targets) with the average deformation of the surface targets at 4.2 +/- 1.6mm. For the phantom with the shallow retraction, the surface target error was 2.1 +/- 1.0 mm (n=70 targets) with the average deformation of the surface targets at 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm.

  1. [Binding capability of lidamycin apoprotein to human breast cancer detected by tissue microarrays].

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Gao, Rui-Juan; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2010-05-01

    This study is to investigate the binding capability of lidamycin apoprotein (LDP), an enediyne-associated apoprotein of the chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic family, to human breast cancer and normal tissues, the correlation of LDP binding capability to human breast cancer tissues and the expression of tumor therapeutic targets such as VEGF and HER2. In this study, the binding capability of LDP to human breast cancer tissues was detected with tissue microarray. The correlation study of LDP binding capability to human breast tumor tissues and relevant therapeutic targets was performed on breast cancer tissue microarrays. Immunocytochemical examination was used to detect the binding capability of LDP to human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. As a result, tissue microarray showed that LDP staining of 73.2% (30/41) of breast cancer tissues was positive, whereas that of 48.3% (15/31) of the adjacent normal breast specimens was positive. The difference between the tumor and normal samples was significant (Chi2 = 4.63, P < 0.05). LDP immunoreactivity in breast cancer correlated significantly with the overexpression of VEGF and HER2 (P < 0.001 and < 0.01, r = 0.389 and 0.287, respectively). Determined with confocal immunofluorescent analysis, LDP showed the binding capability to mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells. It is demonstrated that LDP can bind to human breast cancer tissues and there is significant difference between the breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal tissues. Notably, the binding reactivity shows positive correlation with the expression of VEGF and HER2 in breast carcinoma tissues. The results imply that LDP may have a potential use as targeting drug carrier in the research and development of new anticancer therapeutics. This study may provide reference for drug combination of LDM and other therapeutic agents. PMID:20931759

  2. Loss of antigenicity with tissue age in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Combs, Susan E; Han, Gang; Mani, Nikita; Beruti, Susan; Nerenberg, Michael; Rimm, David L

    2016-03-01

    Archived tumor specimens, particularly those collected by large cooperative groups and trials, provide a wealth of material for post hoc clinical investigation. As these tissues are rigorously collected and preserved for many decades, subsequent use of the specimens to answer clinical questions must rely on the assumption that expression and detection of target biomarkers are not degraded with time. To test this assumption, we measured the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 in human breast carcinoma using quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in a series of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from 1295 individual patients preserved for 7 to 53 years in four cohorts on tissue microarrays. Protein expression was measured using the automated quantitative analysis method for QIF. Change in quantitative protein expression over time was estimated in positive cases using both Pearson's correlation and a polynomial regression analysis with a random effects model. The average signal decreased with preservation time for all biomarkers measured. For ER and HER2, there was an average of 10% signal loss after 9.9 years and 8.5 years, respectively, compared with the most recent tissue. Detection of Ki67 expression was lost more rapidly, with 10% signal loss in just 4.5 years. Overall, these results demonstrate the need for adjustment of tissue age when studying FFPE biospecimens. The rate of antigenicity loss is biomarker specific and should be considered as an important variable for studies using archived tissues. PMID:26568292

  3. Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast implant displacement or rupture can cause aesthetic problems and serious medical complications. Activities with prone positioning and loading of the anterior chest wall, such as massage, chiropractic or osteopathic therapies may increase the risk of implant failure and can also cause discomfort in women with natural breast tissue. Here we test the effectiveness of a newly developed orthosis on pain, mechanical pressure and displacement of breast tissue in women with cosmetic augmentation, post-mastectomy reconstruction, lactating or natural breast tissue. Methods Thirty-two females volunteers, aged 25–56 years with augmented, reconstructed, natural or lactating breast tissue and cup sizes B-F, participated in this open-label clinical trial. We measured pain perception, peak pressure, maximum force, and breast tissue displacement using different sizes of the orthosis compared to no orthosis. Different densities of the orthosis were also tested in a subgroup of women (n = 7). Pain perception was rated using a validated 11-point visual-analogue scale. Peak pressure and maximum force were assessed using a bilateral set of capacitance-pliance® sensor strips whilst participants were load bearing in a prone position, and breast displacement was measured by magnetic-resonance-imaging. Results The orthosis significantly reduced pain, breast displacement and mechanical pressures in women with natural and augmented breast tissue in prone position. Greater relief of pain and greater reduction in mechanical forces were found with increased size and density of the orthosis. Use of the orthosis improved overall comfort by 64-100%, lowered peak pressure by up to 85% and maximum force by up to 96%. Medio-lateral displacement of breast tissue was reduced by 16%, resulting in a 51% desirable increase of breast tissue height. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the newly developed orthosis significantly reduced pain, mechanical pressure and breast tissue

  4. Soy consumption and histopathologic markers in breast tissue using tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Erber, Eva; Verheus, Martijn; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Killeen, Jeffrey; Cashin, Suzanne; Cline, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation of soy intake with hormonal and proliferation markers in benign and malignant breast tissue using tissue microarrays (TMAs). TMAs with up to 4 malignant and 4 benign tissue samples for 268 breast cancer cases were constructed. Soy intake in early life and in adulthood was assessed by questionnaire. The TMAs were stained for estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Ki-67 using standard immunohistochemical methods. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analysis. A higher percentage of women showed positive marker expression in malignant than in benign tissue. With one exception, HER2/neu, no significant associations between soy intake and pathologic markers were observed. Early life soy intake was associated with lower HER2/neu and PCNA staining of malignant tissue. In benign tissue, early life soy intake showed higher ER and PR expression, but no difference in proliferation markers. The results of this investigation provide some assurance that soy intake does not adversely affect markers of proliferation. TMAs were shown to be a useful tool for epidemiologic research. PMID:19838945

  5. Tissue architecture: the ultimate regulator of breast epithelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mian, Saira

    2003-10-20

    following: first, how our laboratory came to develop a model of the mammary gland acinus; second, what this model has told us about mechanisms that govern tissue specificity and malignancy; and third, possible directions for future studies. We summarize the evidence for the central role of ECM signaling in the maintenance of mammary function in culture and (more briefly) its role in tumorigenesis. This is followed by a discussion of the role that tissue architecture and tissue polarity (as opposed to cell polarity) may play in these processes. In an elegantly written and reasoned essay, Kirschner et al. coined the new science of developmental biology 'molecular vitalism'. They framed new concepts for self-organization as well as schemes for information flow in biological organization. Rao et al. reviewed and elaborated on differential-equation-based models of biochemical reaction networks and intracellular noise, with emphasis on bacteria and phage. Similarly, Hartwell et al. discussed the synergy between experiment and theory in elucidating 'modules' - collections of interacting molecules - and in unraveling how these modules collaborate to perform cellular functions such as signal transduction. We believe that many of these ideas will also be applicable to the maintenance of tissue specificity. As much as we agree with Kirschner et al. regarding the limitations of the machine analogy to biological systems, we conclude with thoughts on how we may proceed to model the complex tissue networks that govern breast tissue architecture. We suggest that our understanding of the structure and function of breast tissue would benefit from examining recent techniques for modeling large complex networks such as the World Wide Web and the Internet backbone among others.

  6. Primary ectopic breast carcinoma in a supernumerary breast arising in the anterior chest wall: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Sally; Aggarwal, Ajay; Predolac, Domonica; Cunnick, Giles; Ashford, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Accessory mammary tissue occurs in 0.2-6% of women, and is under the same hormonal influences as breast tissue, potentially undergoing malignant transformation. Carcinomas of accessory mammary tissue account for ∼0.3% of breast cancers, 5% of which are within a supernumerary breast. Due to its rarity and the low index of clinical suspicion, it is often diagnosed at a later stage compared with breast cancer. Reports of carcinoma developing in a supernumerary breast are rare. We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman, presenting with ectopic breast carcinoma within a supernumerary breast below the inframammary fold. We describe the mode of presentation, diagnosis and treatment with reference to the available literature. The radiotherapy treatment plan is discussed in detail to provide reference for future cases as the available literature offers no formal guidance on radiotherapy dose, fractionation or treatment field. PMID:24968437

  7. Optical Spectral Surveillance of Breast Tissue Landscapes for Detection of Residual Disease in Breast Tumor Margins

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Caldwell, Matthew L.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Junker, Marlee; Wilke, Lee G.; Barry, William T.; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a strategy to “sense” the micro-morphology of a breast tumor margin over a wide field of view by creating quantitative hyperspectral maps of the tissue optical properties (absorption and scattering), where each voxel can be deconstructed to provide information on the underlying histology. Information about the underlying tissue histology is encoded in the quantitative spectral information (in the visible wavelength range), and residual carcinoma is detected as a shift in the histological landscape to one with less fat and higher glandular content. To demonstrate this strategy, fully intact, fresh lumpectomy specimens (n = 88) from 70 patients were imaged intra-operatively. The ability of spectral imaging to sense changes in histology over large imaging areas was determined using inter-patient mammographic breast density (MBD) variation in cancer-free tissues as a model system. We discovered that increased MBD was associated with higher baseline β-carotene concentrations (p = 0.066) and higher scattering coefficients (p = 0.007) as measured by spectral imaging, and a trend toward decreased adipocyte size and increased adipocyte density as measured by histological examination in BMI-matched patients. The ability of spectral imaging to detect cancer intra-operatively was demonstrated when MBD-specific breast characteristics were considered. Specifically, the ratio of β-carotene concentration to the light scattering coefficient can report on the relative amount of fat to glandular density at the tissue surface to determine positive margin status, when baseline differences in these parameters between patients with low and high MBD are taken into account by the appropriate selection of threshold values. When MBD was included as a variable a priori, the device was estimated to have a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 86% in detecting close or positive margins, regardless of tumor type. Superior performance was demonstrated in high

  8. Cell-graph mining for breast tissue modeling and classification.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Cagatay; Demir, Cigdem; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yener, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of automated cancer diagnosis in the context of breast tissues. We present graph theoretical techniques that identify and compute quantitative metrics for tissue characterization and classification. We segment digital images of histopatological tissue samples using k-means algorithm. For each segmented image we generate different cell-graphs using positional coordinates of cells and surrounding matrix components. These cell-graphs have 500-2000 cells(nodes) with 1000-10000 links depending on the tissue and the type of cell-graph being used. We calculate a set of global metrics from cell-graphs and use them as the feature set for learning. We compare our technique, hierarchical cell graphs, with other techniques based on intensity values of images, Delaunay triangulation of the cells, the previous technique we proposed for brain tissue images and with the hybrid approach that we introduce in this paper. Among the compared techniques, hierarchical-graph approach gives 81.8% accuracy whereas we obtain 61.0%, 54.1% and 75.9% accuracy with intensity-based features, Delaunay triangulation and our previous technique, respectively. PMID:18003206

  9. Near-infrared laser speckle imaging of human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Robert Speer

    Current methods of breast cancer diagnostics (self-exam, clinical exam, x-ray mammography) fail to diagnose a significant number of cases while still in readily operable stages. This is especially true in younger women, where fibrotic tissue reduces the efficacy of x-ray mammography. Near infrared (NIR) laser photons pass diffusively through human tissue, creating a speckle pattern in a detector after transmission. The high and low intensity variations of the speckle have the appearance of random noise, but are not. The speckle pattern will have an intensity distribution that is informative about the scattering and absorption properties of the tissue that is imaged. Adaptations to the Los Alamos National Laboratory MCNP code are described that allow simulation of NIR laser transport through human tissue. A HeNe laser was used to create laser intensity patterns via transmission through homogeneous and non-homogeneous tissue phantoms. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to compare the cumulative distribution functions of the laser intensity patterns, and identify the presence of a non-homogeneity. Laser speckle techniques offer the ability to image tumors with few (<3) millimeter resolution without ionizing radiation dose.

  10. Measurement of bioelectric and acoustic profile of breast tissue using hybrid magnetoacoustic method for cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Salim, M I Mohamad; Supriyanto, E; Haueisen, J; Ariffin, I; Ahmad, A H; Rosidi, B

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid magnetoacoustic measurement (HMM) system aiming at breast cancer detection. HMM combines ultrasound and magnetism for the simultaneous assessment of bioelectric and acoustic profiles of breast tissue. HMM is demonstrated on breast tissue samples, which are exposed to 9.8 MHz ultrasound wave with the presence of a 0.25 Tesla static magnetic field. The interaction between the ultrasound wave and the magnetic field in the breast tissue results in Lorentz Force that produces a magnetoacoustic voltage output, proportional to breast tissue conductivity. Simultaneously, the ultrasound wave is sensed back by the ultrasound receiver for tissue acoustic evaluation. Experiments are performed on gel phantoms and real breast tissue samples harvested from laboratory mice. Ultrasound wave characterization results show that normal breast tissue experiences higher attenuation compared with cancerous tissue. The mean magnetoacoustic voltage results for normal tissue are lower than that for the cancerous tissue group. In conclusion, the combination of acoustic and bioelectric measurements is a promising approach for breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:23238828

  11. Micro-Ft Spectroscopic Studies of Breast Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassopoulou, J.; Arapantoni, P.; Boukaki, E.; Konstadoudakis, S.; Theophanides, T.; Valavanis, C.; Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, G.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.

    Micro-FT-IR spectroscopy was used to study breast cancer tissues and, in particular osteosarcoma tissue. By analysing the spectra, we have found characteristic bands in the infrared regions, where the main components of these signature bands are located. In the region between 1680-1660 cm-1 are found the characteristic bands of Amide I and II of proteins. The bands, which correspond to the vibrations of the phosphate groups, are found in the region near 1140-900 cm-1. These characteristic bands have been monitored as a function of the degree of cancer progression. The results have been obtained with chemometric methods, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and custom analysis in order to distinguish the neoplastic zones from the normal zones.

  12. A technique for marking oncological breast tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaison; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    With new breast conserving oncological surgical techniques, accurate identification of specimen margins is important to allow for the re-excision of margins. The accurate identification of margins is crucial is the success of the patients treatment if further margins are required. NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) guidelines recommend the excised specimen is labelled accurately to correctly identify the margins and allow for X-ray examination. This method has been proven to be cheap, it uses equipment and materials readily available in the operating theatre. Furthermore, if any of the methods fails as there is more than one way to identifying your margins. For example if a clip were to fall off, the type/length of suture and the orientation on the board will still allow you to identify the correct margin. If the sample was to fall off the board, the sutures and clips will still allow the pathologist to orientate the sample. In summary this method is easy to apply, logical and uses equipment readily available within the theatre, i.e. silk sutures, and the needle protection board. It ensures all relevant radiological and surgical criteria are met for enabling orientation of the specimen when removed from the breast tissue. It is an easily taught technique that is easy to remember. A national survey showed a lack and wide variation of specimen orientation protocols. (Volleamere et al., 2013) This technique could be used as the national standard for breast specimen marking and as a national marking system for the NHS. PMID:27158488

  13. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  14. Use of proton beams with breast prostheses and tissue expanders

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, Michael F.; Mah, Dennis; Boyer, Sean P.; Chang, Chang; Pankuch, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, a small but rapidly increasing number of patients with breast cancer have been treated with proton beams. Some of these patients have had breast prostheses or tissue expanders in place during their courses of treatment. Procedures must be implemented to plan the treatments of these patients. The density, kilovoltage x-ray computed tomography numbers (kVXCTNs), and proton relative linear stopping powers (pRLSPs) were calculated and measured for several test sample devices. The calculated and measured kVXCTNs of saline were 1% and 2.4% higher than the values for distilled water while the calculated RLSP for saline was within 0.2% of the value for distilled water. The measured kVXCTN and pRLSP of the silicone filling material for the test samples were approximately 1120 and 0.935, respectively. The conversion of kVXCTNs to pRLSPs by the treatment planning system standard tissue conversion function is adequate for saline-filled devices but for silicone-filled devices manual reassignment of the pRLSPs is required.

  15. Breast tissue segmentation from x-ray radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Nielsen, Mads; Karssemeijer, Nico; Brandt, Sami S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust and accurate method that segments mammograms to three distinct regions: breast tissue, pectoral muscle and background. Our approach is built around a neural, two-layer committee machine. On the first layer, individual experts, each formed by a feature vector and a classifier, vote the local class label of the mammogram. The votes are given as an input, together with a prior map, to the second layer of the committee machine, which combines the inputs by a gating network. As the first layer features, we use effective, well-known local features based on image intensity, intensity histograms, local binary patterns, and histograms of oriented gradient. As with the first-layer classifiers and the gating network, we use support vector machines. Our experiments on a database of 495 mammograms, divided into independent training, validations and test subsets, show that our method is able to segment the breast tissue without failure, and it challenges the manual expert segmentation in the level of accuracy.

  16. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shikha; Puri, Tarun; Julka, Pramod K

    2015-03-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter. PMID:25455282

  17. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Góźdź, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-07-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (˜ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods.

  18. Irradiated HMEC from A-T Heterozygous Breast Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert; Bors, Karen; Cruz, Angela; Pettengil, Olive; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Women who are heterozygous for ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) carry a single defective ATM gene in chromosome 11 q22-23, and have been statistically determined with high significance within a defined database to be approximately 5-fold more susceptible for developing breast cancer than their noma1 counterpart. Breast cancer susceptibility of these A-T heterozygotes has been hypothesized to include consequence of response to damage caused by low levels of ionizing radiation. Prophylactic mastectomy specimens were donated by a 41 year-old obligate A-T heterozygote who was located prior to her elective surgery through an existing pedigree. Harvest of that breast tissue provided an isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), designated WH612/3. An isolate of presumed normal long-term growth HMEC, designated 48R, was obtained from Dr. Martha Stampfer (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California), and the A-T heterozygous HMEC were transformed with E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papilloma virus Type-16 in the laboratory of Dr. Ray White (Hunt- Cancer Institute, University of Utah) for use in this study. The objective of this study is to study the expression of end points that may bear on cancer outcome following irradiation of HMEC. Specific end points are cell survival, cell cycle, p53 expression, and apoptosis. Survival curves, immunostaining, and flow cytometery are used to examine these end points. Radiation-induced cell killing shows less shoulder development in the survival curve for WH61U3 compared to 48R HMEC, suggesting less repair of damage in the former HMEC. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  19. Salvaging the Infected Breast Tissue Expander: A Standardized Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Selber, Jesse C.; Crosby, Melissa; Raad, Issam I.; Butler, Charles E.; Villa, Mark T.; Kronowitz, Steven J.; Clemens, Mark W.; Garvey, Patrick; Yang, Wei; Baumann, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infections of breast tissue expander (TE) are complex, often requiring TE removal and hospitalization, which can delay further adjuvant therapy and add to the overall costs of breast reconstruction. Therefore, to reduce the rate of TE removal, hospitalization, and costs, we created a standardized same-day multidisciplinary outpatient quality improvement protocol for diagnosing and treating patients with early signs of TE infection. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 26 consecutive patients who developed a surgical site infection between February 2013 and April 2014. On the same day, patients were seen in the Plastic Surgery and Infectious Diseases clinics, underwent breast ultrasonography with or without periprosthetic fluid aspiration, and were prescribed a standardized empiric oral or intravenous antimicrobial regimen active against biofilm-embedded microorganisms. All patients were managed as per our established treatment algorithm and were followed up for a minimum of 1 year. Results: TEs were salvaged in 19 of 26 patients (73%). Compared with TE-salvaged patients, TE-explanted patients had a shorter median time to infection (20 vs 40 days; P = 0.09), a significantly higher median temperature at initial presentation [99.8°F; interquartile range (IQR) = 2.1 vs 98.3°F; IQR = 0.4°F; P = 0.01], and a significantly longer median antimicrobial treatment duration (28 days; IQR = 27 vs 21 days; IQR = 14 days; P = 0.05). The TE salvage rates of patients whose specimen cultures yielded no microbial growth, Staphylococcus species, and Pseudomonas were 92%, 75%, and 0%, respectively. Patients who had developed a deep-seated pocket infection were significantly more likely than those with superficial cellulitis to undergo TE explantation (P = 0.021). Conclusions: Our same-day multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment algorithm not only yielded a TE salvage rate higher than those previously reported but also decreased the rate of hospitalization, decreased

  20. Image Segmentation and Identification of Paired Antibodies in Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Jimmy C.; Simonsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Comparing staining patterns of paired antibodies designed towards a specific protein but toward different epitopes of the protein provides quality control over the binding and the antibodies' ability to identify the target protein correctly and exclusively. We present a method for automated quantification of immunostaining patterns for antibodies in breast tissue using the Human Protein Atlas database. In such tissue, dark brown dye 3,3′-diaminobenzidine is used as an antibody-specific stain whereas the blue dye hematoxylin is used as a counterstain. The proposed method is based on clustering and relative scaling of features following principal component analysis. Our method is able (1) to accurately segment and identify staining patterns and quantify the amount of staining and (2) to detect paired antibodies by correlating the segmentation results among different cases. Moreover, the method is simple, operating in a low-dimensional feature space, and computationally efficient which makes it suitable for high-throughput processing of tissue microarrays. PMID:25061472

  1. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche1

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Zach S.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V.; Tamaresis, John S.; Bachmann, Michael H.; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J.; Contag, Christopher H.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. PMID:26696367

  2. Identification of the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma during breast-conserving surgery using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tongxin; Nie, Yuting; Lian, Yuane; Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Breast-conserving surgery has become an important way of surgical treatment for breast cancer worldwide nowadays. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to noninvasively visualize tissue architectures at the cellular level using intrinsic fluorescent molecules in biological tissues without the need for fluorescent dye. In this study, MPM is used to image the microstructures of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), invasive ductal carcinoma and the boundary region between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Our study demonstrates that MPM has the ability to not only reveal the morphological changes of the cuboidal epithelium, basement membrane and interlobular stroma but also identify the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma, which correspond well to the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) images. Predictably, MPM can monitor surgical margins in real time and provide considerable accuracy for resection of breast cancerous tissues intraoperatively. With the development of miniature, real-time MPM imaging technology, MPM should have great application prospects during breast-conserving surgery.

  3. X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraghechi, Borna

    This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ≡ fibrous, lucite ≡ cancer and polyet ≡ fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of MUC5B apomucin expression in breast cancer and non-malignant breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Sóñora, Cecilia; Mazal, Daniel; Berois, Nora; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Ubillos, Luis; Varangot, Mario; Barrios, Enrique; Carzoglio, Julio; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2006-03-01

    A deregulation of several MUC genes (MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6) was previously demonstrated in breast carcinomas. Considering that recently we found the "non-mammary" MUC5B mRNA in primary breast tumors (Berois et al. 2003), we undertook the present study to evaluate the expression profile of MUC5B protein product in breast tissues, using LUM5B-2 antisera raised against sequences within the non-glycosylated regions of this apomucin. Expression of MUC5B by breast cancer cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and Western blot on MCF-7 cancer cells. Using an immunohistochemical procedure, MUC5B apomucin was detected in 34/42 (81%) primary breast tumors, in 13/14 (92.8%) samples of non-malignant breast diseases, in 8/19 (42.1%) samples of normal-appearing breast epithelia adjacent to cancer, and in 0/5 normal control breast samples. The staining pattern of MUC5B was very different when comparing breast cancer cells (cytoplasmic) and non-malignant breast cells (predominantly apical and in the secretory material). We analyzed MUC5B mRNA expression using RT-PCR in bone marrow aspirates from 22/42 patients with breast cancer to compare with MUC5B protein expression in the primary tumors. Good correlation was observed because the six MUC5B-positive bone marrow samples also displayed MUC5B expression in the tumor. Our results show, for the first time at the protein level, that MUC5B apomucin is upregulated in breast cancer. Its characterization could provide new insights about the glycobiology of breast cancer cells. PMID:16148312

  5. Mapping the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of normal and malignant breast tissues and cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Normal and neoplastic breast tissues are comprised of heterogeneous populations of epithelial cells exhibiting various degrees of maturation and differentiation. While cultured cell lines have been derived from both normal and malignant tissues, it remains unclear to what extent they retain similar levels of differentiation and heterogeneity as that found within breast tissues. Methods We used 12 reduction mammoplasty tissues, 15 primary breast cancer tissues, and 20 human breast epithelial cell lines (16 cancer lines, 4 normal lines) to perform flow cytometry for CD44, CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and CD49f expression, as well as immunohistochemistry, and in vivo tumor xenograft formation studies to extensively analyze the molecular and cellular characteristics of breast epithelial cell lineages. Results Human breast tissues contain four distinguishable epithelial differentiation states (two luminal phenotypes and two basal phenotypes) that differ on the basis of CD24, EpCAM and CD49f expression. Primary human breast cancer tissues also contain these four cellular states, but in altered proportions compared to normal tissues. In contrast, cultured cancer cell lines are enriched for rare basal and mesenchymal epithelial phenotypes, which are normally present in small numbers within human tissues. Similarly, cultured normal human mammary epithelial cell lines are enriched for rare basal and mesenchymal phenotypes that represent a minor fraction of cells within reduction mammoplasty tissues. Furthermore, although normal human mammary epithelial cell lines exhibit features of bi-potent progenitor cells they are unable to differentiate into mature luminal breast epithelial cells under standard culture conditions. Conclusions As a group breast cancer cell lines represent the heterogeneity of human breast tumors, but individually they exhibit increased lineage-restricted profiles that fall short of truly representing the intratumoral

  6. Expression of WTH3 in breast cancer tissue and the effects on the biological behavior of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    GAN, LIN; ZUO, GUOQING; WANG, TING; MIN, JIE; WANG, YADONG; WANG, YONGYUE; LV, GANG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of WTH3 in tumor and normal breast tissue. The mRNA and protein expression levels of WTH3 were detected using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 protein expression was measured. The effect of WTH3 expression on the proliferation activity of breast cancer cells was detected using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Furthermore, the effects of WTH3 on the invasion and migration ability of the breast cancer cells was investigated. The results revealed that WTH3 was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. In addition, the invasion and migration assay demonstrated that WTH3 was able to inhibit the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Western blot analysis revealed that increased expression of WTH3 resulted in decreased expression levels of MMP-2, which has an important function in the metastasis of cancer cells. In conclusion, WTH3 expression differed between the tumor and normal breast tissues. WTH3 was able to inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells and decrease their invasion ability. Thus, WTH3 may be a promising target for breast cancer therapy in the future. PMID:26170927

  7. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, G. J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G. A. V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P. V. B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-06-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) in the cancerous tissues when compared with normal tissues. The excess levels of trace elements observed in the cancerous breast tissues could either be a cause or a consequence of breast cancer. Regarding their role in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer, one possible interpretation is that the elevated levels of Cu, Fe and Cr could have led to the formation of free radicals or other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that adversely affect DNA thereby causing breast cancer, which is mainly attributed to genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors.

  8. Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum.

    PubMed

    Barr, L; Metaxas, G; Harbach, C A J; Savoy, L A; Darbre, P D

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) were measured using HPLC-MS/MS at four serial locations across the human breast from axilla to sternum using human breast tissue collected from 40 mastectomies for primary breast cancer in England between 2005 and 2008. One or more paraben esters were quantifiable in 158/160 (99%) of the tissue samples and in 96/160 (60%) all five esters were measured. Variation was notable with respect to individual paraben esters, location within one breast and similar locations in different breasts. Overall median values in nanograms per gram tissue for the 160 tissue samples were highest for n-propylparaben [16.8 (range 0-2052.7)] and methylparaben [16.6 (range 0-5102.9)]; levels were lower for n-butylparaben [5.8 (range 0-95.4)], ethylparaben [3.4 (range 0-499.7)] and isobutylparaben 2.1 (range 0-802.9). The overall median value for total paraben was 85.5 ng g(-1) tissue (range 0-5134.5). The source of the paraben cannot be identified, but paraben was measured in the 7/40 patients who reported never having used underarm cosmetics in their lifetime. No correlations were found between paraben concentrations and age of patient (37-91 years), length of breast feeding (0-23 months), tumour location or tumour oestrogen receptor content. In view of the disproportionate incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant, paraben concentrations were compared across the four regions of the breast: n-propylparaben was found at significantly higher levels in the axilla than mid (P = 0.004 Wilcoxon matched pairs) or medial (P = 0.021 Wilcoxon matched pairs) regions (P = 0.010 Friedman ANOVA). PMID:22237600

  9. Novel tissue mimicking materials for high frequency breast ultrasound phantoms.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Louise M; Fagan, Andrew J; Browne, Jacinta E

    2011-01-01

    The development and acoustical characterisation of a range of novel agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMMs) for use in clinically relevant, quality assurance (QA) and anthropomorphic breast phantoms are presented. The novel agar-based TMMs described in this study are based on a comprehensive, systematic variation of the ingredients in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TMM. A novel, solid fat-mimicking material was also developed and acoustically characterised. Acoustical characterisation was carried out using an in-house scanning acoustic macroscope at low (7.5 MHz) and high frequencies (20 MHz), using the pulse-echo insertion technique. The speeds of sound range from 1490 to 1570 m. s(-1), attenuation coefficients range from 0.1 to 0.9 dB. cm(‑1). MHz(-1) and relative backscatter ranges from 0 to -20 dB. It was determined that tissues can be mimicked in terms of independently controllable speeds of sound and attenuation coefficients. These properties make these novel TMMs suitable for use in clinically relevant QA and anthropomorphic phantoms and would potentially be useful for other high frequency applications such as intravascular and small animal imaging. PMID:21084158

  10. p53 alteration in morphologically normal/benign breast tissue in patients with triple-negative high-grade breast carcinomas: breast p53 signature?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Stolla, Moritz; Ring, Brian Z; Yang, Qi; Laughlin, Todd S; Rothberg, Paul G; Skinner, Kristin; Hicks, David G

    2016-09-01

    p53 alterations have been identified in approximately 23% of breast carcinomas, particularly in hormone receptor-negative high-grade carcinomas. It is considered to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, the putative precursor lesion of high-grade breast carcinoma remains elusive. Breast excision specimens from 93 triple-negative high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, 48 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/Her2-negative non-high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, and 50 mammoplasty breasts were selected. At least 2 tissue blocks with tumor and adjacent benign tissue were sectioned and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for p53. TP53 gene sequencing was performed on select tumors. Further immunohistochemistry staining for ER and Ki-67 was performed on consecutive sections of tissue with p53-positive normal/benign cells. Of the 93 high-grade carcinomas, 51 (55%) were positive for p53 alteration, whereas only 3 (6.25%) of the 48 non-high-grade carcinomas were p53 altered. Focal p53 positivity in adjacent normal/benign breast tissue was identified in 19 cases, and 18 of them also had p53 alteration in their carcinomas. Only 1 case had focal p53 staining in normal/benign tissue, but the tumor was negative for p53 alteration. No p53 staining positivity was identified in the mammoplasty specimens. The p53-stained normal/benign cells were ER negative and did not show an increase in the Ki-67 labeling index. These findings indicate that the p53 staining positivity in normal/benign breast tissue is not a random event. It could be considered as the "p53 signature" in breast and serve as an indicator for future potential risk of p53-positive high-grade breast carcinoma. PMID:27246177

  11. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates. PMID:27019024

  12. Estimation of effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences for volumetric breast density measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue; Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Kshirsagar, Ashwini

    2014-03-01

    Breast density has been identified to be a risk factor of developing breast cancer and an indicator of lesion diagnostic obstruction due to masking effect. Volumetric density measurement evaluates fibro-glandular volume, breast volume, and breast volume density measures that have potential advantages over area density measurement in risk assessment. One class of volume density computing methods is based on the finding of the relative fibro-glandular tissue attenuation with regards to the reference fat tissue, and the estimation of the effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences between the fibro-glandular and fat tissue is key to volumetric breast density computing. We have modeled the effective attenuation difference as a function of actual x-ray skin entrance spectrum, breast thickness, fibro-glandular tissue thickness distribution, and detector efficiency. Compared to other approaches, our method has threefold advantages: (1) avoids the system calibration-based creation of effective attenuation differences which may introduce tedious calibrations for each imaging system and may not reflect the spectrum change and scatter induced overestimation or underestimation of breast density; (2) obtains the system specific separate and differential attenuation values of fibroglandular and fat for each mammographic image; and (3) further reduces the impact of breast thickness accuracy to volumetric breast density. A quantitative breast volume phantom with a set of equivalent fibro-glandular thicknesses has been used to evaluate the volume breast density measurement with the proposed method. The experimental results have shown that the method has significantly improved the accuracy of estimating breast density.

  13. Optical spectroscopy for quantification of bulk breast tissue properties in adolescent girls: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Samantha N.; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Optical technology holds considerable promise to improve early detection, diagnosis and risk assessment of breast cancer. Unlike current clinical risk assessment tools such as the Gail model, the most widely accepted risk assessment tool, optical risk assessment technology can be applied to the entire female population of all ages. This study is investigating the use of optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) as a possible breast tissue development monitoring tool for adolescent girls. Changes in breast development due to proliferation of mammary gland and the surrounding stroma are reflected in changes in breast tissue density and composition which can be interrogated optically. Modifications of development influenced by micronutrients and hormonal status from exposures (e.g. toxins), lifestyle and diet effects, may ultimately be tracked. Preliminary data suggests that ORS has the ability to detect differences in bulk tissue properties in the developing breast of adolescent girls when compared to developmental stages assessed by Tanner, regional variation within breast tissue structure and asymmetries between left and right breast size and shape. Spectral comparison of unilateral breast development permits adjusting the optode separation as function of developmental breast size to minimize optical sampling of pectoral muscle.

  14. Characterization of the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in breast imaging dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Qin Xulei; Fei Baowei; Feng, Steve Si Jia

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the estimate of normalized glandular dose in mammography and breast CT imaging obtained using the actual glandular tissue distribution in the breast to that obtained using the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation. Methods: Twenty volumetric images of patient breasts were acquired with a dedicated breast CT prototype system and the voxels in the breast CT images were automatically classified into skin, adipose, and glandular tissue. The breasts in the classified images underwent simulated mechanical compression to mimic the conditions present during mammographic acquisition. The compressed thickness for each breast was set to that achieved during each patient's last screening cranio-caudal (CC) acquisition. The volumetric glandular density of each breast was computed using both the compressed and uncompressed classified images, and additional images were created in which all voxels representing adipose and glandular tissue were replaced by a homogeneous mixture of these two tissues in a proportion corresponding to each breast's volumetric glandular density. All four breast images (compressed and uncompressed; heterogeneous and homogeneous tissue) were input into Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the normalized glandular dose during mammography (compressed breasts) and dedicated breast CT (uncompressed breasts). For the mammography simulations the x-ray spectra used was that used during each patient's last screening CC acquisition. For the breast CT simulations, two x-ray spectra were used, corresponding to the x-ray spectra with the lowest and highest energies currently being used in dedicated breast CT prototype systems under clinical investigation. The resulting normalized glandular dose for the heterogeneous and homogeneous versions of each breast for each modality was compared. Results: For mammography, the normalized glandular dose based on the homogeneous tissue approximation was, on average, 27% higher than that estimated using the

  15. Optimization of permanent breast seed implant dosimetry incorporating tissue heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashouf, Shahram

    Seed brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose around brachytherapy sources is based on the AAPM TG43 formalism, which generates the dose in homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM task group no. 186 (TG186) emphasized the importance of accounting for heterogeneities. In this work we introduce an analytical dose calculation algorithm in heterogeneous media using CT images. The advantages over other methods are computational efficiency and the ease of integration into clinical use. An Inhomogeneity Correction Factor (ICF) is introduced as the ratio of absorbed dose in tissue to that in water medium. ICF is a function of tissue properties and independent of the source structure. The ICF is extracted using CT images and the absorbed dose in tissue can then be calculated by multiplying the dose as calculated by the TG43 formalism times ICF. To evaluate the methodology, we compared our results with Monte Carlo simulations as well as experiments in phantoms with known density and atomic compositions. The dose distributions obtained through applying ICF to TG43 protocol agreed very well with those of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments in all phantoms. In all cases, the mean relative error was reduced by at least a factor of two when ICF correction factor was applied to the TG43 protocol. In conclusion we have developed a new analytical dose calculation method, which enables personalized dose calculations in heterogeneous media using CT images. The methodology offers several advantages including the use of standard TG43 formalism, fast calculation time and extraction of the ICF parameters directly from Hounsfield Units. The methodology was implemented into our clinical treatment planning system where a cohort of 140 patients were processed to study the clinical benefits of a heterogeneity corrected dose.

  16. Diffusely scattered femtosecond white-light examination of breast tissue in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    af Klinteberg, Claes; Berg, Roger; Lindquist, Charlotta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    1995-12-01

    Multispectral studies of light propagation in female breast tissue have been performed. Short pulses of white light were generated by using self-phase modulation of a high-power laser pulse focused into a cuvette filled with water. The white light pulses illuminated the tissue and the scattered light was recorded with time- and wavelength dispersion by a streak camera. Measurements were performed on breast mastectomies in vitro and measurements on healthy breast tissue in vivo. The reduced scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of breast tissue were obtained in different wavelength regions by fitting solutions of the diffusion equation to the experimental data. Significant variations in the magnitude of the optical properties could be seen between the different individuals. No characteristic spectral discrepancy for tumor tissue was found.

  17. Discrimination between normal breast tissue and tumor tissue using CdTe series detector developed for photon-counting mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Chizuru; Ihori, Akiko; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okada, Masahiro; Kato, Misa; Nakajima, Ai; Kodera, Yoshie

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new mammography system using a cadmium telluride (CdTe) series photon-counting detector, having high absorption efficiency over a wide energy range. In a previous study, we showed that the use of high X-ray energy in digital mammography is useful from the viewpoint of exposure dose and image quality. In addition, the CdTe series detector can acquire X-ray spectrum information following transmission through a subject. This study focused on the tissue composition identified using spectral information obtained by a new photon-counting detector. Normal breast tissue consists entirely of adipose and glandular tissues. However, it is very difficult to find tumor tissue in the region of glandular tissue via a conventional mammogram, especially in dense breast because the attenuation coefficients of glandular tissue and tumor tissue are very close. As a fundamental examination, we considered a simulation phantom and showed the difference between normal breast tissue and tumor tissue of various thicknesses in a three-dimensional (3D) scatter plot. We were able to discriminate between both types of tissues. In addition, there was a tendency for the distribution to depend on the thickness of the tumor tissue. Thinner tumor tissues were shown to be closer in appearance to normal breast tissue. This study also demonstrated that the difference between these tissues could be made obvious by using a CdTe series detector. We believe that this differentiation is important, and therefore, expect this technology to be applied to new tumor detection systems in the future.

  18. Aromatase overexpression in dysfunctional adipose tissue links obesity to postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuyi; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

    2015-09-01

    The number of breast cancer cases has increased in the last a few decades and this is believed to be associated with the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. The risk of breast cancer increases with age beyond menopause and the relationship between obesity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women is well established. The majority of postmenopausal breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and estrogens produced in the adipose tissue promotes tumor formation. Obesity results in the secretion of inflammatory factors that stimulate the expression of the aromatase enzyme, which converts androgens into estrogens in the adipose tissue. Evidence demonstrating a link between obesity and breast cancer has led to the investigation of metabolic pathways as novel regulators of estrogen production, including pathways that can be targeted to inhibit aromatase specifically within the breast. This review aims to present some of the key findings in this regard. PMID:26209254

  19. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  20. Differentiating fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ from normal breast tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuting; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is the most common benign tumor of the female breast and several studies have reported that women with it have increased risk of breast cancer. While the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a very early form of breast cancer. Thus, early detections of FA and DCIS are critical for improving breast tumor outcome and survival. In this paper, we use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to obtain the high-contrast images of fresh, unfixed, unstained human breast specimens (normal breast tissue, FA and DCIS). Our results show that MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of FA and DCIS including changes of duct architecture and collagen morphology. These results are consistent with the histological results. With the advancement of MPM, the technique has potential ability to serve as a real-time noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of breast tumor.

  1. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression. PMID:27293476

  2. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression. PMID:27293476

  3. 3D BREAST TISSUE CO-CULTURES FOR SCREENING MAMMARY CARCINOGENS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breast cancer is not a disease of individual cells, but principally a failure of cells and tissues to communicate properly. One communication mechanism that is frequently disrupted in breast cancer involves the hormone estrogen. Despite recognition that exposure to compound...

  4. Application of the fractal Perlin noise algorithm for the generation of simulated breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustler, Magnus; Bakic, Predrag; Petersson, Hannie; Timberg, Pontus; Tingberg, Anders; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-03-01

    Software breast phantoms are increasingly seeing use in preclinical validation of breast image acquisition systems and image analysis methods. Phantom realism has been proven sufficient for numerous specific validation tasks. A challenge is the generation of suitably realistic small-scale breast structures that could further improve the quality of phantom images. Power law noise follows the noise power characteristics of breast tissue, but may not sufficiently represent certain (e.g., non-Gaussian) properties seen in clinical breast images. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of fractal Perlin noise in generating more realistic breast tissue through investigation of its power spectrum and visual characteristics. Perlin noise is an algorithm that creates smoothly varying random structures of an arbitrary frequency. Through the use of a technique known as fractal noise or fractional Brownian motion (fBm), octaves of noise with different frequency are combined to generate coherent noise with a broad frequency range. fBm is controlled by two parameters - lacunarity and persistence - related to the frequency and amplitude of successive octaves, respectively. Average noise power spectra were calculated and beta parameters estimated in sample volumes of fractal Perlin noise with different combinations of lacunarity and persistence. Certain combinations of parameters resulted in noise volumes with beta values between 2 and 3, corresponding to reported measurements in real breast tissue. Different combinations of parameters resulted in different visual appearances. In conclusion, Perlin noise offers a flexible tool for generating breast tissue with realistic properties.

  5. Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

  6. Raman microspectroscopy of Hematoporphyrins. Imaging of the noncancerous and the cancerous human breast tissues with photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Brozek-Pluska, B; Kopec, M

    2016-12-01

    Raman microspectroscopy combined with fluorescence were used to study the distribution of Hematoporphyrin (Hp) in noncancerous and cancerous breast tissues. The results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissue and to identify differences in the distribution and photodegradation of Hematoporphyrin, which is a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer. Presented results show that Hematoporphyrin level in the noncancerous breast tissue is lower compared to the cancerous one. We have proved also that the Raman intensity of lipids and proteins doesn't change dramatically after laser light irradiation, which indicates that the PDT treatment destroys preferably cancer cells, in which the photosensitizer is accumulated. The specific subcellular localization of photosensitizer for breast tissues samples soaked with Hematoporphyrin was not observed. PMID:27376758

  7. DNA methylation outliers in normal breast tissue identify field defects that are enriched in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Gao, Yang; Jones, Allison; Ruebner, Matthias; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Wachter, David L.; Fasching, Peter A.; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular alterations in normal tissue adjacent to cancer is important for understanding cancer aetiology and designing preventive measures. Here we analyse the DNA methylome of 569 breast tissue samples, including 50 from cancer-free women and 84 from matched normal cancer pairs. We use statistical algorithms for dissecting intra- and inter-sample cellular heterogeneity and demonstrate that normal tissue adjacent to breast cancer is characterized by tens to thousands of epigenetic alterations. We show that their genomic distribution is non-random, being strongly enriched for binding sites of transcription factors specifying chromatin architecture. We validate the field defects in an independent cohort and demonstrate that over 30% of the alterations exhibit increased enrichment within matched cancer samples. Breast cancers highly enriched for epigenetic field defects, exhibit adverse clinical outcome. Our data support a model where clonal epigenetic reprogramming towards reduced differentiation in normal tissue is an important step in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26823093

  8. Determination of optical parameters of human breast tissue from spatially resolved fluorescence: a diffusion theory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Maya S.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Raju, Narisetti Sundar; Pradhan, Asima

    2002-07-01

    We report the measurement of optical transport parameters of pathologically characterized malignant tissues, normal tissues, and different types of benign tumors of the human breast in the visible wavelength region. A spatially resolved steady-state diffuse fluorescence reflectance technique was used to estimate the values for the reduced-scattering coefficient (mu's) and the absorption coefficient (mua) of human breast tissues at three wavelengths (530, 550, and 590 nm). Different breast tissues could be well differentiated from one another, and different benign tumors could also be distinguished by their measured transport parameters. A diffusion theory model was developed to describe fluorescence light energy distribution, especially its spatial variation in a turbid and multiply scattering medium such as human tissue. The validity of the model was checked with a Monte Carlo simulation and also with different tissue phantoms prepared with polystyrene microspheres as scatterers, riboflavin as fluorophores, and methylene blue as absorbers.

  9. Control of sulfatase activity by nomegestrol acetate in normal and cancerous human breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Chetrite, Gérard Samuel; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Shields-Botella, Jaqueline; Cortes-Prieto, Joaquin; Philippe, Jean-Claude; Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2005-01-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a 17alpha-hydroxy-nor-progesterone derivative (17alpha-acetoxy-6-methyl-19-nor-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione, the active substance in Lutenyl), is a potent and useful clinical synthetic progestin for the treatment of menopausal complaints and is under current development for oral contraception. Previous studies in this laboratory demonstrated that NOMAC can block sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and transformation of estradiol (E2) in hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of NOMAC on sulfatase activity using total breast cancer tissue, compared to the effect in normal breast tissue, was explored. Slices of tumoral or normal breast tissues (45-65 mg) were incubated in buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.2) with physiological concentrations of [3H]-estrone sulfate (5x10(-9) M), alone or in the presence of nomegestrol acetate (5x10(-5) - 5x10(-7) - 5x10(-9) M), for 4 h at 37 degrees C. Estrone sulfate (E1S), estrone (E1) and E2 were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. It was observed that [3H]- E1S was only converted to [3H]- E1 and not to [3H]- E2, in normal or cancerous breast tissues, which suggests a low or no 17beta-HSD activity under these experimental conditions. The sulfatase activity was more intense with breast cancer tissue than normal tissue, since the concentrations of E1 were 42.5 +/- 3.4 and 27.2 +/- 2.5 pg/mg tissue, respectively. NOMAC, at the concentration of 5x10(-5) M, inhibited this conversion by 49.2% and 40.8% in cancerous and normal breast tissues, respectively. The sulfatase inhibition at low concentration (5x10(-7) M) was 32.5% and 22.8%, respectively. It is concluded that sulfatase activity is almost twice as potent in cancerous breast tissues than in normal tissues. Nomegestrol acetate is a strong anti-sulfatase agent, in particular with cancerous breast

  10. Exploring Optical Contrast in Ex-Vivo Breast Tissue Using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Tissue Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Stephanie Ann

    In this research, ex-vivo breast tissue is evaluated to determine which sources of optical contrast have the potential to detect malignancy at the margins in women of differing breast composition. Then, H&E images of ex-vivo breast tissue sites are quantified to further deconstruct the relationship between optical scattering and the underlying tissue morphology. H&E images were taken of the malignant and benign sites and quantified to describe the % adipose, % collagen and % glands. Adipose sites, images at 10x, were predominantly fatty and quantified according to adipocyte morphology. H&E-stained adipose tissue sections were analyzed with an automated image processing algorithm to extract average cell area and cell density. Non-adipose sites were imaged with a 2.5x objective. Grids of 200µm boxes corresponding to the 3mm x 2mm area were overlaid on each non-adipose image. The non-adipose images were classified as the following: adipose and collagen (fibroadipose); collagen and glands (fibroglandular); adipose, collagen and glands (mixed); and malignant sites. Correlations between <μs‧> and % collagen in were determined in benign sites. Age, BMI, and MBD were then correlated to <μs‧> in the adipose and non-adipose sites. Variability in <μs‧> was determined to be related to collagen and not adipose content. In order to further investigate this relationship, the importance of age, BMI and MBD was analyzed after adjusting for the % collagen. Lastly, the relationship between % collagen and % glands was analyzed to determine the relative contributions of % collagen and % glands <μ s‧>. Statistics were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Pearson correlation coefficients and linear fits in R. Further deconstructing the relationship between optical scattering and tissue morphology resulted in a positive relationship between <μ s‧> and % collagen. Increased variability was observed in sites with a higher percentage of collagen. In adipose tissues MBD

  11. 21st century paradigm of tissue banking: the Clinical Breast Care Project.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Craig D

    2010-07-01

    The Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP) is a congressionally mandated program that began in the year 2000. The military-civilian collaboration was founded on five pillars: (1) center of excellence in clinical care, (2) risk reduction for women at risk for developing breast cancer, (3) tissue banking to develop and maintain the world's finest repository of human biospecimens of breast diseases, (4) targeted research into the molecular signatures of breast diseases and cancer, and (5) biomedical informatics core to support the data warehouse needs of the project. Now in its eighth year of operation, these efforts have resulted in more than 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications and dozens of collaborations with world leaders in cancer research. In this short time, CBCP has created what is believed to be the world's largest breast tissue biorepository. PMID:23634480

  12. Microwave Radar Imaging of Heterogeneous Breast Tissue Integrating A Priori Information

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas N.; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional radar-based image reconstruction techniques fail when they are applied to heterogeneous breast tissue, since the underlying in-breast relative permittivity is unknown or assumed to be constant. This results in a systematic error during the process of image formation. A recent trend in microwave biomedical imaging is to extract the relative permittivity from the object under test to improve the image reconstruction quality and thereby to enhance the diagnostic assessment. In this paper, we present a novel radar-based methodology for microwave breast cancer detection in heterogeneous breast tissue integrating a 3D map of relative permittivity as a priori information. This leads to a novel image reconstruction formulation where the delay-and-sum focusing takes place in time rather than range domain. Results are shown for a heterogeneous dense (class-4) and a scattered fibroglandular (class-2) numerical breast phantom using Bristol's 31-element array configuration. PMID:25435861

  13. VIS-NIR spectrum analysis for distinguishing tumor and normal human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Yu, Yuan; Tuchin, Valery V.; Chen, Yongjun; Wen, Xiang; Liu, Caihua; Wang, Jing; Xue, Xingbo; Zhu, Dan

    2012-03-01

    The high incidence and mortality of breast cancer require an effective method for early breast diagnosis. In order to investigate the optical differences among malignant tumor, benign tumor and normal human breast tissue, a commercial spectrophotometer combined with single integrating sphere was used to measure the optical properties of different types of breast tissue in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 2200 nm in vitro. The hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E staining) are used as the standard, and to find the find possible optical markers from the corresponding absorption or scattering spectra. This work is not only used for in vitro rapid optical diagnosis, but very helpful to develop innovative optical diagnosis of breast tumor in vivo.

  14. Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A; Lea, Rod A; Curran, Joanne E; Weinstein, Stephen R; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-01-01

    Background Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast cancer. In order to investigate these findings further, we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor genes vary in different breast cancer grades. Methods RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded archival breast tumour tissue and converted into cDNA. Sample cDNA underwent PCR using labelled primers to enable quantitation of mRNA expression. Expression data were normalized against the 18S ribosomal gene multiplex and analyzed using analysis of variance. Results Analysis of variance indicated a variable level of expression of both genes with regard to breast cancer grade (P = 0.00033 for glucocorticoid receptor and P = 0.023 for progesterone receptor). Conclusion Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is elevated in late grade breast cancer tissue. PMID:12559052

  15. Average dielectric property analysis of complex breast tissue with microwave transmission measurements.

    PubMed

    Garrett, John D; Fear, Elise C

    2015-01-01

    Prior information about the average dielectric properties of breast tissue can be implemented in microwave breast imaging techniques to improve the results. Rapidly providing this information relies on acquiring a limited number of measurements and processing these measurement with efficient algorithms. Previously, systems were developed to measure the transmission of microwave signals through breast tissue, and simplifications were applied to estimate the average properties. These methods provided reasonable estimates, but they were sensitive to multipath. In this paper, a new technique to analyze the average properties of breast tissues while addressing multipath is presented. Three steps are used to process transmission measurements. First, the effects of multipath were removed. In cases where multipath is present, multiple peaks were observed in the time domain. A Tukey window was used to time-gate a single peak and, therefore, select a single path through the breast. Second, the antenna response was deconvolved from the transmission coefficient to isolate the response from the tissue in the breast interior. The antenna response was determined through simulations. Finally, the complex permittivity was estimated using an iterative approach. This technique was validated using simulated and physical homogeneous breast models and tested with results taken from a recent patient study. PMID:25585106

  16. System-wide Clinical Proteomics of Breast Cancer Reveals Global Remodeling of Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pozniak, Yair; Balint-Lahat, Nora; Rudolph, Jan Daniel; Lindskog, Cecilia; Katzir, Rotem; Avivi, Camilla; Pontén, Fredrik; Ruppin, Eytan; Barshack, Iris; Geiger, Tamar

    2016-03-23

    The genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of breast cancer have been extensively studied, but the proteomes of breast tumors are far less characterized. Here, we use high-resolution, high-accuracy mass spectrometry to perform a deep analysis of luminal-type breast cancer progression using clinical breast samples from primary tumors, matched lymph node metastases, and healthy breast epithelia. We used a super-SILAC mix to quantify over 10,000 proteins with high accuracy, enabling us to identify key proteins and pathways associated with tumorigenesis and metastatic spread. We found high expression levels of proteins associated with protein synthesis and degradation in cancer tissues, accompanied by metabolic alterations that may facilitate energy production in cancer cells within their natural environment. In addition, we found proteomic differences between breast cancer stages and minor differences between primary tumors and their matched lymph node metastases. These results highlight the potential of proteomic technology in the elucidation of clinically relevant cancer signatures. PMID:27135363

  17. Breast-related effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators and tissue-selective estrogen complexes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A number of available treatments provide relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, as breast safety is a major concern, new options are needed, particularly agents with an improved mammary safety profile. Results from several large randomized and observational studies have shown an association between hormone therapy, particularly combined estrogen-progestin therapy, and a small increased risk of breast cancer and breast pain or tenderness. In addition, progestin-containing hormone therapy has been shown to increase mammographic breast density, which is an important risk factor for breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) provide bone protection, are generally well tolerated, and have demonstrated reductions in breast cancer risk, but do not relieve menopausal symptoms (that is, vasomotor symptoms). Tissue-selective estrogen complexes (TSECs) pair a SERM with one or more estrogens and aim to blend the positive effects of the components to provide relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis without stimulating the breast or endometrium. One TSEC combination pairing conjugated estrogens (CEs) with the SERM bazedoxifene (BZA) has completed clinical development and is now available as an alternative option for menopausal therapy. Preclinical evidence suggests that CE/BZA induces inhibitory effects on breast tissue, and phase 3 clinical studies suggest breast neutrality, with no increases seen in breast tenderness, breast density, or cancer. In non-hysterectomized postmenopausal women, CE/BZA was associated with increased bone mineral density and relief of menopausal symptoms, along with endometrial safety. Taken together, these results support the potential of CE/BZA for the relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis combined with breast and endometrial safety. PMID:25928299

  18. Accurate Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissues: Aspecific Patient Studies using Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    PubMed Central

    PANDYA, HARDIK J.; ROY, RAJARSHI; CHEN, WENJIN; CHEKMAREVA, MARINA A.; FORAN, DAVID J.; DESAI, JAYDEV P.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the largest detected cancer amongst women in the US. In this work, our team reports on the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers (PMCs) to investigate their potential use in the accurate detection and characterization of benign and diseased breast tissues by performing indentations on the micro-scale tissue specimens. The PMCs used in these experiments have been fabricated using laboratory-made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, which significantly reduces the fabrication costs. The PMCs are 260 μm long, 35 μm wide and 2 μm thick with resistivity of order 1.316 X 10−3 Ω-cm obtained by using boron diffusion technique. For indenting the tissue, we utilized 8 μm thick cylindrical SU-8 tip. The PMC was calibrated against a known AFM probe. Breast tissue cores from seven different specimens were indented using PMC to identify benign and cancerous tissue cores. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of benign and cancerous specimens showed marked differences in the tissue morphology, which further validates our observed experimental data with the PMCs. While these patient aspecific feasibility studies clearly demonstrate the ability to discriminate between benign and cancerous breast tissues, further investigation is necessary to perform automated mechano-phenotyping (classification) of breast cancer: from onset to disease progression. PMID:25128621

  19. Validation of a power-law noise model for simulating small-scale breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, I.; Edwards, A.; Nishikawa, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We have validated a small-scale breast tissue model based on power-law noise. A set of 110 patient images served as truth. The statistical model parameters were determined by matching the radially-averaged power-spectrum of the projected simulated tissue with that of the central tomosynthesis patient breast projections. Observer performance in a signal-known exactly detection task in simulated and actual breast backgrounds was compared. Observers included human readers, a pre-whitening observer model and a channelized Hotelling observer model. For all observers, good agreement between performance in the simulated and actual backgrounds was found, both in the tomosynthesis central projections and the reconstructed images. This tissue model can be used for breast x-ray imaging system optimization. The complete statistical description of the model is provided. PMID:23938858

  20. Validation of a power-law noise model for simulating small-scale breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, I.; Edwards, A.; Nishikawa, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    We have validated a small-scale breast tissue model based on power-law noise. A set of 110 patient images served as truth. The statistical model parameters were determined by matching the radially averaged power-spectrum of the projected simulated tissue with that of the central tomosynthesis patient breast projections. Observer performance in a signal-known exactly detection task in simulated and actual breast backgrounds was compared. Observers included human readers, a pre-whitening observer model and a channelized Hotelling observer model. For all observers, good agreement between performance in the simulated and actual backgrounds was found, both in the tomosynthesis central projections and the reconstructed images. This tissue model can be used for breast x-ray imaging system optimization. The complete statistical description of the model is provided.

  1. Reliability and validity of an instrument to measure tissue hardness in breasts.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K L

    The author investigated the effectiveness of the Roberts Durometer, an instrument developed to measure human tissue hardness for a study on breast engorgement. The instrument is a small portable pressure gauge comprising a probe attached to a spring and contained in a tubular housing, connected to a dial gauge. The instrument was first trialed using foam rubber of differing hardness and football bladders of differing hardness. It was then used to measure the hardness of a non-pregnant, non-lactating human breast, followed by trials on postpartum women comparing breast tissue hardness on the day of birth with that of subsequent days. The instrument detected significant differences in hardness of foams, football bladders and human breast tissue. It was therefore considered suitable for measuring, in both research and clinical applications, hardness of breast tissue, which is a major physical feature of breast engorgement. Other clinical applications could include the hardness of abdominal and other skin tissues in conditions such as ascites, peritonitis and cellulitis. PMID:10196872

  2. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.

  3. Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy: In vivo quantification of collagen in breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Farina, Andrea; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-05-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy provides non-invasively the optical characterization of highly diffusive media, such as biological tissues. Light pulses are injected into the tissue and the effects of light propagation on re-emitted pulses are interpreted with the diffusion theory to assess simultaneously tissue absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. Performing spectral measurements, information on tissue composition and structure is derived applying the Beer law to the measured absorption and an empiric approximation to Mie theory to the reduced scattering. The absorption properties of collagen powder were preliminarily measured in the range of 600-1100 nm using a laboratory set-up for broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy. Optical projection images were subsequently acquired in compressed breast geometry on 218 subjects, either healthy or bearing breast lesions, using a portable instrument for optical mammography that operates at 7 wavelengths selected in the range 635-1060 nm. For all subjects, tissue composition was estimated in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen. Information on tissue microscopic structure was also derived. Good correlation was obtained between mammographic breast density (a strong risk factor for breast cancer) and an optical index based on collagen content and scattering power (that accounts mostly for tissue collagen). Logistic regression applied to all optically derived parameters showed that subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer for their high breast density can effectively be identified based on collagen content and scattering parameters. Tissue composition assessed in breast lesions with a perturbative approach indicated that collagen and hemoglobin content are significantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones.

  4. Investigating Breast Cancer Cell Behavior Using Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Guiro, Khadidiatou; Patel, Shyam A.; Greco, Steven J.; Rameshwar, Pranela; Arinzeh, Treena L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite early detection through the use of mammograms and aggressive intervention, breast cancer (BC) remains a clinical dilemma. BC can resurge after >10 years of remission. Studies indicate that BC cells (BCCs) with self-renewal and chemoresistance could be involved in dormancy. The majority of studies use in vitro, two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cultures, which do not recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. Thus, to determine the effect of three-dimensional (3-D) microenvironment on BCCs, this study fabricated tissue engineering scaffolds made of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) having aligned or random fibers. Random and aligned fibers mimic, respectively, the random and highly organized collagen fibers found in the tumor extracellular matrix. Chemoresistant BCCs were obtained by treating with carboplatin. Western blot analysis of carboplatin resistant (treated) MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive, basal-like) and T47D (low-invasive, luminal) BCCs showed an increase in Bcl-2, Oct-4 and Sox-2, suggesting protection from apoptosis and increase in stem-like markers. Further studies with MDA-MB-231 BCCs seeded on the scaffolds showed little to no change in cell number over time for non-treated BCCs whereas on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), non-treated BCCs displayed a significant increase in cell number at days 4 and 7 as compared to day 1 (p<0.05). Treated BCCs did not proliferate on TCP and the fibrous scaffolds. Little to no cyclin D1 was expressed for non-treated BCCs on TCP. On fibrous scaffolds, non-treated BCCs stained for cyclin D1 during the 7-day culture period. Treated BCCs expressed cyclin D1 on TCP and fibrous scaffolds during the 7-day culture period. Proliferation, viability and cell cycle analysis indicated that this 3-D culture prompted the aggressive BCCs to adopt a dormant phenotype, while the treated BCCs retained their phenotype. The findings indicate that random and aligned fibrous PCL scaffolds may provide a useful system to study how the 3-D

  5. β class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, James H; Hiser, Laree; Davis, Jennifer A; Thomas, Nancy Stubbs; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Background Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues. Methods To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of β-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues. Results β-Tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant β-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were β-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5–30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels. Conclusion These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40–75% β-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs. PMID:12927047

  6. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  7. Automatic tissue classification for high-resolution breast CT images based on bilateral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    Breast tissue classification can provide quantitative measurements of breast composition, density and tissue distribution for diagnosis and identification of high-risk patients. In this study, we present an automatic classification method to classify high-resolution dedicated breast CT images. The breast is classified into skin, fat and glandular tissue. First, we use a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise and at the same time keep edges on the images. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values in breast CT images, we use morphologic operations to get the mask of the skin based on information of its position. Second, we use a modified fuzzy C-mean classification method twice, one for the skin and the other for the fatty and glandular tissue. We compared our classified results with manually segmentation results and used Dice overlap ratios to evaluate our classification method. We also tested our method using added noise in the images. The overlap ratios for glandular tissue were above 94.7% for data from five patients. Evaluation results showed that our method is robust and accurate.

  8. Discrimination of Breast Cancer from Normal Tissue with Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.-B.; Wang, W.; Liu, Ch.-H.; Zhang, G.-J.

    2015-07-01

    Conventional Raman spectra of normal and cancerous breast tissues were acquired at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm and subjected to a discrimination analysis. First the spectra were pretreated with wavelet transform and polynomial fitting; next, cancerous tissue was identified by applying an adaptive local hyperplane K-nearest neighbor (ALHK) method to the pretreated spectra. The best discrimination accuracy of the ALHK method was 93.2%. In summary, normal and cancerous breast tissue were accurately distinguished by a miniature laser Raman spectrometer and the chemometrics method (ALHK), which might prove to be a portable and accessible diagnostic system.

  9. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues. Methods: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n= 1 -{delta}+i {beta}. The real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement ({delta}), over the energy range of 5-50 keV were determined using XOP software (version 2.3, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France). Calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite were considered to represent the material compositions of microcalcifications in vivo. Nineteen tissue substitutes were considered as possible candidates to represent adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue and skin, and four phantom materials were considered as possible candidates to represent microcalcifications. For each material, either the molecular formula, if available, or the elemental composition based on weight fraction, was used to determine {delta}. At each x-ray photon energy, the absolute percent difference in {delta} between the breast tissue and the substitute material was determined, from which three candidates were selected. From these candidate tissue substitutes, the material that minimized the absolute percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient {mu}, and hence {beta}, was considered to be best representative of that breast tissue. Results: Over the energy range of 5-50 keV, while the {delta} of CB3 and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of fibroglandular tissue, the {mu} of fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material better approximated the fibroglandular tissue. While the {delta} of BR10 and adipose tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of

  10. Discovery and verification of protein differences between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Byers, Tim; Allen, Jenna; Finlayson, Christina; Helmke, Steve M; Hokanson, John E; Hunsucker, Stephen W; Murphy, James R; Newell, Keri; Queensland, Kelly M; Singh, Meenakshi; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Duncan, Mark W; Elias, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify and identify differences in protein levels between tumor and adjacent normal breast tissue from the same breast in 18 women with stage I/II ER positive/Her2/neu negative invasive breast cancer. Eighteen separate difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) gels were run (1 gel per patient). Relative quantification was based on DIGE analysis. After excision and tryptic digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping were used to identify protein spots. Two hundred and forty-three spots were differentially abundant between normal and cancer tissues. Fifty spots were identified: 41 were over abundant and nine were less abundant in cancers than in normal breast tissue. Western blotting provided independent confirmation for three of the most biologically and statistically interesting proteins. All 18 gels were replicated by another technician and 32% of the differentially abundant proteins were verified by the duplicate analysis. Follow-up studies are now examining these proteins as biomarkers in blood. PMID:20087651

  11. Associations of erythrocyte ω-3 fatty acids with biomarkers of ω-3 fatty acids and inflammation in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shuvro; Brasky, Theodore M; Belury, Martha A; Krishnan, Shiva; Cole, Rachel M; Marian, Catalin; Yee, Lisa D; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-12-15

    There is increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFA) may reduce circulating biomarkers of inflammation; however associations of blood LCω-3PUFA with breast tissue LCω-3PUFA and breast tissue biomarkers of inflammation are not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of breast tissue and blood samples from n = 85 women with no history of breast cancer, who underwent breast reduction surgery. Fatty acids of erythrocytes and undissected breast tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography; C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in plasma and tissue were measured by ELISA. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to estimate associations between erythrocyte LCω-3PUFA and breast tissue biomarkers. Women in the highest erythrocyte LCω-3PUFA tertile had LCω-3PUFA concentrations in the breast 73% (95% CI: 31-128%; p trend < 0.0001) higher than women in the lowest tertile. Associations for each individual LCω-3PUFA were similar in magnitude. No significant association was found for the shorter ω-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Although compatible with no association, women in the highest tertile of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid had a nonsignificant 32% (95% CI: -23 to 62%) reduced breast tissue CRP. No correlation was observed between erythrocyte ω-3 PUFA and tissue IL-6 or IL-8 concentrations. Our findings provide evidence that erythrocyte ω-3 fatty acids are valid measures of breast tissue concentrations, and limited evidence that inverse associations from prospective epidemiologic studies of blood LCω-3PUFA and breast cancer risk may be partly explained by reductions in breast tissue inflammation; however, these findings require replication. PMID:26137879

  12. TU-F-18C-01: Breast Tissue Decomposition Using Spectral CT After Distortion Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H; Zhao, B; Klopfer, M; Masaki, F; Baturin, P; Molloi, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of accurate breast tissue compositional characterization by using spectral-distortion-corrected dual energy images from a photon-counting spectral CT. Methods: Thirty eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT)-based photon-counting spectral CT system at beam energy of 100 kVp. The energy-resolved detector sorted photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) for each breast was approximately 2.0 mGy. Dual energy technique was used to decompose breast tissue into water, lipid, and protein contents. Two image-based methods were investigated to improve the accuracy of tissue compositional characterization. The first method simply limited the recorded spectra up to 90 keV. This reduced the pulse pile-up artifacts but it has some dose penalty. The second method corrected the spectral information of all measured photons by using a spectral distortion correction technique. Breasts were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents, which was used as the reference standard. The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was evaluated by the root-mean-square (RMS) errors in percentage composition. Results: The errors in quantitative material decomposition were significantly reduced after the appropriate image processing methods. As compared to the chemical analysis as the reference standard, the averages of the RMS errors were estimated to be 15.5%, 3.3%, and 2.8% for the raw, energy-limited, and spectral-corrected images, respectively. Conclusion: Spectral CT can be used to accurately quantify the water, lipid, and protein contents in breast tissues by implementing a spectral distortion correction algorithm. The tissue compositional information can potentially improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  13. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  14. Comparative biomechanical study of using decellularized human adipose tissues for post-mastectomy and post-lumpectomy breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Seyyed M H; Omidi, Ehsan; Flynn, Lauren E; Samani, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Developing suitable biomaterials for post-mastectomy or post-lumpectomy breast reconstruction is highly important. This study is aimed at evaluating biomechanical suitability of decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) for this purpose. The study involves computational experiments for evaluating deformation of the breast reconstructed using DAT under loading conditions pertaining to two common body position changes of prone-to-supine and prone-to-upright. This was conducted using nonlinear finite element models where the breast geometry was obtained from MRI image of a female breast. The experiments were performed using DAT sourced from various adipose tissue depots in comparison to natural adipose tissue. Data obtained from the conducted experiments showed no contour defects with various DAT materials for simulated post-mastectomy or post-lumpectomy breast reconstruction under the loading conditions. They also demonstrated that a breast reconstructed using DAT derived from the breast or subcutaneous abdominal depots exhibit significantly closer deformation, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to that of a normal breast under the same loading conditions. Similarity of DAT deformation to that of natural breast tissue in post-surgery breast reconstruction was assessed using nonlinear finite element analysis. Our results provide evidence that DAT derived from subcutaneous abdominal and breast depots yield more analogous deformation pattern to the natural tissue in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction applications. This is quite encouraging, as breast and subcutaneous adipose tissue can be readily obtained in large quantities from breast or abdominal lipo-reduction surgery procedures. Furthermore, in post-lumpectomy cases all DAT samples used in this research showed similar deformation, and thus are suitable as breast tissue substituents. PMID:26735182

  15. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  16. Breast tissue classification in digital tomosynthesis images based on global gradient minimization and texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Lu, Guolan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a pseudo-three-dimensional x-ray imaging modality proposed to decrease the effect of tissue superposition present in mammography, potentially resulting in an increase in clinical performance for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissue classification in DBT images can be useful in risk assessment, computer-aided detection and radiation dosimetry, among other aspects. However, classifying breast tissue in DBT is a challenging problem because DBT images include complicated structures, image noise, and out-of-plane artifacts due to limited angular tomographic sampling. In this project, we propose an automatic method to classify fatty and glandular tissue in DBT images. First, the DBT images are pre-processed to enhance the tissue structures and to decrease image noise and artifacts. Second, a global smooth filter based on L0 gradient minimization is applied to eliminate detailed structures and enhance large-scale ones. Third, the similar structure regions are extracted and labeled by fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification. At the same time, the texture features are also calculated. Finally, each region is classified into different tissue types based on both intensity and texture features. The proposed method is validated using five patient DBT images using manual segmentation as the gold standard. The Dice scores and the confusion matrix are utilized to evaluate the classified results. The evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for classifying breast glandular and fat tissue on DBT images.

  17. Experimental implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2015-03-01

    A fast and accurate scatter imaging technique to differentiate cancerous and healthy breast tissue is introduced in this work. Such a technique would have wide-ranging clinical applications from intra-operative margin assessment to breast cancer screening. Coherent Scatter Computed Tomography (CSCT) has been shown to differentiate cancerous from healthy tissue, but the need to raster scan a pencil beam at a series of angles and slices in order to reconstruct 3D images makes it prohibitively time consuming. In this work we apply the coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique to reconstruct 3D images of breast tissue samples from experimental data taken without the rotation usually required in CSCT. We present our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging, the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples and segmentations of the 3D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue inside of the samples. We find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside of them. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside of ex vivo samples within a time on the order of a minute.

  18. Tissue degeneration 7 years after breast augmentation with injected polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanjun; Cao, Mo; Bao, Bing; Li, Huizheng; Yin, Dongyun

    2012-02-01

    Injectable polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is a jelly-like transparent implant used in breast augmentations. This type of implant had been used since 1998, but its use was prohibited in China in 2006 due to numerous complications that had arisen from its use. In one case, a rare appearance of PAAG tissue degeneration was observed 7 years after an injectable breast augmentation using PAAG. PMID:21717258

  19. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Pathologists Who Enjoy Breast Tissue Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Natalia V.; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L.; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by agreement with patient cases previously reviewed by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p=0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p=0.013), and high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p<0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p<0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p<0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. PMID:25554017

  20. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  1. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Willner, M; Herzen, J; Grandl, S; Auweter, S; Mayr, D; Hipp, A; Chabior, M; Sarapata, A; Achterhold, K; Zanette, I; Weitkamp, T; Sztrókay, A; Hellerhoff, K; Reiser, M; Pfeiffer, F

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method's prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography. PMID:24614413

  2. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  3. Ex vivo discrimination between normal and pathological tissues in human breast surgical biopsies using bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, N; Hamzaoui, L; Rochaix, P; Rigaud, B; Voigt, J J; Morucci, J P

    1999-04-20

    Ex vivo bioimpedance data measured on normal and cancerous female breast tissues are reported. They clearly show that the electrical properties of normal tissues, surrounding tissues, and carcinoma are different. These differences lie in the conductivity, in the characteristic frequency (frequency of the maximum of the imaginary part of the bioimpedance), and also in the shape of the Bode plots. Modeling using an R-S-Zcpe model is reported as well as indexes extracted from the real and imaginary parts of the bioimpedance. Even if a classification of the different types of tissues remains a difficult task and leads to much less precise diagnosis than microscopic examination, the electrical behavior of mammary tissue could be used to develop a noninvasive technique for early breast cancer detection. PMID:10372148

  4. Using the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastichuman breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Hage, R; Galhanone, P R; Zângaro, R A; Rodrigues, K C; Pacheco, M T T; Martin, A A; Netto, M M; Soares, F A; da Cunha, I W

    2003-01-01

    This article reports results of the in vitro study for potential evaluation of the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastic human breast tissue. A coumarine dye laser pumped by nitrogen laser generated an excitation light centered at 458 nm. In order to collect the fluorescence signal was used an optical fiber catheter coupled to a spectrometer and CCD detector. Fluorescence spectra were recorded from normal and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissue, adding up 94 different areas. The discrimination between normal and neoplasm groups reach a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. PMID:14505202

  5. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  6. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  7. Circulating testosterone and prostate-specific antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and tissue are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Edward R; Tichansky, David S; Chervoneva, Inna; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary evidence has associated testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether a) testosterone levels in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), serum, or breast tissue are associated with breast cancer; b) testosterone levels in serum are associated with levels in NAF; c) PSA in NAF, serum, or breast tissue is associated with breast cancer; and d) serum PSA is associated with NAF PSA levels. We obtained 342 NAF specimens from 171 women by means of a modified breast pump. Additionally, we collected 201 blood samples from 99 women and 51 tissue samples from 41 subjects who underwent surgical resection for suspected disease. Women currently using birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy were excluded from the study. Controlling for age and menopausal status, serum testosterone was significantly increased in women with breast cancer (p = 0.002). NAF and serum testosterone levels were not associated. Neither NAF nor tissue testosterone was associated with breast cancer. Controlling for menopausal status and age, NAF PSA was significantly decreased in women with breast cancer (p < 0.001). We did not find serum PSA to be associated with breast cancer, although we found an indication that, in postmenopausal women, its levels were lower in women with cancer. Serum PSA was associated with NAF PSA in postmenopausal women (p < 0.001). PSA levels in cancerous tissue were significantly lower than in benign breast specimens from subjects without cancer (p = 0.011), whereas levels of PSA in histologically benign specimens from subjects with cancer were intermediate. Our results suggest that serum testosterone is increased and NAF PSA is decreased in women with breast cancer, with PSA expression being higher in normal than in cancerous breast tissues. NAF and serum PSA levels in postmenopausal women are correlated, suggesting that as laboratory assessment of PSA becomes more sensitive, serum PSA may become useful in

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  9. Comparison of breast tissue measurements using magnetic resonance imaging, digital mammography and a mathematical algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lee-Jane W.; Nishino, Thomas K.; Johnson, Raleigh F.; Nayeem, Fatima; Brunder, Donald G.; Ju, Hyunsu; Leonard, Morton H., Jr.; Grady, James J.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit

    2012-11-01

    Women with mostly mammographically dense fibroglandular tissue (breast density, BD) have a four- to six-fold increased risk for breast cancer compared to women with little BD. BD is most frequently estimated from two-dimensional (2D) views of mammograms by a histogram segmentation approach (HSM) and more recently by a mathematical algorithm consisting of mammographic imaging parameters (MATH). Two non-invasive clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols: 3D gradient-echo (3DGRE) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) were modified for 3D volumetric reconstruction of the breast for measuring fatty and fibroglandular tissue volumes by a Gaussian-distribution curve-fitting algorithm. Replicate breast exams (N = 2 to 7 replicates in six women) by 3DGRE and STIR were highly reproducible for all tissue-volume estimates (coefficients of variation <5%). Reliability studies compared measurements from four methods, 3DGRE, STIR, HSM, and MATH (N = 95 women) by linear regression and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses. Rsqr, regression slopes, and ICC, respectively, were (1) 0.76-0.86, 0.8-1.1, and 0.87-0.92 for %-gland tissue, (2) 0.72-0.82, 0.64-0.96, and 0.77-0.91, for glandular volume, (3) 0.87-0.98, 0.94-1.07, and 0.89-0.99, for fat volume, and (4) 0.89-0.98, 0.94-1.00, and 0.89-0.98, for total breast volume. For all values estimated, the correlation was stronger for comparisons between the two MRI than between each MRI versus mammography, and between each MRI versus MATH data than between each MRI versus HSM data. All ICC values were >0.75 indicating that all four methods were reliable for measuring BD and that the mathematical algorithm and the two complimentary non-invasive MRI protocols could objectively and reliably estimate different types of breast tissues.

  10. Accessory lateral discoid meniscus.

    PubMed

    Saygi, Baransel; Yildirim, Yakup; Senturk, Salih; Sezgin Ramadan, Saime; Gundes, Hakan

    2006-12-01

    The lateral meniscus tends to have more developmental variation than the medial counterpart. This is a report of an accessory discoid layer of lateral meniscus. All arthroscopic, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological views are presented. PMID:16710729

  11. Structural mass spectrometry of tissue extracts to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous breast diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hines, K. M.; Ballard, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is well-known to broadly impact cellular metabolism and aberrant metabolism in breast cancer tumors has been widely studied by both targeted and untargeted analyses to characterize the affected metabolic pathways. In this work, we utilize ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in tandem with ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), which provides chromatographic, structural, and mass information, to characterize the aberrant metabolism associated with breast diseases such as cancer. In a double-blind analysis of matched control (n=3) and disease tissues (n=3), tissues were homogenized, polar metabolites were extracted, and the extracts were characterized by UPLC-IM-MS/MS. Principle component analysis revealed a strong separation between disease tissues, with one diseased tissue clustering with the control tissues along PC1 and two others separated along PC2. Using postion mobility MS/MS spectra acquired by data-independent acquisition, the features giving rise to the observed grouping were determined to be biomolecules associated with aggressive breast cancer tumors, including glutathione, oxidized glutathione, thymosins β4 and β10, and choline-containing species. Pathology reports revealed the outlier of the disease tissues to be a benign fibroadenoma, whereas the other disease tissues represented highly metabolic benign and aggressive tumors. This IM-MS-based workflow bridges the transition from untargeted metabolomic profiling to tentative identifications of key descriptive molecular features using data acquired in one analysis, with additional experiments performed only for validation. The ability to resolve cancerous and non-cancerous tissues at the biomolecular level demonstrates UPLC-IM-MS/MS as a robust and sensitive platform for metabolomic profiling of tissues. PMID:25212505

  12. 31P magnetic resonance phospholipid profiles of neoplastic human breast tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, T. E.; Meneses, P.; Gierke, L. W.; Den Otter, W.; Glonek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Phospholipids from malignant, benign and noninvolved human breast tissues were extracted by chloroform-methanol (2:1) and analysed by 31P MR spectroscopy at 202.4 MHz. Thirteen phospholipids were identified as constituents of the profiles obtained among the 55 tissue specimens analysed. Observed patterns in phospholipid tissues profiles were distinct, allowing qualitative characterisation of the three tissue groups. Multivariate analysis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and an uncharacterised phospholipid were shown to be independently significant in predicting benign tissue histology as either fibrocystic disease or fibroadenoma in 92% of cases. Univariate analysis of relative mole-percentage of phosphorus concentrations of individual phospholipids using the Scheffé comparison procedure revealed that in malignant tissues, phosphatidylethanolamine was significantly elevated compared to benign (+ 32%) and noninvolved tissues (+ 22%). Phosphatidylinositol (+ 33%) and phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (PC plas) (+ 25%) were increased in malignant compared to benign and LPC was decreased (-44%) in malignant compared to noninvolved. LPC was significantly depressed (-39%) in benign tissue compared to normal. Phospholipid indices computed to further characterise the three tissue groups showed PC plas/PC elevated in malignant tissue compared to benign and PE plas/PE depressed in malignant tissue compared to noninvolved. These findings support previous investigations reporting that the alkyl-phospholipid analogues of phosphatidylcholine are released by malignant tissues and that levels of ethanolamine are elevated in malignant tissues. Indices describing the choline-containing phospholipids showed that these lipids are depressed significantly in malignant tissue relative to healthy tissue. PMID:2039694

  13. Methylation profiling of 48 candidate genes in tumor and matched normal tissues from breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibo; Guo, Xinwu; Wu, Yepeng; Li, Shengyun; Yan, Jinhua; Peng, Limin; Xiao, Zhi; Wang, Shouman; Deng, Zhongping; Dai, Lizhong; Yi, Wenjun; Xia, Kun; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Gene-specific methylation alterations in breast cancer have been suggested to occur early in tumorigenesis and have the potential to be used for early detection and prevention. The continuous increase in worldwide breast cancer incidences emphasizes the urgent need for identification of methylation biomarkers for early cancer detection and patient stratification. Using microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation bisulfite sequencing technology, we analyzed methylation status of 48 candidate genes in paired tumor and normal tissues from 180 Chinese breast cancer patients. Analysis of the sequencing results showed 37 genes differentially methylated between tumor and matched normal tissues. Breast cancer samples with different clinicopathologic characteristics demonstrated distinct profiles of gene methylation. The methylation levels were significantly different between breast cancer subtypes, with basal-like and luminal B tumors having the lowest and the highest methylation levels, respectively. Six genes (ACADL, ADAMTSL1, CAV1, NPY, PTGS2, and RUNX3) showed significant differential methylation among the 4 breast cancer subtypes and also between the ER +/ER- tumors. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, we identified a panel of 13 hypermethylated genes as candidate biomarkers that performed a high level of efficiency for cancer prediction. These 13 genes included CST6, DBC1, EGFR, GREM1, GSTP1, IGFBP3, PDGFRB, PPM1E, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, TNFRSF10D, and WRN. Our results provide evidence that well-defined DNA methylation profiles enable breast cancer prediction and patient stratification. The novel gene panel might be a valuable biomarker for early detection of breast cancer. PMID:25636590

  14. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Late Tissue Toxicity: Pilot Study of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tian; Zhou Jun; Yoshida, Emi J.; Woodhouse, Shermian A.; Schiff, Peter B.; Wang, Tony J.C.; Lu Zhengfeng; Pile-Spellman, Eliza; Zhang Pengpeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of advanced ultrasonic imaging to quantitatively evaluate normal-tissue toxicity in breast-cancer radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighteen breast cancer patients who received radiation treatment were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical study. Radiotherapy involved a radiation dose of 50.0 to 50.4 Gy delivered to the entire breast, followed by an electron boost of 10.0 to 16.0 Gy delivered to the tumor bed. Patients underwent scanning with ultrasound during follow-up, which ranged from 6 to 94 months (median, 22 months) postradiotherapy. Conventional ultrasound images and radio-frequency (RF) echo signals were acquired from treated and untreated breasts. Three ultrasound parameters, namely, skin thickness, Pearson coefficient, and spectral midband fit, were computed from RF signals to measure radiation-induced changes in dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue, respectively. Ultrasound parameter values of the treated breast were compared with those of the untreated breast. Ultrasound findings were compared with clinical assessment using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late-toxicity scores. Results: Significant changes were observed in ultrasonic parameter values of the treated vs. untreated breasts. Average skin thickness increased by 27.3%, from 2.05 {+-} 0.22mm to 2.61 {+-} 0.52mm; Pearson coefficient decreased by 31.7%, from 0.41 {+-} 0.07 to 0.28 {+-} 0.05; and midband fit increased by 94.6%, from -0.92 {+-} 7.35 dB to 0.87 {+-} 6.70 dB. Ultrasound evaluations were consistent with RTOG scores. Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasound provides a noninvasive, objective means of assessing radiation-induced changes to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This imaging tool will become increasingly valuable as we continue to improve radiation therapy technique.

  15. Quantifying adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue properties using MRI-guided NIR tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooksby, Ben; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Jiang, Shudong; Dehghani, Hamid; Kogel, Christine; Weaver, John; Poplack, Steven P.; Pearlman, Justin D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2005-04-01

    Hybrid NIR-MRI imaging has been used in a clinical breast imaging system to characterize breast tissue properties. The multi-spectral, frequency-domain tomography system operates inside a clinical scanner via long silica-glass optical fiber bundles and using a non-magnetic fiber-patient interface attached to a high resolution MR breast coil. Sixteen fiber bundles are positioned around the circumference of the female breast yielding 240 measurements of light transmission (amplitude and phase) at six optical wavelengths from 660-850nm through up to 12 cm of tissue. From optical measurements, we use a Newton-type algorithm to reconstruct images of tissue optical properties (absorption and scattering), and physiological tissue features such as oxy-hemoglobin [Hb-O2], deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations [Hb-R], water concentration [water], scattering amplitude, and scattering power. We are exploring the synergistic benefits of a combined NIR-MRI data set, specifically the ways in which MRI (i.e. high spatial resolution) can be used to enhance NIR (i.e. high contrast resolution) image reconstruction. A priori knowledge can be applied to image reconstruction in the form of spatial and spectral constraints to improve spatial resolution, contrast, and quantitative accuracy of NIR images. In vivo results suggest that this combined system can accurately quantify contrast between the properties of tissues present in the breast (i.e. adipose and fibroglandular) regardless of their varied and complex spatial organization. For a group of healthy female volunteers, we observe greater contrast between the properties of adipose and glandular tissues when we use MR-guidance than when we do not, and values of total hemoglobin and water content are more consistent with what is physiologically expected.

  16. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  17. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-09-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm-1, area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I1/I2%)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I1/I2%=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively.

  18. Complex permittivities of breast tumor tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Takumi; Kubota, Shin-ichi; Kuroki, Shin-ichiro; Sogo, Kenta; Arihiro, Koji; Okada, Morihito; Kadoya, Takayuki; Hide, Michihiro; Oda, Miyo; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2014-06-01

    The variability in measurements of complex permittivities of tumor tissues between multiple samples could be attributed to the volume fraction of cancer cells in the excised tumor tissue. By the use of a digital photomicrograph image and hematoxylin-eosin staining, it was found that the malignant tumor tissue was not fully occupied by the cancer cells, but the cells were distributed locally in the stroma cells depending on the growth of cancer. The results showed that the volume fraction of cancer cells in the tumor tissue had a correlation to the measured conductivity and dielectric constant in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 6 GHz. It introduces a method to understand and gauge variability in measurements between different tumors.

  19. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  20. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Rose, Jessica F; Zafar, Sarosh N; Ellsworth Iv, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information. PMID:27190645

  1. [Pseudo color method for the infrared thermogram display of local breast focus tissue].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Wu; Ding, Hai-Shu; Teng, Yi-Chao

    2009-03-01

    An infrared thermogram which reflects the human body surface temperature distribution can be obtained through detecting the infrared thermal radiation from each point on the human body surface. When a malignant tumor occurs in a breast, it will cause an increase in the prominent temperature in the breast surface focus region due to the abnormal blood transmission state of local focus tissue. Breast cancer can be detected through the visual analysis of the focus regions by physicians. In order to help physicians better find these focus regions, the present paper improved the traditional pseudo color display method by introducing visual effect factor and made the focus regions have a better display effect. The efficacy of this method was verified in the breast infrared thermograms of 47 breast cancer patients. The result from visual analysis of the focus region in infrared thermogram by this method can also be compared with the tissue blood transmission state from near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other methods. It will be helpful to obtain more accurate diagnostic information. PMID:19455784

  2. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  3. A polynomial hyperelastic model for the mixture of fat and glandular tissue in female breast.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    In the breast of adult women, glandular and fat tissues are intermingled and cannot be clearly distinguished. This work studies if this mixture can be treated as a homogenized tissue. A mechanical model is proposed for the mixture of tissues as a function of the fat content. Different distributions of individual tissues and geometries have been tried to verify the validity of the mixture model. A multiscale modelling approach was applied in a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of tissue, formed by randomly assigning fat or glandular elements to the mesh. Both types of tissues have been assumed as isotropic, quasi-incompressible hyperelastic materials, modelled with a polynomial strain energy function, like the homogenized model. The RVE was subjected to several load cases from which the constants of the polynomial function of the homogenized tissue were fitted in the least squares sense. The results confirm that the fat volume ratio is a key factor in determining the properties of the homogenized tissue, but the spatial distribution of fat is not so important. Finally, a simplified model of a breast was developed to check the validity of the homogenized model in a geometry similar to the actual one. PMID:25950862

  4. [In vitro sensitivity of breast cancer tissue to adriablastin in the presence and absence of estrogen receptors].

    PubMed

    Olinia, A Ia; Vitola, G Ia; Nuke, I Ia; Zeĭkate, G A; Emzin'sh, D E

    1984-01-01

    The report deals with a comparison of estrogen receptor concentration in tumor tissue of breast cancer patients and sensitivity of the said tissue to adriablastin in short-term organ cultures. No relationship was established between tumor tissue sensitivity to adriablastin and presence or absence of estrogen receptors. It is necessary to identify both the concentration of specific hormone receptors and individual sensitivity to chemotherapy in order to work out individually-tailored schemes of treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:6710944

  5. A lectin-based approach to detecting carcinogenesis in breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    WI, GA RAM; MOON, BYUNG-IN; KIM, HYOUNG JIN; LIM, WOOSUNG; LEE, ANBOK; LEE, JUN WOO; KIM, HONG-JIN

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the diversity of glycosylation structures that form during cancer progression and the sensitivity with which they are able to be detected have great potential for cancer screening. However, the large majority of breast cancer research has instead focused on the development of protein or nucleic acid markers. In the present study, alterations in glycosylation in breast cancer tissue were analyzed using enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs), which have potential for high-throughput screening. Cancer tissues (CCs) and normal tissues (CNs) were collected from women with breast cancer ranging from stage 0 to IIIA. The specimens were divided into two groups, stage 0-I and stage II–III, and the levels of four types of lectin in stage 0-I and stage II–III CCs and CNs were compared by ELLA. The results demonstrated that, relative to CNs, the CCs contained significantly enhanced levels of mannosylation (stage 0-I, P<0.001; stage II–III, P<0.001), galactosylation (stage 0-I, P<0.05; stage II–III, P<0.001), sialylation (stage 0-I, P<0.001; stage II–III, P<0.01) and fucosylation (stage 0-I, P<0.01; stage II–III, P<0.01). Furthermore, stage II–III CCs had higher levels of mannosylation (P<0.05) and galactosylation (P<0.01) than stage 0-I CCs. The sensitivity of the ELLA system ranged from 71–100% when specificity was set at 100%. These results demonstrate that enhanced glycosylation levels identified by ELLA are associated with the development of breast tumors, and provide evidence of the exceptional sensitivity and specificity of the ELLA system in the detection of breast cancer. This approach is anticipated to contribute highly to the development of reliable diagnostic procedures for breast cancer. PMID:27313712

  6. Infrared Spectra of Human Breast Tumor Tissue and Experimental Animal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Belkov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, H. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.; Butra, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy methods to conduct comparative studies of human breast tumors and sarcoma 180 tumor grafted into mice. The IR spectral parameters used to identify tumor tissue in mice with the sarcoma 180 strain proved to be identical to the parameters for human breast tissue in cancer. In the presence of a malignant tumor in humans, the most intense C=O vibrational bands in the protein molecules are observed in the interval 1710-1680 cm-1. For a benign tumor, in the IR spectra of breast tissue the intense bands are located in the interval 1670-1650 cm-1. We spectroscopically monitored the diagnosis and the chemotherapy process using the model of sarcoma 180 in mice. As the therapeutic drugs, we used synthesized coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with diphosphonic acid derivatives. We demonstrate the promising potential of palladium complexes with zoledronic acid as an effective cytostatic. In therapy using a palladium complex with zoledronic acid, the effect of tumor growth inhibition is accompanied by a change in its spectral characteristics. The parameters of the IR spectra for tumor tissue after treatment are close to those of the IR spectra for healthy tissue.

  7. The efficacy of Stokes Shift Spectroscopy for detecting prostate and breast cancer tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, W. B.; Yang, Yuanlong; Alfano, Robert R.

    2013-03-01

    Stokes Shift Spectroscopy (S3) offers a novel way to rapidly measure spectral fingerprints of complex molecular mixtures in tissue. The changes of key fluorophores from normal state to the malignant state can be reflected by alteration of Stokes Shift Spectra (S3 spectra). S3 measurements can be used to acquire enough information of different key fluorophores from one spectrum to speed up spectral acquisition time. In this study, we demonstrate the usefulness of the S3 technique to distinguish the malignant tissue from the normal prostate and breast tissues. The optimal wavelength shift constant (Δλc) of S3 spectra measurements for prostate/breast cancer detection were determined to be 40 nm. The underlying physical and biological basis for S3 is discussed. For the first time, our work explicitly discloses how and why S3 is supreme in comparison with other conventional spectroscopic techniques.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Stage-II Breast Cancer from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Young Ock; Agastian, Paul; Baaru, Rajasekhar; Balamurugan, Kannan; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring disease among women worldwide. The early stage of breast cancer identification is the key challenge in cancer control and prevention procedures. Although gene expression profiling helps to understand the molecular mechanism of diseases or disorder in the living system, gene expression pattern alone is not sufficient to predict the exact mechanisms. Current proteomics tools hold great application for analysis of cancerous conditions. Hence, the generation of differential protein expression profiles has been optimized for breast cancer and normal tissue samples in our organization. Normal and tumor tissues were collected from 20 people from a local hospital. Proteins from the diseased and normal tissues have been investigated by 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. The peptide mass fingerprint data were fed into various public domains like Mascot, MS-Fit, and Pept-ident against Swiss-Prot protein database and the proteins of interest were identified. Some of the differentially expressed proteins identified were human annexin, glutathione S-transferase, vimentin, enolase-1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, Cyclin A1, hormone sensitive lipase, beta catenin, and so forth. Many types of proteins were identified as fundamental steps for developing molecular markers for diagnosis of human breast cancer as well as making a new proteomic database for future research. PMID:27110560

  9. Non-coding CK19 RNA in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Oloomi, Mana; Yardehnavi, Najmeh; Bouzari, Saeid; Moazzezy, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the major cause of cancer-related death in women. The incidence of this carcinoma is rising and there are many attempts to decrease this problem. The aim of this study was detection of full-length cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA, in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer patients in early stage of cancer. In this study, RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) technique was used for detection of CK19 mRNA in peripheral blood and tissue of breast cancer patients. Primers were established to amplify the CK19 as a tumor marker. Moreover, CYFRA 21-1 subunit of CK19 protein was measured in the serum of patients. CK19 mRNA was detected and sequenced. It is shown that the most released CK19 mRNAs in blood and tissue of cancer patients are non-coding RNA. The mutated forms of mRNA are the incomplete transcripts of protein-coding gene as a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that could regulate gene expression. Moreover, small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) as fragments of CK19 is mostly observed in this experiment. They may play a role in tumorogenesis and their biologic exact function in breast cancer should be further elucidated. PMID:23585313

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Stage-II Breast Cancer from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Young Ock; Agastian, Paul; Baaru, Rajasekhar; Balamurugan, Kannan; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring disease among women worldwide. The early stage of breast cancer identification is the key challenge in cancer control and prevention procedures. Although gene expression profiling helps to understand the molecular mechanism of diseases or disorder in the living system, gene expression pattern alone is not sufficient to predict the exact mechanisms. Current proteomics tools hold great application for analysis of cancerous conditions. Hence, the generation of differential protein expression profiles has been optimized for breast cancer and normal tissue samples in our organization. Normal and tumor tissues were collected from 20 people from a local hospital. Proteins from the diseased and normal tissues have been investigated by 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. The peptide mass fingerprint data were fed into various public domains like Mascot, MS-Fit, and Pept-ident against Swiss-Prot protein database and the proteins of interest were identified. Some of the differentially expressed proteins identified were human annexin, glutathione S-transferase, vimentin, enolase-1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, Cyclin A1, hormone sensitive lipase, beta catenin, and so forth. Many types of proteins were identified as fundamental steps for developing molecular markers for diagnosis of human breast cancer as well as making a new proteomic database for future research. PMID:27110560

  11. T 1 Relaxation Measurement of Ex-Vivo Breast Cancer Tissues at Ultralow Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Hwang, Seong-min; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Lim, Sanghyun; Han, Jae Ho; Yim, Hyunee; Kim, Jang-Hee; Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated T1 relaxations of ex-vivo cancer tissues at low magnetic fields in order to check the possibility of achieving a T1 contrast higher than those obtained at high fields. The T1 relaxations of fifteen pairs (normal and cancerous) of breast tissue samples were measured at three magnetic fields, 37, 62, and 122 μT, using our superconducting quantum interference device-based ultralow field nuclear magnetic resonance setup, optimally developed for ex-vivo tissue studies. A signal reconstruction based on Bayesian statistics for noise reduction was exploited to overcome the low signal-to-noise ratio. The ductal and lobular-type tissues did not exhibit meaningful T1 contrast values between normal and cancerous tissues at the three different fields. On the other hand, an enhanced T1 contrast was obtained for the mucinous cancer tissue. PMID:25705658

  12. Breast lump

    MedlinePlus

    Breast mass ... males and females of all ages have normal breast tissue. This tissue responds to hormone changes. Because of this, lumps can come and go. Breast lumps may appear at any age: Both male ...

  13. Assembling a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for breast tissue signal detection: preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumkin, Jules; Zheng, Bin; Gruss, Michelle; Drescher, John; Leader, Joseph; Good, Walter; Lu, Amy; Cohen, Cathy; Shah, Ratan; Zuley, Margarita; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology to detect breast abnormalities in general and cancer in particular has been attracting research interests for decades. Large clinical tests suggest that current EIS systems can achieve high specificity (>= 90%) at a relatively low sensitivity ranging from 15% to 35%. In this study, we explore a new resonance frequency based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) technology to measure breast tissue EIS signals in vivo, which aims to be more sensitive to small tissue changes. Through collaboration between our imaging research group and a commercial company, a unique prototype REIS system has been assembled and preliminary signal acquisition has commenced. This REIS system has two detection probes mounted in the two ends of a Y-shape support device with probe separation of 60 mm. During REIS measurement, one probe touches the nipple and the other touches to an outer point of the breast. The electronic system continuously generates sweeps of multi-frequency electrical pulses ranging from 100 to 4100 kHz. The maximum electric voltage and the current applied to the probes are 1.5V and 30mA, respectively. Once a "record" command is entered, multi-frequency sweeps are recorded every 12 seconds until the program receives a "stop recording" command. In our imaging center, we have collected REIS measurements from 150 women under an IRB approved protocol. The database includes 58 biopsy cases, 78 screening negative cases, and other "recalled" cases (for additional imaging procedures). We measured eight signal features from the effective REIS sweep of each breast. We applied a multi-feature based artificial neural network (ANN) to classify between "biopsy" and normal "non-biopsy" breasts. The ANN performance is evaluated using a leave-one-out validation method and ROC analysis. We conducted two experiments. The first experiment attempted to classify 58 "biopsy" breasts and 58 "non-biopsy" breasts acquired on 58 women

  14. Body mass index associated with genome-wide methylation in breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Brionna Y.; Xu, Zongli; Kirk, Erin L.; Harlid, Sophia; Sandhu, Rupninder; Robinson, Whitney R.; Wu, Michael C.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Conway, Kathleen; Taylor, Jack A.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies indicate that body mass index (BMI) is associated with molecular pathways involved in inflammation, insulin-like growth factor activation, and other carcinogenic processes in breast tissue. The goal of this study was to determine whether BMI is associated with gene methylation in breast tissue and to identify pathways that are commonly methylated in association with high BMI. Epigenome-wide methylation profiles were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array in the non-diseased breast tissue of 81 women undergoing breast surgery between 2009 and 2013 at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Multivariable, robust linear regression was performed to identify methylation sites associated with BMI at a false discovery rate q value <0.05. Gene expression microarray data was used to identify which of the BMI-associated methylation sites also showed correlation with gene expression. Gene set enrichment analysis was conducted to assess which pathways were enriched among the BMI-associated methylation sites. Of the 431,568 methylation sites analyzed, 2573 were associated with BMI (q value <0.05), 57 % of which showed an inverse correlation with BMI. Pathways enriched among the 2573 probe sites included those involved in inflammation, insulin receptor signaling, and leptin signaling. We were able to map 1251 of the BMI-associated methylation sites to gene expression data, and, of these, 226 (18 %) showed substantial correlations with gene expression. Our results suggest that BMI is associated with genome-wide methylation in non-diseased breast tissue and may influence epigenetic pathways involved in inflammatory and other carcinogenic processes. PMID:25953686

  15. Body mass index associated with genome-wide methylation in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Hair, Brionna Y; Xu, Zongli; Kirk, Erin L; Harlid, Sophia; Sandhu, Rupninder; Robinson, Whitney R; Wu, Michael C; Olshan, Andrew F; Conway, Kathleen; Taylor, Jack A; Troester, Melissa A

    2015-06-01

    Gene expression studies indicate that body mass index (BMI) is associated with molecular pathways involved in inflammation, insulin-like growth factor activation, and other carcinogenic processes in breast tissue. The goal of this study was to determine whether BMI is associated with gene methylation in breast tissue and to identify pathways that are commonly methylated in association with high BMI. Epigenome-wide methylation profiles were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array in the non-diseased breast tissue of 81 women undergoing breast surgery between 2009 and 2013 at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Multivariable, robust linear regression was performed to identify methylation sites associated with BMI at a false discovery rate q value <0.05. Gene expression microarray data was used to identify which of the BMI-associated methylation sites also showed correlation with gene expression. Gene set enrichment analysis was conducted to assess which pathways were enriched among the BMI-associated methylation sites. Of the 431,568 methylation sites analyzed, 2573 were associated with BMI (q value <0.05), 57 % of which showed an inverse correlation with BMI. Pathways enriched among the 2573 probe sites included those involved in inflammation, insulin receptor signaling, and leptin signaling. We were able to map 1251 of the BMI-associated methylation sites to gene expression data, and, of these, 226 (18 %) showed substantial correlations with gene expression. Our results suggest that BMI is associated with genome-wide methylation in non-diseased breast tissue and may influence epigenetic pathways involved in inflammatory and other carcinogenic processes. PMID:25953686

  16. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  17. Methods for Culturing Human Femur Tissue Explants to Study Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Metastatic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Zachary S.; Bachmann, Michael H.; Alluri, Rajiv V.; Maloney, William J.; Contag, Christopher H.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis. Although it is widely accepted that the microenvironment influences cancer cell behavior, little is known about breast cancer cell properties and behaviors within the native microenvironment of human bone tissue.We have developed approaches to track, quantify and modulate human breast cancer cells within the microenvironment of cultured human bone tissue fragments isolated from discarded femoral heads following total hip replacement surgeries. Using breast cancer cells engineered for luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, we are able to reproducibly quantitate migration and proliferation patterns using bioluminescence imaging (BLI), track cell interactions within the bone fragments using fluorescence microscopy, and evaluate breast cells after colonization with flow cytometry. The key advantages of this model include: 1) a native, architecturally intact tissue microenvironment that includes relevant human cell types, and 2) direct access to the microenvironment, which facilitates rapid quantitative and qualitative monitoring and perturbation of breast and bone cell properties, behaviors and interactions. A primary limitation, at present, is the finite viability of the tissue fragments, which confines the window of study to short-term culture. Applications of the model system include studying the basic biology of breast cancer and other bone-seeking malignancies within the metastatic niche, and developing therapeutic strategies to effectively target breast cancer cells in bone tissues. PMID:25867136

  18. Development and Feasibility Testing of Image-Guided Minimally Invasive Tissue for Diagnosis Treatment of Benign and Malignant Breast Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Stefanie S.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Robert Mah and Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey worked on the development of the NASA Smart Probe in its application as a device to measure and interpret physiologic and image-based parameters of breast tissue. To date the following has been achieved: 1 . Choice of candidate sensors to be tested in breast tissue. 2. Preliminary designs for probe tip, specifically use of different tip shapes, cutting edges, and sensor configuration. 3. Design of sonographic guidance system. 4. Design of data extraction and analysis tool using scanned information of images of the breast tissue to provide a higher dimension of information for breast tissue characterization and interpretation. 5. Initial ex-vivo (fruit and tofu) and in-vivo (rodent) testing to confirm unique substance and tissue characterization by the Smart Probe software.

  19. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Weyker, Paul David; Cohn, Shara; Wheeler, Amanda; Lee, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is not desired. PMID:26229692

  20. Simulation study of diffuse photon density waves traveling through normal and abnormal breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoyuan; Xing, Da

    1999-09-01

    Diffuse Photon Density Waves (DPDW) is new concept and principle, which takes advantage of the difference of absorption and scattering coefficients of different tissues to study the law of photon density fluctuation during a modulated light traveling through the tissues, thus to explore the structure and function of tissues. With the combination of image reconstruction technology, we can directly `visualize' the tissues. As a non- invasive exam, it has highly extensive applied prospect in medical field and brain cognition study. In this paper, the behavior of DPDW traveling through simulated breast tissue is tentatively examined. Under various conditions, we observed the characteristics of DPDW. We observed the reasonability of the distribution of sources and detectors, the factors that influence the distortion of DPDW. Simulation results could be used as a good theoretical guideline for experiments.

  1. Chromogranin-reactive endocrine cells in argyrophilic carcinomas ("carcinoids") and normal tissue of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, G.; Gugliotta, P.; Sapino, A.; Eusebi, V.; Lloyd, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Breast carcinomas, either positive or negative with the Grimelius' silver procedure, benign fibroadenomas, duct papillomas, and areas of histologically normal breast tissue were tested immunocytochemically with the mouse monoclonal antibody LK2H10 directed against human chromogranin. This is regarded as a general stain for polypeptide-hormone-producing cells and tumors. In 3 of the 9 cases of argyrophilic carcinoma, but in none of 12 ductal infiltrating carcinomas, chromogranin-positive cells were found: the number of reactive cells was very low in 1 case, while in the other 2 carcinomas about 50% of the argyrophilic cells appeared stained. In areas of histologically normal breast tissue, rare argyrophilic chromogranin-positive cells were detected. This study is the first reported evidence concerning the presence of endocrinelike cells probably belonging to the diffuse neuroendocrine system in the normal mammary parenchyma. Our data are consistent with the endocrine nature of at least some of the breast argyrophilic carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:4025508

  2. Pedicled Breast Flap for Soft Tissue Coverage of a Forearm Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zuriarrain, Alexander; Brooks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Summary: This article presents the case of a 35-year-old woman who sustained a shotgun blast injury to the left forearm and chest wall causing significant soft tissue loss of the extensor compartment. The patient suffered a Gustilo IIIB open radial shaft fracture requiring orthopedic stabilization and plastic surgery intervention. As a result, the patient eventually was reconstructed with the use of a pedicled breast flap. Because of the patient’s macromastia and her large forearm wound and morbid obesity, an individualized approach was developed such that a breast flap was designed because of its proximity to the upper extremity. The advantage of this type of reconstruction is a more natural contour to the forearm with minimal donor site morbidity. Before creation of the flap, the patient expressed interest in a reduction mammaplasty because of her symptomatic macromastia. Overall, this was a 2-step operation whereby first the breast flap was created, and then a few weeks later, once the arm healed, the reduction mammaplasty was performed. Other types of flaps for upper extremity reconstruction include the rectus abdominis myocutaneous, transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous, vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous, groin, and latissumus dorsi. The pedicled breast flap is an innovative approach to upper extremity soft tissue coverage and can be tailored to the specific needs of patients similar to our case presentation. PMID:27104108

  3. Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tamara L.; Page, David L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    1996-07-01

    The use of near-infrared measurements of photon migration has been recently demonstrated for the detection of breast cancer in Europe. Yet the clinical success of this potential screening tool depends upon consistent detection of the disease at earlier stages than is currently possible with conventional x-ray mammography. In this paper, we present the optical property measurements of 115 histologically classified breast tissue specimens in order to determine whether consistent and significant optical contrast exists for detection of the disease. Our in vitro optical properties measured with a double integrating sphere technique show consistent changes in effective scattering coefficients, (mu) s', with tissue classification of infiltrating carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, mucinous carcinoma, normal fatty, and normal fibrous tissues. However, there is little change in the in vitro tissue absorption coefficient, (mu) a, measured at 749, 789, and 836 nm. For normal and diseased tissue specimens extracted from the same patient, we found differences in optical properties, indicating optical contrast. Using a finite- element prediction of light propagation, we evaluated this optical contrast for photon migration detection of ductal carcinoma in situ tissues using these optical properties measured in vitro.

  4. The fractional viscoelastic response of human breast tissue cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, B.; Babahosseini, H.; Mahmoodi, S. N.; Agah, M.

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical response of a living cell is notoriously complicated. The complex, heterogeneous characteristics of cellular structure introduce difficulties that simple linear models of viscoelasticity cannot overcome, particularly at deep indentation depths. Herein, a nano-scale stress-relaxation analysis performed with an atomic force microscope reveals that isolated human breast cells do not exhibit simple exponential relaxation capable of being modeled by the standard linear solid (SLS) model. Therefore, this work proposes the application of the fractional Zener (FZ) model of viscoelasticity to extract mechanical parameters from the entire relaxation response, improving upon existing physical techniques to probe isolated cells. The FZ model introduces a new parameter that describes the fractional time-derivative dependence of the response. The results show an exceptional increase in conformance to the experimental data compared to that predicted by the SLS model, and the order of the fractional derivative (α) is remarkably homogeneous across the populations, with a median value of 0.48 ± 0.06 for the malignant population and 0.51 ± 0.07 for the benign. The cells’ responses exhibit power-law behavior and complexity not associated with simple relaxation (SLS, α = 1) that supports the application of a fractional model. The distributions of some of the FZ parameters also preserve the distinction between the malignant and benign sample populations seen from the linear model and previous results while including the contribution of fast-relaxation behavior. The resulting viscosity, measured by a composite relaxation time, exhibits considerably less dispersion due to residual error than the distribution generated by the linear model and therefore serves as a more powerful marker for cell differentiation.

  5. Tissue-specific Co-expression of Long Non-coding and Coding RNAs Associated with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenting; Wagner, Erin K.; Hao, Yangyang; Rao, Xi; Dai, Hongji; Han, Jiali; Chen, Jinhui; Storniolo, Anna Maria V.; Liu, Yunlong; He, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Inference of the biological roles of lncRNAs in breast cancer development remains a challenge. Here, we analyzed RNA-seq data in tumor and normal breast tissue samples from 18 breast cancer patients and 18 healthy controls and constructed a functional lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network. We revealed two distinctive co-expression patterns associated with breast cancer, reflecting different underlying regulatory mechanisms: (1) 516 pairs of lncRNA-mRNAs have differential co-expression pattern, in which the correlation between lncRNA and mRNA expression differs in tumor and normal breast tissue; (2) 291 pairs have dose-response co-expression pattern, in which the correlation is similar, but the expression level of lncRNA or mRNA differs in the two tissue types. We further validated our findings in TCGA dataset and annotated lncRNAs using TANRIC. One novel lncRNA, AC145110.1 on 8p12, was found differentially co-expressed with 127 mRNAs (including TOX4 and MAEL) in tumor and normal breast tissue and also highly correlated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. Functional enrichment and pathway analyses identified distinct biological functions for different patterns of co-expression regulations. Our data suggested that lncRNAs might be involved in breast tumorigenesis through the modulation of gene expression in multiple pathologic pathways. PMID:27597120

  6. Tissue-specific Co-expression of Long Non-coding and Coding RNAs Associated with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenting; Wagner, Erin K; Hao, Yangyang; Rao, Xi; Dai, Hongji; Han, Jiali; Chen, Jinhui; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Liu, Yunlong; He, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Inference of the biological roles of lncRNAs in breast cancer development remains a challenge. Here, we analyzed RNA-seq data in tumor and normal breast tissue samples from 18 breast cancer patients and 18 healthy controls and constructed a functional lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network. We revealed two distinctive co-expression patterns associated with breast cancer, reflecting different underlying regulatory mechanisms: (1) 516 pairs of lncRNA-mRNAs have differential co-expression pattern, in which the correlation between lncRNA and mRNA expression differs in tumor and normal breast tissue; (2) 291 pairs have dose-response co-expression pattern, in which the correlation is similar, but the expression level of lncRNA or mRNA differs in the two tissue types. We further validated our findings in TCGA dataset and annotated lncRNAs using TANRIC. One novel lncRNA, AC145110.1 on 8p12, was found differentially co-expressed with 127 mRNAs (including TOX4 and MAEL) in tumor and normal breast tissue and also highly correlated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. Functional enrichment and pathway analyses identified distinct biological functions for different patterns of co-expression regulations. Our data suggested that lncRNAs might be involved in breast tumorigenesis through the modulation of gene expression in multiple pathologic pathways. PMID:27597120

  7. Fatty Acid Composition of Tissue Cultured Breast Carcinoma and the Effect of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Gholamali; Montazeri, Vahid; Darabi, Maryam; Fayezi, Shabnam; Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahmati, Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Mehdizadeh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a novel therapeutic target in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 on fatty acid composition in tissue explant cultures of human breast cancer and to compare these effects with those in adjacent nonneoplastic breast tissue. Methods Paired samples of tumor and adjacent noncancerous tissue were isolated from 12 patients with infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Samples were explant cultured in vitro, exposed to the highly selective SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566, and examined for fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic and antigrowth effects were evaluated by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and by sulforhodamine B (SRB) measurement, respectively. Results Breast cancer tissue samples were found to have higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p<0.001) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, p<0.001) and a lower level of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, p=0.02) than the normal-appearing breast tissues. While exhibiting no evident cytotoxicity, treatment with the SCD1 inhibitor, CAY10566 (0.1-1 µM), for 48 hours significantly increased 18:2n-6 levels in both the tumor and adjacent normal-appearing tissue (approximately 1.2 fold, p<0.05). However, the breast cancer tissue samples showed significant increases in the levels of MUFA and 20:4n-6 compared to the normal-appearing breast tissues (p<0.05). The SRB growth assay revealed a higher rate of inhibition with the SCD1 inhibitor in breast cancer tissues than in normal-appearing tissues (p<0.01, 41% vs. 29%). The SCD1 inhibitor also elevated saturated fatty acid (1.46-fold, p=0.001) levels only in the tumor tissue explant. Conclusion The fatty acid composition and response to SCD1 inhibition differed between the explant cultures from breast cancer and the adjacent normal-appearing tissue. Altered fatty acid composition induced by SCD1 inhibition

  8. Content of low density lipoprotein receptors in breast cancer tissue related to survival of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rudling, M J; Ståhle, L; Peterson, C O; Skoog, L

    1986-01-01

    The content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in tissue from primary breast cancers was determined and its prognostic information compared with that of variables of established prognostic importance. Frozen tumour specimens were selected, and tissue from 72 patients (32 of whom had died) were studied. The LDL receptor content showed an inverse correlation with the survival time. Analysis by a multivariate statistical method showed that the presence of axillary metastasis, content of receptors for oestrogen and LDL, diameter of the tumour, and DNA pattern were all of prognostic value with regard to patient survival. Improved methods of predicting survival time in patients with breast cancer may be of value in the choice of treatment for individual patients. PMID:3081176

  9. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D.; Valley, Jean-François; Verdun, Francis R.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose image quality relationship.

  10. miRNA expression patterns in normal breast tissue and invasive breast cancers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Shoko; Vesuna, Farhad; Raman, Venu; van Diest, Paul J.; van der Groep, Petra

    2015-01-01

    miRNA deregulation has been found to promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about miRNA deregulation in hereditary breast tumors as no miRNA expression profiling studies have been performed in normal breast tissue of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. miRNA profiles of 17 BRCA1- and 9 BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas were analyzed using microarrays. Normal breast tissues from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (both n = 5) and non-mutation carriers (n = 10) were also included. Candidate miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Breast carcinomas showed extensive miRNA alteration compared to normal breast tissues in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Moreover, normal breast tissue from BRCA1 mutation carriers already showed miRNA alterations compared to non-mutation carriers. Chromosomal distribution analysis showed several hotspots containing down- or up-regulated miRNAs. Pathway analysis yielded many similarities between the BRCA1 and BRCA2 axes with miRNAs involved in cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis. Lesser known pathways were also affected, including cellular movement and protein trafficking. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the potential role of miRNA deregulation in BRCA1/2-associated breast carcinogenesis. The observed extensive miRNA deregulation is likely the result of genome-wide effects of chromosomal instability caused by impaired BRCA1 or BRCA2 function. This study's results also suggest the existence of common pathways driving breast carcinogenesis in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers. PMID:26378051

  11. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, J P; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Artacho-Cordón, F; Garde, C; Perez-Carrascosa, F; Linares, I; Tovar, I; González-Alzaga, B; Expósito, J; Torne, P; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends=0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends=0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend=0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends=0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend=0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. PMID:27213669

  12. Quantification of effects of cancer on elastic properties of breast tissue by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ansardamavandi, Arian; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Omidvar, Ramin; Jahanzad, Iisa

    2016-07-01

    Different behaviors of cells such as growth, differentiation and apoptosis widely differ in case of diseases. The mechanical properties of cells and tissues can be used as a clue for diagnosis of pathological conditions. Here, we implemented Atomic Force Microscopy to evaluate the extent of alteration in mechanical stiffness of tissue layers from patients affected by breast cancer and investigated how data can be categorized based on pathological observations. To avoid predefined categories, Fuzzy-logic algorithm as a novel method was used to divide and categorize the derived Young׳s modulus coefficients (E). Such algorithm divides data among groups in such way that data of each group are mostly similar while dissimilar with other groups. The algorithm was run for different number of categories. Results showed that three (followed by two with small difference) groups categorized data best. Three categories were defined as (E<3000Pa, 30007000Pa) among which data were allocated. The first cluster was assumed as the cellular region while the last cluster was referred to the fibrous parts of the tissue. The intermediate region was due to other non-cellular parts. Results indicated 50% decline of average Young׳s modulus of cellular region of cancerous tissues compared to healthy tissues. The average Young׳s modulus of non-cellular area of normal tissues was slightly lower than that of cancerous tissues, although the difference was not statistically different. Through clustering, the measured Young׳s moduli of different locations of cancerous tissues, a quantified approach was developed to analyze changes in elastic modulus of a spectrum of components of breast tissue which can be applied in diagnostic mechanisms of cancer development, since in cancer progression the softening cell body facilitates the migration of cancerous cells through the original tumor and endothelial junctions. PMID:26878463

  13. Mammary tissue microenvironment determines T cell-dependent breast cancer-associated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Nagai, Nao; Ogura, Keisuke; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Irimura, Tatsuro; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Although the importance of the host tissue microenvironment in cancer progression and metastasis has been established, the spatiotemporal process establishing a cancer metastasis-prone tissue microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we aim to understand the immunological character of a metastasis-prone microenvironment in a murine 4T1 breast tumor model, by using the activation of nuclear factor-κb (NF-κB) in cancer cells as a sensor of inflammatory status and by monitoring its activity by bioluminescence imaging. By using a 4T1 breast cancer cell line stably expressing an NF-κB/Luc2 reporter gene (4T1 NF-κB cells), we observed significantly increased bioluminescence approximately 7 days after metastasis-prone orthotopic mammary fat-pad inoculation but not ectopic s.c. inoculation of 4T1 NF-κB cells. Such in vivo NF-κB activation within the fat-pad 4T1 tumor was diminished in immune-deficient SCID or nude mice, or T cell-depleted mice, suggesting the requirement of host T cell-mediated immune responses. Given the fat-pad 4T1 tumor expressed higher inflammatory mediators in a T cell-dependent mechanism compared to the s.c. tumor, our results imply the importance of the surrounding tissue microenvironment for inflaming tumors by collaborating with T cells to instigate metastatic spread of 4T1 breast cancer cells. PMID:25940224

  14. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using μ-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marina Piacenti da; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system (μ-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 μm output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 μm in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  15. Towards an Automated MEMS-based Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissue using Bioimpedance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Chen, Wenjin; Cong, Lei; Zhong, Hua; Foran, David J.; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) are desirable for use within medical diagnostics because of their capacity to manipulate and analyze biological materials at the microscale. Biosensors can be incorporated into portable lab-on-a-chip devices to quickly and reliably perform diagnostics procedure on laboratory and clinical samples. In this paper, electrical impedance-based measurements were used to distinguish between benign and cancerous breast tissues using microchips in a real-time and label-free manner. Two different microchips having inter-digited electrodes (10 µm width with 10 µm spacing and 10 µm width with 30 µm spacing) were used for measuring the impedance of breast tissues. The system employs Agilent E4980A precision impedance analyzer. The impedance magnitude and phase were collected over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 2 MHz. The benign group and cancer group showed clearly distinguishable impedance properties. At 200 kHz, the difference in impedance of benign and cancerous breast tissue was significantly higher (3110 Ω) in the case of microchips having 10 µm spacing compared to microchip having 30 µm spacing (568 Ω). PMID:25013305

  16. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-17

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  17. Normal breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice identifies biomarkers of the effects of human pregnancy levels of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Blance, Rognvald N; Sims, Andrew H; Anderson, Elizabeth; Howell, Anthony; Clarke, Robert B

    2009-03-01

    We have generated a novel model system for the study of estrogen intervention in normal breast tissue. Nulliparous human breast tissue was implanted into immunocompromised nude mice and treated with high-dose estrogen to simulate the effects of pregnancy. Treatment of mice with human mid-pregnancy levels of 17beta-estradiol for a period of 4 weeks was followed by 4 weeks of withdrawal to mimic involution. Gene expression in the xenograft tissue was then analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR to identify differences between treated and control tissues. Ten genes previously identified as altered by pregnancy in rodent models were found to be differentially expressed in human breast tissue with a > or =1.8-fold up-regulation of CDC42, TGFbeta3, DCN, KRT14, LTF, and AREG and a > or =0.7-fold down-regulation of STAT1, CTGF, IGF1, and VAMP1. Immunohistochemical analysis of archival paraffin-embedded adult premenopausal human breast tissue specimens identified a significantly lower level of expression of STAT1 (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) in parous compared with age-matched nulliparous tissue (median of 24% compared with 42% epithelial cells positive). We conclude that many of the pregnancy-induced breast cancer-protective changes observed in rodent models also occur in human breast tissue following intervention using human pregnancy levels of estrogen and that STAT1 expression is a potential biomarker of parity-induced breast cancer protection in the human breast. PMID:19258541

  18. A method to measure the hyperelastic parameters of ex vivo breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Abbas; Plewes, Donald

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in modelling soft tissue deformation. This topic has several biomedical applications ranging from medical imaging to robotic assisted telesurgery. In these applications, tissue deformation can be very large due to low tissue stiffness and lack of physical constraints. As a result, deformation modelling of such organs often requires a treatment, which reflects nonlinear behaviour. While computational techniques such as nonlinear finite element methods are well developed, the required intrinsic nonlinear mechanical parameters of soft tissues that are critical to develop reliable tissue deformation models are not well known. To address this issue, we developed a system to measure the hyperelastic parameters of small ex vivo tissue samples. This measurement technique consists of indenting an unconfined small block of tissue using a computer controlled loading system while measuring the resulting indentation force. The nonlinear tissue force-displacement response is used to calculate the hyperelastic parameters via an appropriate inversion technique. This technique is based on a nonlinear least squares formulation that uses a nonlinear finite element model as the direct problem solver. The features of the system are demonstrated with two samples of breast tissue and typical hyperelastic results are presented.

  19. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  20. Risk factors for mastectomy flap necrosis following immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mlodinow, Alexei S; Fine, Neil A; Khavanin, Nima; Kim, John Y S

    2014-10-01

    Tissue expander placement is a mainstay of reconstructive surgery in the post-mastectomy patient. Necrosis of the native breast tissue is one of the most significant concerns in their post-operative care. The goal of this study is to elucidate factors that confer risk of this outcome. Chart review was conducted for a consecutive series of immediate tissue expander reconstructions by the two senior authors. Data was collected for several preoperative and intraoperative variables, as well as the outcome of mastectomy flap necrosis. Of the 1566 breasts that were examined, 135 (8.6%) experienced flap necrosis. The cohorts with and without flap necrosis were well matched. Those with the outcome of interest had significantly higher rates of switching to an autologous method of reconstruction (31.9% vs 6.2%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed smoking status, increased age, tumescent mastectomy technique, and high (>66.67%) intraoperative tissue expander fill to confer increased risk of mastectomy flap necrosis. While smoking and older age are well-supported by the literature, tumescent technique and tissue expander fill are more novel points of discussion, which may serve as proxies for other issues. Awareness of these risk factors and their interplay will aid in clinical judgement and postoperative care of these patients. PMID:24495186

  1. Stem cells from adipose tissue and breast cancer: hype, risks and hope

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, F; Petit, J-Y; Kolonin, M G

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have generated new hope about the use of white adipose tissue (WAT)-derived progenitor cells for soft tissue reconstruction in a variety of diseases including breast cancer (BC), a procedure that is increasingly used worldwide. We revised the available literature about WAT cells and BC. In the BC field, we believe that the hype for the exciting results in terms of WAT progenitor cell engraftment and tissue augmentation should be tempered when considering the recent and abundant preclinical studies, indicating that WAT progenitors may promote BC growth and metastasis. White adipose tissue progenitors can contribute to tumour vessels, pericytes and adipocytes, and were found to stimulate local and metastatic BC progression in several murine models. Moreover, there are clinical retrospective data showing a significant increase in the local recurrence frequency in patients with intraepithelial neoplasia who received a lipofilling procedure for breast reconstruction compared with controls. Retrospective and prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate in depth the safety of this procedure in BC. Preclinical models should be used to find mechanisms able to inhibit the tumour-promoting activity of WAT progenitors while sparing their tissue reconstruction potential. PMID:25584493

  2. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction in patients with macromastia using the Passot breast reduction pattern.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Brian; Thornton, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate tissue expander reconstruction poses a challenge in the patient with macromastia or excessive ptosis. Skin reduction via the Wise pattern has been described but is associated with high rates of skin necrosis. The study group consisted of 43 women with grade 2 or 3 ptosis who underwent SSM and immediate reconstruction with tissue expanders, using the Passot (horizontal) skin reduction pattern. Age ranged from 31 to 67 years (mean, 51 years). The endpoints measured were time to final expansion, mastectomy skin flap necrosis, infectious complications, and total complications. Thirty reconstructions were bilateral and 13 were unilateral (73 breasts total). Follow-up ranged from 6 to 55 months (mean, 20). Common comorbid conditions included hypertension (n = 16), obesity (n = 22), and smoking (n = 9). The mean body mass index was 30.6 (range, 19.4-58.6). Twenty-one patients underwent chemotherapy; 12 received radiation. The mean initial fill was 196 mL (range, 0-420 mL), and the mean time to final expansion was 84 days (range, 28-225 days). Five patients did not complete the reconstruction, 2 because of cancer recurrence and 3 because of infection. There were 3 cases of mastectomy flap necrosis occurring after tissue expander placement (7%). There were 7 infectious complications (16%). The use of a horizontal breast reduction pattern at the time of expander placement produces consistently good esthetic outcomes and a low rate of skin necrosis, and it should be considered as an option in patients with macromastia or ptosis undergoing SSM and immediate reconstruction. PMID:24835873

  3. Estimation and imaging of breast lesions using a two-layer tissue structure by ultrasound-guided optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2015-06-01

    A new two-step estimation and imaging method is developed for a two-layer breast tissue structure consisting of a breast tissue layer and a chest wall underneath. First, a smaller probe with shorter distance source-detector pairs was used to collect the reflected light mainly from the breast tissue layer. Then, a larger probe with 9×14 source-detector pairs and a centrally located ultrasound transducer was used to collect reflected light from the two-layer tissue structure. The data collected from the smaller probe were used to estimate breast tissue optical properties. With more accurate estimation of the average breast tissue properties, the second layer properties can be assessed from data obtained from the larger probe. Using this approach, the unknown variables have been reduced from four to two and the estimated bulk tissue optical properties are more accurate and robust. In addition, a two-step reconstruction using a genetic algorithm and conjugate gradient method is implemented to simultaneously reconstruct the absorption and reduced scattering maps of targets inside a two-layer tissue structure. Simulations and phantom experiments have been performed to validate the new reconstruction method, and a clinical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Estimation and imaging of breast lesions using a two-layer tissue structure by ultrasound-guided optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A new two-step estimation and imaging method is developed for a two-layer breast tissue structure consisting of a breast tissue layer and a chest wall underneath. First, a smaller probe with shorter distance source-detector pairs was used to collect the reflected light mainly from the breast tissue layer. Then, a larger probe with 9×14 source-detector pairs and a centrally located ultrasound transducer was used to collect reflected light from the two-layer tissue structure. The data collected from the smaller probe were used to estimate breast tissue optical properties. With more accurate estimation of the average breast tissue properties, the second layer properties can be assessed from data obtained from the larger probe. Using this approach, the unknown variables have been reduced from four to two and the estimated bulk tissue optical properties are more accurate and robust. In addition, a two-step reconstruction using a genetic algorithm and conjugate gradient method is implemented to simultaneously reconstruct the absorption and reduced scattering maps of targets inside a two-layer tissue structure. Simulations and phantom experiments have been performed to validate the new reconstruction method, and a clinical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:26046722

  5. Highly homologous hS100A15 and hS100A7 proteins are distinctly expressed in normal breast tissue and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ronald; Voscopoulos, Christopher; Winston, Jason; Dharamsi, Alif; Goldsmith, Paul; Gunsior, Michele; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Olson, Melanie; Watson, Peter H.; Yuspa, Stuart H.

    2009-01-01

    Human S100A7 (psoriasin) is considered a marker for specific stages of breast cancer. hS100A15 is almost identical to hS100A7 and difficult to discriminate. We developed specific probes to distinguish hS100A7 and hS100A15, and demonstrate their differential distribution in normal breast tissue. Further, hS100A7 and S100A15 transcripts are elevated in ER/PR negative breast cancers, but hS100A15 protein is detected in all cancer specimens while hS100A7 protein is sporadically expressed. The differential regulation, expression and distribution of hS100A7 and hS100A15 and their reported distinct functions are compelling reasons to discriminate among these proteins in normal breast and breast cancers. PMID:19136201

  6. Beyond the C18 frontier: Androgen and glucocorticoid metabolism in breast cancer tissues: The role of non-typical steroid hormones in breast cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Keely May; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer's hormonal dependence is well known and has been so for a long time. However in the last two decades great advances have been made in understanding the local metabolism of steroids within tissue. In the form of aromatase inhibition this is already one of the mainstays of breast cancer therapy. This review aims to summarise briefly what is known in terms of the metabolism of C18 steroids but perhaps more importantly to touch on the new developments regarding the importance of the metabolism of androgens and glucocorticoids in breast tissue. It is our hope that this review should provide the reader with a "birds eye view" of the current state of knowledge regarding localised steroid metabolism in the breast. PMID:26057662

  7. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. On recognising its occurrence, the dentist can refer to a specialist for thorough investigation management. A dentist can play a vital role in encouraging and counselling the parents for the correction of such defects as it improves the aesthetics of the face. Usually, children with these defects are often targets of teasing by peers. PMID:23761605

  8. Localization of BRCA1 protein in breast cancer tissue and cell lines with mutations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1) encodes a tumor suppressor. The BRCA1 protein is found primarily in cell nuclei and plays an important role in the DNA damage response and transcriptional regulation. Deficiencies in DNA repair capabilities have been associated with higher histopathological grade and worse prognosis in breast cancer. Methods In order to investigate the subcellular distribution of BRCA1 in tumor tissue we randomly selected 22 breast carcinomas and tested BRCA1 protein localization in frozen and contiguous formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue, using pressure cooker antigen-retrieval and the MS110 antibody staining. To assess the impact of BRCA1 germline mutations on protein localization, we retrospectively tested 16 of the tumor specimens to determine whether they contained the common Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutations in BRCA1 (185delAG, 5382insC), and BRCA2 (6174delT). We also compared co-localization of BRCA1 and nucleolin in MCF7 cells (wild type) and a mutant BRCA1 cell line, HCC1937 (5382insC). Results In FFPE tissue, with MS110 antibody staining, we frequently found reduced BRCA1 nuclear staining in breast tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, and less BRCA1 staining with higher histological grade in the tumors. However, in the frozen sections, BRCA1 antibody staining showed punctate, intra-nuclear granules in varying numbers of tumor, lactating, and normal cells. Two mutation carriers were identified and were confirmed by gene sequencing. We have also compared co-localization of BRCA1 and nucleolin in MCF7 cells (wild type) and a mutant BRCA1 cell line, HCC1937 (5382insC) and found altered sub-nuclear and nucleolar localization patterns consistent with a functional impact of the mutation on protein localization. Conclusions The data presented here support a role for BRCA1 in the pathogenesis of sporadic and inherited breast cancers. The use of well-characterized reagents may lead to further

  9. Classification of breast tissue density by optical transillumination spectroscopy: optical and physiological effects governing predictive value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle K.; Jong, Roberta A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-12-01

    Preventive oncology is in need of a risk assessment technique that can identify individuals at high risk for breast cancer and that has the ability to monitor the efficacy of a risk reducing intervention. Optical transillumination spectroscopy (OTS) was shown to give information about breast tissue composition and tissue density. OTS is non-invasive, and in contrast to mammography, uses non-ionizing radiation. It is safe and can be used frequently on younger women, potentially permitting early risk detection and thus increasing the time available for risk reduction interventions to assert their influence. Before OTS can be used as a risk assessment and/or monitoring technique, its predictive ability needs to be demonstrated and maximized through the construction of mathematical models relating OTS and risk. To establish a correlation between OTS and mammographic density, Principle Components Analysis (PCA), using risk classification, is employed. PCA scores are presented in 3D cluster plots and a plane of differentiation that separates high and low tissue density is used to calculate the predictive value. Stratificaiton of PCA for measurement position on the breast in cranial-caudal projection is introduced. Analysis of PCA scores as a function of the volunteer's age and body mass index (BMI) is examined. A small but significant correlation between the component scores and age or BMI is noted but the correlation is dependnet on the tissue density category examined. Correction of the component scores for age and BMI is not recommended, since a priori knowledge of a women's tissue density is required. Stratification for the center and distal measurement positions provides a predictive value for OTS above 96%.

  10. Histologic Characterization of Acellular Dermal Matrices in a Porcine Model of Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Christopher A.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Reing, Janet E.; Kramer, Caroline R.; Gagne, Darcy H.; Crapo, Peter M.; Garcia, Onelio; Badhwar, Amit; Scott, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) have been commonly used in expander-based breast reconstruction to provide inferolateral prosthesis coverage. Although the clinical performance of these biologic scaffold materials varies depending on a number of factors, an in-depth systematic characterization of the host response is yet to be performed. The present study evaluates the biochemical composition and structure of two ADMs, AlloDerm® Regenerative Tissue Matrix and AlloMax™ Surgical Graft, and provides a comprehensive spatiotemporal characterization in a porcine model of tissue expander breast reconstruction. Methods: Each ADM was characterized with regard to thickness, permeability, donor nucleic acid content, (residual double-stranded DNA [dsDNA]), and growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], and transforming growth factor-beta 1 [TGF-β1]). Cytocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro cell culture on the ADMs. The host response was evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks at various locations within the ADMs using established metrics of the inflammatory and tissue remodeling response: cell infiltration, multinucleate giant cell formation, extent of ADM remodeling, and neovascularization. Results: AlloMax incorporated more readily with surrounding host tissue as measured by earlier and greater cell infiltration, fewer foreign body giant cells, and faster remodeling of ADM. These findings correlated with the in vitro composition and cytocompatibility analysis, which showed AlloMax to more readily support in vitro cell growth. Conclusions: AlloMax and AlloDerm demonstrated distinct remodeling characteristics in a porcine model of tissue expander breast reconstruction. PMID:24941900

  11. Reconstruction of Absorbed Doses to Fibroglandular Tissue of the Breast of Women undergoing Mammography (1960 to the Present)

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Linet, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of potential benefits versus harms from mammographic examinations as described in the controversial breast cancer screening recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Task Force included limited consideration of absorbed dose to the fibroglandular tissue of the breast (glandular tissue dose), the tissue at risk for breast cancer. Epidemiological studies on cancer risks associated with diagnostic radiological examinations often lack accurate information on glandular tissue dose, and there is a clear need for better estimates of these doses. Our objective was to develop a quantitative summary of glandular tissue doses from mammography by considering sources of variation over time in key parameters including imaging protocols, x-ray target materials, voltage, filtration, incident air kerma, compressed breast thickness, and breast composition. We estimated the minimum, maximum, and mean values for glandular tissue dose for populations of exposed women within 5-year periods from 1960 to the present, with the minimum to maximum range likely including 90% to 95% of the entirety of the dose range from mammography in North America and Europe. Glandular tissue dose from a single view in mammography is presently about 2 mGy, about one-sixth the dose in the 1960s. The ratio of our estimates of maximum to minimum glandular tissue doses for average-size breasts was about 100 in the 1960s compared to a ratio of about 5 in recent years. Findings from our analysis provide quantitative information on glandular tissue doses from mammographic examinations which can be used in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. PMID:21988547

  12. Theoretical versus Ex Vivo Assessment of Radiation Damage Repair: An Investigation in Normal Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Martin A; Dhal, Bipina; Prunster, Janelle; McLaren, Sally; Zeps, Nikolajs; House, Michael; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank; Corica, Tammy; Saunders, Christobel; Joseph, David J

    2016-04-01

    In vivo validation of models of DNA damage repair will enable their use for optimizing clinical radiotherapy. In this study, a theoretical assessment was made of DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction in normal breast tissue after intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), which is now an accepted form of adjuvant radiotherapy for selected patients with early breast cancer. DSB rates and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were calculated as a function of dose, radiation quality and dose rate, each varying based on the applicator size used during IORT. The spectra of primary electrons in breast tissue adjacent to each applicator were calculated using measured X-ray spectra and Monte Carlo methods, and were used to inform a Monte Carlo damage simulation code. In the absence of repair, asymptotic RBE values (relative to (60)Co) were approximately 1.5. Beam-quality changes led to only minor variations in RBE among applicators, though differences in dose rate and overall dose delivery time led to larger variations and a rapid decrease in RBE. An experimental assessment of DSB induction was performed ex vivo using pre- and postirradiation tissue samples from patients receiving breast intraoperative radiation therapy. Relative DSB rates were assessed via γ-H2AX immunohistochemistry using proportional staining. Maximum-likelihood parameter estimation yielded a DSB repair halftime of 25.9 min (95% CI, 21.5-30.4 min), although the resulting model was not statistically distinguishable from one where there was no change in DSB yield among patients. Although the model yielded an in vivo repair halftime of the order of previous estimates for in vitro repair halftimes, we cannot conclude that it is valid in this context. This study highlights some of the uncertainties inherent in population analysis of ex vivo samples, and of the quantitative limitations of immunohistochemistry for assessment of DSB repair. PMID:27023258

  13. Breast Tissue Composition and Its Dependence on Demographic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: Non-Invasive Assessment by Time Domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause). Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure. Methods Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm) on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content), blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level), and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power). The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated. Results Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4), while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content) remain significantly different. Conclusions Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc.) and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk

  14. Roles of biologic breast tissue composition and quantitative image analysis of mammographic images in breast tumor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.; Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Christopher I.; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    Purpose. Investigate whether knowledge of the biologic image composition of mammographic lesions provides imagebased biomarkers above and beyond those obtainable from quantitative image analysis (QIA) of X-ray mammography. Methods. The dataset consisted of 45 in vivo breast lesions imaged with the novel 3-component breast (3CB) imaging technique based on dual-energy mammography (15 malignant, 30 benign diagnoses). The 3CB composition measures of water, lipid, and protein thicknesses were assessed and mathematical descriptors, `3CB features', were obtained for the lesions and their periphery. The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method obtaining `QIA features' describing morphology and texture. We investigated the correlation within the `3CB features', within the `QIA features', and between the two. In addition, the merit of individual features in the distinction between malignant and benign lesions was assessed. Results. Whereas many descriptors within the `3CB features' and `QIA features' were, often by design, highly correlated, correlation between descriptors of the two feature groups was much weaker (maximum absolute correlation coefficient 0.58, p<0.001) indicating that 3CB and QIA-based biomarkers provided potentially complementary information. Single descriptors from 3CB and QIA appeared equally well-suited for the distinction between malignant and benign lesions, with maximum area under the ROC curve 0.71 for a protein feature (3CB) and 0.71 for a texture feature (QIA). Conclusions. In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of breast tissue composition appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions.

  15. Dynamic infrared imaging in identification of breast cancer tissue with combined image processing and frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Soimakallio, S; Järvenpää, R; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Dastidar, P

    2008-01-01

    Five combinations of image-processing algorithms were applied to dynamic infrared (IR) images of six breast cancer patients preoperatively to establish optimal enhancement of cancer tissue before frequency analysis. mid-wave photovoltaic (PV) IR cameras with 320x254 and 640x512 pixels were used. The signal-to-noise ratio and the specificity for breast cancer were evaluated with the image-processing combinations from the image series of each patient. Before image processing and frequency analysis the effect of patient movement was minimized with a stabilization program developed and tested in the study by stabilizing image slices using surface markers set as measurement points on the skin of the imaged breast. A mathematical equation for superiority value was developed for comparison of the key ratios of the image-processing combinations. The ability of each combination to locate the mammography finding of breast cancer in each patient was compared. Our results show that data collected with a 640x512-pixel mid-wave PV camera applying image-processing methods optimizing signal-to-noise ratio, morphological image processing and linear image restoration before frequency analysis possess the greatest superiority value, showing the cancer area most clearly also in the match centre of the mammography estimation. PMID:18666012

  16. In vivo quantitative imaging of normal and cancerous breast tissue using broadband diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Jiang, Shudong; Li, Zhongze; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M.; Barth, Richard J.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A NIR tomography system that combines frequency domain (FD) and continuous wave (CW) measurements was used to image normal and malignant breast tissues. Methods: FD acquisitions were confined to wavelengths less than 850 nm because of detector limitations, whereas light from longer wavelengths (up to 948 nm) was measured in CW mode with CCD-coupled spectrometer detection. The two data sets were combined and processed in a single spectrally constrained reconstruction to map concentrations of hemoglobin, water, and lipid, as well as scattering parameters in the breast. Results: Chromophore concentrations were imaged in the breasts of nine asymptomatic volunteers to evaluate their intrasubject and intersubject variability. Normal subject data showed physiologically expected trends. Images from three cancer patients indicate that the added CW data is critical to recovering the expected increases in water and decreases in lipid content within malignancies. Contrasts of 1.5 to twofold in hemoglobin and water values were found in cancers. Conclusions:In vivo breast imaging with instrumentation that combines FD and CW NIR data acquisition in a single spectral reconstruction produces more accurate hemoglobin, water, and lipid results relative to FD data alone. PMID:20831079

  17. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative. PMID:24411673

  18. A Case of Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma with Multiple Metastasis to the Soft Tissue, Skeletal Muscle, Lung and Breast

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Dae Cheol; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk Chan; Kim, Jae Seok

    2006-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is composed of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells and dense connective tissue. BML affects middle-aged women who have had previous hysterectomies due to a histologically benign-appearing uterine leiomyoma. We report here on a case of BML from the uterine leiomyoma in a 39-year-old woman that involved the soft tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs and breasts. She underwent a hysterectomy for the uterine leiomyoma, double oophorectomy for hormonal ablation and lung wedge resection to confirm the diagnosis. The microscopic findings of the breast and lung tumor were similar to those of the benign uterine leiomyoma. Therefore, we consider that these lesions were breast and pulmonary metastases of the uterine leiomyoma. We report here on a rare case of benign metastasizing uterine leiomyoma that involved the soft tissue, skeletal muscles, lungs and breasts, and we include a review of the relevant literature. PMID:17017672

  19. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (<μs‧>), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between <μs‧> and % collagen and a negative correlation between <μs‧> and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased <μs‧> variability. In postmenopausal women, <μs‧> was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to <μs‧> were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to <μs‧> in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  20. Tissue Expander Overfilling: Achieving New Dimensions of Customization in Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Treiser, Matthew D.; Lahair, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Overfill of tissue expanders is a commonly used modality to achieve customized dimensions in breast reconstruction. Little formal study of the dynamics of hyperexpansion of these devices has been performed to date, however. Methods: Overfill trials were performed using both Natrelle 133 MV and Mentor 8200 tissue expanders of indicated capacities ranging from 250 to 800 mL. Each expander was initially filled to its indicated capacity with normal water and then injected in regular increments to 400% overfill. Measurements of each expander’s width, height, and projection were made at indicated capacity and with each successive incremental overfill injection, and these results were then recorded, collated, and analyzed. Results: Over the first 50% overfill, all expanders demonstrated a logarithmic increase in projection (mean increase, 143 ± 9%) while maintaining essentially stable base dimensions. Overfill levels in excess of 50% were accompanied by linear increases in height, width, and projection, during which projection approached, but never equaled, base dimensions. Stress versus strain analyses demonstrated nonlinear biomechanical dynamics during the first 50% overfill, followed by standard elastic dynamics up to 400% overfill. At no point during the study, did expander tensions outstrip elastic properties, thereby explaining the lack of device rupture. Conclusions: Through overfilling, tunable geometries of tissue expanders can be accessed that may provide for increasing customization of reconstructions, particularly at overfill volumes up to 50% over indicated capacity. This study should serve to guide tissue expander selection and fill volumes that surgeons may implement in obtaining ideal reconstructed breast shapes. PMID:27014541

  1. Extremely rare presentation of soft tissue metastasis from carcinoma breast as a massive swelling of upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Soft tissue metastasis from any primary malignancy is considered very rare and a breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissue is still rarer. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma breast with soft tissue metastasis to upper extremity is very uncommon with only six cases been reported in world literature till date and our case is the seventh such case in an 80-year-old female, previously treated for carcinoma right breast 15 years ago. The patient presented with progressive painful massive swelling of right upper arm measuring 21 cm × 17 cm, of 2 months duration. Histopathological examination of the swelling showed metastatic deposits from a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed tumor cells staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors while negative for HER 2-Nu, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, CK7 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), suggestive of metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Only few case series and isolated cases reports have been published regarding any primary malignancy or breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissues. A thorough review of literature also reveals that our case is the largest soft tissue metastatic swelling from breast carcinoma ever reported. We hereby present this case with review of literature to highlight its extreme rarity, unusual presentation, clinicopathological characteristics and its overall prognosis. PMID:27121743

  2. IL-6 originated from breast cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells may contribute to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Ünal, Zehra Seda; Subaşı, Cansu; Ulukaya, Engin; Karaöz, Erdal

    2015-07-01

    Tumor microenvironment is an important factor, which sustains and promotes the tumors by inflammatory signals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known as a multifunctional cytokine, which is a major activator of the signaling pathway of Janus kinases (JAKs)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of IL-6 in the tumor microenvironment on carcinogenesis. For this purpose, healthy breast tissue-derived stromal cells (HBT-SCs) and malign breast tissue-derived stromal cells (MBT-SCs) were co-cultured with MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) cells using semipermeable membranes. The cell proliferation was monitored with water-soluble tetrazolium (WST) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) assays. Protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot hybridization, while gene expressions were measured by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that IL-6 protein levels increased significantly in the supernatants of MBT-SCs when they were co-cultured with MCF-7 cells. In accordance with this, the expression of IL-6 was significantly higher in MBT-SCs. Additionally, the expression of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells increased slightly when they were co-cultured with MBT-SCs. Considering together, there is an important interaction between tumor microenvironment and tumor cells mediated by IL-6 signaling. Thereby, the targeting on IL-6 signaling in the treatment of cancer might effectively prevent the tumor progression. PMID:25697898

  3. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian; Christos, Paul J.; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC {>=}0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r{>=} 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  4. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  5. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of −11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:23718593

  6. Effects of Different Tissue Microenvironments on Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Gaelle; Abedinpour, Parisa; Desai, Prerak; Baron, Veronique T.; Borgstrom, Per; Welsh, John

    2014-01-01

    In metastasis, circulating tumor cells penetrate the walls of blood vessels and enter the metastatic target tissue, thereby becoming exposed to novel and relatively unsupportive microenvironments. In the new microenvironments, the tumor cells often remain in a dormant state indefinitely and must adapt before they are able to successfully colonize the tissue. Very little is known about this adaptive process. We studied temporal changes in gene expression when breast cancer cells adapt to survive and grow on brain, bone marrow, and lung tissue maintained in an in vivo culture system, as models of the metastatic colonization of these tissues. We observed the transient activation of genes typically associated with homeostasis and stress during the initial stages of adaptation, followed by the activation of genes that mediate more advanced functions, such as elaboration of cell morphology and cell division, as the cells adapted to thrive in the host tissue microenvironment. We also observed the temporary induction of genes characteristic of the host tissue, which was particularly evident when tumor cells were grown on brain tissue. These early transient gene expression events suggest potential points of therapeutic intervention that are not evident in data from well-established tumors. PMID:25004123

  7. Tissue polypeptide antigen in tumor cytosol: a new prognostic indicator in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gion, M; Mione, R; Gatti, C; Dittadi, R; Leon, A; Castiglioni, C; Nascimben, O; Bruscagnin, G

    1990-11-01

    The assessment of the risk of relapse is a critical need in the management strategy of breast cancer patients. To date, the most reliable prognostic factor is axillary nodal status. Several other pathological and biological parameters are currently under evaluation. Since 1982 we have been studying the prognostic role of several tumor markers in breast cancer cytosol. Elevated cytosol concentrations of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) have been found to have a highly significant direct correlation with both prolonged relapse-free interval (RFI) and higher survival rate. The information provided by cytosol TPA was independent of both axillary nodal status and steroid receptor content. In patients with a low risk of relapse (no axillary metastases, estrogen and progesterone receptor positive), cytosol TPA was still a significant prognostic indicator. PMID:1965704

  8. Optical-thermal light-tissue interactions during photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Taylor; Wang, Quanzeng; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Light-tissue interactions during photoacoustic imaging, including dynamic heat transfer processes in and around vascular structures, are not well established. A three-dimensional, transient, optical-thermal computational model was used to simulate energy deposition, temperature distributions and thermal damage in breast tissue during exposure to pulsed laser trains at 800 and 1064 nm. Rapid and repetitive temperature increases and thermal relaxation led to superpositioning effects that were highly dependent on vessel diameter and depth. For a ten second exposure at established safety limits, the maximum single-pulse and total temperature rise levels were 0.2°C and 5.8°C, respectively. No significant thermal damage was predicted. The impact of tissue optical properties, surface boundary condition and irradiation wavelength on peak temperature location and temperature evolution with time are discussed. PMID:24688817

  9. Postoperative Expansion is not a Primary Cause of Infection in Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expanders.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Tomer; Weichman, Katie E; Wilson, Stelios; Weinstein, Andrew; Haddock, Nicholas T; Szpalski, Caroline; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative infection is the most common and dreaded complication associated with tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction. Historically, the expansion period was thought to be the time of greatest hazard to the implant. However, recent institutional observations suggest infectious complications occur prior to expansion. This investigation, therefore, was conducted to determine the timing of infectious complications associated with two-stage TE breast reconstructions. Following IRB approval, a retrospective review of all consecutive two-stage immediate TE breast reconstructions at a single institution from November 2007 to November 2011 was conducted. Reconstructions were then divided into two cohorts: those suffering infectious complications and those that did not. Infectious complications including minor cellulitis, major cellulitis, abscess drainage, and explantation were identified. Various operative and patient variables were evaluated in comparison. Eight hundred ninety immediate two-stage TE breast reconstructions met inclusion criteria. Patients suffering infection were older (55.4 years versus 49.3 years; p < 0.001), and more likely to have therapeutic mastectomy (94% versus 61%; p < 0.0001), the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM; 72.5% versus 54.9%; p = 0.001), and greater initial TE fill (448.6 mL versus 404.7 mL; p = 0.0078). The average time to developing of infectious symptoms was 29.6 days (range 9-142 days), with 94.6% (n = 87) of infections prior to the start of expansion. Perioperative infections in immediate two-stage TE to implant breast reconstructions are significant and occur mostly prior to the start of expansion. Thus, challenging the conventional wisdom that instrumentation during expander filling as the primary cause of implant infections. Possible etiologic factors include greater age, therapeutic mastectomy versus prophylactic mastectomy, larger initial TE fill, and the use of ADM. PMID:26132336

  10. Assessment of Automated Image Analysis of Breast Cancer Tissue Microarrays for Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Kelly L.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Duggan, Máire A.; Howat, William J.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Cornelison, Robert; Anzick, Sarah L.; Meltzer, Paul; Davis, Sean; Lenz, Petra; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in studies of etiologic heterogeneity in breast cancer has been the limited throughput, accuracy and reproducibility of measuring tissue markers. Computerized image analysis systems may help address these concerns but published reports of their use are limited. We assessed agreement between automated and pathologist scores of a diverse set of immunohistochemical (IHC) assays performed on breast cancer TMAs. TMAs of 440 breast cancers previously stained for ER-α, PR, HER-2, ER-β and aromatase were independently scored by two pathologists and three automated systems (TMALabII, TMAx, Ariol). Agreement between automated and pathologist scores of negative/positive was measured using the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and weighted kappa statistics (κ) for categorical scores. We also investigated the correlation between IHC scores and mRNA expression levels. Agreement between pathologist and automated negative/positive and categorical scores was excellent for ER-α and PR (AUC range =0.98-0.99; κ range =0.86-0.91). Lower levels of agreement were seen for ER-β categorical scores (AUC=0.99-1.0; κ=0.80-0.86) and both negative/positive and categorical scores for aromatase (AUC=0.85-0.96; κ=0.41-0.67) and HER2 (AUC=0.94-0.97; κ=0.53-0.72). For ER-α and PR, there was strong correlation between mRNA levels and automated (ρ=0.67-0.74) and pathologist IHC scores (ρ=0.67-0.77). HER2 mRNA levels were more strongly correlated with pathologist (ρ=0.63) than automated IHC scores (ρ=0.41-0.49). Automated analysis of IHC markers is a promising approach for scoring large numbers of breast cancer tissues in epidemiologic investigations. This would facilitate studies of etiologic heterogeneity which ultimately may allow improved risk prediction and better prevention approaches. PMID:20332278

  11. Metastatic breast cancer patients: attitudes toward tissue donation for rapid autopsy.

    PubMed

    Achkar, Tala; Wilson, John; Simon, Jacqueline; Rosenzweig, Margaret; Puhalla, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Rapid autopsy (RA) offers a unique opportunity to obtain a large amount of metastatic tissue at death in order to deepen existing understanding of cancer evolution and heterogeneity. In breast cancer, understanding metastasis is particularly valuable given that treatment regimens are based on the traditional hormone and HER2 receptor status as well as evolving genomic data of the primary tumor. We aimed to elucidate the attitudes and interests of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) toward RA, and to identify associated demographic or disease characteristics that may influence patient attitudes and interest. Ninety-seven patients with MBC were surveyed over the course of 12 months at a large, urban comprehensive cancer center's breast cancer outpatient clinic. 93/97 patients completed the survey sufficiently to be included in the analysis. Fisher's exact test was employed for categorical variables, and t test and rank-sum tests for continuous variables. p values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 93 patients with MBC analyzed, 87 % were willing to donate tissue at death. Marital status and younger age were associated with willingness to donate (p = 0.000, p = 0.025, respectively). Race, employment status, religion/spirituality, and cancer subtype were not associated with likelihood of donating. Forty-five percent of patients felt that doctors should ask about RA at diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer rather than during late-stage disease. These data provide evidence that an RA program would be welcomed by patients and requires initiative by providers. PMID:26705147

  12. Estimation of the content of fat and parenchyma in breast tissue using MRI T1 histograms and phantoms.

    PubMed

    Boston, Raymond C; Schnall, Mitchell D; Englander, Sarah A; Landis, J Richard; Moate, Peter J

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic breast density has been correlated with breast cancer risk. Estimation of the volumetric composition of breast tissue using three-dimensional MRI has been proposed, but accuracy depends upon the estimation methods employed. The use of segmentation based on T1 relaxation rates allows quantitative estimates of fat and parenchyma volume, but is limited by partial volume effects. An investigation employing phantom breast tissue composed of various combinations of chicken breast (to represent parenchyma) and cooking fats was carried out to elucidate the factors that influence MRI T1 histograms. Using the phantoms, T1 histograms and their known fat and parenchyma composition, a logistic distribution function was derived to describe the apportioning of the T1 histogram to fat and parenchyma. This function and T1 histograms were then used to predict the fat and parenchyma content of breasts from 14 women. Using this method, the composition of the breast tissue in the study population was as follows: fat 69.9+/-22.9% and parenchyma 30.1+/-22.9%. PMID:15919606

  13. Automated classification of immunostaining patterns in breast tissue from the human protein atlas

    PubMed Central

    Swamidoss, Issac Niwas; Kårsnäs, Andreas; Uhlmann, Virginie; Ponnusamy, Palanisamy; Kampf, Caroline; Simonsson, Martin; Wählby, Carolina; Strand, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) is an effort to map the location of all human proteins (http://www.proteinatlas.org/). It contains a large number of histological images of sections from human tissue. Tissue micro arrays (TMA) are imaged by a slide scanning microscope, and each image represents a thin slice of a tissue core with a dark brown antibody specific stain and a blue counter stain. When generating antibodies for protein profiling of the human proteome, an important step in the quality control is to compare staining patterns of different antibodies directed towards the same protein. This comparison is an ultimate control that the antibody recognizes the right protein. In this paper, we propose and evaluate different approaches for classifying sub-cellular antibody staining patterns in breast tissue samples. Materials and Methods: The proposed methods include the computation of various features including gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, complex wavelet co-occurrence matrix (CWCM) features, and weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM)-inspired features. The extracted features are used into two different multivariate classifiers (support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier). Before extracting features, we use color deconvolution to separate different tissue components, such as the brownly stained positive regions and the blue cellular regions, in the immuno-stained TMA images of breast tissue. Results: We present classification results based on combinations of feature measurements. The proposed complex wavelet features and the WND-CHARM features have accuracy similar to that of a human expert. Conclusions: Both human experts and the proposed automated methods have difficulties discriminating between nuclear and cytoplasmic staining patterns. This is to a large extent due to mixed staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. Methods for quantification

  14. Amount of stroma is associated with mammographic density and stromal expression of oestrogen receptor in normal breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Chiesa, Flaminia; Paulsson, Janna; Strell, Carina; Behmer, Catharina; Rönnow, Katarina; Czene, Kamila; Östman, Arne; Hall, Per

    2016-07-01

    Following female sex and age, mammographic density is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Despite the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk, little is known about the underlying histology and biological basis of breast density. To better understand the mechanisms behind mammographic density we assessed morphology, proliferation and hormone receptor status in relation to mammographic density in breast tissues from healthy women. Tissues were obtained from 2012-2013 by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy from 160 women as part of the Karma (Karolinska mammography project for risk prediction for breast cancer) project. Mammograms were collected through routine mammography screening and mammographic density was calculated using STRATUS. The histological composition, epithelial and stromal proliferation status and hormone receptor status were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Higher mammographic density was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stromal and epithelial tissue and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial expression levels of Ki-67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were not associated with mammographic density. Epithelial Ki-67 was associated with a greater proportion of epithelial tissue, and epithelial PR was associated with a greater proportion of stromal and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial ER was not associated with any tissues. In contrast, expression of ER in the stroma was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stroma, and negatively associated with the amount of adipose tissue. High mammographic density is associated with higher amount of stroma and epithelium and less amount of fat, but is not associated with a change in epithelial proliferation or receptor status. Increased expressions of both epithelial PR and stromal ER are associated with a greater proportion of stroma, suggesting hormonal involvement

  15. Tumor-induced inflammation in mammary adipose tissue stimulates a vicious cycle of autotaxin expression and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Tang, Xiaoyun; Dewald, Jay; Dong, Wei-Feng; Mackey, John R; Hemmings, Denise G; McMullen, Todd P W; Brindley, David N

    2015-09-01

    Compared to normal tissues, many cancer cells overexpress autotaxin (ATX). This secreted enzyme produces extracellular lysophosphatidate, which signals through 6 GPCRs to drive cancer progression. Our previous work showed that ATX inhibition decreases 4T1 breast tumor growth in BALB/c mice by 60% for about 11 d. However, 4T1 cells do not produce significant ATX. Instead, the ATX is produced by adjacent mammary adipose tissue. We investigated the molecular basis of this interaction in human and mouse breast tumors. Inflammatory mediators secreted by breast cancer cells increased ATX production in adipose tissue. The increased lysophosphatidate signaling further increased inflammatory mediator production in adipose tissue and tumors. Blocking ATX activity in mice bearing 4T1 tumors with 10 mg/kg/d ONO-8430506 (a competitive ATX inhibitor, IC90 = 100 nM; Ono Pharma Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) broke this vicious inflammatory cycle by decreasing 20 inflammatory mediators by 1.5-8-fold in cancer-inflamed adipose tissue. There was no significant decrease in inflammatory mediator levels in fat pads that did not bear tumors. ONO-8430506 also decreased plasma TNF-α and G-CSF cytokine levels by >70% and leukocyte infiltration in breast tumors and adjacent adipose tissue by >50%. Hence, blocking tumor-driven inflammation by ATX inhibition is effective in decreasing tumor growth in breast cancers where the cancer cells express negligible ATX. PMID:26071407

  16. Comparison of Breast Cancer to Healthy Control Tissue Discovers Novel Markers with Potential for Prognosis and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Michèl; Green, Ann; Beatty, J. David; Karlan, Beth Y.; Karlan, Scott; Gross, Jenny; Thornton, Sean; McIntosh, Martin; Urban, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list of potential targets by a) mining publicly available expression data (identifying 134 genes for quantitative PCR) and b) utilizing a commercial PCR array. Three genes show elevated expression in cancers with poor outcome and low expression in all other tissues, warranting further investigation as potential blood markers for early detection of cancers with poor outcome. Twelve genes showed lower expression in cancers with poor outcome than in cancers with favorable outcome but no differential expression between aggressive cancers and most healthy controls. These genes are more likely to be useful as prognostic tissue markers than as serum markers for early detection of aggressive disease. As a secondary finding was that, when histologically normal breast tissue was removed from a distant site in a breast with cancer, 7 of 38 specimens displayed a cancer-like expression profile, while the remaining 31 were genetically similar to the reduction mammaplasty control group. This finding suggests that some regions of ipsilateral histologically ‘normal’ breast tissue are predisposed to becoming malignant and that normal-appearing tissue with malignant signature might warrant treatment to prevent new primary tumors. PMID:20161755

  17. Sustained regeneration of high-volume adipose tissue for breast reconstruction using computer aided design and biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Chhaya, Mohit Prashant; Melchels, Ferry Petrus Wilhelmus; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Baldwin, Jeremy Grant; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2015-06-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current breast reconstruction options. Here we investigated patient-specific breast scaffolds fabricated from poly(d,l)-lactide polymer with pore sizes>1 mm for their potential in long-term sustained regeneration of high volume adipose tissue. An optimised scaffold geometry was modelled in silico via a laser scanning data set from a patient who underwent breast reconstruction surgery. After the design process scaffolds were fabricated using an additive manufacturing technology termed fused deposition modelling. Breast-shaped scaffolds were seeded with human umbilical cord perivascular cells and cultured under static conditions for 4 weeks and subsequently 2 weeks in a biaxial rotating bioreactor. These in vitro engineered constructs were then seeded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude rats for 24 weeks. Angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout all constructs at all timepoints. The percentage of adipose tissue compared to overall tissue area increased from 37.17% to 62.30% between week 5 and week 15 (p<0.01), and increased to 81.2% at week 24 (p<0.01), while the seeded endothelial cells self-organised to form a functional capillary network. The presented approach of fabricating customised scaffolds using 3D scans represents a facile approach towards engineering clinically relevant volumes of adipose tissue for breast reconstruction. PMID:25818460

  18. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Breast augmentation; Breast implants; Implants - breast; Mammaplasty ... Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a ...

  19. Correction of electrode polarization contributions to the dielectric properties of normal and cancerous breast tissues at audio/radiofrequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneman, M. R.; Kosempa, M.; Gregory, W. D.; Gregory, C. W.; Marx, J. J.; Mikkelson, W.; Tjoe, J.; Raicu, V.

    2007-11-01

    Spurious contributions from electrode polarization (EP) are a major nuisance in dielectric measurements of biological tissues and hamper accurate determination of tissue properties in the audio/radiofrequencies. Various electrode geometries and/or treatments have been employed traditionally to reduce EP contributions, although none succeeded to completely remove EP from measurements on tissues for all practical frequency ranges. A method of correction for contributions of EP to the dielectric properties of tissues is proposed. The method is based on modeling the electrode impedance with suitable functions and on the observation that certain parameters are only dependent on electrodes properties and can thus be determined separately. The method is tested on various samples with known properties, and its usefulness is demonstrated with samples of normal and cancerous human female breast tissue. It is observed that the dielectric properties of the tissues over the frequency range 40 Hz-100 MHz are significantly different among different types of breast tissue. This observation is used further to demonstrate that, by scanning the tip of the measuring dielectric probe (with modest spatial resolution) across a sample of excised breast tissue, significant variations in the electrical properties are detected at a position where a tumor is located. This study shows that dielectric spectroscopy has the potential to offer a viable alternative to the current methods for detection of breast cancer in vivo.

  20. A finite element model of remote palpation of breast lesions using radiation force: factors affecting tissue displacement.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, K R; Nightingale, R W; Palmeri, M L; Trahey, G E

    2000-01-01

    The early detection of breast cancer reduces patient mortality. The most common method of breast cancer detection is palpation. However, lesions that lie deep within the breast are difficult to palpate when they are small. Thus, a method of remote palpation, which may allow the detection of small lesions lying deep within the breast, is currently under investigation. In this method, acoustic radiation force is used to apply localized forces within tissue (to tissue volumes on the order of 2 mm3) and the resulting tissue displacements are mapped using ultrasonic correlation based methods. A volume of tissue that is stiffer than the surrounding medium (i.e., a lesion) distributes the force throughout the tissue beneath it, resulting in larger regions of displacement, and smaller maximum displacements. The resulting displacement maps may be used to image tissue stiffness. A finite-element-model (FEM) of acoustic remote palpation is presented in this paper. Using this model, a parametric analysis of the affect of varying tissue and acoustic beam characteristics on radiation force induced tissue displacements is performed. The results are used to evaluate the potential of acoustic remote palpation to provide useful diagnostic information in a clinical setting. The potential for using a single diagnostic transducer to both generate radiation force and track the resulting displacements is investigated. PMID:10823496

  1. Human T47D-ERβ breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ERβ expression reflect ERα/ERβ ratios in rat and human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Evers, N M; van de Klundert, T M C; van Aesch, Y M; Wang, S; de Roos, W K; Romano, A; de Haan, L H J; Murk, A J; Ederveen, A G H; Rietjens, I M C M; Groten, J P

    2013-09-01

    T47D-ERβ breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ERβ expression and constant ERα expression can be used to investigate effects of varying ERα/ERβ ratios on estrogen-induced cellular responses. This study defines conditions at which ERα/ERβ ratios in T47D-ERβ cells best mimic ERα/ERβ ratios in breast and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in vivo in rat as well as in human. Protein and mRNA levels of ERα and ERβ were analyzed in T47D-ERβ cells exposed to a range of tetracycline concentrations and compared to ERα and ERβ levels found in breast, prostate, and uterus from rat and human origin. The ERα/ERβ ratio in T47D-ERβ cells exposed to >150ng/ml tetracycline is comparable to the ratio found in rat mammary gland and in human breast tissue. The ERα/ERβ ratio of other estrogen-sensitive rat and human tissues can also be mimicked in T47D-ERβ cells. The ERα/ERβ ratio found in MCF-7 and native T47D breast cancer cell lines did not reflect ratios in analyzed rat and human tissues, which further supports the use of T47D-ERβ cells as model for estrogen-responsive tissues. Using 17β-estradiol and the T47D-ERβ cells under the conditions defined to mimic various tissues it could be demonstrated how these different tissues vary in their proliferative response. PMID:23680332

  2. Association of XRCC1 Trp194 allele with risk of breast cancer, and Ki67 protein status in breast tumor tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Chiya; Ghaderi, Bayazid; Amini, Sabrieh; Abdi, Mohammad; Roshani, Daem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for breast cancer in Kurdish patients and to investigate the possible association between Arg194Trp x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene polymorphisms with clinical and histopathological outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Methods: A total of 100 breast cancer patients and 200 cancer-free controls in Kurdish population of Kurdistan state admitted to Tohid Hospital, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran between January 2012 and May 2015 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Tissue expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesteron receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu), and Ki67 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Arg194Trp genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Our data showed that the risk for breast cancer increased significantly among the Trp variant of XRCC1. Statistically significant association was found between codon 194 polymorphisms and tissue expression of Ki67. Conclusion: The Trp allele of codon 194 XRCC1 is a potential risk factor for breast cancer in Kurdish ethnicity. Furthermore, effect of this polymorphism on clinical and histological features of breast cancer was significant. PMID:27279507

  3. Bio-optics based sensation imaging for breast tumor detection using tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Yoon Nyun; Park, Hee-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The tissue inclusion parameter estimation method is proposed to measure the stiffness as well as geometric parameters. The estimation is performed based on the tactile data obtained at the surface of the tissue using an optical tactile sensation imaging system (TSIS). A forward algorithm is designed to comprehensively predict the tactile data based on the mechanical properties of tissue inclusion using finite element modeling (FEM). This forward information is used to develop an inversion algorithm that will be used to extract the size, depth, and Young's modulus of a tissue inclusion from the tactile data. We utilize the artificial neural network (ANN) for the inversion algorithm. The proposed estimation method was validated by a realistic tissue phantom with stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed estimation method can measure the size, depth, and Young's modulus of a tissue inclusion with 0.58%, 3.82%, and 2.51% relative errors, respectively. The obtained results prove that the proposed method has potential to become a useful screening and diagnostic method for breast cancer. PMID:25785306

  4. Bio-Optics Based Sensation Imaging for Breast Tumor Detection Using Tissue Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Yoon Nyun; Park, Hee-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The tissue inclusion parameter estimation method is proposed to measure the stiffness as well as geometric parameters. The estimation is performed based on the tactile data obtained at the surface of the tissue using an optical tactile sensation imaging system (TSIS). A forward algorithm is designed to comprehensively predict the tactile data based on the mechanical properties of tissue inclusion using finite element modeling (FEM). This forward information is used to develop an inversion algorithm that will be used to extract the size, depth, and Young's modulus of a tissue inclusion from the tactile data. We utilize the artificial neural network (ANN) for the inversion algorithm. The proposed estimation method was validated by a realistic tissue phantom with stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed estimation method can measure the size, depth, and Young's modulus of a tissue inclusion with 0.58%, 3.82%, and 2.51% relative errors, respectively. The obtained results prove that the proposed method has potential to become a useful screening and diagnostic method for breast cancer. PMID:25785306

  5. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Breast ultrasound is a test that uses sound waves to examine the breasts. How the Test is ... to the left or right. The device sends sound waves to the breast tissue. The sound waves help ...

  6. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J.; Samani, Abbas

    2009-04-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C02 of the Yeoh model, and C11 and C20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  7. Accessory apartment conversion programs.

    PubMed

    Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784

  8. Datamining approach for automation of diagnosis of breast cancer in immunohistochemically stained tissue microarray images.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Keerthana; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna; Pai, Muktha

    2010-01-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common human neoplasm, accounting for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females after cervical carcinoma. Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesteron receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) expressions play an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Tissue microarray (TMA) technique is a high throughput technique which provides a standardized set of images which are uniformly stained, facilitating effective automation of the evaluation of the specimen images. TMA technique is widely used to evaluate hormone expression for diagnosis of breast cancer. If one considers the time taken for each of the steps in the tissue microarray process workflow, it can be observed that the maximum amount of time is taken by the analysis step. Hence, automated analysis will significantly reduce the overall time required to complete the study. Many tools are available for automated digital acquisition of images of the spots from the microarray slide. Each of these images needs to be evaluated by a pathologist to assign a score based on the staining intensity to represent the hormone expression, to classify them into negative or positive cases. Our work aims to develop a system for automated evaluation of sets of images generated through tissue microarray technique, representing the ER expression images and HER-2/neu expression images. Our study is based on the Tissue Microarray Database portal of Stanford university at http://tma.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/cx?n=her1, which has made huge number of images available to researchers. We used 171 images corresponding to ER expression and 214 images corresponding to HER-2/neu expression of breast carcinoma. Out of the 171 images corresponding to ER expression, 104 were negative and 67 were representing positive cases. Out of the 214 images corresponding to HER-2/neu expression, 112 were negative and 102 were representing positive cases. Our method has 92

  9. Assessment of Breast, Brain and Skin Pathological Tissue Using Full Field OCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Assayag, Osnath; Harms, Fabrice; Boccara, A. Claude

    The aim of this chapter is to assess whether the images of the breast, brain, and skin tissue obtained by FFOCM contain sufficient detail to allow pathologists to make a diagnosis of cancer and other pathologies comparable to what was obtained by conventional histological techniques. More precisely, it is necessary to verify on FFOCM images if it is possible to differentiate a healthy area from a pathological area. The reader interested in other organs or in animal studies may find a large number of 2D or 3D images in the atlas [2].

  10. Analysis of risks and aesthetics in a consecutive series of tissue expansion breast reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B E; Casso, D; Whetstone, M

    1992-05-01

    A consecutive series of 73 patients underwent tissue expansion for breast reconstruction between 1980 and 1986. The cases were reviewed, and preoperative risk factors, postoperative complications, and aesthetic results were assessed. Cigarette smoking correlated with a higher incidence of complications and unfavorable results. Similar correlations were found among patients with histories of significant medical disorders or alcohol abuse, although patient numbers were small in these categories. Subpectoral and suprapectoral placement of expanders yielded similar complication rates and aesthetic results. Surgical techniques contributing to improved aesthetic results are described. PMID:1561255

  11. Tomographic images of breast tissues obtained by Compton scattering: An analytical computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M. E.; Brunetti, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we studied by analytical simulation the potential of a Compton scatter technique for breast imaging application. A Compton scattering tomography system was computationally simulated in order to provide the projection data (scattering signal) for the image reconstructions. The simulated projections generated by the analytical proposed method were validated through comparison with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Electron density images were obtained from the scattering signal using a reconstruction algorithm implemented for the system geometry. Finally, the quality of the reconstructed images was evaluated for different sample sizes, beam energies, and tissue compositions (glandularities).

  12. Polarity determination in breast tissue: Desmosomal adhesion, myoepit helial cells, and laminin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J.; Bilder, David

    2003-06-05

    In all epithelial organs, apicobasal polarity determines functional integrity and contributes to the maintenance of tissue and organ specificity. In the breast, the functional unit is a polar double-layered tube consisting of luminal epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells and a basement membrane. It is far from clear how this double-layered structure is established and how polarity is maintained. Two recent papers have shed some light onto this intriguing problem in mammary gland biology. The results point to desmosomes and laminin 1 as having crucial roles. However, some questions remain.

  13. Accessory Scrotum With Perineal Lipoma: Pathologic Evaluation Including Androgen Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Keitaro; Mizuno, Kentaro; Nishio, Hidenori; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Kamisawa, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Satoshi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro

    2014-01-01

    Accessory scrotum is an unusual developmental anomaly defined as additional scrotal tissue in addition to a normally developed scrotum. The accessory scrotum arises posterior to the normally located scrotum and does not contain a testis. We report a case of an 18-month-old boy with an accessory scrotum attached to a perineal lipoma. We resected both and determined histologically that they were of the same tissue as the scrotum, including the presence of androgen receptor expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to assess androgen receptor expression in an accessory scrotum using immunostaining. PMID:26958486

  14. Measurement of pressure-displacement kinetics of hemoglobin in normal breast tissue with near-infrared spectral imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Laughney, Ashley M.; Kogel, Christine A.; Paulsen, Keith D

    2009-04-01

    Applying localized external displacement to the breast surface can change the interstitial fluid pressure such that regional transient microvascular changes occur in oxygenation and vascular volume. Imaging these dynamic responses over time, while different pressures are applied, could provide selective temporal contrast for cancer relative to the surrounding normal breast. In order to investigate this possibility in normal breast tissue, a near-infrared spectral tomography system was developed that can simultaneously acquire data at three wavelengths with a 15 s time resolution per scan. The system was tested first with heterogeneous blood phantoms. Changes in regional blood concentrations were found to be linearly related to recovered mean hemoglobin concentration (HbT) values (R{sup 2}=0.9). In a series of volunteer breast imaging exams, data from 17 asymptomatic subjects were acquired under increasing and decreasing breast compression. Calculations show that a 10 mm displacement applied to the breast results in surface pressures in the range of 0-55 kPa depending on breast density. The recovered human data indicate that HbT was reduced under compression and the normalized change was significantly correlated to the applied pressure with a p value of 0.005. The maximum HbT decreases in breast tissue were associated with body mass index (BMI), which is a surrogate indicator of breast density. No statistically valid correlations were found between the applied pressure and the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) or water percentage (H2O) across the range of BMI values studied.

  15. High‐throughput automated scoring of Ki67 in breast cancer tissue microarrays from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Howat, William J; Daley, Frances; Zabaglo, Lila; McDuffus, Leigh‐Anne; Blows, Fiona; Coulson, Penny; Raza Ali, H; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger; Brenner, Herman; Stegmaier, Christa; Mannermaa, Arto; Chang‐Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Sinn, Peter; Couch, Fergus J; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Devilee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hewitt, Stephen; Eccles, Diana; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; WM Martens, John; HM van Deurzen, Carolien; Investigators, kConFab; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Van't Veer, Laura; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Orr, Nick; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D; Garcia‐Closas, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Automated methods are needed to facilitate high‐throughput and reproducible scoring of Ki67 and other markers in breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) in large‐scale studies. To address this need, we developed an automated protocol for Ki67 scoring and evaluated its performance in studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We utilized 166 TMAs containing 16,953 tumour cores representing 9,059 breast cancer cases, from 13 studies, with information on other clinical and pathological characteristics. TMAs were stained for Ki67 using standard immunohistochemical procedures, and scanned and digitized using the Ariol system. An automated algorithm was developed for the scoring of Ki67, and scores were compared to computer assisted visual (CAV) scores in a subset of 15 TMAs in a training set. We also assessed the correlation between automated Ki67 scores and other clinical and pathological characteristics. Overall, we observed good discriminatory accuracy (AUC = 85%) and good agreement (kappa = 0.64) between the automated and CAV scoring methods in the training set. The performance of the automated method varied by TMA (kappa range= 0.37–0.87) and study (kappa range = 0.39–0.69). The automated method performed better in satisfactory cores (kappa = 0.68) than suboptimal (kappa = 0.51) cores (p‐value for comparison = 0.005); and among cores with higher total nuclei counted by the machine (4,000–4,500 cells: kappa = 0.78) than those with lower counts (50–500 cells: kappa = 0.41; p‐value = 0.010). Among the 9,059 cases in this study, the correlations between automated Ki67 and clinical and pathological characteristics were found to be in the expected directions. Our findings indicate that automated scoring of Ki67 can be an efficient method to obtain good quality data across large numbers of TMAs from multicentre studies. However, robust algorithm development and rigorous pre‐ and post

  16. High-throughput automated scoring of Ki67 in breast cancer tissue microarrays from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Mustapha; Howat, William J; Daley, Frances; Zabaglo, Lila; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Blows, Fiona; Coulson, Penny; Raza Ali, H; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger; Brenner, Herman; Stegmaier, Christa; Mannermaa, Arto; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Sinn, Peter; Couch, Fergus J; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Devilee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hewitt, Stephen; Eccles, Diana; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Wm Martens, John; Hm van Deurzen, Carolien; Investigators, kConFab; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Van't Veer, Laura; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Orr, Nick; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    Automated methods are needed to facilitate high-throughput and reproducible scoring of Ki67 and other markers in breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) in large-scale studies. To address this need, we developed an automated protocol for Ki67 scoring and evaluated its performance in studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We utilized 166 TMAs containing 16,953 tumour cores representing 9,059 breast cancer cases, from 13 studies, with information on other clinical and pathological characteristics. TMAs were stained for Ki67 using standard immunohistochemical procedures, and scanned and digitized using the Ariol system. An automated algorithm was developed for the scoring of Ki67, and scores were compared to computer assisted visual (CAV) scores in a subset of 15 TMAs in a training set. We also assessed the correlation between automated Ki67 scores and other clinical and pathological characteristics. Overall, we observed good discriminatory accuracy (AUC = 85%) and good agreement (kappa = 0.64) between the automated and CAV scoring methods in the training set. The performance of the automated method varied by TMA (kappa range= 0.37-0.87) and study (kappa range = 0.39-0.69). The automated method performed better in satisfactory cores (kappa = 0.68) than suboptimal (kappa = 0.51) cores (p-value for comparison = 0.005); and among cores with higher total nuclei counted by the machine (4,000-4,500 cells: kappa = 0.78) than those with lower counts (50-500 cells: kappa = 0.41; p-value = 0.010). Among the 9,059 cases in this study, the correlations between automated Ki67 and clinical and pathological characteristics were found to be in the expected directions. Our findings indicate that automated scoring of Ki67 can be an efficient method to obtain good quality data across large numbers of TMAs from multicentre studies. However, robust algorithm development and rigorous pre- and post-analytical quality control procedures are

  17. Reliability of Quantitative Ultrasonic Assessment of Normal-Tissue Toxicity in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Emi J.; Chen Hao; Torres, Mylin; Andic, Fundagul; Liu Haoyang; Chen Zhengjia; Sun, Xiaoyan; Curran, Walter J.; Liu Tian

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have recently reported that ultrasound imaging, together with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC), can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicity. This study's purpose is to evaluate the reliability of our quantitative ultrasound technology in assessing acute and late normal-tissue toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy. Method and Materials: Our ultrasound technique analyzes radiofrequency echo signals and provides quantitative measures of dermal, hypodermal, and glandular tissue toxicities. To facilitate easy clinical implementation, we further refined this technique by developing a semiautomatic ultrasound-based toxicity assessment tool (UBTAT). Seventy-two ultrasound studies of 26 patients (720 images) were analyzed. Images of 8 patients were evaluated for acute toxicity (<6 months postradiotherapy) and those of 18 patients were evaluated for late toxicity ({>=}6 months postradiotherapy). All patients were treated according to a standard radiotherapy protocol. To assess intraobserver reliability, one observer analyzed 720 images in UBTAT and then repeated the analysis 3 months later. To assess interobserver reliability, three observers (two radiation oncologists and one ultrasound expert) each analyzed 720 images in UBTAT. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were also compared. Results: Intraobserver ICC was 0.89 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.96 for glandular tissue toxicity. Interobserver ICC was 0.78 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.94 for glandular tissue toxicity. Statistical analysis found significant changes in dermal (p < 0.0001), hypodermal (p = 0.0027), and glandular tissue (p < 0.0001) assessments in the acute toxicity group. Ultrasound measurements correlated with clinical Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scores of patients

  18. Validation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging for normal and neoplastic breast tissues via surgical pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R. E.; Albanese, K. E.; Lakshmanan, M. N.; McCall, S. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Kapadia, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    This study intends to validate the sensitivity and specificity of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging (CACSSI) by comparison to standard histological preparation and pathologic analysis methods used to differentiate normal and neoplastic breast tissues. A composite overlay of the CACSSI rendered image and pathologist interpreted stained sections validate the ability of CACSSI to differentiate normal and neoplastic breast structures ex-vivo. Via comparison to pathologist annotated slides, the CACSSI system may be further optimized to maximize sensitivity and specificity for differentiation of breast carcinomas.

  19. Penetration of cefonicid into human breast milk and various body fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lou, M A; Wu, Y H; Jacob, L S; Pitkin, D H

    1984-01-01

    A new cephalosporin, cefonicid (1 g), was given intramuscularly to 49 patients 1 hr before they were to undergo surgery and to 10 healthy lactating women. The concentration of cefonicid was assayed by disk agar diffusion with the use of Bacillus subtilis as the test organism. Concentrations of cefonicid in tissue and fluid specimens were obtained. The data demonstrate that within 1 hr of intramuscular injection of cefonicid, effective concentrations of cefonicid in serum and tissue for common microbial pathogens were achieved. This finding suggests that cefonicid would be useful for perioperative prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although the concentration of cefonicid in breast milk was low at 1 hr after injection, more information is needed regarding the subsequent secretion of cefonicid before a conclusive statement can be made concerning the danger of sensitization in infants of nursing mothers. PMID:6522923

  20. Changes in dose with segmentation of breast tissues in Monte Carlo calculations for low-energy brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Thomson, R. M.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of various breast tissue segmentation models in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low-energy brachytherapy. Methods: The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of a breast brachytherapy treatment using TheraSeed Pd-103 seeds with various breast tissue segmentation models. Models used include a phantom where voxels are randomly assigned to be gland or adipose (randomly segmented), a phantom where a single tissue of averaged gland and adipose is present (averaged tissue), and a realistically segmented phantom created from previously published numerical phantoms. Radiation transport in averaged tissue while scoring in gland along with other combinations is investigated. The inclusion of calcifications in the breast is also studied in averaged tissue and randomly segmented phantoms. Results: In randomly segmented and averaged tissue phantoms, the photon energy fluence is approximately the same; however, differences occur in the dose volume histograms (DVHs) as a result of scoring in the different tissues (gland and adipose versus averaged tissue), whose mass energy absorption coefficients differ by 30%. A realistically segmented phantom is shown to significantly change the photon energy fluence compared to that in averaged tissue or randomly segmented phantoms. Despite this, resulting DVHs for the entire treatment volume agree reasonably because fluence differences are compensated by dose scoring differences. DVHs for the dose to only the gland voxels in a realistically segmented phantom do not agree with those for dose to gland in an averaged tissue phantom. Calcifications affect photon energy fluence to such a degree that the differences in fluence are not compensated for (as they are in the no calcification case) by dose scoring in averaged tissue phantoms. Conclusions: For low-energy brachytherapy, if photon transport and dose scoring both occur in an averaged tissue, the resulting DVH for the entire

  1. Mastectomy Weight and Tissue Expander Volume Predict Necrosis and Increased Costs Associated with Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yalanis, Georgia C.; Nag, Shayoni; Georgek, Jakob R.; Cooney, Carisa M.; Manahan, Michele A.; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired vascular perfusion in tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction leads to mastectomy skin necrosis. We investigated factors and costs associated with skin necrosis in postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Methods: Retrospective review of 169 women with immediate TE placement following mastectomy between May 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013 was performed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes were collected. Logistic regression analysis on individual variables was performed to determine the effects of tissue expander fill volume and mastectomy specimen weight on skin necrosis. Billing data was obtained to determine the financial burden associated with necrosis. Results: This study included 253 breast reconstructions with immediate TE placement from 169 women. Skin necrosis occurred in 20 flaps for 15 patients (8.9%). Patients with hypertension had 8 times higher odds of skin necrosis [odd ratio (OR), 8.10, P < 0.001]. Patients with TE intraoperative fill volumes >300 cm3 had 10 times higher odds of skin necrosis (OR, 10.66, P =0.010). Volumes >400 cm3 had 15 times higher odds of skin necrosis (OR, 15.56, P = 0.002). Mastectomy specimen weight was correlated with skin necrosis. Specimens >500 g had 10 times higher odds of necrosis and specimens >1000 g had 18 times higher odds of necrosis (OR, 10.03 and OR, 18.43; P =0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Mastectomy skin necrosis was associated with a 50% increased inpatient charge. Conclusion: Mastectomy flap necrosis is associated with HTN, larger TE volumes and mastectomy specimen weights, resulting in increased inpatient charges. Conservative TE volumes should be considered for patients with hypertension and larger mastectomy specimens. PMID:26301139

  2. Needle endomicroscope with a plastic, achromatic objective to perform optical biopsies of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrish, Matthew; Dobbs, Jessica; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz

    2013-03-01

    In order to diagnose cancer in breast tissue, a sample must be removed, prepared, and examined under a microscope. To provide an alternative to conventional biopsies, an endomicroscope intended to perform optical biopsies is demonstrated. The system provides high resolution, high contrast images in real-time which could allow a diagnosis to be made during surgery without the need for tissue removal. Optical sectioning is achieved via structured illumination to reject out of focus light. An image is relayed between the sample plane and the imaging system by a coherent fiber bundle with an achromatized objective lens at the distal tip of the fiber bundle which is the diameter of a biopsy needle. The custom, plastic objective provides correction for both the excitation and emission wavelengths of proflavine (452 nm and 515 nm, respectively). It also magnifies the object onto the distal tip of the fiber bundle to increase lateral resolution. The lenses are composed of the optical plastics Zeonex E48R, PMMA, and polystyrene. The lenses are fabricated via single point diamond turning and assembled using a zero alignment technique. The lateral resolution and chromatic focal shift were measured and in vitro images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine were captured. The optical biopsy system is able to achieve optical sectioning and to resolve smaller features than the current high resolution microendoscope.

  3. Similarity of Fibroglandular Breast Tissue Content Measured from Magnetic Resonance and Mammographic Images and by a Mathematical Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hyunsu; Brunder, Donald G.; Anderson, Karl E.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit; Lu, Lee-Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Women with high breast density (BD) have a 4- to 6-fold greater risk for breast cancer than women with low BD. We found that BD can be easily computed from a mathematical algorithm using routine mammographic imaging data or by a curve-fitting algorithm using fat and nonfat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. These BD measures in a strictly defined group of premenopausal women providing both mammographic and breast MRI images were predicted as well by the same set of strong predictor variables as were measures from a published laborious histogram segmentation method and a full field digital mammographic unit in multivariate regression models. We also found that the number of completed pregnancies, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, and progesterone were more strongly associated with amounts of glandular tissue than adipose tissue, while fat body mass, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin like growth factor-II appear to be more associated with the amount of breast adipose tissue. Our results show that methods of breast imaging and modalities for estimating the amount of glandular tissue have no effects on the strength of these predictors of BD. Thus, the more convenient mathematical algorithm and the safer MRI protocols may facilitate prospective measurements of BD. PMID:25132995

  4. Initial In Vivo Quantification of Tc-99m Sestamibi Uptake as a Function of Tissue Type in Healthy Breasts Using Dedicated Breast SPECT-CT

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Steve D.; Perez, Kristy L.; McCracken, Emily K. E.; Shah, Jainil P.; Wong, Terence Z.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study is underway to quantify in vivo the uptake and distribution of Tc-99m Sestamibi in subjects without previous history of breast cancer using a dedicated SPECT-CT breast imaging system. Subjects undergoing diagnostic parathyroid imaging studies were consented and imaged as part of this IRB-approved breast imaging study. For each of the seven subjects, one randomly selected breast was imaged prone-pendant using the dedicated, compact breast SPECT-CT system underneath the shielded patient support. Iteratively reconstructed and attenuation and/or scatter corrected images were coregistered; CT images were segmented into glandular and fatty tissue by three different methods; the average concentration of Sestamibi was determined from the SPECT data using the CT-based segmentation and previously established quantification techniques. Very minor differences between the segmentation methods were observed, and the results indicate an average image-based in vivo Sestamibi concentration of 0.10 ± 0.16 μCi/mL with no preferential uptake by glandular or fatty tissues. PMID:22956950

  5. A comparison study of different excitation wavelengths to determine the relative content of key biomolecules in breast cancer and breast normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence profiles from breast cancer and breast normal tissue samples with excitation wavelengths at 280 nm and 340 nm were obtained using the conventional LS-50 Perkin-Elmer spectrometer. Fluorescence ratios from these tissue samples, demonstrated by emission peaks at 340 nm, 440 nm and 460 nm and likely representing tryptophan and NADH, show increased relative content of tryptophan in malignant samples. Double ratio (DR) techniques were used to measure the severity of disease. The single excitation double ratio (Single-DR) method utilizes the emission intensity peaks from the spectrum acquired using a single excitation of 280 nm; while the dual excitation double ratio (dual-DR) method utilizes the emission intensity peaks from the spectra acquired using an excitation of 280 nm and 340 nm. Single-DR and dual-DR from 13 patients with breast carcinoma were compared in terms of their efficiency to distinguish high from low/intermediate tumors. Similar results were found with both methods. Results suggest that dual excitation wavelengths may be as effective as single excitation wavelength in calculating the relative content of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue, as well as for the assessment of the malignant potential of these tumors.

  6. The gene encoding the VP16-accessory protein HCF (HCFC1) resides in human Xq28 and is highly expressed in fetal tissues and the adult kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.C.; Herr, W.; Parrish, J.E.; Massa, H.F.

    1995-01-20

    After herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the viral regulatory protein VP16 activates transcription of the HSV immediate-early promoters by directing complex formation with two cellular proteins, the POU-homeodomain transcription factor Oct-1 and the host cell factor HCF. The function of HCF in uninfected cells is unknown. Here we show by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis that the gene encoding human HCF, HCFC1, maps to the q28 region of the X chromosome. Yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid mapping localizes the HCFC1 gene within 100 kb distal of the renal vasopressin type-2 receptor (V2R) gene and adjacent to the renin-binding protein gene (RENBP). The HCFC1 gene is apparently unique. HCF transcripts and protein are most abundant in fetal and placental tissues and cell lines, suggesting a role in cell proliferation. In adults, HCF protein is abundant in the kidney, but not in the brain, a site of latent HSV infection and where HCF levels may influence progression of HSV infection. 42 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Performance of automated scoring of ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR in breast cancer tissue microarrays in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Howat, William J; Blows, Fiona M; Provenzano, Elena; Brook, Mark N; Morris, Lorna; Gazinska, Patrycja; Johnson, Nicola; McDuffus, Leigh‐Anne; Miller, Jodi; Sawyer, Elinor J; Pinder, Sarah; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Jones, Louise; Sironen, Reijo; Visscher, Daniel; Caldas, Carlos; Daley, Frances; Coulson, Penny; Broeks, Annegien; Sanders, Joyce; Wesseling, Jelle; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Blomqvist, Carl; Heikkilä, Päivi; Ali, H Raza; Dawson, Sarah‐Jane; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli‐Matti; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Devillee, Peter; Mesker, Wilma E; Seyaneve, Caroline M; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Benitez, Javier; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Bolla, Manjeet K; Easton, Douglas F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D; Sherman, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer risk factors and clinical outcomes vary by tumour marker expression. However, individual studies often lack the power required to assess these relationships, and large‐scale analyses are limited by the need for high throughput, standardized scoring methods. To address these limitations, we assessed whether automated image analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue microarrays can permit rapid, standardized scoring of tumour markers from multiple studies. Tissue microarray sections prepared in nine studies containing 20 263 cores from 8267 breast cancers stained for two nuclear (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor), two membranous (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor) and one cytoplasmic (cytokeratin 5/6) marker were scanned as digital images. Automated algorithms were used to score markers in tumour cells using the Ariol system. We compared automated scores against visual reads, and their associations with breast cancer survival. Approximately 65–70% of tissue microarray cores were satisfactory for scoring. Among satisfactory cores, agreement between dichotomous automated and visual scores was highest for oestrogen receptor (Kappa = 0.76), followed by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Kappa = 0.69) and progesterone receptor (Kappa = 0.67). Automated quantitative scores for these markers were associated with hazard ratios for breast cancer mortality in a dose‐response manner. Considering visual scores of epidermal growth factor receptor or cytokeratin 5/6 as the reference, automated scoring achieved excellent negative predictive value (96–98%), but yielded many false positives (positive predictive value = 30–32%). For all markers, we observed substantial heterogeneity in automated scoring performance across tissue microarrays. Automated analysis is a potentially useful tool for large‐scale, quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained tissue

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization and functional identification of mammary gland telocytes in the self-assembly of reconstituted breast cancer tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yongchao; Wang, Yan; Li, Junjie; Lü, Shuanghong; Duan, Cuimi; Du, Zhiyan; Yang, Guili; Chen, Weizhen; Zhao, Siyang; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Changyong

    2013-01-01

    Telocyte (TC) as a special stromal cell exists in mammary gland and might play an important role in the balance of epithelium-stroma of mammary gland. Considering that different types of breast interstitial cells influence the development and progression of breast cancer, TCs may have its distinct role in this process. We here studied the roles of TCs in the self-assembly of reconstituted breast cancer tissue. We co-cultured primary isolated TCs and other breast stromal cells with breast cancer EMT-6 cells in collagen/Matrigel scaffolds to reconstitute breast cancer tissue in vitro. Using histology methods, we investigated the immunohistochemical characteristics and potential functions of TCs in reconstituted breast cancer tissue. TCs in primary mammary gland stromal cells with long and thin overlapping cytoplasmic processes, expressed c-kit/CD117, CD34 and vimentin in reconstitute breast cancer tissue. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the telocyte-like cells closely communicated with breast cancer cells as well as other stromal cells, and might serve as a bridge that directly linked the adjacent cells through membrane-to-membrane contact. Compared with cancer tissue sheets of EMT-6 alone, PCNA proliferation index analysis and TUNEL assay showed that TCs and other breast stromal cells facilitated the formation of typical nest structure, promoted the proliferation of breast cancer cells, and inhibited their apoptosis. In conclusion, we successfully reconstituted breast cancer tissue in vitro, and it seems to be attractive that TCs had potential functions in self-assembly of EMT-6/stromal cells reconstituted breast cancer tissue. PMID:23206234

  9. Detection of radiotherapy-induced myocardial changes by ultrasound tissue characterisation in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Skyttä, Tanja; Virtanen, Vesa; Virtanen, Marko; Luukkaala, Tiina; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) in the thoracic region is associated with an increased risk of late cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Ultrasonic tissue characterisation (UTC) is a non-invasive method of identifying changes in myocardial tissue, such as increased fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether UTC can detect early RT-induced myocardial alterations. Seventy-eight eligible patients with early stage breast cancer were evaluated before and immediately after RT. Twenty patients had right-sided and 58 left-sided breast cancer. None received chemotherapy. A comprehensive echocardiographic examination included 3D measurements and UTC of the right ventricular (RV) free wall, ventricular septum and left ventricular (LV) posterior wall. Integrated backscatter calibration was done for the pericardium (cpIBS) and LV cavity (ccIBS). RT for left-sided breast cancer was associated with increased echodensity in the UTC analysis. RV free wall and ventricular septum cpIBS increased from -15.0 ± 7.3 to -13.7 ± 7.9 dB (p = 0.079) and from -18.2 ± 5.1 to -16.0 ± 6.4 dB (p = 0.002), respectively. Likewise, ccIBS in the RV free wall increased from 20.4 ± 5.9 to 22.1 ± 5.6 dB (p = 0.046), and in the LV septum from 17.3 ± 5.2 to 19.8 ± 5.5 dB (p < 0.001). In 3D echocardiography, LV mass increased from 102 ± 18 to 107 ± 18 g (p = 0.005). Patients receiving RT for right-sided breast cancer did not display these changes. Left-sided RT increased myocardial echodensity, particularly in the structures receiving the highest radiation dose. Considering the progressive nature of the RT induced damage, these early changes may help us with individual risk stratification and serve as a tool for screening. PMID:26757708

  10. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators—via a degradable coating—and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4 Gy, 5 ng-g−1 of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2 nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1 mg-g−1, we found that 2–10 days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1–2 cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452

  11. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators-via a degradable coating-and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4Gy, 5ng·g(-1) of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1mg·g(-1), we found that 2-10days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1-2cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast tissues and axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Fossel, E T; Brodsky, G; deLayre, J L; Wilson, R E

    1983-01-01

    We have utilized proton T1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) values of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to study 110 tissue samples obtained from 11 mastectomy specimens. Samples of 1 cm3 from primary tumor sites, nipples, and other breast quadrants, as well as intact lymph nodes were studied and then histologically scored for the presence or absence of carcinoma and, if present, whether it was an isolated microscopic focus (micro). Of 54 samples of breast tissue, 12 contained carcinoma, 5 micro: of 45 lymph nodes, 15 contained metastatic carcinoma, 2 micro; of the 11 nipples, 2 had carcinoma, both micro. For the malignant samples (excluding micro) mean T1 value was 0.47 +/- 0.07 sec, (range 0.39-0.79 sec). For the 72 benign samples (excluding nipple) mean T1 value was 0.26 +/- 0.03 sec (range 0.14-0.36 sec). The 13 tumor-bearing nodes had a mean T1 value of 0.47 +/- 0.03 sec (range 0.40-0.63 sec); mean for the benign nodes was 0.26 +/- 0.007 sec (range 0.19-0.35 sec). The differences were highly significant in each case (p less than 0.001). For micro examples, T1 values were at malignancy threshold levels or just below, except for nipple tissues, where discrimination was poor. For the 20 other malignant samples, there was no correlation between T1 value and the per cent of sample containing malignancy. PMID:6625722

  13. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2015-12-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost(®) brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%. PMID:26572554

  14. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Rahim Hematiyan, Mohammad; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2015-12-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%.

  15. In vitro optical characterization and discrimination of female breast tissue during near infrared femtosecond laser pulses propagation.

    PubMed

    Zacharakis, G; Zolindaki, A; Sakkalis, V; Filippidis, G; Papazoglou, T G; Tsiftsis, D D; Koumantakis, E

    2001-10-01

    Ultrashort infrared laser pulses were transmitted through excised female breast tissue. The resulted signal was recorded by a streak camera with a time resolution of the order of a few ps. Experimental data of the temporal spread of the ultrashort pulse during the transmission through the tissue have been analyzed using the Patterson analytical expression derived from the diffusion theory. This resulted in the calculation of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, which are related to the optical characteristics of each type of tissue. The goal of the study was to use the theoretical values of the coefficients to discriminate different kinds of tissue. PMID:11728204

  16. Improving Antimicrobial Regimens for the Treatment of Breast Tissue Expander-Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Mohan, Kriti; Selber, Jesse; Garvey, Patrick; Reece, Gregory; Raad, Issam I.; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Crosby, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infectious complications in tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction can be devastating and costly. Therefore, to optimize care, we examined patient’s demographics, microbiology of TE infections, and the efficacy of empiric antimicrobial regimens and thereafter generated an algorithm for the treatment of these complex infections. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent TE breast reconstruction between 2003 and 2012 and analyzed those patients who developed a “definite” device-related infection leading to TE explantation and had a positive intraoperative culture. Results: A total of 3,082 patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction with TE. Of these, 378 patients (12.3%) developed an infection, 189 (6.1%) eventually proceed with explantation, and 118 (3.8%) had a positive intraoperative culture. Gram-positive organisms caused 73% of infections, and Gram-negative organisms caused 27% of infections. Narrow-spectrum empiric antimicrobials with predominantly Gram-positive coverage were deemed appropriate in only 62% of cases, and those with Gram-negative coverage were appropriate in 46%. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials were used in 47% of cases, mainly recommended by infectious disease specialists, and were considered appropriate in >90% of the occasions. Conclusions: Current empiric antibiotic regimens do not cover the vast spectrum of organisms causing TE infections. To increase the salvage rate of an infected TE, at the first sign of infection, in addition to benefiting with an infectious diseases consultation, empiric coverage with broad-spectrum antibiotics active against biofilm-embedded organisms should be administered. PMID:27579229

  17. Oncologic photodynamic diagnosis and therapy: confocal Raman/fluorescence imaging of metal phthalocyanines in human breast cancer tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Abramczyk, Halina; Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Surmacki, Jakub; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw

    2014-11-01

    Raman microspectroscopy and confocal Raman imaging combined with confocal fluorescence were used to study the distribution and aggregation of aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (AlPcS4) in noncancerous and cancerous breast tissues. The results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissue and to identify differences in the distribution and aggregation of aluminum phthalocyanine, which is a potential photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer. We have observed that the distribution of aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine confined in cancerous tissue is markedly different from that in noncancerous tissue. We have concluded that Raman imaging can be treated as a new and powerful technique useful in cancer photodynamic therapy, increasing our understanding of the mechanisms and efficiency of photosensitizers by better monitoring localization in cancer cells as well as the clinical assessment of the therapeutic effects of PDT and PIT. PMID:25203552

  18. X-ray attenuation of adipose breast tissue: in-vitro and in-vivo measurements using spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Erhard, Klaus; Berggren, Karl; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Cederström, Björn; Johansson, Henrik; Lundqvist, Mats; Moa, Elin; Homan, Hanno; Willsher, Paula; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Wallis, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    The development of new x-ray imaging techniques often requires prior knowledge of tissue attenuation, but the sources of such information are sparse. We have measured the attenuation of adipose breast tissue using spectral imaging, in vitro and in vivo. For the in-vitro measurement, fixed samples of adipose breast tissue were imaged on a spectral mammography system, and the energy-dependent x-ray attenuation was measured in terms of equivalent thicknesses of aluminum and poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). For the in-vivo measurement, a similar procedure was applied on a number of spectral screening mammograms. The results of the two measurements agreed well and were consistent with published attenuation data and with measurements on tissue-equivalent material.

  19. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  20. Racial differences in genome-wide methylation profiling and gene expression in breast tissues from healthy women.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ae; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Weng, Daniel Y; Taslim, Cenny; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is more common in European Americans (EAs) than in African Americans (AAs) but mortality from breast cancer is higher among AAs. While there are racial differences in DNA methylation and gene expression in breast tumors, little is known whether such racial differences exist in breast tissues of healthy women. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was performed in histologically normal breast tissues of healthy women. Linear regression models were used to identify differentially-methylated CpG sites (CpGs) between EAs (n = 61) and AAs (n = 22). Correlations for methylation and expression were assessed. Biological functions of the differentially-methylated genes were assigned using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 485 differentially-methylated CpGs by race, 203 were hypermethylated in EAs, and 282 were hypermethylated in AAs. Promoter-related differentially-methylated CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in EAs (52%) than AAs (27%) while gene body and intergenic CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in AAs. The differentially-methylated CpGs were enriched for cancer-associated genes with roles in cell death and survival, cellular development, and cell-to-cell signaling. In a separate analysis for correlation in EAs and AAs, different patterns of correlation were found between EAs and AAs. The correlated genes showed different biological networks between EAs and AAs; networks were connected by Ubiquitin C. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive genome-wide study to identify differences in methylation and gene expression between EAs and AAs in breast tissues from healthy women. These findings may provide further insights regarding the contribution of epigenetic differences to racial disparities in breast cancer. PMID:26680018

  1. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  2. Non Invasive XRF Analysis of Human Hair for Health State Determination of Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Maziar, Asghar; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Changizi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Using hair samples to analyze the trace element concentrations is of interest among many researchers. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are the most common methods in studying the structure and concentration of elements of tissues and also crystalline materials, using low energy X-ray. Objectives: In the present study, the detection ability of Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) of breast cancer at early stages was evaluated and the results were compared with other routine modalities such as mammography. Materials and Methods: Hair samples of 54 women (including 27 healthy and 27 patients) with average age of 52.03 ± 11.44 years were analyzed. All the sample donors were Iranian women. For the measurements Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) method was used. Results: Trace elements in healthy individuals were higher than those in cancer patients. In addition, sensitivity of the used method (WLXRF) was 96% compared to mammography (77%) as a gold standard for breast cancer detection. Conclusions: Trace elements in healthy individuals were higher than cancer patients and it seems that WLXRF may be used as a safe, low cost and reliable method with sensitivity higher than those of the other two relevant methods, XRD and mammography. PMID:26855721

  3. Coherent time-reversal microwave imaging for the detection and localization of breast tissue malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Delwar; Mohan, Ananda Sanagavarapu

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the coherent processing of time-reversal operator for microwave imaging in the frequency domain. In frequency domain time-reversal imaging approach, images obtained for different frequency bins over ultrawideband are incoherently processed. In highly dense and cluttered medium, the signal subspace over each narrow frequency bin varies from that obtained using the complete ultrawideband. As a result, the detection and localization from noncoherent imaging approach is often inconclusive. In order to improve the stability of time-reversal microwave imaging, we propose coherent processing using novel focusing matrix approach. The proposed focusing matrix makes possible the time-reversal imaging technique to coherently process each frequency bin to yield a consistent signal subspace. The performance of coherent focusing is investigated when combined with time-reversal robust Capon beamformer (TR-RCB). We have used numerical experiments on breast cancer detection using finite difference time domain employing anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms that contain varying amounts of dense fibroglandular tissue content. The imaging results indicate that the proposed coherent-TR-RCB could overcome the limitations of time-reversal imaging in a highly heterogeneous and cluttered medium.

  4. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Westphal, Saskia; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till; Penzkofer, Tobias Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 {+-} 0.14, 1.45 {+-} 0.13, and 1.74 {+-} 0.11 cm for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 {+-} 0.09 and 1.26 {+-} 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 {+-} 0.65, 2.85 {+-} 0.72, and 4.45 {+-} 0.47 cm{sup 3} for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 {+-} 0.30 and 2.29 {+-} 0.55 cm{sup 3} got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.

  5. Comparisons of the Rayleigh and K-distribution models using in vivo breast and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Molthen, R C; Shankar, P M; Reid, J M; Forsberg, F; Halpern, E J; Piccoli, C W; Goldberg, B B

    1998-01-01

    There is a strong interest in finding out which statistical model is the most appropriate for describing the envelope of the backscattered ultrasonic echoes from different types of tissues. The Rayleigh model is commonly employed, but this requires conditions, such as the presence of large number of randomly located scatterers with fairly uniform cross-sections, that are not always met. However, our research indicates that a model based on the K-distribution may provide a better fit to empirical data over a range of scattering conditions than the standard Rayleigh model. In this study, we looked at the K-distribution as a descriptor of the backscattered envelope of the breast and liver tissues (in vivo). By examining data from various tissue regions, a goodness-of-fit test (a least squares error method) was used to determine whether a Rayleigh or K-distribution model is more appropriate. From a large group of patients and volunteer scans (a total of 72 subjects), the fit between the K-distribution and the data is shown to have a much smaller error than the Rayleigh model. PMID:9483775

  6. Randomized Trial of Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E vs Standard Follow-up After Breast Irradiation to Prevent Breast Fibrosis, Evaluated by Tissue Compliance Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Geraldine; Bhatia, Sudershan; Smith, Brian J.; Button, Anna M.; Bodeker, Kellie; Buatti, John

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized clinical trial to determine whether the combination of pentoxifylline (PTX) and vitamin E given for 6 months after breast/chest wall irradiation effectively prevents radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: Fifty-three breast cancer patients with localized disease were enrolled and randomized to treatment with oral PTX 400 mg 3 times daily and oral vitamin E 400 IU daily for 6 months after radiation (n=26), or standard follow up (n=27). Tissue compliance meter (TCM) measurements were obtained at 18 months to compare tissue compliance in the irradiated and untreated breast/chest wall in treated subjects and controls. Measurements were obtained at 2 mirror image sites on each breast/chest wall, and the average difference in tissue compliance was scored. Differences in TCM measurements were compared using a t test. Subjects were followed a minimum of 2 years for local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results: The mean difference in TCM measurements in the 2 groups was 0.88 mm, median of 1.00 mm (treated) and 2.10 mm, median of 2.4 mm (untreated). The difference between the 2 groups was significant (P=.0478). Overall survival (100% treated, 90.6% controls at 5 years) and disease-free survival (96.2% treated, 86.8% controls at 5 years) were not significantly different in the 2 groups. Conclusions: This study of postirradiation breast cancer patients treated with PTX/vitamin E or standard follow-up indicated a significant difference in radiation-induced fibrosis as measured by TCM. There was no observed impact on local control or survival within the first 2 years of follow-up. The treatment was safe and well tolerated. Pentoxifylline/vitamin E may be clinically useful in preventing fibrosis after radiation in high-risk patients.

  7. Potential of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Characterization of Malignant, Benign, and Healthy Breast Tissues and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Hari, Smriti; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology, and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 × 10−3 mm2/s) and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 × 10−3 mm2/s) breast tissues. A cutoff ADC value of 1.23 × 10−3 mm2/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; area under the curve 0.96) to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by receiver operating curve analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen, while their ADC value was indicative of malignancy, implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with tumor volume, stage, hormonal receptors [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor (HER2)], and menopausal status was investigated. A significant difference was seen in tumor volume between breast cancer patients of stages IIA and IIIA, IIB and IIIA, and IIB and III (B + C), respectively (P < 0.05). Patients with early breast cancer (n = 52) had significantly lower ADC and tumor volume than those with locally advanced breast cancer (n = 207). No association was found in ADC and tumor volume with the menopausal status. Breast cancers with ER−, PR−, and triple-negative (TN) status showed a significantly larger tumor volume compared to ER+, PR+, and non-triple-negative (nTN) cancers, respectively. Also, TN tumors showed a significantly higher ADC compared to ER+, PR+, and nTN cancers. Patients with ER− and TN cancers were younger than those with ER+ and nTN cancers

  8. Potential of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Characterization of Malignant, Benign, and Healthy Breast Tissues and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Agarwal, Khushbu; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Mathur, Sandeep R; Hari, Smriti; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2016-01-01

    The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology, and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) breast tissues. A cutoff ADC value of 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; area under the curve 0.96) to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by receiver operating curve analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen, while their ADC value was indicative of malignancy, implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with tumor volume, stage, hormonal receptors [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor (HER2)], and menopausal status was investigated. A significant difference was seen in tumor volume between breast cancer patients of stages IIA and IIIA, IIB and IIIA, and IIB and III (B + C), respectively (P < 0.05). Patients with early breast cancer (n = 52) had significantly lower ADC and tumor volume than those with locally advanced breast cancer (n = 207). No association was found in ADC and tumor volume with the menopausal status. Breast cancers with ER-, PR-, and triple-negative (TN) status showed a significantly larger tumor volume compared to ER+, PR+, and non-triple-negative (nTN) cancers, respectively. Also, TN tumors showed a significantly higher ADC compared to ER+, PR+, and nTN cancers. Patients with ER- and TN cancers were younger than those with ER+ and n

  9. Tissue-specific promoters active in CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmitz, Gerd J; Ranki, Tuuli; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Ribacka, Camilla; Eriksson, Minna; Porten, Marius; Herrmann, Isabell; Ristimäki, Ari; Virkkunen, Pekka; Tarkkanen, Maija; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Kanerva, Anna; Rein, Daniel; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2008-07-15

    It has been proposed that human tumors contain stem cells that have a central role in tumor initiation and posttreatment relapse. Putative breast cancer stem cells may reside in the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) population. Oncolytic adenoviruses are attractive for killing of these cells because they enter through infection and are therefore not susceptible to active and passive mechanisms that render stem cells resistant to many drugs. Although adenoviruses have been quite safe in cancer trials, preclinical work suggests that toxicity may eventually be possible with more active agents. Therefore, restriction of virus replication to target tissues with tissues-specific promoters is appealing for improving safety and can be achieved without loss of efficacy. We extracted CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells from pleural effusions of breast cancer patients and found that modification of adenovirus type 5 tropism with the serotype 3 knob increased gene delivery to CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells. alpha-Lactalbumin, cyclo-oxygenase 2, telomerase, and multidrug resistance protein promoters were studied for activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells, and a panel of oncolytic viruses was subsequently constructed. Each virus featured 5/3 chimerism of the fiber and a promoter controlling expression of E1A, which was also deleted in the Rb binding domain for additional tumor selectivity. Cell killing assays identified Ad5/3-cox2L-d24 and Ad5/3-mdr-d24 as the most active agents, and these viruses were able to completely eradicate CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells in vitro. In vivo, these viruses had significant antitumor activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low)-derived tumors. These findings may have relevance for elimination of cancer stem cells in humans. PMID:18632604

  10. Diagnostics of breast cancer tissue by fiber optic evanescent wave Fourier transform IR (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Makhine, Volodymyr; Bruch, Reinhard F.

    1999-06-01

    Fourier transform IR fiberoptic evanescent wave (FTIR-FEW) spectroscopy has been suggested as a powerful tool for clinical diagnostics of normal, pre-cancerous, and cancerous breast tissue ex vivo and in vitro in the middle IR region of the spectrum(850-1850 cm-1). This method is suitable for noninvasive and direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. For the first time this method has been use nondestructively, rapidly, fast (15-20 sec) and remotely in the operating rooms of clinics. The aim of our studies has been the on-line testing of various tumor tissues during surgery to optimize and localize an area to remove tissue. We measured very small samples of normal and malignant breast tissue ex vivo with a fiber bent to a special angle, forming a special tip probe configuration. We also suggest here the minimally invasive FTIR-FEW diagnosis tool using 'needle' changeable tip probe for biopsy applications. The corresponding spectral histopathology scheme could be developed with help of this technique in vitro. The breast tissue at different stages of tumor or cancer has been distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, cyclic and non-cyclic hydrogen bonded fragments, phosphate groups and sugars.

  11. Spectra of diffuse reflection of the breast tissue in norm and pathology (in vivo and in vitro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Sergey A.; Vovk, Sergey M.; Pushkarev, Sergey V.; Udut, Vladimir V.

    1999-09-01

    A comparative analysis of spectra of diffuse reflection of the breast tissue obtained when performing operation for tumor neoplasms of the breast and during the diagnostic puncture biopsy has been done. Spectral characteristics of tissues of 74 patients with different pathology of the breast (cancer, fibroadenomas, mastopathies) have been under study. Bioptic samples received from 22 patients were examined in conditions in vitro, in 35 patients the reflection spectra were recorded in the course of operation (in vivo) and in 17 patients when performing a diagnostic puncture biopsy by means of a light probe. Spectra of pathological segments of tissues and normal ones were compared. The effect of vasoactive substances of spectral characteristics of the examined tissues was evaluated. There was obtained a diagnostic parameter evaluating integrally the character of the reflection spectrum profile. Under the influence of chemo- and radiotherapy the changes in characteristics of reflection spectra profiles of the examined tissues occur as well. The method of registration of diffuse reflections in vivo is considered to be highly sensitive, so for its further development it is necessary to elaborate the ways of preparing patients for spectral examinations in vivo, to create the data base of spectra of diffuse reflection of the normal and pathological tissues.

  12. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  17. SU-E-P-31: Quantifying the Amount of Missing Tissue in a Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goodenough, D; Olafsdottir, H; Olafsson, I; Fredriksson, J; Kristinsson, S; Oskarsdottir, G; Kristbjornsson, A; Mallozzi, R; Healy, A; Levy, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To automatically quantify the amount of missing tissue in a digital breast tomosynthesis system using four stair-stepped chest wall missing tissue gauges in the Tomophan™ from the Phantom Laboratory and image processing from Image Owl. Methods: The Tomophan™ phantom incorporates four stair-stepped missing tissue gauges by the chest wall, allowing measurement of missing chest wall in two different locations along the chest wall at two different heights. Each of the four gauges has 12 steps in 0.5 mm increments rising from the chest wall. An image processing algorithm was developed by Image Owl that first finds the two slices containing the steps then finds the signal through the highest step in all four gauges. Using the signal drop at the beginning of each gauge the distance to the end of the image gives the length of the missing tissue gauge in millimeters. Results: The Tomophan™ was imaged in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems from various vendors resulting in 46 cases used for testing. The results showed that on average 1.9 mm of 6 mm of the gauges are visible. A small focus group was asked to count the number of visible steps for each case which resulted in a good agreement between observer counts and computed data. Conclusion: First, the results indicate that the amount of missing chest wall can differ between vendors. Secondly it was shown that an automated method to estimate the amount of missing chest wall gauges agreed well with observer assessments. This finding indicates that consistency testing may be simplified using the Tomophan™ phantom and analysis by an automated image processing named Tomo QA. In general the reason for missing chest wall may be due to a function of the beam profile at the chest wall as DBT projects through the angular sampling. Research supported by Image Owl, Inc., The Phantom Laboratory, Inc. and Raforninn ehf; Mallozzi and Healy employed by The Phantom Laboratory, Inc.; Goodenough is a consultant to The

  18. Use of high-throughput protein array for profiling of differentially expressed proteins in normal and malignant breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Hudelist, Gernot; Pacher-Zavisin, Margit; Singer, Christian F; Holper, Tina; Kubista, Ernst; Schreiber, Martin; Manavi, Mahmood; Bilban, Martin; Czerwenka, Klaus

    2004-08-01

    cDNA arrays provide a powerful tool to identify gene expression pattern that are potentially associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. However, genes work at the protein level and, since the transcriptional activity of a gene does not necessarily reflect cellular protein expression, the identification and quantification of proteins is essential for the understanding of molecular events leading to malignant transformation. We have therefore employed a high-throughput protein microarray system which contains 378 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies in order to compare the gene expression pattern of malignant and adjacent normal breast tissue in a patient with primary breast cancer. Using this technique, we have identified a number of proteins that show increased expression levels in malignant breast tissues such as casein kinase Ie, p53, annexin XI, CDC25C, eIF-4E and MAP kinase 7. The expression of other proteins, such as the multifunctional regulator 14-3-3e was found to be decreased in malignant breast tissue, whereas the majority of proteins remained unchanged when compared to the corresponding non-malignant samples. The protein expression pattern was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, in which antibodies against 8 representative proteins known to be involved in carcinogenesis were employed in paraffin-embedded normal and malignant tissue sections deriving from the same patient. In each case, the results obtained by IHC matched the data obtained by antibody microarray system. Taken together, we have described for the first time a tumor cell specificity protein expression pattern by use of a novel commercially available antibody microarray system. We have thus demonstrated the feasibility of high-throughput protein arrays in the proteomic analysis of human breast tissue. We hypothesize that the use of protein arrays will not only increase our understanding of the molecular events, but could prove useful in evaluating prognosis and in determining optimal

  19. Dynamic modeling of breast tissue with application of model reference adaptive system identification technique based on clinical robot-assisted palpation.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, M; Mojra, A

    2015-11-01

    Accurate identification of breast tissue's dynamic behavior in physical examination is critical to successful diagnosis and treatment. In this study a model reference adaptive system identification (MRAS) algorithm is utilized to estimate the dynamic behavior of breast tissue from mechanical stress-strain datasets. A robot-assisted device (Robo-Tac-BMI) is going to mimic physical palpation on a 45 year old woman having a benign mass in the left breast. Stress-strain datasets will be collected over 14 regions of both breasts in a specific period of time. Then, a 2nd order linear model is adapted to the experimental datasets. It was confirmed that a unique dynamic model with maximum error about 0.89% is descriptive of the breast tissue behavior meanwhile mass detection may be achieved by 56.1% difference from the normal tissue. PMID:26275489

  20. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Breast Muscle Tissues from High or Low Levels of Atmospheric Ammonia Exposed Broilers (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Yi, Bao; Chen, Liang; Sa, Renna; Zhong, Ruqing; Xing, Huan; Zhang, Hongfu

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia is a common problem in poultry industry. High concentrations of aerial ammonia cause great harm to broilers' health and production. For the consideration of human health, the limit exposure concentration of ammonia in houses is set at 25 ppm. Previous reports have shown that 25 ppm is still detrimental to livestock, especially the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract, but the negative relationship between ammonia exposure and the tissue of breast muscle of broilers is still unknown. In the present study, 25 ppm ammonia in poultry houses was found to lower slaughter performance and breast yield. Then, high-throughput RNA sequencing was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in breast muscle of broiler chickens exposed to high (25 ppm) or low (3 ppm) levels of atmospheric ammonia. The transcriptome analysis showed that 163 genes (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ 0.5; P-value < 0.05) were differentially expressed between Ammonia25 (treatment group) and Ammonia3 (control group), including 96 down-regulated and 67 up-regulated genes. qRT-PCR analysis validated the transcriptomic results of RNA sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation analysis revealed potential genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in growth and development inhibition of breast muscle in broilers caused by aerial ammonia exposure. This study facilitates understanding of the genetic architecture of the chicken breast muscle transcriptome, and has identified candidate genes for breast muscle response to atmospheric ammonia exposure. PMID:27611572

  1. Associations between genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism and LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Adana A M; Marian, Catalin; Brasky, Theodore M; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B; Makambi, Kepher H; Spear, Scott L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is an early event in the carcinogenic process. Percent methylation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a biomarker of genome-wide methylation and is a potential biomarker for breast cancer. Understanding factors associated with percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal tissues could provide insight into early stages of carcinogenesis. In a cross-sectional study of 121 healthy women with no prior history of cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we examined associations between plasma and breast folate, genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism, and percent LINE-1 methylation using multivariable regression models (adjusting for race, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol use). Results are expressed as the ratio of LINE-1 methylation relative to that of the referent group, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found no significant associations between plasma or breast folate and percent LINE-1 methylation. Variation in MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR were significantly associated with percent LINE-1 methylation. Variant allele carriers of MTHFR A1289C had 4% lower LINE-1 methylation (Ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.98), while variant allele carriers of MTR A2756G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) and MTRR A66G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) had 3% higher LINE-1 methylation, compared to those carrying the more common genotypes of these SNPs. DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in histologically normal breast tissues is influenced by polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Future studies are needed to investigate the sociodemographic, environmental and additional genetic determinants of DNA methylation in breast tissues and the impact on breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:26090795

  2. Intraoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tissues by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine classification

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peirong; Zhang, Weitao; Zhao, Hongmei; Lei, Yutao; Cui, Long; Wang, Wei; Li, Qingbo; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Yuanfu; Xu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has shown its unique advantages in distinguishing cancerous tissue from normal one. The aim of this study was to establish a quick and accurate diagnostic method of FTIR spectroscopy to differentiate malignancies from benign breast tissues intraoperatively. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 100 breast tissue samples obtained from 100 patients were taken on surgery. All tissue samples were scanned for spectra intraoperatively before being processed for histopathological diagnosis. Standard normal variate (SNV) method was adopted to reduce scatter effects. Support vector machine (SVM) classification was used to discriminate spectra between malignant and benign breast tissues. Leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) was used to evaluate the discrimination. Results: According to histopathological examination, 50 cases were diagnosed as fibroadenoma and 50 cases as invasive ductal carcinoma. The results of SVM algorithm showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of this method are 90.0%, 98.0% and 94.0%, respectively. Conclusions: FTIR spectroscopy technique in combination with SVM classification could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to differentiate malignant from benign tumors during operation. Our studies establish the feasibility of FTIR spectroscopy with chemometrics method to guide surgeons during the surgery as an effective supplement for pathological diagnosis on frozen section. PMID:25785083

  3. A 'waterfall' transfer-based workflow for improved quality of tissue microarray construction and processing in breast cancer research.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, M; Alkemade, H; Bünger, S; Ernst, F; Thorns, C; Braunschweig, T; Habermann, J K

    2014-07-01

    A major focus in cancer research is the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis, therapy prediction and prognosis. Hereby, validation of target proteins on clinical samples is of high importance. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent an essential advancement for high-throughput analysis by assembling large numbers of tissue cores with high efficacy and comparability. However, limitations along TMA construction and processing exist. In our presented study, we had to overcome several obstacles in the construction and processing of high-density breast cancer TMAs to ensure good quality sections for further research. Exemplarily, 406 breast tissue cores from formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded samples of 245 patients were placed onto three recipient paraffin blocks. Sectioning was performed using a rotary microtome with a "waterfall" automated transfer system. Sections were stained by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for nine proteins. The number and quality of cores after sectioning and staining was counted manually for each marker. In total, 97.1 % of all cores were available after sectioning, while further 96 % of the remaining cores were evaluable after staining. Thereby, normal tissue cores were more often lost compared to tumor tissue cores. Our workflow provides a robust method for manufacturing high-density breast cancer TMAs for subsequent IHC or IF staining without significant sample loss. PMID:24619867

  4. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: the tubular breast cancer pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue areas within paraffin blocks: no utilities have been developed for the identification of areas to be punched from the donor block and assembled in the recipient block. Results The presented work supports, in the specific case of a primary subtype of breast cancer (tubular breast cancer), the semi-automatic discrimination and localization between normal and pathological regions within the tissues. The diagnosis is performed by analysing specific morphological features of the sample such as the absence of a double layer of cells around the lumen and the decay of a regular glands-and-lobules structure. These features are analysed using an algorithm which performs the extraction of morphological parameters from images and compares them to experimentally validated threshold values. Results are satisfactory since in most of the cases the automatic diagnosis matches the response of the pathologists. In particular, on a total of 1296 sub-images showing normal and pathological areas of breast specimens, algorithm accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are respectively 89%, 84% and 94%. Conclusions The proposed work is a first attempt to demonstrate that automation in the Tissue MicroArray field is feasible and it can represent an important tool for scientists to cope with this high-throughput technique. PMID:21087464

  5. The Potential of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy in the Pathologic Analysis of Resected Breast and Lymph Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dashevsky, Brittany Z.; D'Alfonso, Timothy; Sutton, Elizabeth J.; Giambrone, Ashley; Aronowitz, Eric; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Juluru, Krishna; Ballon, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic evaluation of breast specimens requires a fixation and staining procedure of at least 12 hours duration, delaying diagnosis and post-operative planning. Here we introduce an MRI technique with a custom-designed radiofrequency resonator for imaging breast and lymph tissue with sufficient spatial resolution and speed to guide pathologic interpretation and offer value in clinical decision making. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to image breast and lymphatic tissue using 7.0 Tesla MRI, achieving a spatial resolution of 59 × 59 × 94 μm3 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 15–20, in an imaging time of 56 to 70 minutes. These are the first MR images to reveal characteristic pathologic features of both benign and malignant breast and lymph tissue, some of which were discernible by blinded pathologists who had no prior training in high resolution MRI interpretation. PMID:26639673

  6. The Potential of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy in the Pathologic Analysis of Resected Breast and Lymph Tissue.

    PubMed

    Dashevsky, Brittany Z; D'Alfonso, Timothy; Sutton, Elizabeth J; Giambrone, Ashley; Aronowitz, Eric; Morris, Elizabeth A; Juluru, Krishna; Ballon, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic evaluation of breast specimens requires a fixation and staining procedure of at least 12 hours duration, delaying diagnosis and post-operative planning. Here we introduce an MRI technique with a custom-designed radiofrequency resonator for imaging breast and lymph tissue with sufficient spatial resolution and speed to guide pathologic interpretation and offer value in clinical decision making. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to image breast and lymphatic tissue using 7.0 Tesla MRI, achieving a spatial resolution of 59 × 59 × 94 μm(3) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 15-20, in an imaging time of 56 to 70 minutes. These are the first MR images to reveal characteristic pathologic features of both benign and malignant breast and lymph tissue, some of which were discernible by blinded pathologists who had no prior training in high resolution MRI interpretation. PMID:26639673

  7. Astronomical algorithms for automated analysis of tissue protein expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, H R; Irwin, M; Morris, L; Dawson, S-J; Blows, F M; Provenzano, E; Mahler-Araujo, B; Pharoah, P D; Walton, N A; Brenton, J D; Caldas, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-throughput evaluation of tissue biomarkers in oncology has been greatly accelerated by the widespread use of tissue microarrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry. Although TMAs have the potential to facilitate protein expression profiling on a scale to rival experiments of tumour transcriptomes, the bottleneck and imprecision of manually scoring TMAs has impeded progress. Methods: We report image analysis algorithms adapted from astronomy for the precise automated analysis of IHC in all subcellular compartments. The power of this technique is demonstrated using over 2000 breast tumours and comparing quantitative automated scores against manual assessment by pathologists. Results: All continuous automated scores showed good correlation with their corresponding ordinal manual scores. For oestrogen receptor (ER), the correlation was 0.82, P<0.0001, for BCL2 0.72, P<0.0001 and for HER2 0.62, P<0.0001. Automated scores showed excellent concordance with manual scores for the unsupervised assignment of cases to ‘positive' or ‘negative' categories with agreement rates of up to 96%. Conclusion: The adaptation of astronomical algorithms coupled with their application to large annotated study cohorts, constitutes a powerful tool for the realisation of the enormous potential of digital pathology. PMID:23329232

  8. Delayed massive soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m MDP after radiation therapy for cancer of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Steuart, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    A patient with a history of breast cancer and known lung metastases was referred for a bone scan to investigate the cause of severe neck and right shoulder pain. The bone scan showed massive uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the soft tissue surrounding the right shoulder. A review of the patient`s history indicated that the patient had undergone radiation therapy to the right upper thorax and breast area 14 months previously and an acute radiation dermatitis of the proximal right arm and shoulder had developed. This had long since resolved. Physical examination and plain radiographs of the right shoulder and humerus failed to demonstrated any abnormality. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Lars A; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mituś, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; Śrutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ryś, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P

    2015-10-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1-14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  10. Signatures of post-zygotic structural genetic aberrations in the cells of histologically normal breast tissue that can predispose to sporadic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lars A.; Rasi, Chiara; Pekar, Gyula; Davies, Hanna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Absher, Devin; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin; Kruczak, Anna; Mandava, Geeta; Pasupulati, Saichand; Hacker, Julia; Prakash, K. Reddy; Dasari, Ravi Chandra; Lau, Joey; Penagos-Tafurt, Nelly; Olofsson, Helena M.; Hallberg, Gunilla; Skotnicki, Piotr; Mituś, Jerzy; Skokowski, Jaroslaw; Jankowski, Michal; Śrutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Ryś, Janusz; Tot, Tibor; Dumanski, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer (SBC) is a common disease without robust means of early risk prediction in the population. We studied 282 females with SBC, focusing on copy number aberrations in cancer-free breast tissue (uninvolved margin, UM) outside the primary tumor (PT). In total, 1162 UMs (1–14 per breast) were studied. Comparative analysis between UM(s), PT(s), and blood/skin from the same patient as a control is the core of the study design. We identified 108 patients with at least one aberrant UM, representing 38.3% of cases. Gains in gene copy number were the principal type of mutations in microscopically normal breast cells, suggesting that oncogenic activation of genes via increased gene copy number is a predominant mechanism for initiation of SBC pathogenesis. The gain of ERBB2, with overexpression of HER2 protein, was the most common aberration in normal cells. Five additional growth factor receptor genes (EGFR, FGFR1, IGF1R, LIFR, and NGFR) also showed recurrent gains, and these were occasionally present in combination with the gain of ERBB2. All the aberrations found in the normal breast cells were previously described in cancer literature, suggesting their causative, driving role in pathogenesis of SBC. We demonstrate that analysis of normal cells from cancer patients leads to identification of signatures that may increase risk of SBC and our results could influence the choice of surgical intervention to remove all predisposing cells. Early detection of copy number gains suggesting a predisposition toward cancer development, long before detectable tumors are formed, is a key to the anticipated shift into a preventive paradigm of personalized medicine for breast cancer. PMID:26430163

  11. Use of Finite Difference Time Domain Simulations and Debye Theory for Modelling the Terahertz Reflection Response of Normal and Tumour Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Wallace, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capabilities of Debye theory combined with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods to simulate the terahertz (THz) response of breast tissues. Being able to accurately model breast tissues in the THz regime would facilitate the understanding of image contrast parameters used in THz imaging of breast cancer. As a test case, the model was first validated using liquid water and simulated reflection pulses were compared to experimental measured pulses with very good agreement (p = 1.00). The responses of normal and cancerous breast tissues were simulated with Debye properties and the correlation with measured data was still high for tumour (p = 0.98) and less so for normal breast (p = 0.82). Sections of the time domain pulses showed clear differences that were also evident in the comparison of pulse parameter values. These deviations may arise from the presence of adipose and other inhomogeneities in the breast tissue that are not accounted for when using the Debye model. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the power of the model for simulating THz reflection imaging; however, for biological tissues extra Debye terms or a more detailed theory may be required to link THz image contrast to physiological composition and structural changes of breast tissue associated with differences between normal and tumour tissues. PMID:25010734

  12. Application of computer-extracted breast tissue texture features in predicting false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shonket; Choi, Jae Y.; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Mammographic texture features have been shown to have value in breast cancer risk assessment. Previous models have also been developed that use computer-extracted mammographic features of breast tissue complexity to predict the risk of false-positive (FP) recall from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. This work details a novel locallyadaptive parenchymal texture analysis algorithm that identifies and extracts mammographic features of local parenchymal tissue complexity potentially relevant for false-positive biopsy prediction. This algorithm has two important aspects: (1) the adaptive nature of automatically determining an optimal number of region-of-interests (ROIs) in the image and each ROI's corresponding size based on the parenchymal tissue distribution over the whole breast region and (2) characterizing both the local and global mammographic appearances of the parenchymal tissue that could provide more discriminative information for FP biopsy risk prediction. Preliminary results show that this locallyadaptive texture analysis algorithm, in conjunction with logistic regression, can predict the likelihood of false-positive biopsy with an ROC performance value of AUC=0.92 (p<0.001) with a 95% confidence interval [0.77, 0.94]. Significant texture feature predictors (p<0.05) included contrast, sum variance and difference average. Sensitivity for false-positives was 51% at the 100% cancer detection operating point. Although preliminary, clinical implications of using prediction models incorporating these texture features may include the future development of better tools and guidelines regarding personalized breast cancer screening recommendations. Further studies are warranted to prospectively validate our findings in larger screening populations and evaluate their clinical utility.

  13. Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Gregory M.; Zhu, Changfang; Breslin, Tara M.; Xu, Fushen; Gilchrist, Kennedy W.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2006-02-01

    The Monte Carlo-based inverse model of diffuse reflectance described in part I of this pair of companion papers was applied to the diffuse reflectance spectra of a set of 17 malignant and 24 normal-benign ex vivo human breast tissue samples. This model allows extraction of physically meaningful tissue parameters, which include the concentration of absorbers and the size and density of scatterers present in tissue. It was assumed that intrinsic absorption could be attributed to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and beta-carotene, that scattering could be modeled by spheres of a uniform size distribution, and that the refractive indices of the spheres and the surrounding medium are known. The tissue diffuse reflectance spectra were evaluated over a wavelength range of 400-600 nm. The extracted parameters that showed the statistically most significant differences between malignant and nonmalignant breast tissues were hemoglobin saturation and the mean reduced scattering coefficient. Malignant tissues showed decreased hemoglobin saturation and an increased mean reduced scattering coefficient compared with nonmalignant tissues. A support vector machine classification algorithm was then used to classify a sample as malignant or nonmalignant based on these two extracted parameters and produced a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 92%, respectively.

  14. Aberrant Expression of Breast Development-Related MicroRNAs, miR-22, miR-132, and miR-212, in Breast Tumor Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Damavandi, Zahra; Torkashvand, Safoora; Vasei, Mohammad; Soltani, Bahram M.; Tavallaei, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Purpose MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a major class of small endogenous RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of most genes in the human genome. miRNAs are often located in chromosomal fragile sites, which are suscept-ible to amplification or deletion. Chromosomal deletions are frequent events in breast cancer cells. Deletion and loss of heterozygosity at 17p13.3 have been reported in 49% of breast cancers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential expression alterations of miR-22, miR-132, and miR-212, which are located on the 17p13.3 locus and are required for mammary gland development. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted, which included 36 pairs of tumor and matched nontumor surgical specimens from patients diagnosed with breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from archival collections at the pathology department of Shariati Hospital were prepared for RNA extraction using the xylene-ethanol method before total RNA was isolated with TRIzol Reagent. Specific primers were designed for cDNA synthesis and miRNA amplification. The expression of miRNAs was then evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results According to our RT-PCR data, the miR-212/miR-132 family was downregulated in breast cancer (0.328-fold, p<0.001), and this reduced expression was the most prominent in high-grade tumors. In contrast, miR-22 exhibited a significant upregulation in breast tumor samples (2.183-fold, p=0.040). Conclusion Consistent with the frequent deletion of the 17p13.3 locus in breast tumor cells, our gene expression data demonstrated a significant downregulation of miR-212 and miR-132 in breast cancer tissues. In contrast, we observed a significant upregulation of miR-22 in breast tumor samples. The latter conflicting result may have been due to the upregulation of miR-22 in stromal/cancer-associated fibroblasts, rather than in the tumor cells. PMID:27382390

  15. miRNA-218 contributes to the regulation of D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase expression in normal and tumor breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Prudnikova, Tatiana Y.; Mostovich, Luydmila A.; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Ernberg, Ingemar; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.; Grigorieva, Elvira V.

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. In the present study, regulation of tumor-suppressor gene D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) by miRNA-218 was investigated. Significant downregulation of miRNA-218 expression was shown in primary breast tumors. Exogenous miRNA-218/anti-miRNA-218 did not affect GLCE mRNA but regulated GLCE protein level in MCF7 breast carcinoma cells in vitro. Comparative analysis showed a positive correlation between miRNA-218 and GLCE mRNA, and negative correlation between miRNA-218 and GLCE protein levels in breast tissues and primary tumors in vivo, supporting a direct involvement of miRNA-218 in posttranscriptional regulation of GLCE in human breast tissue. A common scheme for the regulation of GLCE expression in normal and tumor breast tissues is suggested. PMID:22968430

  16. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Methods Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. Results MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43%) and malignant (3-17%) breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors. PMID

  17. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  18. Addressing the Potential Need for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting After Free Tissue Transfer for Breast Reconstruction: An Algorithmic Approach.

    PubMed

    Maher, Janae L; Mahabir, Raman C; Roehl, Kendall R

    2015-08-01

    The number one cause of death in American women is heart disease. Studies have clearly shown the superiority of internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts for coronary revascularization over other conduits or intracoronary techniques. Our goal was to design an algorithm for recipient vessel selection in patients undergoing free tissue transfer breast reconstruction.A review of the literature was performed to identify potential evidence to contribute to a best-practice guideline. The lack of high-level evidence led us to create a guideline based on a workgroup consensus, expert opinion, cadaveric studies, and case reports.As we operate on older patient populations, the need for IMA use for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) after autologous breast reconstruction may arise more frequently. We discuss the current literature regarding recipient vessel choices and level of recipient vessel harvest in free flap breast reconstruction to help continually evolve the practices of our specialty to the potential future needs of our patients. We also present a best-practice decision algorithm for vessel selection and harvest, as well as a sample case of CABG using the left IMA 35 days after previous autologous breast reconstruction using the left IMA.As the number of patients we operate on who may later require their IMA for CABG increases, so too must our understanding of the implications of our selection of recipient vessels for free autologous breast reconstruction. PMID:26165568

  19. Pre-operative simulation and post-operative validation of soft-tissue deformations for breast implantation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roose, Liesbet; De Maerteleire, Wim; Mollemans, Wouter; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Virtual surgery simulation plays an increasingly important role as a planning aid for the surgeon. A reliable simulation method to predict the surgical outcome of breast reconstruction and breast augmentation procedures does not yet exist. However, a method to pre-operatively assess the result of the procedure would be useful to ensure a symmetrical and naturally looking result, and could be a practical means of communication with the patient. In this paper, we present a basic framework to simulate a subglandular breast implantation. First, we propose a method to build a model of the patient's anatomy, based on a 3D picture of the skin surface in combination with thickness estimates of the soft tissue surrounding the breast. This approach is cheap, fast and the picture can be taken while the patient is standing upright, which makes it advantageous compared to conventional CTor MR-based methods. Second, a set of boundary conditions is defined to mimic the effect of the implant. Finally, we compute the new equilibrium geometry using the iterative FEM-based Mass Tensor Method, which is computationally more effcient than the traditional FEM approach since sufficient precision can be achieved with a limited number of iterations. We illustrate our approach with a preliminary validation study on 4 patients. We obtain promising results with a mean error between the simulated and the true post-operative breast geometry below 4 mm and maximal error below 10 mm, which is found to be sufficiently accurate for visual assessment in clinical practice.

  20. Quantitative microscopic evaluation of mucin areas and its percentage in mucinous carcinoma of the breast using tissue histological images.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Arun, Indu; Basak, Bijan; Agarwal, Sanjit; Ahmed, Rosina; Chatterjee, Sanjoy; Bhargava, Rohit; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    Mucinous carcinoma (MC) of the breast is very rare (∼1-7% of all breast cancers), invasive ductal carcinoma. Presence of pools of extracellular mucin is one of the most important histological features for MC. This paper aims at developing a quantitative computer-aided methodology for automated identification of mucin areas and its percentage using tissue histological images. The proposed method includes pre-processing (i.e., colour space transformation and colour normalization), mucin regions segmentation, post-processing, and performance evaluation. The proposed algorithm achieved 97.74% segmentation accuracy in comparison to ground truths. In addition, the percentage of mucin present in the tissue regions is calculated by the mucin index (MI) for grading MC (pure, moderately, minimally mucinous). PMID:26971129

  1. Long Non-Coding RNAs Differentially Expressed between Normal versus Primary Breast Tumor Tissues Disclose Converse Changes to Breast Cancer-Related Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reiche, Kristin; Kasack, Katharina; Schreiber, Stephan; Lüders, Torben; Due, Eldri U.; Naume, Bjørn; Riis, Margit; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Horn, Friedemann; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hackermüller, Jörg; Baumbusch, Lars O.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in women, is a highly heterogeneous disease, characterized by distinct genomic and transcriptomic profiles. Transcriptome analyses prevalently assessed protein-coding genes; however, the majority of the mammalian genome is expressed in numerous non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence supports that many of these non-coding RNAs are specifically expressed during development, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. The focus of this study was to investigate the expression features and molecular characteristics of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in breast cancer. We investigated 26 breast tumor and 5 normal tissue samples utilizing a custom expression microarray enclosing probes for mRNAs as well as novel and previously identified lncRNAs. We identified more than 19,000 unique regions significantly differentially expressed between normal versus breast tumor tissue, half of these regions were non-coding without any evidence for functional open reading frames or sequence similarity to known proteins. The identified non-coding regions were primarily located in introns (53%) or in the intergenic space (33%), frequently orientated in antisense-direction of protein-coding genes (14%), and commonly distributed at promoter-, transcription factor binding-, or enhancer-sites. Analyzing the most diverse mRNA breast cancer subtypes Basal-like versus Luminal A and B resulted in 3,025 significantly differentially expressed unique loci, including 682 (23%) for non-coding transcripts. A notable number of differentially expressed protein-coding genes displayed non-synonymous expression changes compared to their nearest differentially expressed lncRNA, including an antisense lncRNA strongly anticorrelated to the mRNA coding for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), which was investigated in more detail. Previously identified chromatin-associated lncRNAs (CARs) were predominantly downregulated in breast tumor samples, including CARs located in the

  2. Accessories to Limb Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanchao; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-05-23

    In a recent issue of Nature, Nacu et al. (2016) identified FGF and HH ligands as interacting molecular influences that are necessary and sufficient to induce the formation of supernumerary limbs from blastemal tissue in axolotl salamanders. PMID:27219058

  3. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF BREAST INVASIVE CARCINOMA VIA TRANSFERABLE TISSUE MORPHOMETRIC PATTERNS LEARNED FROM GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ju; Fontenay, Gerald V.; Wang, Yunfu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of whole slide images (WSIs) in a large cohort may provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., fixation, staining) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. Although unsupervised feature learning provides a promising way in learning pertinent features without human intervention, its capability can be greatly limited due to the lack of well-curated examples. In this paper, we explored the transferability of knowledge acquired from a well-curated Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) dataset through its application to the representation and characterization of tissue histology from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Breast Invasive Carcinoma (BRCA) cohort. Our experimental results reveals two major phenotypic subtypes with statistically significantly different survival curves. Further differential expression analysis of these two subtypes indicates enrichment of genes regulated by NF-kB in response to TNF and genes up-regulated in response to IFNG. PMID:27390615

  4. Mammosphere formation assay from human breast cancer tissues and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Ylenia; de Giorgio, Alexander; Coombes, Charles R; Stebbing, Justin; Castellano, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Similar to healthy tissues, many blood and solid malignancies are now thought to be organised hierarchically, with a subset of stem-like cancer cells that self-renew while giving rise to more differentiated progeny. Understanding and targeting these cancer stem cells in breast cancer, which may possess enhanced chemo- and radio-resistance compared to the non-stem tumor bulk, has become an important research area. Markers including CD44, CD24, and ALDH activity can be assessed using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to prospectively isolate cells that display enhanced tumorigenicity when implanted into immunocompromised mice: the mammosphere assay has also become widely used for its ability to retrospectively identify sphere-forming cells that develop from single stem cell-like clones. Here we outline approaches for the appropriate culturing of mammospheres from cell lines or primary patient samples, their passaging, and calculations to estimate sphere forming efficiency (SFE). First we discuss key considerations and pitfalls in the appropriate planning and interpretation of mammosphere experiments. PMID:25867607

  5. Novel in situ liquefying antimicrobial wrap for preventing tissue expander infections following breast reconstructive surgeries.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Joel; Viola, George M; Reitzel, Ruth A; Jamal, Mohamed A; Crosby, Melissa A; Raad, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Breast reconstruction surgeries using tissue expanders (TEs) have highly reported infection rates. To decrease this, we developed a method for disinfecting TEs and surgical pockets, where an antimicrobial solution was applied as a solid film at implantation that subsequently liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Silicone discs cut from TEs were covered with gelatin-based films containing minocycline (M) and rifampin (R). Discs and films soaked in saline were subsequently challenged with pathogen at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 and quantified for potential biofilm formation. Discs that were not harvested at each specific time points were refreshed with sterile saline. The discs were challenged with clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA). Recoveries of adherent organisms from uncovered silicone discs and gelatin-wrapped discs without added antimicrobial agents were >5 × 10(4) CFU/disc for each organism at each time point. Experimental 0.1%M/0.05%R gelatin films completely inhibited all challenge organisms from attaching to the silicone (p < 0.05) at each time point through day 10. Cytotoxicity was assessed by incubating films with HEK-293T human fibroblasts. There were no significant differences in HEK-293T cell survival between controls and any of the antimicrobial films. The in situ liquefying, bioabsorable, antimicrobial wrap prevented biofilm formation by microorganisms on silicone surfaces in vitro with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:25809618

  6. Critical roles of specimen type and temperature before and during fixation in the detection of phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Gündisch, Sibylle; Annaratone, Laura; Beese, Christian; Drecol, Enken; Marchiò, Caterina; Quaglino, Elena; Sapino, Anna; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Bussolati, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    The most efficient approach for therapy selection to inhibit the deregulated kinases in cancer tissues is to measure their phosphorylation status prior to the treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of pre-analytical parameters (cold ischemia time, temperature before and during tissue fixation, and sample type) on the levels of proteins and phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues, focusing on the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. The BALB-neuT mouse breast cancer model expressing HER2 and pAKT proteins and human biopsy and resection specimens were analyzed. By using quantitative reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA), 9 proteins and 16 phosphoproteins relevant to breast cancer biology were assessed. Cold temperatures before and during fixation resulted in a marked improvement in the preservation of the reactivity of biological markers (eg, ER, HER2) in general and, specifically, pHER2 and pAKT. Some phosphoproteins, eg, pHER2 and pAKT, were more sensitive to prolonged cold ischemia times than others (eg, pS6RP and pSTAT5). By comparing the phosphoprotein levels in core needle biopsies with those in resection specimens, we found a marked decrease in many phosphoproteins in the latter. Cold conditions can improve the preservation of proteins and phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues. Biopsies ≤ 1 mm in size are the preferred sample type for assessing the activity of deregulated kinases for personalized cancer treatments because the phosphoprotein levels are better preserved compared with resection specimens. Each potential new (phospho)protein biomarker should be tested for its sensitivity to pre-analytical processing prior to the development of a diagnostic assay. PMID:25730369

  7. An Unsupervised MVA Method to Compare Specific Regions in Human Breast Tumor Tissue Samples Using ToF-SIMS

    PubMed Central

    Bluestein, Blake M.; Morrish, Fionnuala; Graham, Daniel J.; Guenthoer, Jamie; Hockenbery, David; Porter, Peggy; Gamble, Lara J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate two sets of pre- and post-chemotherapy human breast tumor tissue sections to characterize lipids associated with tumor metabolic flexibility and response to treatment. The micron spatial resolution imaging capability of ToF-SIMS provides a powerful approach to attain spatially-resolved molecular and cellular data from cancerous tissues not available with conventional imaging techniques. Three ca. 1 mm2 areas per tissue section were analyzed by stitching together 200 μm × 200 μm raster area scans. A method to isolate and analyze specific tissue regions of interest by utilizing PCA of ToF-SIMS images is presented, which allowed separation of cellularized areas from stromal areas. These PCA-generated regions of interest were then used as masks to reconstruct representative spectra from specifically stromal or cellular regions. The advantage of this unsupervised selection method is a reduction in scatter in the spectral PCA results when compared to analyzing all tissue areas or analyzing areas highlighted by a pathologist. Utilizing this method, stromal and cellular regions of breast tissue biopsies taken pre- versus post-chemotherapy demonstrate chemical separation using negatively-charged ion species. In this sample set, the cellular regions were predominantly all cancer cells. Fatty acids (i.e. palmitic, oleic, and stearic), monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and vitamin E profiles were distinctively different between the pre- and post-therapy tissues. These results validate a new unsupervised method to isolate and interpret biochemically distinct regions in cancer tissues using imaging ToF-SIMS data. In addition, the method developed here can provide a framework to compare a variety of tissue samples using imaging ToF-SIMS, especially where there is section-to-section variability that makes it difficult to use a serial hematoxylin and

  8. An unsupervised MVA method to compare specific regions in human breast tumor tissue samples using ToF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, Blake M; Morrish, Fionnuala; Graham, Daniel J; Guenthoer, Jamie; Hockenbery, David; Porter, Peggy L; Gamble, Lara J

    2016-03-21

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate two sets of pre- and post-chemotherapy human breast tumor tissue sections to characterize lipids associated with tumor metabolic flexibility and response to treatment. The micron spatial resolution imaging capability of ToF-SIMS provides a powerful approach to attain spatially-resolved molecular and cellular data from cancerous tissues not available with conventional imaging techniques. Three ca. 1 mm(2) areas per tissue section were analyzed by stitching together 200 μm × 200 μm raster area scans. A method to isolate and analyze specific tissue regions of interest by utilizing PCA of ToF-SIMS images is presented, which allowed separation of cellularized areas from stromal areas. These PCA-generated regions of interest were then used as masks to reconstruct representative spectra from specifically stromal or cellular regions. The advantage of this unsupervised selection method is a reduction in scatter in the spectral PCA results when compared to analyzing all tissue areas or analyzing areas highlighted by a pathologist. Utilizing this method, stromal and cellular regions of breast tissue biopsies taken pre- versus post-chemotherapy demonstrate chemical separation using negatively-charged ion species. In this sample set, the cellular regions were predominantly all cancer cells. Fatty acids (i.e. palmitic, oleic, and stearic), monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and vitamin E profiles were distinctively different between the pre- and post-therapy tissues. These results validate a new unsupervised method to isolate and interpret biochemically distinct regions in cancer tissues using imaging ToF-SIMS data. In addition, the method developed here can provide a framework to compare a variety of tissue samples using imaging ToF-SIMS, especially where there is section-to-section variability that makes it difficult to use a serial hematoxylin

  9. Accurate sensitivity of quantum dots for detection of HER2 expression in breast cancer cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei-Panah, Akram-Sadat; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Ghods, Roya; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mojtabavi, Nazanin; Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Reza; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Shojaeian, Sorour; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Here we introduce novel optical properties and accurate sensitivity of Quantum dot (QD)-based detection system for tracking the breast cancer marker, HER2. QD525 was used to detect HER2 using home-made HER2-specific monoclonal antibodies in fixed and living HER2(+) SKBR-3 cell line and breast cancer tissues. Additionally, we compared fluorescence intensity (FI), photostability and staining index (SI) of QD525 signals at different exposure times and two excitation wavelengths with those of the conventional organic dye, FITC. Labeling signals of QD525 in both fixed and living breast cancer cells and tissue preparations were found to be significantly higher than those of FITC at 460-495 nm excitation wavelengths. Interestingly, when excited at 330-385 nm, the superiority of QD525 was more highlighted with at least 4-5 fold higher FI and SI compared to FITC. Moreover, QDs exhibited exceptional photostability during continuous illumination of cancerous cells and tissues, while FITC signal faded very quickly. QDs can be used as sensitive reporters for in situ detection of tumor markers which in turn could be viewed as a novel approach for early detection of cancers. To take comprehensive advantage of QDs, it is necessary that their optimal excitation wavelength is employed. PMID:23212129

  10. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  11. Extranodal manifestation of Rosai-Dorfman disease in the breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiao; Ansari, Umer; Keshav, Nandan; Davis, Fiona; Cundiff, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A 71-year-old asymptomatic female with a history of breast cancer status after right total mastectomy had interval development of several new nodules in the left breast in a 1-year time span. Stereotactic biopsy was performed, which revealed multifocal Rosai Dorfman disease in the left breast. The patient was referred to hematology, and computed tomography of the chest/abdomen/pelvis did not demonstrate any lymphadenopathy elsewhere in the body. This case report discusses incidences of extranodal Rosai Dorfman disease and the differential for breast lesions that can present the same way. PMID:27594932

  12. Quantitative 3D breast magnetic resonance imaging fibroglandular tissue analysis and correlation with qualitative assessments: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) has been linked to breast cancer risk based on mammographic density studies. Currently, the qualitative assessment of FGT on mammogram (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prone to intra and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to develop an objective quantitative FGT measurement tool for breast MRI that could provide significant clinical value. Methods An IRB approved study was performed. Sixty breast MRI cases with qualitative assessment of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT were randomly selected for quantitative analysis from routine breast MRIs performed at our institution from 1/2013 to 12/2014. Blinded to the qualitative data, whole breast and FGT contours were delineated on T1-weighted pre contrast sagittal images using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm which combines the region-based active contours and a level set approach. FGT (%) was calculated by: [segmented volume of FGT (mm3)/(segmented volume of whole breast (mm3)] ×100. Statistical correlation analysis was performed between quantified FGT (%) on MRI and qualitative assessments of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT. Results There was a significant positive correlation between quantitative MRI FGT assessment and qualitative MRI FGT (r=0.809, n=60, P<0.001) and mammographic density assessment (r=0.805, n=60, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between qualitative MRI FGT assessment and mammographic density assessment (r=0.725, n=60, P<0.001). The four qualitative assessment categories of FGT correlated with the calculated mean quantitative FGT (%) of 4.61% (95% CI, 0–12.3%), 8.74% (7.3–10.2%), 18.1% (15.1–21.1%), 37.4% (29.5–45.3%). Conclusions Quantitative measures of FGT (%) were computed with data derived from breast MRI and correlated significantly with conventional qualitative assessments. This quantitative technique may prove to be a valuable tool in clinical use by

  13. Ultrafast dynamics and Raman imaging of metal complexes of tetrasulphonated phthalocyanines in human cancerous and noncancerous breast tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramczyk, H.; Jarota, A.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Tondusson, M.; Freysz, E.; Musial, J.; Kordek, R.

    2013-03-01

    A promising material in medicine, electronics, optoelectronics, electrochemistry, catalysis and photophysics, Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4) is investigated at biological interfaces of human breast tissue by means of time-resolved spectroscopy. The nature of fast processes and pathways of the competing relaxation mechanisms from the initially excited electronic states of a photosensitizer at biological interfaces have been studied. Comparison between the results in the biological environment of the breast tissues and in aqueous solutions demonstrates that the photochemical mechanisms become dramatically different. The presented results provide a basis for a substantial revision of the commonly accepted assumption that photochemistry of the bulk properties of photosensitizers in solutions can be translated to the interfacial region. First, in solution the dynamics of the photosensitizer is much slower than that at the biological interface. Second, the dynamics of the photosensitizer in the cancerous tissue is dramatically slower than that in noncancerous tissue. Our results provide evidence that molecular structures responsible for harvesting of the light energy in biological tissue find their ways for a recovery through some special features of the potential energy surfaces such as conical intersections, which facilitate the rate of radiationless transitions and maintain the photostability in the biological systems.

  14. Fibroadenoma in axilla: another manifestation of ectopic breast.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Satyendra K; Kumar, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenoma of an accessory breast is a rare disease. The clinical significance lies in the fact that a number of cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic diseases similar to those of a normal breast have been reported in accessory breasts as well. Vigilant self-assessment and complete clinical examination are always encouraged to detect earliest malignancy in the axilla. We report two cases of ectopic breast fibroadenoma with the relevant literature. PMID:25917072

  15. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  16. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  1. Expression of membrane transporters and metabolic enzymes involved in estrone-3-sulphate disposition in human breast tumour tissues.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nilasha; Miller, Naomi; Allen, Christine; Bendayan, Reina

    2014-06-01

    Two-thirds of newly diagnosed hormone-dependent (HR?) breast cancers are detected in post-menopausal patients where estrone-3-sulphate (E3S) is the predominant source for tumour estradiol. Understanding intra-tumoral fate of E3S would facilitate in the identification of novel molecular targets for HR? post-menopausal breast cancer patients. Hence this study investigates the clinical expression of (i) organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), (ii) multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance proteins (BCRP), and (iii) sulphatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD-1), involved in E3S uptake, efflux and metabolism, respectively. Fluorescent and brightfield images of stained tumour sections (n = 40) were acquired at 4× and 20× magnification, respectively. Marker densities were measured as the total area of positive signal divided by the surface area of the tumour section analysed and was reported as % area (ImageJ software). Tumour, stroma and non-tumour tissue areas were also quantified (Inform software), and the ratio of optical intensity per histologic area was reported as % area/tumour, % area/stroma and % area/non-tumour. Functional role of OATPs and STS was further investigated in HR? (MCF-7, T47-D, ZR-75) and HR-(MDA-MB-231) cells by transport studies conducted in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors. Amongst all the transporters and enzymes, OATPs and STS have significantly (p < 0.0001) higher expression in HR? tumour sections with highest target signals obtained from the tumour regions of the tissues. Specific OATP-mediated E3S uptake and STS-mediated metabolism were also observed in all HR? breast cancer cells. These observations suggest the potential of OATPs as novel molecular targets for HR? breast cancers. PMID:24831777

  2. Quantitative determination of estrone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in subcutaneous adipose tissue from the breast in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vihma, Veera; Wang, Feng; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa; Leidenius, Marjut; Mikkola, Tomi S; Tikkanen, Matti J

    2016-01-01

    Estrone is the most abundant estrogen after the menopause. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) for determination of estrone in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from the breast was collected during elective surgery in postmenopausal women undergoing mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer (n=13) or reduction mammoplasty (controls, n=11). Homogenized adipose tissue was extracted with organic solvents and the estrone fraction was purified by LH-20 column chromatography from the excess of lipids. The concentration of estrone was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was accurate with an intra-assay variation of 8% and an interassay variation of 10%. The median concentration of estrone in subcutaneous adipose tissue from the breast did not differ between breast cancer and control women, 920 pmol/kg and 890 pmol/kg, respectively. In breast cancer patients but not in the controls, breast adipose tissue estrone levels correlated positively with the serum estrone concentration. In conclusion, the new method provides a reliable means to measure estrone concentrations in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women. PMID:26472555

  3. Comparing paraffined and deparaffinized breast cancer tissue samples and an analysis of Raman spectroscopy and infrared methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depciuch, J.; Kaznowska, E.; Szmuc, K.; Zawlik, I.; Cholewa, M.; Heraud, P.; Cebulski, J.

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer makes up a quarter of all cancer in women, which is why research into new diagnostic methods and sample preparations need to be developed at an accelerated pace. Researchers are looking for diagnostic tools to detect when an individual has cancer cells and use that information to see what measurements and approaches can be used to take further diagnostic steps. The most common method of sample preparation is the imbibing of tumor tissue in paraffin, which can produce a background for spectroscopic measurements in the range of 500-3500 cm-1. In this study we demonstrated that proper preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens and the measurement methodology can eliminate paraffin vibration, as was done in the work Depciuch et al. 2015. Thanks to this spectroscopic technique there may become a reliable and accurate method of diagnosing breast cancer based on the evidence found from the prepared samples. The study compared the results obtained through Raman spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements of healthy and cancerous breast tissues that were either embedded in paraffin or deparaffinized. The resulting spectrum and accurate analysis led to the conclusion that the appropriate measurement of the background and the elimination of peaks from the paraffin had the greatest impact on the reliability of results. Furthermore, after the accurate, detailed studies FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on samples of breast tissue that were deparaffinized or embedded in paraffin, including a complete analysis of the peak after transformation Kramers-Kröning (KK), it was found that sample preparation did not affect the result obtained by measuring the reflectance in the mid-infrared range, and that this only had a minimal effect relating to the intensity obtained by the measurement of the Raman peak. Only in special cases, when Raman spectroscopic methods are used for research to find the peculiarities of the spectra, are deparaffinization recommended

  4. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells Promote Migration and Early Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Brian G.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Sheng, Mei; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Jones, Ryan K.; Frazier, Trivia P.; Asher, Majdouline; Lacayo, Eduardo A.; Friedlander, Paul L.; Kutner, Robert; Chiu, Ernest S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting is used to restore breast defects after surgical resection of breast tumors. Supplementing fat grafts with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve the regenerative/restorative ability of the graft and retention. However, long term safety for ASC grafting in proximity of residual breast cancer cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of three donors, on a human breast cancer model that exhibits early metastasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells represents “triple negative” breast cancer that exhibits early micrometastasis to multiple mouse organs [1]. Human ASCs were derived from abdominal adipose tissue from three healthy female donors. Indirect co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with ASCs, as well as direct co-culture demonstrated that ASCs had no effect on MDA-MB-231 growth. Indirect co-culture, and ASC conditioned medium (CM) stimulated migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. ASC/RFP cells from two donors co-injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells exhibited a donor effect for stimulation of primary tumor xenografts. Both ASC donors stimulated metastasis. ASC/RFP cells were viable, and integrated with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells in the tumor. Tumors from the co-injection group of one ASC donor exhibited elevated vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, VEGF and microvessel density. The co-injection group exhibited visible metastases to the lung/liver and enlarged spleen not evident in mice injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP alone. Quantitation of the total area of GFP fluorescence and human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs, H&E stained paraffin sections and fluorescent microscopy confirmed multi-focal metastases to lung/liver/spleen in the co-injection group without evidence of ASC/RFP cells. Conclusions Human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of two donors stimulated metastasis of MDA-MB-231

  5. Immunolocalization and gene expression of oxytocin receptors in carcinomas and non-neoplastic tissues of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, G.; Cassoni, P.; Ghisolfi, G.; Negro, F.; Sapino, A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin (OT), in addition to the induction of myometrial and myoepithelial cell contraction, can influence proliferation and differentiation in developing mammary glands and in breast cancer cells, hence the interest in detecting and locating OT receptors (OTRs). We produced rabbit antisera and a monoclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminus of the predicted OTR sequence. We tested their specificity in immunoblasts and immunocytochemical tests. All of the antibodies specifically stained myometrium (at term of pregnancy). In the human breast, OTRs were detected in myoepithelial cells along ducts of normal lobules and in sclerosing adenosis. Intraductal cells in benign hyperplastic lesions were also positive. OTRs were demonstrated in cases of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the breast. In the same tissues, OTR gene expression was shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedures detecting the specific mRNA. These results suggest that the interaction between OT and its receptors might play a role in the origin and evolution of non-neoplastic lesions and carcinomas of the breast. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8669475

  6. Comparison of Dixon Sequences for Estimation of Percent Breast Fibroglandular Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ledger, Araminta E. W.; Scurr, Erica D.; Hughes, Julie; Macdonald, Alison; Wallace, Toni; Thomas, Karen; Wilson, Robin; Leach, Martin O.; Schmidt, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate sources of error in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurement of percent fibroglandular tissue (%FGT) using two-point Dixon sequences for fat-water separation. Methods Ten female volunteers (median age: 31 yrs, range: 23–50 yrs) gave informed consent following Research Ethics Committee approval. Each volunteer was scanned twice following repositioning to enable an estimation of measurement repeatability from high-resolution gradient-echo (GRE) proton-density (PD)-weighted Dixon sequences. Differences in measures of %FGT attributable to resolution, T1 weighting and sequence type were assessed by comparison of this Dixon sequence with low-resolution GRE PD-weighted Dixon data, and against gradient-echo (GRE) or spin-echo (SE) based T1-weighted Dixon datasets, respectively. Results %FGT measurement from high-resolution PD-weighted Dixon sequences had a coefficient of repeatability of ±4.3%. There was no significant difference in %FGT between high-resolution and low-resolution PD-weighted data. Values of %FGT from GRE and SE T1-weighted data were strongly correlated with that derived from PD-weighted data (r = 0.995 and 0.96, respectively). However, both sequences exhibited higher mean %FGT by 2.9% (p < 0.0001) and 12.6% (p < 0.0001), respectively, in comparison with PD-weighted data; the increase in %FGT from the SE T1-weighted sequence was significantly larger at lower breast densities. Conclusion Although measurement of %FGT at low resolution is feasible, T1 weighting and sequence type impact on the accuracy of Dixon-based %FGT measurements; Dixon MRI protocols for %FGT measurement should be carefully considered, particularly for longitudinal or multi-centre studies. PMID:27011312

  7. Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Residual cancer following breast conserving surgery increases the risk of local recurrence and mortality. Margin assessment presents an unmet clinical need. Breast tissue is markedly heterogeneous, which makes distinguishing small foci of cancer within the spectrum of normal tissue potentially challenging. This is further complicated by the heterogeneity as a function of menopausal status. Optical spectroscopy can provide surgeons with intra-operative diagnostic tools. Here, we evaluate ex-vivo breast tissue and determine which sources of optical contrast have the potential to detect malignancy at the margins in women of differing breast composition. Methods Diffuse reflectance spectra were measured from 595 normal and 38 malignant sites from the margins of 104 partial mastectomy patients. All statistical tests were performed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests. Normal and malignant sites were compared before stratifying the data by tissue type and depth and computing statistical differences. The frequencies of the normal tissue types were separated by menopausal status and compared to the corresponding optical properties. Results The mean reduced scattering coefficient, < μs' >, and concentration of total hemoglobin, [THb]), showed statistical differences between malignant (< μs' > : 8.96 cm-1 ± 2.24MAD, [THb]: 42.70 μM ± 29.31MAD) compared to normal sites (< μs' > : 7.29 cm-1 ± 2.15MAD, [THb]: 32.09 μM ± 16.73MAD) (P < 0.05). The sites stratified according to normal tissue type (fibro-glandular (FG), fibro-adipose (FA), and adipose (A)) or disease type (invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)) showed that FG exhibited increased < μs' > and A showed increased [β-carotene] within normal tissues. Scattering differentiated between most malignant sites, DCIS (9.46 cm-1 ± 1.06MAD) and IDC (8.00 cm-1 ± 1.81MAD), versus A (6.50 cm-1 ± 1.95MAD). [β-carotene] showed marginal differences between DCIS (19.00 μM ± 6.93MAD

  8. Determination of estrogen receptors in paraffin-embedded tissue. Techniques and the value in breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J

    1992-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) analysis in breast cancer has been used in three clinical situations: to select patients with advanced breast cancer for hormonal therapy, as a prognostic parameter, and for selection of women with early breast cancer to adjuvant hormonal treatment. ER has traditionally been measured using labelled hormone in binding assays--often in dextran-coated charcoal assays (DCC). Monoclonal antibodies to ER has permitted development of a solid phase enzyme immunoassay (ER-EIA) used for quantitative determination of ER in tissue homogenates, and have also been used for determination of ER using an immunohistochemical assay in frozen sections (ER-ICA) or in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (ER-PAR). A large number of studies has compared ER-EIA with ER-DCC assays. There is a good linear correlation between the two types of assay but ER-EIA measure more ER and classify a larger fraction of tumors ER-positive than conventional ER assays. Lack of clinical data makes the significance of this uncertain. Numerous studies have reported on the correlation between ER-ICA and ER-DCC or ER-EIA. There is a good correlation among the assays on classification of ER status with a median 86% concordance, but a somewhat poorer correlation between semiquantified ER of immunohistochemical assays and ER determined by the quantitative methods (median coefficient of correlation 0.67). There is a large variation in the cut-off level for definition of ER-positive in immunohistochemical assays emphasizing the need for quality control studies. The major problem involved in ER analysis in paraffin-embedded tissue is a considerable loss of immunoreactivity compared to sections from frozen tissue. This can partly be overcome by modifications of the immunohistochemical technique using enzyme pretreatment and other amplification systems, but the sensitivity of ER-PAR remains lower than ER-ICA despite these modifications, and the ER status is less reliably determined in tumors

  9. A Quantification Method for Breast Tissue Thickness and Iodine Concentration Using Photon-Counting Detector.

    PubMed

    Han, Seokmin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is to facilitate detection and characterization of the lesions in the breast using intravenous injection of an iodinated contrast agent. CEDM produces iodine images with gray levels proportional to iodine concentration at each pixel, which can be considered as quantification of iodine. While dual-energy CEDM requires an accurate knowledge of the thickness of compressed breast for the quantification, it is known that the accuracy of the built-in thickness measurement is not satisfactory. Triple-energy CEDM, which can provide a third image, can alleviate the limitation of dual-energy CEDM. If triple exposure technique is applied, it can lead to increased risk of motion artifact. An energy-resolving photon-counting detector (PCD) that can acquire multispectral X-ray images can reduce the risk of motion artifact. In this research, an easily implementable method for iodine quantification in breast imaging was suggested, and it was applied to the images of breast phantom with various iodine concentrations. The iodine concentrations in breast phantom simulate lesions filled with different iodine concentrations in the breast. The result shows that the proposed method can quantify the iodine concentrations in breast phantom accurately. PMID:25708894

  10. Evaluation of cytokeratin-19 in breast cancer tissue samples: a comparison of automatic and manual evaluations of scanned tissue microarray cylinders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital image (DI) analysis avoids visual subjectivity in interpreting immunohistochemical stains and provides more reproducible results. An automated procedure consisting of two variant methods for quantifying the cytokeratin-19 (CK19) marker in breast cancer tissues is presented. Methods The first method (A) excludes the holes inside selected CK19 stained areas, and the second (B) includes them. 93 DIs scanned from complete cylinders of tissue microarrays were evaluated visually by two pathologists and by the automated procedures. Results and conclusions There was good concordance between the two automated methods, both of which tended to identify a smaller CK19-positive area than did the pathologists. The results obtained with method B were more similar to those of the pathologists; probably because it takes into account the entire positive tumoural area, including the holes. However, the pathologists overestimated the positive area of CK19. Further studies are needed to confirm the utility of this automated procedure in prognostic studies. PMID:26329009

  11. Characterization and Clinical Implication of Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokines Produced from Three-Dimensionally Cultured Tumor Tissues Resected from Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kiyomi, Anna; Makita, Masujiro; Ozeki, Tomoko; Li, Na; Satomura, Aiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Sugiyama, Kentaro; Iwase, Takuji; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several cytokines secreted from breast cancer tissues are suggested to be related to disease prognosis. We examined Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines produced from three-dimensionally cultured breast cancer tissues and related them with patient clinical profiles. METHODS: 21 tumor tissues and 9 normal tissues surgically resected from breast cancer patients were cultured in thermoreversible gelatin polymer–containing medium. Tissue growth and Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine concentrations in the culture medium were analyzed and were related with hormone receptor expressions and patient clinical profiles. RESULTS: IL-6 and IL-10 were expressed highly in culture medium of both cancer and normal tissues. However, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-17A were not detected in the supernatant of the three-dimensionally cultured normal mammary gland and are seemed to be specific to breast cancer tissues. The growth abilities of hormone receptor–negative cancer tissues were significantly higher than those of receptor-positive tissues (P = 0.0383). Cancer tissues of stage ≥ IIB patients expressed significantly higher TNF-α levels as compared with those of patients with stage < IIB (P = 0.0096). CONCLUSIONS: The tumor tissues resected from breast cancer patients can grow in the three-dimensional thermoreversible gelatin polymer culture system and produce Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines. Hormone receptor–positive cancer tissues showed less growth ability. TNF-α is suggested to be a biomarker for the cancer stage. PMID:26310378

  12. Dynamic computed tomography findings of an accessory spleen in the pelvis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hiroshi; Ojima, Yasutomo; Sumitani, Daisuke; Okajima, Masazumi

    2016-12-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man with an accessory spleen in the pelvis. He visited our outpatient clinic because of abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced mass (40 mm in diameter) in the pelvis. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult even after magnetic resonance imaging and colonoscopy. The patient underwent surgery for suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor or malignant lymphoma of the rectum. Intraoperative findings showed a mass in the pelvis and a long cord-like tissue reaching the mass and arising from the great omentum; the mass was excised. Histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was splenic tissue, and feeding vessels were found in the cord-like tissue, which were determined to be derived from the left gastroepiploic artery and vein. Thus, we diagnosed it as an accessory spleen in the pelvis. An accessory spleen is not rare and can occur anywhere in the abdominal cavity. However, an accessory spleen in the pelvis is an infrequent finding, and only 9 other cases of an accessory spleen in the pelvis have been reported. Therefore, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis preoperatively. However, 7 of the 9 cases (77.8 %) of a pelvic accessory spleen had vascular pedicles from the great omentum or splenic hilum as feeding vessels; hence, determining the feeding blood vessels on dynamic CT may be useful for diagnosing an accessory spleen in the pelvis. Additionally, if the accessory spleen is symptomatic or has a vascular pedicle, surgeons should attempt to resect the accessory spleen in the pelvis using minimally invasive laparoscopy. PMID:26970956

  13. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be “epithelial”-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727. PMID:26439686

  14. Characterization of a tissue-specific CDP/Cux isoform, p75, activated in breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Brigitte; Watson, Peter; Poirier, Madeleine; Leduy, Lam; Bérubé, Ginette; Meterissian, Sarkis; Jolicoeur, Paul; Nepveu, Alain

    2002-11-15

    Two isoforms of the CCAAT-displacement protein/cut homeobox (CDP/Cux) transcription factor have been characterized thus far. The full length protein, p200, which contains four DNA binding domains, transiently binds to DNA and carries the CCAAT-displacement activity. The p110 isoform is generated by proteolytic processing at the G1-S transition and is capable of stable interaction with DNA. Here we demonstrate the existence of a shorter CDP/Cux isoform, p75, which contains only two DNA binding domains, Cut repeat 3 and the Cut homeodomain, and binds more stably to DNA. CDP/Cux p75 was able to repress a reporter carrying the promoter for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene and to activate a DNA polymerase alpha gene reporter. Expression of CDP/Cux p75 involved a novel mechanism: transcription initiation within intron 20. The intron 20-initiated mRNA (I20-mRNA) was expressed at higher level in the thymus and in CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. I20-mRNA was expressed only weakly or not at all in normal human mammary epithelial cells and normal breast tissues but was detected in many breast tumor cells lines and breast tumors. In invasive tumors a significant association was established between higher I20-mRNA expression and a diffuse infiltrative growth pattern (n = 41, P = 0.0137). In agreement with these findings, T47D breast cancer cells stably expressing p75 could not form tubule structures in collagen but rather developed as solid undifferentiated aggregates of cells. Taken together, these results suggest that aberrant expression of the CDP/Cux p75 isoform in mammary epithelial cells may be associated with the process of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. PMID:12438259

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue in diffusion-weighted imaging: the effects of menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin You; Suh, Hie Bum; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seok Won; Jung, Young Lae; Bae, Young Tae

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospectively whether the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of both breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue vary with the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty-seven women (29 premenopausal, 28 postmenopausal) with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent diffusion-weighted imaging twice (interval 12-20 days) before surgery. Two radiologists independently measured ADC of breast cancer and normal contralateral breast tissue, and we quantified the differences according to the phases of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. With normal fibroglandular tissue, ADC was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.035). In premenopausal women, ADC did not differ significantly between proliferative and secretory phases in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.969 and P = 0.519, respectively). In postmenopausal women, no significant differences were found between ADCs measured at different time intervals in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.948 and P = 0.961, respectively). The within-subject variability of the ADC measurements was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and was small: the mean CVs of tumor ADC were 2.90 % (premenopausal) and 3.43 % (postmenopausal), and those of fibroglandular tissue ADC were 4.37 % (premenopausal) and 2.55 % (postmenopausal). Both intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for ADC measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients in the range of 0.834-0.974. In conclusion, the measured ADCs of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue were not affected significantly by menstrual cycle, and the measurements were highly reproducible both within and between observers. PMID:27091644

  16. Huge primary soft tissue sarcoma of the breast on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yeh-You; Wu, Yu-Chin; Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Te-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman had a primary breast sarcoma with rapid enlargement in 3 months. The mass became so huge that it was more than 20 cm in diameter and occupied the entire right breast on presentation. Extraosseous uptake was present in this mass and demonstrated a unique picture, mimicking the posture of a racing driver who holds a helmet under the armpit, on the bone scan. PMID:24152643

  17. Massive nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast arising simultaneously in the axilla and vulva.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Adrienne C; Jaffer, Shabnam; Mercer, Stephen E

    2011-02-01

    The authors describe a 52-year-old woman with a history of bilateral mastectomies for macromastia caused by massive nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), who presented with 2 large growths in her left axilla and groin. These masses had been increasing in size for nearly a year. When excised, the axillary mass had dimensions of 14.0 × 14.0 × 5.5 cm(3) and weighed 664 g. The groin mass was slightly smaller at 14.5 × 11.0 × 5.0 cm(3) and 518 g. Microscopic examination of both masses revealed breast tissue expanded by a hyalinized stroma with prominent slit-like pseudovascular spaces, consistent with PASH. Small incidental foci of PASH are common findings in breast excisions; however, large nodular foci are rare. Furthermore, nodular foci in accessory breast tissue are exceedingly rarer and can raise clinical concerns for malignancy. Histopathologically, PASH can be mistaken for low-grade angiosarcoma. To the authors' knowledge, the present case appears to be the first description of multiple simultaneous foci of massive nodular PASH arising in accessory breast tissue. PMID:21285079

  18. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins.

  19. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A; Quirk, Bryden C; Kirk, Rodney W; Bouma, Brett E; Sampson, David D

    2016-01-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins. PMID:27364229

  20. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    PubMed Central

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins. PMID:27364229

  1. Electrophysiological action of bepridil on atrioventricular accessory pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, P; Atallah, G; Kirkorian, G; Lavaud, P; Kieny, J R; Mathieu, M P; Dellinger, A

    1987-01-01

    The electrophysiologic properties of bepridil, a calcium channel blocker with additional effects on fast response tissues, were investigated in 10 patients with atrioventricular accessory pathways. Seven patients had Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and three had concealed atrioventricular pre-excitation. A dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously over five minutes. Bepridil increased the AH interval and the functional refractory period of the atrioventricular node. The effective refractory periods of the right atrium and right ventricle were also increased. Bepridil prolonged refractoriness in the accessory pathway both in the anterograde and retrograde direction. After bepridil administration it was impossible to induce reciprocating tachycardia electrically in two patients because of conduction block in the normal pathway. On the other hand, the zone of tachycardia was often increased after bepridil. Nevertheless, the heart rate during tachycardia was slowed by depression of conduction in both the normal and accessory pathways. The findings of this study provide a basis for the antiarrhythmic action of bepridil in patients with atrioventricular accessory pathways. PMID:3499924

  2. A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

  3. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dion, Liza J; Engen, Deborah J; Lemaine, Valerie; Lawson, Donna K; Brock, Charise G; Thomley, Barbara S; Cha, Stephen S; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L

    2016-05-01

    This study explored whether massage combined with meditation is more helpful than massage alone for women recovering from autologous tissue reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either massage therapy or massage plus meditation on postoperative days 1 through 3. Outcome measures were 1) visual analog scale (VAS) scores for stress, anxiety, relaxation, insomnia, alertness, fatigue, tension, pain, mood, and energy, and 2) Perceived Stress Scale-14 scores. Nineteen patients in each group finished the study. Preintervention and postintervention mean total VAS scores improved significantly in both groups (P < .001), but no significant difference occurred between groups. PMID:25986296

  4. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation ofr = 0

  5. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's paired t-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation of r = 0

  6. Volumetric x-ray coherent scatter imaging of cancer in resected breast tissue: a Monte Carlo study using virtual anthropomorphic phantoms.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Manu N; Harrawood, Brian P; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J

    2015-08-21

    Breast cancer patients undergoing surgery often choose to have a breast conserving surgery (BCS) instead of mastectomy for removal of only the breast tumor. If post-surgical analysis such as histological assessment of the resected tumor reveals insufficient healthy tissue margins around the cancerous tumor, the patient must undergo another surgery to remove the missed tumor tissue. Such re-excisions are reported to occur in 20%-70% of BCS patients. A real-time surgical margin assessment technique that is fast and consistently accurate could greatly reduce the number of re-excisions performed in BCS. We describe here a tumor margin assessment method based on x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) imaging and demonstrate its utility in surgical margin assessment using Monte Carlo simulations. A CSCT system was simulated in GEANT4 and used to simulate two virtual anthropomorphic CSCT scans of phantoms resembling surgically resected tissue. The resulting images were volume-rendered and found to distinguish cancerous tumors embedded in complex distributions of adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue (as is expected in the breast). The images exhibited sufficient spatial and spectral (i.e. momentum transfer) resolution to classify the tissue in any given voxel as healthy or cancerous. ROC analysis of the classification accuracy revealed an area under the curve of up to 0.97. These results indicate that coherent scatter imaging is promising as a possible fast and accurate surgical margin assessment technique. PMID:26237265

  7. Volumetric x-ray coherent scatter imaging of cancer in resected breast tissue: a Monte Carlo study using virtual anthropomorphic phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer patients undergoing surgery often choose to have a breast conserving surgery (BCS) instead of mastectomy for removal of only the breast tumor. If post-surgical analysis such as histological assessment of the resected tumor reveals insufficient healthy tissue margins around the cancerous tumor, the patient must undergo another surgery to remove the missed tumor tissue. Such re-excisions are reported to occur in 20%-70% of BCS patients. A real-time surgical margin assessment technique that is fast and consistently accurate could greatly reduce the number of re-excisions performed in BCS. We describe here a tumor margin assessment method based on x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) imaging and demonstrate its utility in surgical margin assessment using Monte Carlo simulations. A CSCT system was simulated in Geant4 and used to simulate two virtual anthropomorphic CSCT scans of phantoms resembling surgically resected tissue. The resulting images were volume-rendered and found to distinguish cancerous tumors embedded in complex distributions of adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue (as is expected in the breast). The images exhibited sufficient spatial and spectral (i.e. momentum transfer) resolution to classify the tissue in any given voxel as healthy or cancerous. ROC analysis of the classification accuracy revealed an area under the curve of up to 0.97. These results indicate that coherent scatter imaging is promising as a possible fast and accurate surgical margin assessment technique.

  8. Plastic Surgery of the Breast: Keeping the Nipple Sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Charles A.; Zeiderman, Matthew R.; Chowdhry, Saeed; Brooks, Ronald M.; Kelishadi, Shahrooz S.; Tutela, John Paul; Choo, Joshua; Yonick, David V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since its inception, reduction mammaplasty has matured considerably. Primary evolution in clinical research and practice has focused on preserving tissue viability. Surgery involves preserving not only tissue viability but also function and sensation. The nipple serves as the sensate unit of the breast and is a valuable part of women's psychological and sexual health, making preservation of nipple sensation of utmost important. Studies regarding primary innervation to the nipple are few and often contradictory. We propose an unsafe zone in which dissection during reduction mammoplasty ought to be avoided to preserve nipple sensation. Methods: Circumareolar dissection of 22 cadaveric breasts was performed. Primary nerve branches to the nipple-areola complex were identified and dissected to their origin. Results: Three to 5 branches of the fourth intercostal nerve primarily innervated the nipple on 18 of 22 breast dissections. Two breasts received innervation from the third intercostal nerve and 2 from the fifth intercostal nerve. In half of the specimens, accessory innervation from the third and fifth intercostal nerves provided medial branches to the nipple. Conclusions: The fourth intercostal nerve provides the major innervation to the nipple-areola complex. Avoiding dissection in inferolateral quadrant “unsafe zone” of the breast during reduction mammaplasty and other breast surgical procedures can reliably spare nipple sensation and maximize patient outcomes. PMID:26171100

  9. Short term culture of breast cancer tissues to study the activity of the anticancer drug taxol in an intact tumor environment

    PubMed Central

    van der Kuip, Heiko; Mürdter, Thomas E; Sonnenberg, Maike; McClellan, Monika; Gutzeit, Susanne; Gerteis, Andreas; Simon, Wolfgang; Fritz, Peter; Aulitzky, Walter E

    2006-01-01

    Background Sensitivity of breast tumors to anticancer drugs depends upon dynamic interactions between epithelial tumor cells and their microenvironment including stromal cells and extracellular matrix. To study drug-sensitivity within different compartments of an individual tumor ex vivo, culture models directly established from fresh tumor tissues are absolutely essential. Methods We prepared 0.2 mm thick tissue slices from freshly excised tumor samples and cultivated them individually in the presence or absence of taxol for 4 days. To visualize viability, cell death, and expression of surface molecules in different compartments of non-fixed primary breast cancer tissues we established a method based on confocal imaging using mitochondria- and DNA-selective dyes and fluorescent-conjugated antibodies. Proliferation and apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry in sections from paraffin-embedded slices. Overall viability was also analyzed in homogenized tissue slices by a combined ATP/DNA quantification assay. Results We obtained a mean of 49 tissue slices from 22 breast cancer specimens allowing a wide range of experiments in each individual tumor. In our culture system, cells remained viable and proliferated for at least 4 days within their tissue environment. Viability of tissue slices decreased significantly in the presence of taxol in a dose-dependent manner. A three-color fluorescence viability assay enabled a rapid and authentic estimation of cell viability in the different tumor compartments within non-fixed tissue slices. Conclusion We describe a tissue culture method combined with a novel read out system for both tissue cultivation and rapid assessment of drug efficacy together with the simultaneous identification of different cell types within non-fixed breast cancer tissues. This method has potential significance for studying tumor responses to anticancer drugs in the complex environment of a primary cancer tissue. PMID:16603054

  10. From The Cover: Reconstruction of functionally normal and malignant human breast tissues in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Chavarria, Tony; Wu, Min; Magrane, Greg; Gray, Joe W.; Carey, Loucinda; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2004-04-01

    The study of normal breast epithelial morphogenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo has largely used rodent models. Efforts at studying mammary morphogenesis and cancer with xenotransplanted human epithelial cells have failed to recapitulate the full extent of development seen in the human breast. We have developed an orthotopic xenograft model in which both the stromal and epithelial components of the reconstructed mammary gland are of human origin. Genetic modification of human stromal cells before the implantation of ostensibly normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in the outgrowth of benign and malignant lesions. This experimental model allows for studies of human epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation in vivo and underscores the critical role of heterotypic interactions in human breast development and carcinogenesis.

  11. Expression of Estrogen-Related Gene Markers in Breast Cancer Tissue Predicts Aromatase Inhibitor Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Irene; Lin, Zhihong; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Reierstad, Scott; Khan, Seema A.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most effective class of drugs in the endocrine treatment of breast cancer, with an approximate 50% treatment response rate. Our objective was to determine whether intratumoral expression levels of estrogen-related genes are predictive of AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Primary breast carcinomas were obtained from 112 women who received AI therapy after failing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and developing recurrent breast cancer. Tumor ERα and PR protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 5 estrogen-related genes–AKR1C3, aromatase, ERα, and 2 estradiol/ERα target genes, BRCA1 and PR–were measured by real-time PCR. Tumor protein and mRNA levels were compared with breast cancer progression rates to determine predictive accuracy. Responsiveness to AI therapy–defined as the combined complete response, partial response, and stable disease rates for at least 6 months–was 51%; rates were 56% in ERα-IHC-positive and 14% in ERα-IHC-negative tumors. Levels of ERα, PR, or BRCA1 mRNA were independently predictive for responsiveness to AI. In cross-validated analyses, a combined measurement of tumor ERα and PR mRNA levels yielded a more superior specificity (36%) and identical sensitivity (96%) to the current clinical practice (ERα/PR-IHC). In patients with ERα/PR-IHC-negative tumors, analysis of mRNA expression revealed either non-significant trends or statistically significant positive predictive values for AI responsiveness. In conclusion, expression levels of estrogen-related mRNAs are predictive for AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, and mRNA expression analysis may improve patient selection. PMID:24223121

  12. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) and Negative (ER-) Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Semaan, Suzan M.; Wang, Xu; Marshall, Alan G.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining) and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples. PMID:22773931

  13. Accessory lobe of the right liver mocking a pulmonary tumor in an adult woman.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yuka; Sakakura, Noriaki; Uchida, Tatsuo; Suyama, Motokazu

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of an accessory lobe of the liver in the right thoracic cavity with the past history of breast cancer. A 66-year-old woman underwent thoracotomy owing to a slowly growing suspected lung tumor identified by computed tomography. The intraoperative findings revealed an accessory lobe of the liver. If this possibility had been considered, the correct diagnosis could have been achieved using computed tomography with multi-directional scanning, so that an unnecessary operation could have been avoided. PMID:22618988

  14. A comparison of the relative biological effectiveness of low energy electronic brachytherapy sources in breast tissue: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Shane A.; Reniers, Brigitte; de Jong, Evelyn E. C.; Rusch, Thomas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Electronic brachytherapy sources use low energy photons to treat the tumor bed during or after breast-conserving surgery. The relative biological effectiveness of two electronic brachytherapy sources was explored to determine if spectral differences due to source design influenced radiation quality and if radiation quality decreased with distance in the breast. The RBE was calculated through the number of DNA double strand breaks (RBEDSB) using the Monte Carlo damage simulator (MCDS) in combination with other Monte Carlo electron/photon spectrum calculations. 50kVp photons from the Intrabeam (Carl Zeiss Surgical) and Axxent (Xoft) through 40-mm spherical applicators were simulated to account for applicator and tissue attenuation in a variety of breast tissue compositions. 40kVp Axxent photons were also simulated. Secondary electrons (known to be responsible for most DNA damage) spectra at different distance were inputted into MCDS to calculate the RBEDSB. All RBEDSB used a cobalt-60 reference. RBEDSB data was combined with corresponding average photon spectrum energy for the Axxent and applied to model-based average photon energy distributions to produce an RBEDSB map of an accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) patient. Both Axxent and Intrabeam 50kVp spectra were shown to have a comparable RBEDSB of between 1.4 and 1.6 at all distances in spite of progressive beam hardening. The Axxent 40kVp also demonstrated a similar RBEDSB at distances. Most RBEDSB variability was dependent on the tissue type as was seen in rib (RBEDSB  ≈  1.4), gland (≈1.55), adipose (≈1.59), skin (≈1.52) and lung (≈1.50). RBEDSB variability between both sources was within 2%. A correlation was shown between RBEDSB and average photon energy and used to produce an RBEDSB map of a dose distribution in an APBI patient dataset. Radiation quality is very similar between electronic brachytherapy sources studied. No significant reductions in RBEDSB were observed with

  15. Evaluation of two intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices for irradiating additional and irregularly shaped volumes of breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sharon M; Scanderbeg, Daniel J; Barna, Patrick; Yashar, William; Yashar, Catheryn

    2012-01-01

    The SAVI and Contura breast brachytherapy applicators represent 2 recent advancements in brachytherapy technology that have expanded the number of women eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Early clinical experience with these 2 single-entry, multichannel high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices confirms their ease of use and dosimetric versatility. However, current clinical guidelines for SAVI and Contura brachytherapy may result in a smaller or less optimal volume of treated tissue compared with traditional interstitial brachytherapy. This study evaluates the feasibility of using the SAVI and Contura to irradiate larger and irregularly shaped target volumes, approaching what is treatable with the interstitial technique. To investigate whether additional tissue can be treated, 17 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected. For each patient, the planning target volume (PTV) was modified to extend 1.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.5 cm beyond the tumor bed cavity. To evaluate dose conformance to an irregularly shaped target volume, 9 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected from the original 20 patients. The following asymmetric PTV margin combinations were assessed for each patient: 1.5/0.3, 1.3/0.3, and 1.1/0.3 cm. For all patients, treatment planning was performed, adopting the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project guidelines, and dosimetric comparisons were made. The 6-1 and 8-1 SAVI devices can theoretically treat a maximal tissue margin of 1.5 cm and an asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 cm. The 10-1 SAVI and Contura can treat a maximal margin of 1.3 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively, and asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3-1.3 cm. Compared with the Contura, the SAVI demonstrated greater dosimetric flexibility. Risk of developing excessive hot spots increased with the size of the SAVI device. Both the SAVI and Contura appear

  16. Quantification of HER2 by Targeted Mass Spectrometry in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Breast Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Carine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Lamerz, Jens; Kux van Geijtenbeek, Sabine; McKee, Thomas A; Venturi, Miro; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Hochstrasser, Denis; Cutler, Paul; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ducret, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately quantify proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using targeted mass spectrometry opens exciting perspectives for biomarker discovery. We have developed and evaluated a selectedreaction monitoring assay for the human receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumors. Peptide candidates were identified using an untargeted mass spectrometry approach in relevant cell lines. A multiplexed assay was developed for the six best candidate peptides and evaluated for linearity, precision and lower limit of quantification. Results showed a linear response over a calibration range of 0.012 to 100 fmol on column (R(2): 0.99-1.00).The lower limit of quantification was 0.155 fmol on column for all peptides evaluated. The six HER2 peptides were quantified by selected reaction monitoring in a cohort of 40 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from women with invasive breast carcinomas, which showed different levels of HER2 gene amplification as assessed by standard methods used in clinical pathology. The amounts of the six HER2 peptides were highly and significantly correlated with each other, indicating that peptide levels can be used as surrogates of protein amounts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. After normalization for sample size, selected reaction monitoring peptide measurements were able to correctly predict 90% of cases based on HER2 amplification as defined by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists. In conclusion, the developed assay showed good analytical performance and a high agreement with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization data. This study demonstrated that selected reaction monitoring allows to accurately quantify protein expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and represents therefore a powerful approach for biomarker discovery studies. The untargeted mass spectrometry

  17. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  18. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Test of the method of differentiation between healthy and anomalous breast tissues using the open-ended dielectric probe covered by a dielectric film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, K.; Rudowski, M.; Rząca, M.

    2008-06-01

    Dielectric properties of breast tissue obtained from 131 patients were investigated by an open-ended probe separated from the tissue by a dielectric film (plastic foil). The film decreases the measured capacitance, but the content of blood and body liquids has little effect on the measured quantity. We found that in cancerous tissue the electric capacity (related to the permittivity) measured at f >= 10 MHz using the modified probe is higher than that in normal tissue. The dielectric assignment was confirmed by histopathology in 94% of investigated cases. High efficiency in differentiation between normal and cancer breast tissues and the feasibility of fulfilling of aseptic conditions (a film covering the probe) are promising in intra-operative cancer diagnostics.

  20. Fractal analysis for assessing tumour grade in microscopic images of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambasco, Mauro; Costello, Meghan; Newcomb, Chris; Magliocco, Anthony M.

    2007-03-01

    In 2006, breast cancer is expected to continue as the leading form of cancer diagnosed in women, and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in this group. A method that has proven useful for guiding the choice of treatment strategy is the assessment of histological tumor grade. The grading is based upon the mitosis count, nuclear pleomorphism, and tubular formation, and is known to be subject to inter-observer variability. Since cancer grade is one of the most significant predictors of prognosis, errors in grading can affect patient management and outcome. Hence, there is a need to develop a breast cancer-grading tool that is minimally operator dependent to reduce variability associated with the current grading system, and thereby reduce uncertainty that may impact patient outcome. In this work, we explored the potential of a computer-based approach using fractal analysis as a quantitative measure of cancer grade for breast specimens. More specifically, we developed and optimized computational tools to compute the fractal dimension of low- versus high-grade breast sections and found them to be significantly different, 1.3+/-0.10 versus 1.49+/-0.10, respectively (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p<0.001). These results indicate that fractal dimension (a measure of morphologic complexity) may be a useful tool for demarcating low- versus high-grade cancer specimens, and has potential as an objective measure of breast cancer grade. Such prognostic value could provide more sensitive and specific information that would reduce inter-observer variability by aiding the pathologist in grading cancers.

  1. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  6. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  12. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and... Gross Tons § 169.671 Accessories. Each light, receptacle and switch exposed to the weather must...

  13. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and... Gross Tons § 169.671 Accessories. Each light, receptacle and switch exposed to the weather must...

  14. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  15. Fusion Transcript Discovery in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Breast Cancer Tissues Reveals a Link to Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Ambannavar, Ranjana; Stephans, James; Jeong, Jennie; Dei Rossi, Andrew; Liu, Mei-Lan; Friedman, Adam J.; Londry, Jason J.; Abramson, Richard; Beasley, Ellen M.; Baker, Joffre; Levy, Samuel; Qu, Kunbin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of gene fusions promises to play an important role in personalized cancer treatment decisions. Many rare gene fusion events have been identified in fresh frozen solid tumors from common cancers employing next-generation sequencing technology. However the ability to detect transcripts from gene fusions in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, which exist in very large sample repositories for which disease outcome is known, is still limited due to the low complexity of FFPE libraries and the lack of appropriate bioinformatics methods. We sought to develop a bioinformatics method, named gFuse, to detect fusion transcripts in FFPE tumor tissues. An integrated, cohort based strategy has been used in gFuse to examine single-end 50 base pair (bp) reads generated from FFPE RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets employing two breast cancer cohorts of 136 and 76 patients. In total, 118 fusion events were detected transcriptome-wide at base-pair resolution across the 212 samples. We selected 77 candidate fusions based on their biological relevance to cancer and supported 61% of these using TaqMan assays. Direct sequencing of 19 of the fusion sequences identified by TaqMan confirmed them. Three unique fused gene pairs were recurrent across the 212 patients with 6, 3, 2 individuals harboring these fusions respectively. We show here that a high frequency of fusion transcripts detected at the whole transcriptome level correlates with poor outcome (P<0.0005) in human breast cancer patients. This study demonstrates the ability to detect fusion transcripts as biomarkers from archival FFPE tissues, and the potential prognostic value of the fusion transcripts detected. PMID:24727804

  16. Histological and immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal human breast tissue in adult age groups vulnerable to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R; Gupta, T; Gupta, R; Aggarwal, A; Sahni, D; Singh, G

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of receptor status has become standard procedure for assessing breast cancer patients. Estrogen causes epithelial proliferation in breast tissue via the estrogen receptor (ER). The progesterone receptor (PR) is also regulated by the estrogen gene. Analyzing ER and PR together gives information regarding the likely response of carcinoma patients to hormonal therapy. The aim of the present study was to record the expression patterns of ER and PR in normal mammary tissue in different age groups to provide reference data to facilitate histological diagnosis. Breast tissues from the upper outer quadrant of each side of 27 adult female cadavers were examined after H & E staining. ER and PR were identified and examined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage area occupied by parenchyma relative to stromal tissue was calculated in different age groups and was about 4:6, 3.5:6.5, 3:7, 2:8, and 1.5:8.5 in the 3rd, 4th and 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, and 10th decades of life, respectively. Both ER and PR were present in all age groups and the numbers of both receptors were maximal during the 4th decade. The distribution and staining patterns for both ER and PR were recorded in different age groups. The contiguous pattern of ER, which is considered pathognomonic of breast carcinoma, was not seen except in one case in the 6th decade. Moderately stained ER and PR receptor sites predominated throughout. The study of normal breast tissue of similar age might provide comparisons that will help histopathologists to make clinical diagnoses from breast biopsies. Clin. Anat. 29:729-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038435

  17. A Model for Diagnosing Breast Cancerous Tissue from Thermal Images Using Active Contour and Lyapunov Exponent

    PubMed Central

    GHAYOUMI ZADEH, Hossein; HADDADNIA, Javad; MONTAZERI, Alimohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The segmentation of cancerous areas in breast images is important for the early detection of disease. Thermal imaging has advantages, such as being non-invasive, non-radiation, passive, quick, painless, inexpensive, and non-contact. Imaging technique is the focus of this research. Methods: The proposed model in this paper is a combination of surf and corners that are very resistant. Obtained features are resistant to changes in rotation and revolution then with the help of active contours, this feature has been used for segmenting cancerous areas. Results: Comparing the obtained results from the proposed method and mammogram show that proposed method is Accurate and appropriate. Benign and malignance of segmented areas are detected by Lyapunov exponent. Values obtained include TP=91.31%, FN=8.69%, FP=7.26%. Conclusion: The proposed method can classify those abnormally segmented areas of the breast, to the Benign and malignant cancer. PMID:27398339

  18. Erratum to: Loss of glucocorticoid receptor activation is a hallmark of BRCA1-mutated breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Vilasco, Myriam; Communal, Laudine; Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Mourra, Najat; Wu, Zherui; Forgez, Patricia; Gompel, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Erratum to: Breast Cancer Res Treat (2013),142:283–296,DOI 10.1007/s10549-013-2722-8. In the original publication of the article, the blot corresponding to the total P38 protein content for the conditions siCtl and siBRCA1 in Fig. 7a was incorrectly laid out. The corrected Fig. 7a is given in this erratum.The PMID:26956972

  19. Tumor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in hormone-independent breast cancer might originate in stromal cells, and improves stratification of prognosis together with nodal status.

    PubMed

    Kuvaja, P; Hulkkonen, S; Pasanen, I; Soini, Y; Lehtonen, S; Talvensaari-Mattila, A; Pääkkö, P; Kaakinen, M; Autio-Harmainen, H; Hurskainen, T; Lehenkari, P; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T

    2012-06-10

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is shown to be a potential marker for poor prognosis in breast cancer, but the biology of TIMP-1 is only partially understood. In this study, TIMP-1 production was studied in a co-culture model of hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells mimicking the stromal components of the tumor. In addition, the prognostic value of TIMP-1 was histologically evaluated in a clinical material of 168 patients with hormone-independent breast tumors. The hormone-independent breast cancer (BC) cell lines MDA-MB-231, M4A4 and NM2C5 did not produce TIMP-1 protein in measureable quantities. Six tested primary mesenchymal stem cell lines all produced TIMP-1. Co-culturing of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer cells resulted in positive immunocytochemical diffuse staining for TIMP-1 for both cell types. Culturing breast cancer cells with MSC-conditioned media resulted in a positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TIMP-1, and TIMP-1 protein concentration in cell lysates increased 2.7-fold (range 1.1-4.7). The TIMP-1 mRNA levels remained unaffected in BC cells. This might suggest that breast cancer cells can take up TIMP-1 produced by stromal cells and are thus displaying cellular immunoreactivity. In addition, TIMP-1 was shown to improve stratification of prognosis in clinical material. PMID:22465225

  20. Overexpression of seven in absentia homolog 2 protein in human breast cancer tissues is associated with the promotion of tumor cell malignant behavior in in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Han, Yanchun; Zhen, Juan; Meng, Yuan; Song, Min

    2016-09-01

    Seven in absentia homolog 2 (SIAH2), a homologue of Drosophila seven in absentia (Sina), has emerged as an oncogene and plays important roles in cancer development and progression. This study further assessed the role of SIAH2 in breast cancer and the underlying molecular events. The data showed that SIAH2 protein was overexpressed in invasive breast cancer (IBC) compared to the expression noted in normal or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) tissues, expression of which is associated with malignant behaviors. SIAH2 may function differently in different molecular subtypes (e.g., luminal- vs. basal-like type) of breast cancer. Manipulation of SIAH2 expression led to a 'cross-talk' of the ERK and PI3K pathway, which could be one of the mechanisms by which SIAH2 regulates viability, apoptosis, and invasion capacity in these breast cancer cell lines. PMID:27459914

  1. TU-F-12A-09: GLCM Texture Analysis for Normal-Tissue Toxicity: A Prospective Ultrasound Study of Acute Toxicity in Breast-Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Yang, X; Curran, W; Torres, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the morphologic and structural integrity of the breast glands using sonographic textural analysis, and identify potential early imaging signatures for radiation toxicity following breast-cancer radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Thirty-eight patients receiving breast RT participated in a prospective ultrasound imaging study. Each participant received 3 ultrasound scans: 1 week before RT (baseline), and at 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. Patients were imaged with a 10-MHz ultrasound on the four quadrant of the breast. A second order statistical method of texture analysis, called gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), was employed to assess RT-induced breast-tissue toxicity. The region of interest (ROI) was 28 mm × 10 mm in size at a 10 mm depth under the skin. Twenty GLCM sonographic features, ratios of the irradiated breast and the contralateral breast, were used to quantify breast-tissue toxicity. Clinical assessment of acute toxicity was conducted using the RTOG toxicity scheme. Results: Ninety-seven ultrasound studies (776 images) were analyzed; and 5 out of 20 sonographic features showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the baseline scans, the acute toxicity grade 1 and 2 groups. These sonographic features quantified the degree of tissue damage through homogeneity, heterogeneity, randomness, and symmetry. Energy ratio value decreased from 108±0.05 (normal) to 0.99±0.05 (Grade 1) and 0.84±0.04 (Grade 2); Entropy ratio value increased from 1.01±0.01 to 1.02±0.01 and 1.04±0.01; Contrast ratio value increased from 1.03±0.03 to 1.07±0.06 and 1.21±0.09; Variance ratio value increased from 1.06±0.03 to 1.20±0.04 and 1.42±0.10; Cluster Prominence ratio value increased from 0.98±0.02 to 1.01±0.04 and 1.25±0.07. Conclusion: This work has demonstrated that the sonographic features may serve as imaging signatures to assess radiation-induced normal tissue damage. While these findings need to be validated in a larger cohort, they suggest

  2. Possession of ATM Sequence Variants as Predictor for Late Normal Tissue Responses in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Alice Y.; Fan, Grace; Atencio, David P.; Green, Sheryl; Formenti, Silvia C.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Iyengar, Preetha B.A.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: The ATM gene product is a central component of cell cycle regulation and genomic surveillance. We hypothesized that DNA sequence alterations in ATM predict for adverse effects after external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 131 patients with a minimum of 2 years follow-up who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were screened for sequence alterations in ATM using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Genetic variants were identified using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring schemes for skin and subcutaneous tissues were applied to quantify the radiation-induced effects. Results: Of the 131 patients, 51 possessed ATM sequence alterations located within exons or in short intron regions flanking each exon that encompass putative splice site regions. Of these 51 patients, 21 (41%) exhibited a minimum of a Grade 2 late radiation response. In contrast, of the 80 patients without an ATM sequence variation, only 18 (23%) had radiation-induced adverse responses, for an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.2). Fifteen patients were heterozygous for the G{yields}A polymorphism at nucleotide 5557, which causes substitution of asparagine for aspartic acid at position 1853 of the ATM protein. Of these 15 patients, 8 (53%) exhibited a Grade 2-4 late response compared with 31 (27%) of the 116 patients without this alteration, for an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-9.4). Conclusion: Sequence variants located in the ATM gene, in particular the 5557 G{yields}A polymorphism, may predict for late adverse radiation responses in breast cancer patients.

  3. Endothelial Cell Migration and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Are the Result of Loss of Breast Tissue Polarity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Amy; Cuevas, Ileana; Kenny, Paraic A; Miyake, Hiroshi; Mace, Kimberley; Ghajar, Cyrus; Boudreau, Aaron; Bissell, Mina; Boudreau, Nancy

    2009-05-26

    Recruiting a new blood supply is a rate-limiting step in tumor progression. In a three-dimensional model of breast carcinogenesis, disorganized, proliferative transformed breast epithelial cells express significantly higher expression of angiogenic genes compared with their polarized, growth-arrested nonmalignant counterparts. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by malignant cells enhanced recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) in heterotypic cocultures. Significantly, phenotypic reversion of malignant cells via reexpression of HoxD10, which is lost in malignant progression, significantly attenuated VEGF expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha}-independent fashion and reduced EC migration. This was due primarily to restoring polarity: forced proliferation of polarized, nonmalignant cells did not induce VEGF expression and EC recruitment, whereas disrupting the architecture of growth-arrested, reverted cells did. These data show that disrupting cytostructure activates the angiogenic switch even in the absence of proliferation and/or hypoxia and restoring organization of malignant clusters reduces VEGF expression and EC activation to levels found in quiescent nonmalignant epithelium. These data confirm the importance of tissue architecture and polarity in malignant progression.

  4. The importance of tissue handling of surgically removed breast cancer for an accurate assessment of the Ki-67 index

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Fujisue, Mamiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim Insufficient attention for the Ki-67 immunohistochemistry has been given to the importance of tissue handling for surgical breast cancer specimens. We sought to investigate the effect of fixation status on the Ki-67. Methods We examined the effect of fixative, time to and duration of fixation using surgical specimens, and finally, compared the paired Ki-67 index in the tumour between core needle and surgical specimen. Results The Ki-67 was significantly higher when 10% neutral buffered formalin was used (p=0.0276). Insufficient fixation caused a drastic reduction in the Ki-67 index (p=0.0177), but not significant in oestrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Sixteen hours delayed time to fixation also caused a reduction of the Ki-67 (p=0.0284), but not significant in ER. Prolonged fixation significantly led to a gradual reduction in the Ki-67 in a time-dependent manner, but not in both ER and HER2. Finally, cutting the tumour before fixation improved fixation status and consequently caused an increased level of the Ki-67 index (p=0.0181), which resulted in a strong correlation of the Ki-67 between core needle and surgical specimen (r=0.8595). Conclusions Tissue handling of surgical specimen is critical for assessing the Ki-67 compared with ER and HER2. We should pay more attention to tissue fixation status for the standard assessment of the Ki-67 index. PMID:26420767

  5. Value of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) in detection and characterisation of breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jung, E. M.; Jungius, K.-P.; Ertan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which tissue harmonic imaging (THI), speckle reduction imaging (SRI), spatial compounding (SC) and contrast can improve detection and differentiation of breast tumours. We examined 38 patients (14 benign, 24 malignant tumours) with different combinations of THI, SRI and SC. The effect on delineation, margin, tissue differentiation and posttumoral phenomena was evaluated with a three-point score. Additionally, 1oo not palpable tumours (diameters: 4–15 mm) were examined by contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) with power Doppler. After bolus injection (0.5 ml Optison), vascularisation and enhancement were observed for 20 min. The best combination for detection of margin, infiltration, echo pattern and posterior lesion boundary was the combination of SRI level 2 with SC low. THI was helpful for lesions OF more than 1 cm depth. In native Power Doppler, vessels were found in 54 of 100 lesions. Within 5 min after contrast medium (CM) injection, marginal and penetrating vessels increased in benign and malignant tumours and central vessels mostly in carcinomas (p<0.05). A diffuse CM accumulation was observed up to 20 min after injection in malignant tumours only (p<0.05). THI, SRI and SC improved delineation and tissue differentiation. Second-generation contrast agent allowed detection of tumour vascularisation with prolonged enhancement. PMID:16823568

  6. Spectroscopic Identification of Lipid, Protein and DNA Changes in Breast Cancer tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Y. A.; Hassab Elnaby, S. I.

    2007-02-01

    The FTIR spectroscopy, at the range 4000 - 6000 cm-1 showed a clear distinction between normal and cancer tissues. Normal tissues spectra contain a doublet structure at 4258 and 4332 cm-1. This structure is usually on top of a small band that extends from 3950 cm-1 to 4400 cm-1. This structure us also observed from pure lipid tissues from control patients. The origin of this structure could be attributed to combinations of lipid lines. This structure is completely absent in cancer tissues, instead a broad intense band appears from 5100 cm-1 to 5200 cm-1. The intensity of this band varies from one patient to another. The shape of this broad band indicates that it is the due to random orientation changes in the proteins. This band has a peak at 5164 cm-1, it contains another small kink at 4882 cm-1. This may lead also to the conclusion that this window band is associated with a short half life time energy levels. On The other hand the photoacoustic spectrum of the same tissues , shows that in normal tissues there are three very distinct peaks (namely 1097,1159 and 1232 cm-1) they disappear in malignant tissues and replaced by many weak ripples. Two peaks (1578, 1690 cm-1) changes their position in malignant tissues(1626, 1678 cm-1). A change in DNA markers was also noticed in the range 600-1700 cm-1.

  7. Aging changes in the breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, a woman's breasts lose fat, tissue, and mammary glands. Many of these changes are due to the ... estrogen that occurs at menopause. Without estrogen, the gland tissue shrinks, making the breasts smaller and less full. The connective tissue that ...

  8. Quantitation of CDH1 promoter methylation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer patients using differential high resolution melting analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naghitorabi, Mojgan; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Background: E-cadherin (CDH1) plays an important role in cell–cell adhesion of epithelial tissues. Loss of E-cadherin expression can lead to loss of tissue integrity, metastasis, and cancer progression. Also loss of E-cadherin expression might be related to aberrant promoter methylation of the CDH1 gene. Many studies have been performed on CDH1 promoter methylation, especially in breast cancer. Although most of the studies have used qualitative methods for methylation analysis, this study is designed to quantitatively investigate CDH1 promoter methylation in breast cancer and its correlation with patients’ clinicopathological features. Materials and Methods: Using differential high resolution melting analysis (D-HRMA), the methylation level of the CDH1 gene promoter was quantified in 98 breast cancer formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and also 10 fresh frozen normal breast tissues. Results: All samples were detected to be methylated at the CDH1 promoter region. About 74.5% of the breast cancer samples were hypermethylated with an average methylation level of around 60%, while 25.5% of the patients were methylated with the mean methylation level of about 33%, and 90% of the normal samples had a mean methylation level of about 18%. Statistical analyses represented a significant correlation between CDH1 promoter methylation and cancer progression hallmarks, such as, clinical stage, nodal involvement, tumor size, and histological grade. Conclusion: In summary, quantitation of CDH1 promoter methylation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in breast cancer. Also D-HRMA can be used as a fast and reliable method for quantitation of promoter methylation. PMID:27308263

  9. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients μ{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the θ = 6° scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of μ{sub s}[x(E, θ)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of μ{sup ¯}{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum μ{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ∑}(x)=ν{sub 1}μ{sub s1}(x)+ν{sub 2}μ{sub s2}(x)+ν{sub 3}μ{sub s3}(x), where ν{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the μ{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known μ{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup −1}. The μ{sup ¯}{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with μ{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ∑}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to

  10. Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: solid lesions.

    PubMed

    Fredenberg, Erik; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; Danielsson, Mats; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Wallis, Matthew G

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to distinguish between cysts and solid tumours at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development requires knowledge of the x-ray attenuation for cysts and tumours. We have previously measured the attenuation of cyst fluid using photon-counting spectral mammography. Data on x-ray attenuation for solid breast lesions are available in the literature, but cover a relatively wide range, likely caused by natural spread between samples, random measurement errors, and different experimental conditions. In this study, we have adapted a previously developed spectral method to measure the linear attenuation of solid breast lesions. A total of 56 malignant and 5 benign lesions were included in the study. The samples were placed in a holder that allowed for thickness measurement. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The spread in equivalent material thicknesses was relatively large between samples, which is likely to be caused mainly by natural variation and only to a minor extent by random measurement errors and sample inhomogeneity. No significant difference in attenuation was found between benign and malignant solid lesions. The separation between cyst-fluid and tumour attenuation was, however, significant, which suggests it may be possible to distinguish cystic from solid breast lesions, and the results lay the groundwork for a clinical trial. In addition, the study adds a relatively large sample set to the published data and may contribute to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in the literature. PMID:26961507

  11. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE; PRATT, R. GERHARD; DURIC, NEB; LITTRUP, PETER

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  12. Measurement of breast-tissue x-ray attenuation by spectral mammography: solid lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Willsher, Paula; Moa, Elin; Danielsson, Mats; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wallis, Matthew G.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of x-ray attenuation is essential for developing and evaluating x-ray imaging technologies. For instance, techniques to distinguish between cysts and solid tumours at mammography screening would be highly desirable to reduce recalls, but the development requires knowledge of the x-ray attenuation for cysts and tumours. We have previously measured the attenuation of cyst fluid using photon-counting spectral mammography. Data on x-ray attenuation for solid breast lesions are available in the literature, but cover a relatively wide range, likely caused by natural spread between samples, random measurement errors, and different experimental conditions. In this study, we have adapted a previously developed spectral method to measure the linear attenuation of solid breast lesions. A total of 56 malignant and 5 benign lesions were included in the study. The samples were placed in a holder that allowed for thickness measurement. Spectral (energy-resolved) images of the samples were acquired and the image signal was mapped to equivalent thicknesses of two known reference materials, which can be used to derive the x-ray attenuation as a function of energy. The spread in equivalent material thicknesses was relatively large between samples, which is likely to be caused mainly by natural variation and only to a minor extent by random measurement errors and sample inhomogeneity. No significant difference in attenuation was found between benign and malignant solid lesions. The separation between cyst-fluid and tumour attenuation was, however, significant, which suggests it may be possible to distinguish cystic from solid breast lesions, and the results lay the groundwork for a clinical trial. In addition, the study adds a relatively large sample set to the published data and may contribute to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in the literature.

  13. Sound-speed and attenuation imaging of breast tissue using waveform tomography of transmission ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, R. Gerhard; Huang, Lianjie; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  14. Subcutaneous Tissue Expander Placement with Synthetic Titanium-Coated Mesh in Breast Reconstruction: Long-term Results

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Donato; Calabrese, Claudio; Bianchi, Simonetta; Meattini, Icro

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A subcutaneous, prepectoral, muscle-sparing approach has been recently described for implant-based breast reconstruction. This is a preliminary series of 2-stage breast reconstructions by means of tissue expander placed subcutaneously with the support of a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh. A pilot series of cases was started in 2012. Inclusion criteria were informed consent, age less than 80 years, normal body mass index (range, 18.5–24.9), no T4 and metastatic cancers, no comorbidities, and nonsmoking patients. Expander losses, infections, seromas, skin/nipple necrosis, wound dehiscence, and reinterventions were registered in follow-up visits. Furthermore, patients were followed up in second-stage procedures and for at least 1 year from implant positioning to collect any surgical complication, reinterventions, cosmetic outcome, and oncological data. Between June 2012 and March 2014, 25 cases were enrolled in the study. Expander/implant loss rate was 0%. Skin/nipple necrosis rate was 4%. Infections rate was 12% after first-stage and 4% after second-stage procedure. Seromas rate was 0%. Five (20%) fat graft procedures were performed over the expander before second-stage reconstruction, and no reinterventions were required after second stage. Patients mean score was 99 for cosmetic outcome satisfaction, in a 0–100 scale. Subcutaneous 2-stage reconstruction with synthetic mesh proved safe and feasible. Patients satisfaction is very good after 14 months median follow-up form definitive implant placement. Although the present study involved only a small number of cases, a tissue-expander subcutaneous reconstruction seems to have promising results. Whenever pectoralis major muscle can be spared, a conservative reconstruction might be an option. PMID:26894002

  15. Subcutaneous Tissue Expander Placement with Synthetic Titanium-Coated Mesh in Breast Reconstruction: Long-term Results.

    PubMed

    Casella, Donato; Calabrese, Claudio; Bianchi, Simonetta; Meattini, Icro; Bernini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    A subcutaneous, prepectoral, muscle-sparing approach has been recently described for implant-based breast reconstruction. This is a preliminary series of 2-stage breast reconstructions by means of tissue expander placed subcutaneously with the support of a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh. A pilot series of cases was started in 2012. Inclusion criteria were informed consent, age less than 80 years, normal body mass index (range, 18.5-24.9), no T4 and metastatic cancers, no comorbidities, and nonsmoking patients. Expander losses, infections, seromas, skin/nipple necrosis, wound dehiscence, and reinterventions were registered in follow-up visits. Furthermore, patients were followed up in second-stage procedures and for at least 1 year from implant positioning to collect any surgical complication, reinterventions, cosmetic outcome, and oncological data. Between June 2012 and March 2014, 25 cases were enrolled in the study. Expander/implant loss rate was 0%. Skin/nipple necrosis rate was 4%. Infections rate was 12% after first-stage and 4% after second-stage procedure. Seromas rate was 0%. Five (20%) fat graft procedures were performed over the expander before second-stage reconstruction, and no reinterventions were required after second stage. Patients mean score was 99 for cosmetic outcome satisfaction, in a 0-100 scale. Subcutaneous 2-stage reconstruction with synthetic mesh proved safe and feasible. Patients satisfaction is very good after 14 months median follow-up form definitive implant placement. Although the present study involved only a small number of cases, a tissue-expander subcutaneous reconstruction seems to have promising results. Whenever pectoralis major muscle can be spared, a conservative reconstruction might be an option. PMID:26894002

  16. Enhanced expression of polysialic acid correlates with malignant phenotype in breast cancer cell lines and clinical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xiang; Zeng, Ying-Nan; He, Fa; Yang, Xiao-Min; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is highly expressed during embryonic development, but barely expressed during postnatal development, and may be 're-expressed' in cancer tissues. In this study, motility and migration assays were performed to compare the changes in cell behavior between non-malignant and maligant cells. Next, the expression levels of PSA were evaluated in 4 human and mouse normal breast or breast cancer (BC) cell lines using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene-labeling HPLC technology, as well as in human clinical BC tissue samples. PSA expression was significantly higher in malignant cells (where it appeared to facilitate cell migration and motility) than in non-malignant cells. Enhanced PSA expression levels were also observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a leading cause of cancer cell metastasis, which was induced in the NMuMG and MCF10A cells by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). An increased PSA expression also correlated with the disease stage in the patients with BC (P<0.0001). Using RT-qPCR, we found that polysialyltransferase ST8SiaIV (PST) and polysialyltransferase ST8SiaII (STX), which are responsible for PSA synthesis, were differently expressed in the tested BC samples. However, PST, but not STX, was re-expressed in 14 out of 20 clinical BC samples. The findings of the present study indicate that the pathophysiology of BC involves the aberrant regulation of PSA expression and PST gene expression. PMID:26530860

  17. Minimally invasive and ex-vivo diagnostics of breast cancer tissues by fiber optic evanescent-wave Fourier transform IR (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Artioushenko, Vjacheslav G.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Frank, George A.

    1998-04-01

    Fourier transform IR fiberoptic evanescent wave spectroscopy has been suggested as a powerful tool for clinical diagnostics of normal, precancerous, and cancerous breast tissue ex vivo and in vitro in the middle IR region of the spectrum. This method is suitable for noninvasive and direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. For the first time this method has been used nondestructively, rapidly, fast and remotely in the operating rooms of clinics. The aim of our studies has been the express testing of various tumor tissues during surgery to optimize and localize an area of removing tissue. We measured very small samples of normal and malignant breast tissue ex vivo with a fiber bent to a special angle, forming a special tip probe configuration. We also suggest her the minimally invasive FTIR-FEW diagnosis tool using 'needle' changeable tip probe for biopsy applications. The spectral histopathology branching could be developed with help of this technique in vitro. The breast tissue at different stages of tumor or cancer has been distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments, phosphate groups and sugars.

  18. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    PubMed

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8. PMID:26978889

  19. Three-dimensional heart dose reconstruction to estimate normal tissue complication probability after breast irradiation using portal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Louwe, R. J. W.; Wendling, M.; Herk, M. B. van; Mijnheer, B. J.

    2007-04-15

    Irradiation of the heart is one of the major concerns during radiotherapy of breast cancer. Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning would therefore be useful but cannot always be performed for left-sided breast treatments, because CT data may not be available. However, even if 3D dose calculations are available and an estimate of the normal tissue damage can be made, uncertainties in patient positioning may significantly influence the heart dose during treatment. Therefore, 3D reconstruction of the actual heart dose during breast cancer treatment using electronic imaging portal device (EPID) dosimetry has been investigated. A previously described method to reconstruct the dose in the patient from treatment portal images at the radiological midsurface was used in combination with a simple geometrical model of the irradiated heart volume to enable calculation of dose-volume histograms (DVHs), to independently verify this aspect of the treatment without using 3D data from a planning CT scan. To investigate the accuracy of our method, the DVHs obtained with full 3D treatment planning system (TPS) calculations and those obtained after resampling the TPS dose in the radiological midsurface were compared for fifteen breast cancer patients for whom CT data were available. In addition, EPID dosimetry as well as 3D dose calculations using our TPS, film dosimetry, and ionization chamber measurements were performed in an anthropomorphic phantom. It was found that the dose reconstructed using EPID dosimetry and the dose calculated with the TPS agreed within 1.5% in the lung/heart region. The dose-volume histograms obtained with EPID dosimetry were used to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for late excess cardiac mortality. Although the accuracy of these NTCP calculations might be limited due to the uncertainty in the NTCP model, in combination with our portal dosimetry approach it allows incorporation of the actual heart dose. For the anthropomorphic

  20. [Skull fracture or accessory suture in a child?].

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Katrin; Lange, Lena M; Plenzig, Stefanie; Verhoff, Marcel A; Kölzer, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between accessory sutures and fractures in the skull of an infant can be difficult. Apart from the regular sutures there is a multitude of variations that may be mistaken for a fracture line. Such variations include for instance the intraparietal suture between the two ossification centers of the parietal bone or the mendosal suture between the supraoccipital and interparietal bone of the occipital squama. The presented case refers to an approximately 20-month-old female child. During autopsy, a discontinuity in the right paramedian posterior cranial fossa parallel to the internal occipital crest with connection to the foramen magnum was observed. The macroscopic findings suggested a fracture line because of its course. However, neither a hemorrhage in the soft tissue nor callus formation was discernible. The discontinuity was preserved with the adjacent parts of the occipital bone for further histological examination. In the report of a cranial CT, which was carried out five days before the child's death, an accessory suture paramedially in the right posterior cranial fossa was described. When the clinical CT records were re-evaluated, a similar discontinuity at the corresponding position on the other side was detected, though of noticeably shorter length. Additionally, the preserved occipital bone fragment including the discontinuity was histologically processed. In the radiological literature, precise (radiological) criteria for differential diagnosis are indicated. A zigzag pattern with sclerotic borders and a bilateral and fairly symmetric occurrence indicate a suture, whereas a sharp lucency with non-sclerotic edges and a unilateral occurrence indicate a fracture. Taking all the findings into account, the depicted discontinuity was regarded as an accessory suture. This case demonstrates that differentiation between a fracture and an accessory suture may be difficult in the autopsy of a child and underlines the importance of a postmortem CT

  1. Overexpression of α2,3sialyl T-antigen in breast cancer determined by miniaturized glycosyltransferase assays and confirmed using tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shilpa A.; Bshara, Wiam; Morrison, Carl; Chandrasekaran, E. V.; Matta, Khushi L.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Glycan structure alterations during cancer regulate disease progression and represent clinical biomarkers. The study determined the degree to which changes in glycosyl transferase activities during cancer can be related to aberrant cell-surface tumor associated carbohydrate structures (TACA). To this end, changes in sialyltransferase (sialylT), fucosyltransferase (fucT) and galactosyltransferase (galT) activity were measured in normal and tumor tissue using a miniaturized enzyme activity assay and synthetic glycoconjugates bearing terminal LacNAc Type-I (Galβ1,3GlcNAc), LacNAc Type-II (Galβ1,4GlcNAc), and mucin core-1/Type-III (Galβ1,3GalNAc) structures. These data were related to TACA using tissue microarrays containing 115 breast and 26 colon cancer specimen. The results show that primary human breast and colon tumors, but not adjacent normal tissue, express elevated β1,3 galT and α2,3sialylT activity that can form α2,3sialylated Type-III glycans (Siaα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc). Prostate tumors did not exhibit such elevated enzymatic activities. α1,3/4fucT activity was higher in breast, but not colon tissue. The enzymology based prediction of enhanced α2,3sialylated Type-III structures in breast tumors was verified using histochemical analysis of tissue sections and tissue microarrays. Here, the binding of two markers that recognize Galβ1,3GalNAc (peanut lectin and mAb A78-G/A7) was elevated in breast tumor, but not normal control, only upon sialidase treatment. These antigens were also upregulated in colon tumors though to a lesser extent. α2,3sialylated Type-III expression correlated inversely with patient HER2 expression and breast metastatic potential. Overall, enzymology measurements of glycoT activity predict glycan structure changes during cancer. High expression of the α2,3sialylated T-antigen O-glycans occur in breast tumors. A transformation from linear core-1 glycan to other epitopes may accompany metastasis. PMID:25142811

  2. Quantitative expression analysis and study of the novel human kallikrein-related peptidase 14 gene (KLK14) in malignant and benign breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Papachristopoulou, Georgia; Avgeris, Margaritis; Charlaftis, Antonios; Scorilas, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Human kallikrein-related peptidase 14 gene (KLK14) is regulated by androgens and progestins. This gene is expressed in the central nervous system and endocrine tissues such as the breast, prostate and ovary. The differential KLK14 mRNA expression levels are related to several human neoplasias, among them breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyse the KLK14 expression in breast tissues and to investigate its differential diagnostic and prognostic value in the mammary carcinomas. For this purpose, we isolated total RNA from 70 malignant and 33 benign specimens. After testing RNA quality, we synthesised cDNA by reverse transcription and applied a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method for KLK14 mRNA quantification using the SYBR Green® chemistry. HPRT1 was used as a reference gene and the BT20 breast cancer cell line as a calibrator. Relative quantification analysis was performed using the comparative CT method 2-ΔΔCT. KLK14 expression was detected in both types of breast tumours. However, a statistically significant increase of the KLK14 mRNA level was observed in the malignant, compared to the benign tumour samples (p<0.001), highlighting its value in discriminating these breast lesions. Elevated KLK14 expression profiles were associated with higher tumour grade (p=0.043) and size (p=0.007) in cancerous samples. Furthermore, KLK14 mRNA expression showed negative correlation in a statistically significant manner with estrogen receptor status (p=0.024). In accordance with logistic regression models (p=0.012) and receiver-operating-characteristics analysis (p<0.001), KLK14 gene expression could be evaluated as a putative independent diagnostic biomarker in breast tumour biopsies. PMID:21057706

  3. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; D'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian; Gaffney, Eoin F.

    2011-01-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates. PMID

  4. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  5. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  6. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  7. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  8. ESR1 gene promoter region methylation in free circulating DNA and its correlation with estrogen receptor protein expression in tumor tissue in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is an important marker of prognosis, and is predictive of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Several studies have observed that epigenetic events, such methylation of cytosines and deacetylation of histones, are involved in the complex mechanisms that regulate promoter transcription. However, the exact interplay of these factors in transcription activity is not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between ER expression status in tumor tissue samples and the methylation of the 5′ CpG promoter region of the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) isolated from free circulating DNA (fcDNA) in plasma samples from breast cancer patients. Methods Patients (n = 110) with non-metastatic breast cancer had analyses performed of ER expression (luminal phenotype in tumor tissue, by immunohistochemistry method), and the ESR1-DNA methylation status (fcDNA in plasma, by quantitative methylation specific PCR technique). Results Our results showed a significant association between presence of methylated ESR1 in patients with breast cancer and ER negative status in the tumor tissue (p = 0.0179). There was a trend towards a higher probability of ESR1-methylation in those phenotypes with poor prognosis i.e. 80% of triple negative patients, 60% of HER2 patients, compared to 28% and 5.9% of patients with better prognosis such as luminal A and luminal B, respectively. Conclusion Silencing, by methylation, of the promoter region of the ESR1 affects the expression of the estrogen receptor protein in tumors of breast cancer patients; high methylation of ESR1-DNA is associated with estrogen receptor negative status which, in turn, may be implicated in the patient’s resistance to hormonal treatment in breast cancer. As such, epigenetic markers in plasma may be of interest as new targets for anticancer therapy, especially with respect to endocrine treatment. PMID:24495356

  9. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  10. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  11. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  12. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  13. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device, it... equipment requiring professional installation, it is not necessary for the responsible party to market...

  14. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  15. [A Case of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Treated with Modified Radical Mastectomy with Immediate Reconstruction Using a Tissue Expander after Endocrine Therapy].

    PubMed

    Aomatsu, Naoki; Tei, Seika; Haraoka, Goichi; Hosoi, Kosuke; Fujii, Naho; Tsujio, Gen; Hiramatsu, Soichiro; Wang, En; Iwauchi, Takehiko; Morimoto, Junya; Nishii, Takafumi; Kosaka, Kinshi; Uchima, Yasutake; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    We experienced a case of locally advanced breast cancer treated with modified radical mastectomy with immediate reconstruction using a tissue expander after endocrine therapy. A 64-year-old postmenopausal woman had a 50 mm tumor in her right breast with extensive reddening of the skin. She had axillary lymph node metastasis. Core needle biopsy showed invasive ductal carcinoma with positive hormone receptor (ER+, PgR+) and negative HER2 status. The patient was diagnosed with locally-advanced breast cancer (cT4bN1M0, stage ⅢB). She was treated with anastrozole at a dose of 1 mg per day. The tumor decreased in size gradually and became operable after 7 months of anastrozole monotherapy. She underwent modified radical mastectomy with immediate reconstruction using a tissue expander. The resected specimen was a 30 mm tumor; adverse effects due to endocrine therapy were of Grade 1a severity. Seven months after adjuvant chemotherapy (FEC→DTX), the tissue expander was removed, and the right breast was reconstructed using an implant. No complications were noted, and the patient was treated with radiation therapy. Ten months have passed since surgery, and no local recurrence or distant metastasis has been noted. PMID:26805181

  16. Relationships among folate, alcohol consumption, gene variants in one-carbon metabolism and p16INK4a methylation and expression in healthy breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Adana A; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Brasky, Theodore M; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher H; Spear, Scott L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    p16(INK4a) is a tumor suppressor gene, frequently hypermethylated in breast cancer; this epigenetic silencing of p16(INK4a) occurs early in carcinogenesis. The risk factors and functional consequences of p16(INK4a) methylation are unknown. Alcohol consumption, a breast cancer risk factor, impedes folate metabolism and may thereby alter gene methylation since folate plays a pivotal role in DNA methylation. In a cross-sectional study of 138 women with no history of breast cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we studied breast cancer risk factors, plasma and breast folate concentrations, variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and P16 protein expression. Logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). p16(INK4a) methylation was negatively correlated with P16 expression (r = -0.28; P = 0.002). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower breast folate (P = 0.03), higher p16(INK4a) promoter methylation (P = 0.007) and less P16 expression (P = 0.002). Higher breast folate concentrations were associated with lower p16(INK4a) promoter methylation (P = 0.06). Genetic variation in MTRR (rs1801394) and MTHFD1 (rs1950902) was associated with higher p16 (INK4a) promoter methylation (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.11-6.42 and OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.12-6.66, respectively), whereas variation in TYMS (rs502396) was associated with less P16 protein expression (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.99). Given that this is the first study to indicate that alcohol consumption, breast folate and variation in one-carbon metabolism genes are associated with p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and P16 protein expression in healthy tissues; these findings require replication. PMID:25344837

  17. Altered features and increased chemosensitivity of human breast cancer cells mediated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent heterogeneous cell population suitable for cell therapies in regenerative medicine. MSCs can also substantially affect tumor biology due to their ability to be recruited to the tumor stroma and interact with malignant cells via direct contacts and paracrine signaling. The aim of our study was to characterize molecular changes dictated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) and the effects on drug responses in human breast cancer cells SKBR3. Methods The tumor cells were either directly cocultured with AT-MSCs or exposed to MSCs-conditioned medium (MSC-CM). Changes in cell biology were evaluated by kinetic live cell imaging, fluorescent microscopy, scratch wound assay, expression analysis, cytokine secretion profiling, ATP-based viability and apoptosis assays. The efficiency of cytotoxic treatment in the presence of AT-MSCs or MSCs-CM was analyzed. Results The AT-MSCs altered tumor cell morphology, induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, increased mammosphere formation, cell confluence and migration of SKBR3. These features were attributed to molecular changes induced by MSCs-secreted cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer cells. AT-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of SKBR3 cells in direct cocultures which was shown to be dependent on the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis. MSC-CM-exposed SKBR3 or SKBR3 in direct coculture with AT-MSCs exhibited increased chemosensitivity and induction of apoptosis in response to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Conclusions Our work further highlights the multi-level nature of tumor-stromal cell interplay and demonstrates the capability of AT-MSCs and MSC-secreted factors to alter the anti-tumor drug responses. PMID:24209831

  18. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) May Be behind Decreased Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissue from Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco J.; Moreno-Navarrete, José M.; Mayas, Dolores; García-Santos, Eva; Gómez-Serrano, María; Rodriguez-Hermosa, José I.; Ruiz, Bartomeu; Ricart, Wifredo; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Frühbeck, Gema; Peral, Belen; Fernández-Real, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1) interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. Research Design and Methods BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P-) BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. Results BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002) and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001) adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007) as well as in OM (p = 0.010) fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001) and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001) were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005) allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium), whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. Conclusions The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects. PMID:22666314

  19. Comparison of normal tissue pharmacokinetics with {sup 111}In/{sup 9}Y monoclonal antibody m170 for breast and prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, Joerg; O'Donnell, Robert T.; Richman, Carol M. . E-mail: sjdenardo@ucdavis.edu

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Radioactivity deposition in normal tissues limits the dose deliverable by radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study investigated the absorbed radiation dose in normal tissues for prostate cancer patients in comparison to breast cancer patients for 2 RPs using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) m170. Methods and Materials: {sup 111}In-DOTA-glycylglycylglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanatophenylalanine amide (GGGF)-m170 and {sup 111}In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) 2-iminothiolane (2IT)-m170, representing the same MAb and chelate with and without a cleavable linkage, were studied in 13 breast cancer and 26 prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for {sup 9}Y was calculated using {sup 111}In MAb pharmacokinetics from the initial imaging study for each patient, using reference man- and patient-specific masses. Results: The reference man-specific radiation doses (cGy/MBq) were not significantly different for the breast and the prostate cancer patients for both RPs in all but one tissue-RP combination (liver, DOTA-2IT). The patient-specific doses had differences between the groups most of which can be related to weight differences. Conclusions: Similar normal tissue doses were calculated for two groups of patients having different cancers and genders. This similarity combined with continued careful analysis of the imaging data might allow the use of higher starting doses in early phase RIT studies.

  20. In vivo verification of radiation dose delivered to healthy tissue during radiotherapy for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonski, P.; Taylor, M. L.; Hackworth, W.; Phipps, A.; Franich, R. D.; Kron, T.

    2014-03-01

    Different treatment planning system (TPS) algorithms calculate radiation dose in different ways. This work compares measurements made in vivo to the dose calculated at out-of-field locations using three different commercially available algorithms in the Eclipse treatment planning system. LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were placed with 1 cm build-up at six locations on the contralateral side of 5 patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. TLD readings were compared to calculations of Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC), Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (XB). AAA predicted zero dose at points beyond 16 cm from the field edge. In the same region PBC returned an unrealistically constant result independent of distance and XB showed good agreement to measured data although consistently underestimated by ~0.1 % of the prescription dose. At points closer to the field edge XB was the superior algorithm, exhibiting agreement with TLD results to within 15 % of measured dose. Both AAA and PBC showed mixed agreement, with overall discrepancies considerably greater than XB. While XB is certainly the preferable algorithm, it should be noted that TPS algorithms in general are not designed to calculate dose at peripheral locations and calculation results in such regions should be treated with caution.

  1. Enhancing tissue structures with iterative image reconstruction for digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-03-01

    We design an iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm for enhancing tissue structure contrast. The algorithm takes advantage of a data fidelity term, which compares the derivative of the DBT projections with the derivative of the estimated projections. This derivative data fidelity is sensitive to the edges of tissue structure projections, and as a consequence minimizing the corresponding the data-error term brings out structure information in the reconstructed volumes. The method has the practical advantages that few iterations are required and that direct region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction is possible with the proposed derivative data fidelity term. Both of these advantages reduce the computational burden of the IIR algorithm and potentially make it feasible for clinical application. The algorithm is demonstrated on clinical DBT data.

  2. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 87