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Sample records for accessory cholera enterotoxin

  1. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  2. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  3. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Anoctamin 6 Contributes to Cl- Secretion in Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace)-stimulated Diarrhea: AN ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BISPHOSPHATE (PIP2) SIGNALING IN CHOLERA.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Joydeep; Hayashi, Mikio; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Rajsekhar; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2016-12-23

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae has been shown to contribute to diarrhea. However, the signaling mechanism and specific type of Cl(-) channel activated by Ace are still unknown. We have shown here that the recombinant Ace protein induced ICl of apical plasma membrane, which was inhibited by classical CaCC blockers. Surprisingly, an Ace-elicited rise of current was neither affected by ANO1 (TMEM16A)-specific inhibitor T16A(inh)-AO1(TAO1) nor by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTR inh-172. Ace stimulated whole-cell current in Caco-2 cells. However, the apical ICl was attenuated by knockdown of ANO6 (TMEM16F). This impaired phenotype was restored by re-expression of ANO6 in Caco-2 cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of ANO currents in HEK293 cells transiently expressing mouse ANO1-mCherry or ANO6-GFP confirmed that Ace induced Cl(-) secretion. Application of Ace produced ANO6 but not the ANO1 currents. Ace was not able to induce a [Ca(2+)]i rise in Caco-2 cells, but cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) increased. Identification of the PIP2-binding motif at the N-terminal sequence among human and mouse ANO6 variants along with binding of PIP2 directly to ANO6 in HEK293 cells indicate likely PIP2 regulation of ANO6. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of Ace stimulated Cl(-) current along with intestinal fluid accumulation, and binding of PIP2 to the proximal KR motif of channel proteins, whose mutagenesis correlates with altered binding of PIP2, is comparable with ANO6 stimulation. We conclude that ANO6 is predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it contributes secretory diarrhea by Ace stimulation in a calcium-independent mechanism of RhoA-ROCK-PIP2 signaling.

  5. The discovery of cholera - like enterotoxins produced by Escherichia coli causing secretory diarrhoea in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sack, R. Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Non-vibrio cholera has been recognized as a clinical entity for as long as cholera was known to be caused by Vibrio cholerae. Until 1968, the aetiologic agent of this syndrome was not known. Following a series of studies in patients with non-vibrio cholera it was found that these patients had large concentrations of Escherichia coli in the small bowel and stools which produced cholera toxin-like enterotoxins, and had fluid and electrolyte transport abnormalities in the small bowel similar to patients with documented cholera. Furthermore, these patients developed antibodies to the cholera-like enterotoxin. Later studies showed that these strains, when fed to volunteers produced a cholera-like disease and that two enterotoxins were found to be produced by these organisms: a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) which is nearly identical to cholera toxin, and a heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), a small molecular weight polypeptide. E. coli that produced one or both of these enterotoxins were designated enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). ETEC are now known not only to cause a severe cholera-like illness, but to be the most common bacterial cause of acute diarrhoea in children in the developing world, and to be the most common cause of travellers’ diarrhoea in persons who visit the developing world. PMID:21415491

  6. [Isolation of Vibrio cholerae in imported frozen seafood and their cholera-enterotoxin production].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, S; Takeda, K; Taga, K; Hirata, K; Hayashi, K; Honda, T

    1996-02-01

    A survey study for Vibrio cholerae in imported seafood was conducted during January 1991 to December 1994. A total of 7,439 specimens (approximately 20% of all imported food) were randomly picked up and examined for contamination of V. cholerae. Among these, V. cholerae O1 were isolated from 9 specimens, but they were all cholerae enterotoxin (CT)-negative. In terms of V. cholerae non-O1, a total of 2,803 specimens (37.4%) were contaminated with this vibrio. Shrimp, especially the ones still in their shells and imported from Asian countries such as India and Indonesia, were highly contaminated with V. cholerae. Although no strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in this study produced CT, 2 strains of V. cholerae non-O1 were proved to be CT-producers. Taking together the high contamination of V. cholerae in imported seafood and a part of those strains producing CT, we believe that careful survey for the possible contamination of V. choleare in imported seafood is necessary.

  7. Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.

  8. Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, B D

    1992-01-01

    Cholera and the related Escherichia coli-associated diarrheal disease are important problems confronting Third World nations and any area where water supplies can become contaminated. The disease is extremely debilitating and may be fatal in the absence of treatment. Symptoms are caused by the action of cholera toxin, secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or by a closely related heat-labile enterotoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, that causes a milder, more common traveler's diarrhea. Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. The consequent stimulated production of cyclic AMP, or other factors such as increased synthesis of prostaglandins by intoxicated cells, initiates a metabolic cascade that results in the excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes characteristic of the disease. The toxins have a very high degree of structural and functional homology and may be evolutionarily related. Several effective new vaccine formulations have been developed and tested, and a growing family of endogenous cofactors is being discovered in eukaryotic cells. The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. Images PMID:1480112

  9. Purification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 heat-stable enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Arita, M; Takeda, T; Honda, T; Miwatani, T

    1986-01-01

    A toxin which causes rapid fluid accumulation in a suckling mouse assay and which was produced by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was investigated. The toxin was purified from the culture supernatant of V. cholerae non-O1 (strain A-5) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydroxyapatite treatment, ethanol extraction, column chromatographies on SP-Sephadex C-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-25, and high-pressure liquid chromatography on a Lichrosorb RP-8 column. About 1.4 X 10(5)-fold purification was achieved, with a recovery of about 12%. Although the crude preparation was heat labile, the purified toxin was heat stable. The minimum effective dose of purified toxin was about 5 ng in the suckling mouse assay. The amino acid composition of the purified toxin was determined to be Asp(3), Glu(1), Ala(1), half-Cys(6), Ile(2), Leu(1), Phe(1), and Pro(1). These data show the production of a new type of heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST) by V. cholerae non-O1. PMID:3957432

  10. Enterotoxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is harmful to your digestive system. It is produced by certain bacteria. The enterotoxin enters your stomach and intestines if you eat contaminated food or water. This causes symptoms such as cramps, nausea, vomiting, ...

  11. Detection of heat-labile enterotoxin-like activity in stools of patients with cholera and Escherichia coli diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, P; Verheart, L; Ulyanco, C V; Santiago, L T

    1978-01-01

    The Y1 adrenal cell tissue culture assay was used to detect heat-labile enterotoxin-like activity in the stools of 14 of 74 patients with diarrhea. A positive effect of the stool on the adrenal cells was heat-labile and neutralized by cholera antitoxin. Enterotoxin-like activity was detected in the stools of 10 of 30 patients with cholera and in those of 2 of 4 from whom heat-labile Escherichia coli were isolated. None of the stools from nine individuals with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, or Shigella infections were positive. Two of 31 individuals from whom no pathogens were isolated had detectable toxin-like activity in their stools. The Y1 adrenal cell assay provides a rapid method of diagnosing heat-labile enterotoxigenic diarrhea and could be an adjunct in epidemiological studies of gastroenteritis. PMID:342414

  12. Temporal expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin h in comparison with accessory gene regulator-dependent and -independent enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lis, Elżbieta; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystroń, Jarosław; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Bania, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) H was determined in 22 Staphylococcus aureus isolates bearing the seh gene. Samples of supernatants were taken at four time points corresponding to exponential phase (optical density at 600 nm [OD(600)] 0.3 to 0.6), late exponential phase (OD(600) 2 to 4), early stationary phase (OD(600) 4 to 6), and late stationary phase (OD(600) 7 to 12). In four isolates, SEH was detectable at a very low level at the first time point. In 18 isolates, the earliest SEH production was detected in the late exponential phase. For all isolates, there was an increase of SEH concentration with time. Western blot analysis revealed that SEH production, similar to SEA, started in the early exponential phase (OD(600) ∼ 0.5). Isolates with high SEH productivity, as measured by ELISA, demonstrated a higher seh transcription as well. sec transcription was induced in the stationary phase. An induction in the sea transcript was observed during mid- to late exponential phase. Expression profile of seh was similar to that of sea. We showed that the seh expression profile is similar to that of Agr-independent sea and not to that of Agr-dependent sec genes. SEH can be effectively expressed at low bacterial counts, meaning that even in an environment not favorable for S. aureus growth, seh-bearing strains can pose a risk for food safety.

  13. Immunochromatographic detection of the heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with cross-detection of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Tsuji, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the development of an immunochromatographic test strip that can detect heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Five types of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-producing hybridomas were isolated: three mAbs were A subunit specific and two were B subunit specific. Four mAbs also cross-reacted with both LT proteins derived from swine and human E. coli strains, but only one mAb 57B9 additionally cross-reacted with cholera toxin. Thus, mAb 57B9 was used to form a gold colloid-conjugated antibody for the immunochromatographic test by combination with polyclonal anti-LT rabbit IgG. This test strip detected not only LT in the culture supernatant of LT gene-positive strains, but also cholera toxin in the culture supernatant of Vibrio cholerae. These results indicate that this test strip is suitable for the diagnosis of both enterotoxigenic E. coli and V. cholerae infection.

  14. Changes in Tissue Cyclic AMP Concentrations following an Intravenous Lethal Dose of Cholera Enterotoxin in Rabbits,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-13

    systemically in an animal model. For the treatment of cholera in human patients, a continuous iv administration of water, electrolytes and bicarbonate...usually reverses the disease processes of severe dehydration [16-18). However, some cholera patients still die, despite the conventional fluid treatment ...correlations with acute tubular necrosis and hypokalemic nephropathy . Ann Intern Med 52:960-975, 1960. 3. Serebro, H. A., McGonagle, T., Iber, F. L., Royall

  15. Enterotoxin production by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus grown in continuous culture with microbial cell recycle.

    PubMed Central

    Spira, W M; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effect of complete cell recycle on the production of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae and CT-like toxin by Vibrio mimicus in continuous culture fermentations. Complete cell recycle was obtained by filtering culture fluids through Amicon hollow fibers with an exclusion limit of 100,000 daltons (H1P100-20) and returning the concentrated cell slurry to the fermentor. A single 1-liter laboratory fermentor system modified with this recycle loop was capable of producing over 20 liters of cell-free culture filtrate per day. Toxin production in this system was compared with yields obtained in traditional continuous cultures and in shake flask cultures. Yields of CT from V. cholerae 569B in the recycle fermentor were highest at the highest dilution rate employed (1.0 vol/vol per h). The use of complete cell recycle dramatically increased yields over those obtained in continuous culture and equaled those obtained in shake flasks. The concentration of CT in the filtrate was slightly less than half of that measured in culture fluids sampled at the same time. Similarly, V. mimicus 61892 grown in the presence of 50 micrograms of lincomycin per ml produced 280 ng of CT per ml in the recycle fermentor, compared with 210 ng/ml in shake flasks under optimal conditions. The sterile filtrate from this fermentation contained 110 ng/ml. PMID:6357081

  16. Secretory IgA-mediated protection against V. cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by rice-based vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Nochi, Tomonori; Kodama, Toshio; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Nanno, Masanobu; Nakanishi, Ushio; Takaiwa, Fumio; Honda, Takeshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are among the most common causes of acute infantile gastroenteritis globally. We previously developed a rice-based vaccine that expressed cholera toxin B subunit (MucoRice-CTB) and had the advantages of being cold chain–free and providing protection against cholera toxin (CT)–induced diarrhea. To advance the development of MucoRice-CTB for human clinical application, we investigated whether the CTB-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) induced by MucoRice-CTB gives longstanding protection against diarrhea induced by Vibrio cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)–producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) in mice. Oral immunization with MucoRice-CTB stored at room temperature for more than 3 y provided effective SIgA-mediated protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea, but the protection was impaired in polymeric Ig receptor–deficient mice lacking SIgA. The vaccine gave longstanding protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea (for ≥6 months after primary immunization), and a single booster immunization extended the duration of protective immunity by at least 4 months. Furthermore, MucoRice-CTB vaccination prevented diarrhea in the event of V. cholerae and LT-ETEC challenges. Thus, MucoRice-CTB is an effective long-term cold chain–free oral vaccine that induces CTB-specific SIgA-mediated longstanding protection against V. cholerae– or LT-ETEC–induced diarrhea. PMID:20421480

  17. Effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin, cholera toxin and theophylline on ion transport in porcine colon

    PubMed Central

    Argenzio, R. A.; Whipp, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    1. The effect of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) of Escherichia coli, cholera toxin (CT), and theophylline (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) on ion and water transport was studied with an in vivo isolated loop system of the pig colon. 2. All three agents abolished net Na absorption as a result of a decrease in the lumen to blood Na flux alone. With all three agents, net Cl absorption was reduced, but not abolished, and net HCO3 secretion was elicited. Luminal pCO2 was reduced with CT and theophylline from that observed in normal Ringer alone. 3. Theophylline resulted in a prompt and sustained increase in both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels in colonic mucosa studied in vitro. ST selectively elevated cyclic GMP, whereas CT selectively elevated cyclic AMP. These responses paralleled the time course and magnitude of response of the transepithelial electrical potential difference (ψLB) measured in vivo. 4. Ion replacement studies in the presence or absence of theophylline showed that in the absence of Na, Cl absorption was slightly reduced and HCO3 secretion was elicited; no further additive effects of theophylline in the absence of luminal Na were observed. In the absence of luminal Cl, net Na absorption was abolished and HCO3 was absorbed; theophylline resulted in significant net Na and HCO3 secretion. Theophylline also increased ψLB in the absence of either luminal Na or Cl. 5. Results suggest that in the presence of theophylline or enterotoxin, the coupled Na—H and Cl—HCO3 exchange processes that are normally responsible for at least half of the net NaCl absorption by this tissue are interrupted. Active HCO3 secretion is observed and Cl absorption under these conditions can be entirely explained as a consequence of ψLB. Thus, these studies indicate that the colon may participate in the production of diarrhoea of enterotoxigenic origin. They also suggest an important functional role of cyclic

  18. Abortifacient effects of Vibrio cholerae exo-enterotoxin and endotoxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Gasic, G J; Gasic, T B; Strauss, J F

    1975-11-01

    To study antifertility properties of microbial toxins, exoenterotoxin and endotoxin from Vibrio cholerae were injected intravenously into mice at different times during pregnancy. The two substances induced termination of pregnancy, but the patterns of abortifacient activity were different. Exotoxin terminated pregnancy in mice when administered between Days 4 and 10 of gestation, but abortifacient activity was reduced in animals more than 10 days pregnant; exogenous progesterone did not protect the pregnancies. Endotoxin was most effective in terminating pregnancy when injected after mid-gestation and the active principle was heat-stable; exogenous progesterone was not able to prevent the effects of endotoxin. Animals treated with endotoxin on Day 17 often gave birth to live young prematurely; indomethacin reduced the incidence of premature littering. The results demonstrate that exo- and endotoxins have antifertility properties and both appear to act on intrauterine targets rather than inducing progestin deficiency.

  19. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholera occurs in places with a lack of water treatment or sewage treatment, or crowding, war, and famine. Common locations for cholera include: Africa Some parts of Asia India Bangladesh Mexico South and Central America

  20. Refined structure of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, a close relative of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Sixma, T K; Kalk, K H; van Zanten, B A; Dauter, Z; Kingma, J; Witholt, B; Hol, W G

    1993-04-05

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli is a bacterial protein toxin with an AB5 multimer structure, in which the B pentamer has a membrane binding function and the A subunit is needed for enzymatic activity. The LT crystal structure has been solved using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement, fivefold averaging and molecular dynamics refinement. Phase combination using all these sources of phase information was of crucial importance for the chain tracing. The structure has now been refined to 1.95 A resolution, resulting in a model containing 6035 protein atoms and 293 solvent molecules with a crystallographic R-factor of 18.2% and good stereochemistry. The B subunits are arranged as a highly stable pentamer with a donut shape. Each subunit takes part in approximately 30 inter-subunit hydrogen bonds and six salt bridges with its two neighbors, whilst burying a large surface area. The A subunit has higher temperature factors and less well-defined secondary structure than the B subunits. It interacts with the B pentamer mainly via the C-terminal A2 fragment, which runs through the highly charged central pore of the B subunits. The pore contains at least 66 water molecules, which fill the space left by the A2 fragment. A detailed analysis of the contacts between A and B subunits showed that most specific contacts occur at the entrance of the central pore of the B pentamer, while the contacts within the pore are mainly hydrophobic and water mediated, with the exception of two salt bridges. Only a few contacts exist between the A1 fragment and the B pentamer, showing that the A2 fragment functions as a "linker" of the A and B parts of the protein. Interacting with the A subunit by the B subunits does not cause large deviations from a common B subunit structure, and the 5-fold symmetry is well maintained. A potential NAD(+)-binding site is located in an elongated crevice at the interface of two small sheets in the A1 fragment. At the back of this

  1. Investigation of ’Escherichia coli’ Enterotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    E . coli diarrheal disease in man and domestic animals. Fundamentally, the design of the vaccine is based on the well- documented ability of cholera antitoxin to neutralize both cholera and heat- labile E . coli enterotoxins and on the ability of certain E . coli antigens to enhance the immune response to cholera toxoid and possibly whole-cell Cholera Vaccine, as

  2. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Parsi, V K.

    2001-05-01

    Cholera, an infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is primarily transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water. In severe cases, cholera may lead to severe dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and ultimately, hypovolemic shock and death. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of V. cholerae in a stool specimen. Treatment should be started immediately by rapid replacement of fluid and electrolytes. Antibiotics such as tetracycline and doxycycline shorten the duration of illness but do not significantly affect overall mortality. Cholera can be prevented by limiting spread, survival, and growth of the organism. The current parenteral cholera vaccine is not recommended by the Public Health Service or the World Health Organization because of its limited protection. A number of oral vaccines are currently being tested in clinical trials.

  3. Cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Kaper, J B; Morris, J G; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it. PMID:7704895

  4. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Caini, Saverio

    2016-08-01

    Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology. The germ responsible for cholera was discovered twice: first by the Italian physician Filippo Pacini during an outbreak in Florence, Italy, in 1854, and then independently by Robert Koch in India in 1883, thus favoring the germ theory over the miasma theory of disease. Unlike many other infectious diseases, such as plague, smallpox, and poliomyelitis, cholera persists as a huge public health problem worldwide, even though there are effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The main reasons for its persistence are socioeconomic rather than purely biological; cholera flourishes where there are unsatisfactory hygienic conditions and where a breakdown of already fragile sanitation and health infrastructure occurs because of natural disasters or humanitarian crises.

  5. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes antibiotics. Anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. Dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  6. The catalytic A1 domains of cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin are potent DNA adjuvants that evoke mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Kenneth; Xu, Rong; Ota-Setlik, Ayuko; Egan, Michael; Schwartz, Jennifer; Fouts, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    DNA encoded adjuvants are well known for increasing the magnitude of cellular and/or humoral immune responses directed against vaccine antigens. DNA adjuvants can also tune immune responses directed against vaccine antigens to better protect against infection of the target organism. Two potent DNA adjuvants that have unique abilities to tune immune responses are the catalytic A1 domains of Cholera Toxin (CTA1) and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin (LTA1). Here, we have characterized the adjuvant activities of CTA1 and LTA1 using HIV and SIV genes as model antigens. Both of these adjuvants enhanced the magnitude of antigen-specific cellular immune responses on par with those induced by the well-characterized cytokine adjuvants IL-12 and GM-CSF. CTA1 and LTA1 preferentially enhanced cellular responses to the intracellular antigen SIVmac239-gag over those for the secreted HIVBaL-gp120 antigen. IL-12, GM-CSF and electroporation did the opposite suggesting differences in the mechanisms of actions of these diverse adjuvants. Combinations of CTA1 or LTA1 with IL-12 or GM-CSF generated additive and better balanced cellular responses to both of these antigens. Consistent with observations made with the holotoxin and the CTA1-DD adjuvant, CTA1 and LTA1 evoked mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses. Together, these results show that CTA1 and LTA1 are potent DNA vaccine adjuvants that favor the intracellular antigen gag over the secreted antigen gp120 and evoke mixed Th1/Th17 responses against both of these antigens. The results also indicate that achieving a balanced immune response to multiple intracellular and extracellular antigens delivered via DNA vaccination may require combining adjuvants that have different and complementary mechanisms of action.

  7. Investigation of E. coli Enterotoxins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    It has been determined that representative culture filtrates from two different strains (H197 and 74-114) of enterotoxigenic E . coli contain at least...for E . coli entorotoxin (soluble) and that trypsin-activated insol ECT is more antigenic than unactivated insol ECT. In contrast, it was determined...that cholera (ga) toxoid, with or without adjuvant, stimulates antitoxin capable of neutralizing both cholera and E . coli enterotoxins. It has been

  8. A natural vaccine candidate strain against cholera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Q; Qi, G M; Wang, S X; Yu, Y M; Duan, G C; Zhang, L J; Gao, S Y

    1995-12-01

    E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae (EVC) strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic (EEVC) strains and non-epidemigenic (NEEVC) strains-based on a phage-biotyping system. A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes. One such naturally occurring strains (designated IEM101) has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), accessory cholera enterotoxin (ACE), zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), but possesses RS1 sequences and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (icpA) although icpA is poorly expressed. It expresses type B pili but does not possess type C pili. It is an E1 Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ilcal loop tests. Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V. cholerae O1. Oral administration caused no side effects in 15 human volunteers, colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  9. B subunits of cholera toxin and thermolabile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli have similar adjuvant effect as whole molecules on rotavirus 2/6-VLP specific antibody responses and induce a Th17-like response after intrarectal immunization.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Fatou; Charpilienne, Annie; Poncet, Didier; Kohli, Evelyne; Basset, Christelle

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adjuvant effect of the B subunits of cholera toxin (CT) and the thermolabile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT) by the intrarectal route of immunization and compare them to the whole molecules CT and LT-R192G, a non toxic mutant of LT, using 2/6-VLP as an antigen, in mice. All molecules induced similar antigen specific antibody titers in serum and feces, whereas different T cell profiles were observed. CTB and LTB, conversely to CT and LT-R192G, did not induce detectable production of IL-2 by antigen specific T cells. Moreover, CTB, conversely to LT-R192G, CT and LTB, did not induce antigen specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3- and Foxp3+ T cells, thus showing different effects between the B subunits themselves. However, all molecules induced an antigen specific Th17 response. In conclusion, B subunits are potent adjuvants on B cell responses by the intrarectal route. Although their impact on T cell responses are different, all molecules induce a 2/6-VLP-specific Th17 T cell response that may play a major role in helping B cell responses and thus in adjuvanticity and protection.

  10. Cholera: a great global concern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  11. Modulation of the humoral and cellular immune response in Abeta immunotherapy by the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G).

    PubMed

    Maier, Marcel; Seabrook, Timothy J; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2005-10-25

    Abeta vaccination or passive transfer of human-specific anti-Abeta antibodies are approaches under investigation to prevent and/or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Successful active Abeta vaccination requires a strong and safe adjuvant to induce anti-Abeta antibody formation. We compared the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LT(R192G) for their ability to induce a humoral and cellular immune reaction, using fibrillar Abeta1-40/42 as a common immunogen in wildtype B6D2F1 mice. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with MPL/TDM resulted in anti-Abeta antibodies levels up to four times higher compared to s.c. LT(R192G). Using MPL/TDM, the anti-Abeta antibodies induced were mainly IgG2b, IgG1 and lower levels of IgG2a and IgM, with a moderate splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in vitro upon stimulation with Abeta1-40/42. LT(R192G), previously shown by us to induce robust titers of anti-Abeta antibodies, generated predominantly IgG2b and IgG1 anti-Abeta antibodies with very low splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Weekly intranasal (i.n.) administration over 11 weeks of Abeta40/42 with CTB induced only moderate levels of antibodies. All immunogens generated antibodies that recognized mainly the Abeta1-7 epitope and specifically detected amyloid plaques on AD brain sections. In conclusion, MPL/TDM, in addition to LT(R192G), is an effective adjuvant when combined with Abeta40/42 and may aid in the design of Abeta immunotherapy.

  12. Cholera Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  13. Inhibition of small-intestinal sugar and amino acid transport by the enterotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae I.

    PubMed

    Binder, H J; Whiting, D S

    1977-05-01

    The enterotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae I produces fluid and electrolyte secretion in the rabbit ileum. These present studies were designed to evaluate nonelectrolyte transport in rabbit ileal mucosa exposed to Shigella enterotoxin. Both 10 mM galactose and 5 mM L-alanine absorptions were significantly impaired in enterotoxin-exposed ileal mucosa compared with control mucosa. L-Alanine influx was not imparied in two other secretory processes: that induced by cholera enterotoxin and hyperosmolarity. These studies provide evidence that both surgar and amino acid absorptions are diminished in the small intestine by the enterotoxin of S. dysenteriae I.

  14. Inhibition of small-intestinal sugar and amino acid transport by the enterotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae I.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, H J; Whiting, D S

    1977-01-01

    The enterotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae I produces fluid and electrolyte secretion in the rabbit ileum. These present studies were designed to evaluate nonelectrolyte transport in rabbit ileal mucosa exposed to Shigella enterotoxin. Both 10 mM galactose and 5 mM L-alanine absorptions were significantly impaired in enterotoxin-exposed ileal mucosa compared with control mucosa. L-Alanine influx was not imparied in two other secretory processes: that induced by cholera enterotoxin and hyperosmolarity. These studies provide evidence that both surgar and amino acid absorptions are diminished in the small intestine by the enterotoxin of S. dysenteriae I. PMID:324910

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae diarrhea, Bangladesh, 2004.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Khan, Ashraful I; Faruque, Abu Syed G; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Chowdhury, Fahima; Nair, Gopinath B; Salam, Mohammed A; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2005-07-01

    Flooding in Dhaka in July 2004 caused epidemics of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was almost as prevalent as Vibrio cholerae O1 in diarrheal stools. ETEC that produced heat-stable enterotoxin alone was most prevalent, and 78% of strains had colonization factors. Like V. cholerae O1, ETEC can cause epidemic diarrhea.

  16. Different types of cell death induced by enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Huang, Wei-Ching; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Hong, Ming-Yuan

    2010-08-01

    The infection of bacterial organisms generally causes cell death to facilitate microbial invasion and immune escape, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In addition to the intercellular infectious processes, pathogen-produced/secreted enterotoxins (mostly exotoxins) are the major weapons that kill host cells and cause diseases by inducing different types of cell death, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. Blocking these enterotoxins with synthetic drugs and vaccines is important for treating patients with infectious diseases. Studies of enterotoxin-induced apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms have helped us to create efficient strategies to use against these well-characterized cytopathic toxins. In this article, we review the induction of the different types of cell death from various bacterial enterotoxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli, Shiga toxins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, heat-labile enterotoxins, and the cholera toxin, Vibrio cholerae. In addition, necrosis caused by pore-forming toxins, apoptotic signaling through cross-talk pathways involving mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and lysosomal injury is discussed.

  17. Immunological Interrelationships of Coliform Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Enterotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    FA, Engert RF: Immunological interrelationships between cholera toxin and the heat -labile and hoat-stable enterotoxins of coliform bacteria . Infec...When Date Enterd) -3- SUMMARY These investigations (a) established the fact that species of coliform bacteria other than ETEC strains of E. coZi...elaborate enterotoxins which alter gastrointestinal physiology, and (b) showed that immunization with either E. coli (ETEC) LT or ST toxin arouses an

  18. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Kristina T.; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente; Larsen, Anders R.; Petersen, Andreas; Bangsborg, Jette; Albertsen, Per; Westh, Henrik; Bartels, Mette D.

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p < 0.02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also be important virulence factors for human mastitis. PMID:28223977

  19. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Franck, Kristina T; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente; Larsen, Anders R; Petersen, Andreas; Bangsborg, Jette; Albertsen, Per; Westh, Henrik; Bartels, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p < 0.02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also be important virulence factors for human mastitis.

  20. Investigation of E. coli Enterotoxins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In the course of investigating E . coli enterotoxins, it was discovered that trypsin treatment of partially purified enterotoxin from strain H197 (078...loops) did exhibit elevated PF titers compared with uninoculated controls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that E . coli enterotoxins

  1. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    Discussing the symptomatology of cholera, the author deals first with the incubation period, the clinical types, choleraic diarrhoea, and cholerine; he then considers in detail the various stages of cholera gravis and the relapses and complications that may be met. This is followed by sections on diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and on prognosis and the various factors influencing it. The author's highly detailed review of the treatment of cholera which concludes this study is divided into three parts, dealing with attempts at specific therapy, with infusion treatment, and with adjuvant treatment. PMID:13426761

  2. Oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella enteritidis containing a recombinant plasmid which codes for production of the B subunit of heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, J D; Lyon, F L; Lowe, K L; Farrand, A L; el-Morshidy, S

    1986-01-01

    We used Salmonella enteritidis serotype dublin strain SL1438, a nonreverting, aromatic-dependent, histidine-requiring mutant, as a recipient for a recombinant plasmid coding for production of the nontoxic B subunit of the heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin. The S. enteritidis derivative EL23 produced heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B that was indistinguishable from heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B produced by strains of E. coli or Salmonella typhi harboring the same plasmid. Mice immunized orally with strain EL23 developed progressively increasing mucosal and serum antibody responses to both heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B and to the lipopolysaccharide of the vaccine strain. The mucosal antibody response was shown to be immunoglobulin A specific and to be capable of neutralizing the biological activities of both E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin and cholera enterotoxin in vitro. Images PMID:3527989

  3. Nicotinic acid inhibits enterotoxin-induced jejunal secretion in the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, G W; Kapitany, R A; Scoot, A

    1981-01-01

    The use of nicotinic acid for preventing intestinal secretion caused by cholera toxin and by the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli has been investigated in the weanling pig. Secretory effects were measured in ligated jejunal loops of halothane-anesthetized pigs by dilution of a nonabsorbable marker added to the loop fluid. Different routes of administration and different initial pH values for nicotinate solutions were studied to determine optimal conditions for secretory inhibition. The neutral sodium salt of nicotinic acid had no significant antisecretory activity under any conditions used in these trials. Inhibition of secretion was most effective with partly neutralized nicotinic acid at pH 4.5 added directly to loops containing enterotoxin. Net fluid secretion induced by cholera toxin or heat-stable enterotoxin of E. coli was prevented by this treatment. Reversal of secretion was not accompanied by any measurable changes in cyclic nucleotide concentration in intestinal mucosa. Nicotinic acid antagonism of a secretory step common to cholera toxin and heat-stable enterotoxin of E. coli but subsequent to cyclic nucleotide involvement is indicated by these data. PMID:7020893

  4. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  5. Cholera Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  6. Reduction of reactivity of Escherichia coli enterotoxins by intestinal mucosal components.

    PubMed

    Cole, H D; Staley, T E; Whipp, S C

    1977-04-01

    Incubation studies involving rabbit and piglet small intestinal mucosal components and Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae enterotoxins were conducted at 37 and 4 degrees C. Mucosal homogenate cytosol from rabbits did not significantly alter the reactivities of either cholera enterotoxin (CT) or E. coli labile enterotoxin (LT). However, mucosal homogenate cytosol from piglets was capable of neutralizing LT, though it had no effect on E. coli stable enterotoxin. LT became bound to piglet and rabbit microvillous membranes at 4 degrees C in the presence of a protective protein. In rabbits, the binding of LT was not dependent upon an intact glycocalyx or free unbound CT-receptors, although some binding was apparently associated with the glycocalyx and CT-receptors. These results indicated the presence of two different LT-receptors in microvillous membranes one being associated with the membrane proper and the other with the glycocalyx. Stable enterotoxin did not bind to in vitro preparations of piglet mucosal components, which is evidence for a different mechanism for inducing intestinal secretion.

  7. Reduction of reactivity of Escherichia coli enterotoxins by intestinal mucosal components.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, H D; Staley, T E; Whipp, S C

    1977-01-01

    Incubation studies involving rabbit and piglet small intestinal mucosal components and Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae enterotoxins were conducted at 37 and 4 degrees C. Mucosal homogenate cytosol from rabbits did not significantly alter the reactivities of either cholera enterotoxin (CT) or E. coli labile enterotoxin (LT). However, mucosal homogenate cytosol from piglets was capable of neutralizing LT, though it had no effect on E. coli stable enterotoxin. LT became bound to piglet and rabbit microvillous membranes at 4 degrees C in the presence of a protective protein. In rabbits, the binding of LT was not dependent upon an intact glycocalyx or free unbound CT-receptors, although some binding was apparently associated with the glycocalyx and CT-receptors. These results indicated the presence of two different LT-receptors in microvillous membranes one being associated with the membrane proper and the other with the glycocalyx. Stable enterotoxin did not bind to in vitro preparations of piglet mucosal components, which is evidence for a different mechanism for inducing intestinal secretion. Images PMID:326677

  8. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    The first section of this study deals with areas where cholera is endemic and with the conditions normally favouring endemicity. Turning next to epidemics, the author discusses their origin and types, climatic influences on them, their periodicity and the possibility of forecasting them, the role played in them by different serological races of V. cholerae, and the causes of their decline. In a section on the factors governing the local spread of cholera, he considers contact and water-borne infection; the role of contaminated food and drink, of fomites, of flies, and of carriers; and the incidence according to sex, age, race, and occupation. The last part deals with factors governing the spread of cholera over longer distances, and includes discussion of the effect of movements of individuals and groups and of assemblies of the population on pilgrimages or at religious festivals. PMID:13472431

  9. The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D.; Scott, D.L.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1996-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

  10. Seroepidemiology of cholera in Gulf coastal Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, M D; Woodward, W E; Keswick, B H; Dupont, H L

    1988-01-01

    Single serum samples from 559 volunteers from a Texas Gulf Coast area were examined for vibriocidal antibody to Vibrio cholerae O1 (biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba) by a microtiter method. Elevated levels of vibriocidal antibody were present in 14% of the subjects. Also, 6.8% of the subjects had elevated levels of antibody to the enterotoxin of V. cholerae O1 by the immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recent infection, defined on the basis of elevations in both vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies, had occurred in 1.3% of the subjects. When subjects who reported Brucella infection, travel to a cholera-endemic area, and/or cholera vaccination within a year of the study were removed from the analysis, a prevalence of recent infection of 0.89% was obtained. Significantly higher titers of vibriocidal antibody were found in those with exposure to seawater (fishermen, shrimpers, merchant marines, and dock workers) than in those without such exposure (P less than 0.005). Furthermore, titers of antitoxin antibody were significantly higher in those who consumed shellfish than in nonconsumers. Finally, titers of vibriocidal antibody were significantly higher in Vietnamese subjects than in non-Vietnamese subjects. The results of this study indicate that an endemic focus of infection with V. cholerae occurs in this area. PMID:3415232

  11. Adaptation of the staphylococcal coagglutination technique for detection of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Brill, B M; Wasilauskas, B L; Richardson, S H

    1979-01-01

    Protein A-containing staphylococci coated with specific antiserum were tested for heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli. The immunological cross-reactivity of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin with Vibrio cholerae toxin (choleragen) was the basis for sensitizing stabilized suspensions of the Cowan I strain of Staphylococcus aureus with anticholeragen. Unconcentrated culture supernatant fluid containing E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin produced macroscopic agglutination when mixed with sensitized staphylococci in capillary tubes. A total of 15 toxigenic and 61 nontoxigenic isolates were tested by the staphylococcal coagglutination technique in a coded fashion and found to be in agreement with previous results of the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay and the passive immune hemolysis test. The staphylococcal coagglutination technique is simple, relatively inexpensive to perform, and requires the immunoglobulin fraction of anticholeragen as the only specific reagent. The staphylococcal coagglutination technique appears to have potential for routine use in diagnostic microbiology laboratories. Images PMID:372214

  12. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, figures relating to cholera deaths occurring in individual countries, from 1900 to 1952, are recorded as well as the incidence of the disease from 1923 up to the present time. The mode of spread of cholera from its endemic home in India to outside countries is described in relation to favourable seasons, main routes followed by the infection, and the role played by large religious gatherings. The incidence of the disease in the various seaports infected within recent years is discussed. PMID:14364186

  13. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    After a general consideration of the loss of fluids and salts in evacuations from the gastro-intestinal tract, the author discusses in detail both the physical and the chemical changes in the blood of cholera patients. The author then deals exhaustively with the problems of circulatory and renal failure. PMID:13413649

  14. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1956-01-01

    The first portion of this study describes in detail the different aspects of stool examinations, including the collection, preservation, and pooling of specimens, macroscopic and bacterioscopic examination, enrichment methods, and cultivation on a variety of solid media. The author also deals with the examination of vomits and of water. The performance and value of different identification tests (agglutination, haemolysis, and bacteriophage) and confirmatory tests are then considered. An annex is included on bacteriological procedures in the laboratory diagnosis of cholera. PMID:13356145

  15. Cholera in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection of the intestines caused by bacteria called Vibrio cholerae. It causes a watery diarrhea that can range ... as raw or undercooked shellfish contaminated with V cholerae. Cholera has ... are some species of Vibrio that do not cause cholera, although they can ...

  16. Accessory mental foramen

    PubMed Central

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist. PMID:22666714

  17. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    In discussing prevention, the author deals first with the provision of permanently safe water, supplied from waterworks or wells, and with other improvements in environmental sanitation. Control of food and drinks, public health propaganda and education, and vaccination are also considered under this heading. The greater part of this study is devoted to suppressive measures, affecting the individual, the environment, and persons in the mass. Discussion of the isolation, detection and management of cholera patients, the management of contacts, and the management and treatment of carriers is followed by sections on, inter alia, disinfection, temporary improvements in water supplies, fly control, and personal prophylaxis. In dealing with mass prophylaxis, the author pays particular attention to vaccination. In the concluding sections he goes into the control of pilgrimages and local and international quarantine measures. PMID:13479774

  18. Cholera Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... works to: promote the design and implementation of global strategies to contribute to capacity development for cholera prevention ... countries for the implementation of effective cholera control strategies and monitoring ... global public health problem through the dissemination of information ...

  19. Accessory Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Ectopic breast tissue usually develops along the mammary ridges, and the incidence has been reported to be 2–6% of the general population. Occurrence of primary carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue is rare. Case Report We report the case of 59-year-old woman with accessory breast carcinoma in her left axilla. Conclusion Because an accessory areola or nipple is often missing and awareness of physicians and patients about these unsuspicious masses is lacking, clinical diagnosis of accessory breast carcinoma is frequently delayed. Therefore, a mass along the ‘milk line’ should be examined carefully, and any suspicious lesions should be evaluated. PMID:20847887

  20. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.; Burrows, W.

    1955-01-01

    Relevant information regarding the numerous problems encountered in cholera immunity is dealt with in great detail in this study. Toxin production, bacterial virulence, serological reactions, and the antigenic structure of V. cholerae are discussed. Natural, passive, and active cholera immunity receives special attention, the authors describing the various means of vaccination as well as the evaluation of the immunity induced. PMID:13240451

  1. Virulence profile and clonal relationship among the Vibrio cholerae isolates from ground and surface water in a cholera endemic area during rainy season.

    PubMed

    Goel, A K; Jain, M; Kumar, P; Kamboj, D V; Singh, L

    2010-01-01

    All the V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolates from ground and surface water samples collected during the rainy season (rainfall contributes significantly in the spread of cholera) contained ompW and a regulatory toxR gene, while many others possessed accessory cholera toxin (ace), hemolysin (hlyA) and outer membrane protein (ompU) genes. All the isolates lacked ctxAB, tcp, zot, rfbO1 and rfbO139 genes. The strains could be grouped into two main clusters colligating the isolates from ground water and surface water samples. The results suggest that surface water harbors various virulent V. cholerae strains that contaminate the ground water due to rain or poor hygienic practices, and result in the emergence of new toxigenic strains for cholera.

  2. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  3. Detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in human fecal samples and anti-enterotoxin in sera.

    PubMed Central

    Naik, H S; Duncan, C L

    1978-01-01

    By using counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was successfully demonstrated in fecal samples collected within 1 day of attack from sick individuals involved in a bacteriologically and epidemiologically proven outbreak of C. perfringens food poisoning. In contrast, enterotoxin was not demonstrable in fecal samples of apparently healthy individuals both at high- and low-risk exposure to the organism and enterotoxin or in fecal samples collected 4 to 5 days after a food poisoning outbreak. A 100% prevalence of C. perfringens anti-enterotoxin in sera of human volunteers at high- as well as low-risk exposure to the organism and enterotoxin was recorded with CIEP. PMID:211142

  4. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  5. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, the author describes in detail experimental cholera infection of mammals (infection by the oral route, intragastric inoculation, and intestinal, gall-bladder, and parenteral infection). The pathogenicity for lower animals is examined, and certain observations on insects are included. The second part of the study is devoted to the pathology of human cholera (morbid anatomy distribution of the causative organisms in the dead bodies of cholera victims, and pathogenesis). PMID:13284569

  6. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  7. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  8. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, biochemical properties, and cultural characteristics of V. cholerae are described in great detail in this study. The author also discusses the resistance of the organism to temperature, humidity, sunlight, and various chemicals, as well as the viability of V. cholerae outside the body (in faeces, contaminated material, food, beverages, water, etc.). PMID:14379012

  9. Production and partial purification of Salmonella enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Sedlock, D M; Koupal, L R; Deibel, R H

    1978-01-01

    By using a strain of Salmonella typhimurium, we detected the presence of an enterotoxin, as determined by the rabbit ileal loop assay, in various complex and defined media. The enterotoxin was concentrated by ultrafiltration of culture supernatant fluids and eluted in and adjacent to the void volume of a Sephadex G-100 column. This suggested that the enterotoxic factor was of a relatively high molecular weight, and additional evidence indicated it was heterogeneous in size. Further chromatography, using a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose anion exchanger, facilitated at least a 50-fold purification of the Salmonella enterotoxin. PMID:352941

  10. Diversity and Seasonality of Bioluminescent Vibrio cholerae Populations in Chesapeake Bay▿

    PubMed Central

    Zo, Young-Gun; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Grim, Christopher; Arakawa, Eiji; Watanabe, Haruo; Colwell, Rita R.

    2009-01-01

    Association of luminescence with phenotypic and genotypic traits and with environmental parameters was determined for 278 strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from the Chesapeake Bay during 1998 to 2000. Three clusters of luminescent strains (A, B, and C) and two nonluminescent clusters (X and Y) were identified among 180 clonal types. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during pandemics and endemic cholera in the Ganges Delta were related to cluster Y. Heat-stable enterotoxin (encoded by stn) and the membrane protein associated with bile resistance (encoded by ompU) were found to be linked to luminescence in strains of cluster A. Succession from nonluminescent to luminescent populations of V. cholerae occurred during spring to midsummer. Occurrence of cluster A strains in water with neutral pH was contrasted with that of cluster Y strains in water with a pH of >8. Cluster A was found to be associated with a specific calanoid population cooccurring with cyclopoids. Cluster B was related to cluster Y, with its maximal prevalence at pH 8. Occurrence of cluster B strains was more frequent with warmer water temperatures and negatively correlated with maturity of the copepod community. It is concluded that each cluster of luminescent V. cholerae strains occupies a distinct ecological niche. Since the dynamics of these niche-specific subpopulations are associated with zooplankton community composition, the ecology of luminescent V. cholerae is concluded to be related to its interaction with copepods and related crustacean species. PMID:19011071

  11. Isolation of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from a human wound infection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J M; McFarland, L M; Bradford, H B; Caraway, C T

    1983-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 organisms that do not produce cholera toxin and, in fact, lack the genetic material encoding the enterotoxin have recently been detected in coastal regions of the United States. Although these organisms have been assumed to be nonpathogenic, they have been considered a potential reservoir of toxigenic V. cholerae. In 1979, nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 was isolated from a leg wound of an accident victim residing in New Orleans. The only known risk factors of the patient, besides his debilitated condition, were alcoholism and the consumption of raw oysters before recognition of his wound infection. Coincident with the identification of the isolate from the leg wound, an identical nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate was cultured from the sewage system serving the residence of this patient. Nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 seems to be capable of multiplying in human tissue and may produce extraintestinal infection. This indigenous inhabitant of temperate coastal regions may not be avirulent and may be of public health significance. PMID:6863510

  12. Effect of Escherichia coli on Fluid Transport across Canine Small Bowel MECHANISM AND TIME-COURSE WITH ENTEROTOXIN AND WHOLE BACTERIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, R. L.; Ganguly, U.; Casper, A. G. T.; Moore, E. J.; Pierce, N. F.; Carpenter, C. C. J.

    1973-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain isolated from a patient with severe cholera-like diarrhea elaborates a partly heat-labile enterotoxin shown to cause prompt adenyl cyclase stimulation and isotonic fluid secretion by canine jejunum. Both responses disappear upon removal of the enterotoxin. The duration of action of a submaximal dose of this E. coli enterotoxin was brief, despite sustained exposure to the jejunum, suggesting inactivation of the enterotoxin by its interaction with the mucosa. Inoculation of whole bacterial cultures of this E. coli strain into canine duodenum was followed by bacterial survival and induction of net secretion after 4-7 h. The onset of fluid production was associated with increasing gut mucosal adenyl cyclase activity. Washed bacterial cells could also produce fluid secretion. In vivo multiplication of this enterotoxin-producing E. coli was demonstrated 6-12 h after intraduodenal inoculation of approximately 106 organisms. This was associated with fluid secretion. Intestinal fluid production occurred without microscopic pathology in the mucosa. Images PMID:4578157

  13. Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Grim, Christopher J; Clark, Philip; Diaz, Celia Municio; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Sancomb, Elizabeth; Elnemr, Wessam Mahmoud; Islam, Muhammad A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Benediktsdóttir, Eva

    2012-08-01

    We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland.

  14. Accessory nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Olarte, M; Adams, D

    1977-11-01

    After apparently uncomplicated excision of benign lesions in the posterior cervical triangle, two patients had shoulder pain. In one, neck pain and trapezius weakness were not prominent until one month after surgery. Inability to elevate the arm above the horizontal without externally rotating it, and prominent scapular displacement on arm abduction, but not on forward pushing movements, highlighted the trapezius dysfunction and differentiated it from serratus anterior weakness. Spinal accessory nerve lesions should be considered when minor surgical procedures, lymphadenitis, minor trauma, or tumours involved the posterior triangle of the neck.

  15. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  16. [Cholera and war].

    PubMed

    Ganin, V S

    2009-09-01

    During last centures wars were the main account of spread of cholera. It is caused by movement of great mass of troops and peaceful populace, acute fall of living circumstances, decline of sanitarium conditions of population aggregates, difficultness or impossibility of effectuating of contra-epidemic measures. Cholera casualty was multifold bigger, the weapon casualty in fighting armies. The article presents data of cholera epidemics, were in fighting armies of different states. During the XXth century fight casualty began to overpass the disease casualty. It is caused by grand increasing of damage effects of measures of war, organized using of prophylaxis measures and success in treatment of infectious diseases. The article presents data about cholera falling ill during the Great Patriotic War and about system of contro-epidemic barrier on fronts and rear of state.

  17. Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1/O139 isolate from a case of human gastroenteritis in the U.S. Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nur A; Rezayat, Talayeh; Blatz, Peter J; Choi, Seon Young; Griffitt, Kimberly J; Rashed, Shah M; Huq, Anwar; Conger, Nicholas G; Colwell, Rita R; Grimes, D Jay

    2015-01-01

    An occurrence of Vibrio cholerae non-O1/O139 gastroenteritis in the U.S. Gulf Coast is reported here. Genomic analysis revealed that the isolate lacked known virulence factors associated with the clinical outcome of a V. cholerae infection but did contain putative genomic islands and other accessory virulence factors. Many of these factors are widespread among environmental strains of V. cholerae, suggesting that there might be additional virulence factors in non-O1/O139 V. cholerae yet to be determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate belonged to a phyletic lineage of environmental V. cholerae isolates associated with sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in the Western Hemisphere, suggesting a need to monitor non-O1/O139 V. cholerae in the interest of public health.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  2. Cholera in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  3. [Cholera in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Lezama-Basulto, L A; Mota-Hernández, F

    1993-09-01

    Cholerae is a grave and acute bacterial intestine infection which is caused by a bacilo, V. cholerae 01, that produces toxic products. Its clinical symptoms range from abundant liquid diarrhoea combined with vomiting and rapid dehydration. It is highly lethal when right treatment is not applied. There are also cases of cholera where victims do not show any symptoms of it, that is asymptomatic carriers. Any clinical suspicion of cholerae has to be corroborated by epidemiological data and its diagnostic confirmation should be done by isolating the bacteria, V. cholerae. When beginning the treatment, it is not necessary to confirm the diagnostic and this is based on the restitution of the liquids lost through vomiting and facing using any methods that are recommended for any other type of diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment is used only for grave cases. This present revision includes recent knowledge about cholerae emphasising on the effective management of cases through an adequate use of right treatment methods and also using the principal prevention measures against dissemination of this disease.

  4. [Staphylococcus enterotoxins, their properties and role as pathogenicity factors].

    PubMed

    Fluer, F S

    2012-01-01

    Data on staphylococci species producing staphylococcus enterotoxins (SE) are presented in the review. Genetics of toxin formation, SE biosynthesis, factors influencing SE formation (pH, temperature, effect of inductors and repressors), physical-chemical properties of SE, influence of temperature on enterotoxin stability, enterotoxin structure, immunologic properties, super antigen properties, SE mechanism of action, role of SE in nosocomial infections, intestine dysbacteriosis, atopic dermatitis, enterotoxin toxicity, clinical manifestations are examined.

  5. Torsion of Accessory Hepatic Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Saravanan; Jayasudha; Periasamy, Manikandhan; Rangasamy, Saminathan

    2017-01-01

    An accessory hepatic lobe is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. A 5-year-old child admitted as acute abdomen, on laparotomy found to have torsion of accessory lobe of liver, is being reported. PMID:28082782

  6. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G.; Westbrook, E.M. |; Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z.

    1996-02-01

    Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

  7. A quantitative study of enterotoxin production by sheep milk staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1988-01-01

    Of 124 staphylococcal strains isolated from sheep milk, 78 produced enterotoxin A, B, C, or D when evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enterotoxins A and D, elaborated by 44 and 43 strains, respectively, showed the highest incidence. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative strains (one Staphylococcus cohnii, three S. epidermidis, five S. haemolyticus, and four S. xylosus) was detected. Linear and logarithmic-logarithmic regressions of optical density on enterotoxin concentration yielded the best-fitting equations for enterotoxin quantitation. A significantly higher incidence of enterotoxin producers and significantly higher levels of enterotoxins produced were recorded for coagulase-positive, thermostable nuclease-positive, hemolysis-positive, or mannitol-positive strains. Mannitol utilization was the best test for discriminating between enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic staphylococci. PMID:3355142

  8. Heat-Labile Enterotoxin IIa, a Platform To Deliver Heterologous Proteins into Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Przedpelski, Amanda; Tepp, William H.; Pellett, Sabine; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera toxin (CT) and the related heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of Escherichia coli have been implicated as adjuvants in human therapies, but reactivity upon intranasal delivery dampened efforts to develop other clinical applications. However, each CT family member variant has unique biological properties that may warrant development as therapeutic platforms. In the current study, a nontoxic variant of the heat-labile enterotoxin IIa (LTIIa) was engineered to deliver heterologous, functional proteins into the cytosol of neurons. As proof of principle, the LTIIa variant delivered two cargos into neurons. LTIIa delivered β-lactamase efficiently into cells containing complex gangliosides, such as GD1b, as host receptors. LTIIa delivery of β-lactamase was sensitive to brefeldin A, an inhibitor that collapses the Golgi compartment into the endoplasmic reticulum, but not sensitive to treatment with botulinum neurotoxin D (BoNT/D), an inhibitor of synaptic vesicle cycling. LTIIa delivered a single-chain, anti-BoNT/A camelid antibody that inhibited SNAP25 cleavage during post-BoNT/A exposure of neurons. Delivery of functional, heterologous protein cargos into neurons demonstrates the potential of LTII variants as platforms to deliver therapies to inactivate toxins and microbial infections and to reverse the pathology of human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26265718

  9. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  10. Endoscopic Accessory Navicular Synchondrosis Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of accessory navicular bones are symptomatic, and most of these are type II accessory navicular bones. A separation of the synchondrosis is considered one of the main causes of pain. After an injury to the synchondrosis has resulted in a chondro-osseous disruption, the combined forces of tension and shear from the posterior tibial tendon and the foot aggravate the injury and prevent it from healing. Fusion of the synchondrosis is a logical surgical treatment option if the pain is recalcitrant to conservative measures. The purpose of this technical note is to report an endoscopic approach to achieve fusion. It has the advantages of better cosmesis, less scar pain, less risk of nonunion, and potential to examine the tibialis posterior tendon and the talonavicular joint.

  11. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  12. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1954-01-01

    In this, the first of a series of cholera studies, the history of the disease from its earliest recorded appearance up to 1923 is outlined, and its geographical distribution described. The origins and main routes of spread of the six great pandemics are indicated; possible causes of the variations in mortality which accompanied them are discussed. PMID:13160764

  13. [Cholera update and vaccination problems].

    PubMed

    Fournier, J M; Villeneuve, S

    1998-01-01

    Cholera remains an important public health problem. The long-term control of cholera depends on good personal hygiene, uncontaminated water supply and appropriate sewage disposal. However, the improvement of hygiene is distant goal for many countries. Thus the availability of an effective cholera vaccine is important for the prevention of cholera in these countries. Research on new cholera vaccines has mainly focused on oral formulations that stimulate the mucosal secretory immune system. Two oral cholera vaccines were experimented on large scale in human. The first vaccine, containing inactivated bacterial cells and B-subunit of cholera toxin, has been tested in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1989. This vaccine, according to WHO, may prove useful in the stable phase of refugee/displaced person crises, especially when given preventively. The second vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite its efficacy in adult volunteers, results of a large-scale field trial carried-out in Indonesia for 4 years have shown a surprisingly low protection. Moreover, one of the safety concerns associated with live cholera vaccine is a possible horizontal gene transfer and recombination event leading to reversion to virulence. A new vaccine development program for cholera is based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulins G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera by inactivating the inoculum on intestinal mucosal surface. This program may lead to the development of cholera conjugate vaccines to elicit protection in infants.

  14. Segregated pathways to the vomeronasal amygdala: differential projections from the anterior and posterior divisions of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Ubeda-Bañón, Isabel; Crespo, Carlos; Insausti, Ricardo; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2007-04-01

    Apically and basally located receptor neurons in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium express G(i2 alpha)- and G(o alpha)-proteins, V1R and V2R vomeronasal receptors, project to the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb and respond to different stimuli, respectively. The extent to which secondary projections from the two portions of the accessory olfactory bulb are convergent in the vomeronasal amygdala is controversial. This issue is addressed by using anterograde and retrograde tract-tracing methods in rats including electron microscopy. Injections of dextran-amines, Fluoro Gold, cholera toxin-B subunit and Fast Blue were delivered to the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal anterior amygdala and bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract/anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus. We have demonstrated that, apart from common vomeronasal-recipient areas, only the anterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, posteromedial part, and only the posterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the dorsal anterior amygdala and deep cell layers of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract and the anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus. These results provide evidence that, excluding areas of convergence, the V1R and V2R vomeronasal pathways project to specific areas of the amygdala. These two vomeronasal subsystems are therefore anatomically and functionally separated in the telencephalon.

  15. A genomic island in Vibrio cholerae with VPI-1 site-specific recombination characteristics contains CRISPR-Cas and type VI secretion modules

    PubMed Central

    Labbate, Maurizio; Orata, Fabini D.; Petty, Nicola K.; Jayatilleke, Nathasha D.; King, William L.; Kirchberger, Paul C.; Allen, Chris; Mann, Gulay; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Boucher, Yan; Charles, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is a devastating diarrhoeal disease caused by certain strains of serogroup O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae. Mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands (GIs) have been pivotal in the evolution of O1/O139 V. cholerae. Perhaps the most important GI involved in cholera disease is the V. cholerae pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1). This GI contains the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) gene cluster that is necessary for colonization of the human intestine as well as being the receptor for infection by the cholera-toxin bearing CTX phage. In this study, we report a GI (designated GIVchS12) from a non-O1/O139 strain of V. cholerae that is present in the same chromosomal location as VPI-1, contains an integrase gene with 94% nucleotide and 100% protein identity to the VPI-1 integrase, and attachment (att) sites 100% identical to those found in VPI-1. However, instead of TCP and the other accessory genes present in VPI-1, GIVchS12 contains a CRISPR-Cas element and a type VI secretion system (T6SS). GIs similar to GIVchS12 were identified in other V. cholerae genomes, also containing CRISPR-Cas elements and/or T6SS’s. This study highlights the diversity of GIs circulating in natural V. cholerae populations and identifies GIs with VPI-1 recombination characteristics as a propagator of CRISPR-Cas and T6SS modules. PMID:27845364

  16. Purification and biochemical properties of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Stark, R L; Duncan, C L

    1972-11-01

    The sporulation-specific enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A, which is the toxin active in human food poisoning, has been purified from extracts of sporulating cells. Highly purified enterotoxin was obtained by treatment of crude cell extract with ribonuclease for 30 min, followed by sequential chromatography on Sephadex G-100, Cellex T cellulose, and hydroxylapatite. Recovery was 65 to 75% of the initial activity. Enterotoxin purity was > 99% as indicated by sedimentation velocity, sedimentation equilibrium, disc electrophoresis, and serological methods. Purified enterotoxin focused at pH 4.3 during isoelectric focusing. Molecular weights of 34,000 and 35,000 were obtained by Sephadex G-100 chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium, respectively. An S(20,w) of 3.08 was obtained for the purified enterotoxin. The enterotoxin precipitated heavily at its isoelectric point and at concentrations greater than 4 mg/ml.

  17. Expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bohach, G A; Schlievert, P M

    1987-01-01

    The structural gene encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 was cloned into Escherichia coli and localized on a 1.5-kilobase HindIII-ClaI DNA fragment by subcloning. The toxin was partially purified from E. coli clones and shown to be immunologically identical to enterotoxin C1 from Staphylococcus aureus. The cloned toxin also had the same molecular weight (26,000) and charge heterogeneity as staphylococcus-derived enterotoxin. Toxins from both sources were equally biologically active. Images PMID:3542834

  18. Promotion of colonization and virulence by cholera toxin is dependent on neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Queen, Jessica; Satchell, Karla J F

    2013-09-01

    The innate immune response to Vibrio cholerae infection is poorly understood, but this knowledge is critical for the design of safe, effective vaccines. Using an adult mouse intestinal infection model, this study examines the contribution of neutrophils to host immunity, as well as the effect of cholera toxin and other secreted factors on this response. Depletion of neutrophils from mice with anti-Ly6G IA8 monoclonal antibody led to similar survival rates of mice infected with low or moderate doses of toxigenic V. cholerae El Tor O1. At a high dose, neutropenic mice showed increased rates of survival compared to neutrophil-replete animals. Expression of cholera toxin was found to be protective to the neutropenic host, and this phenotype can be replicated by the administration of purified toxin. Neutrophils do not effectively clear colonizing bacteria from the small intestine, nor do they alter induction of early immune-modulating signals. In both neutropenic and neutrophil-replete animals, the local response to infection is characterized by expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 alpha (MIP-2). Overall, these data indicate that the innate immune response to toxigenic V. cholerae infection differs dramatically from the host response to nontoxigenic infection or vaccination, where neutrophils are protective to the host. In the absence of neutrophils, cholera toxin induces immunomodulatory effects that increase host survival. In cholera toxin-producing strains, similar to nontoxigenic infection, accessory toxins are critical to virulence, indicating that cholera toxin and the other secreted toxins modulate the host response by different mechanisms, with both contributing to bacterial persistence and virulence.

  19. Endocytosis of cholera toxin by human enterocytes is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Khan, Sameer; Lencer, Wayne; Walker, W Allan

    2005-08-01

    Many secretory diarrheas including cholera are more prevalent and fulminant in young infants than in older children and adults. Cholera toxin (CT) elicits a cAMP-dependent chloride secretory response in intestinal epithelia, which accounts for the fundamental pathogenesis of this toxigenic diarrhea. We have previously reported that the action of this bacterial enterotoxin is excessive in immature enterocytes and under developmental regulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced endocytosis by immature human enterocytes may, in part, account for the excessive secretory response to CT noted in the immature intestine and that enterocyte endocytosis of CT is developmentally regulated. To test this hypothesis, we used specific inhibitors to define endocytic pathways in mature and immature cell lines. We showed that internalization of CT in adult enterocytes is less and occurs via the caveolae/raft-mediated pathway in contrast to an enhanced immature human enterocyte CT uptake that occurs via a clathrin pathway. We also present evidence that this clathrin pathway is developmentally regulated as demonstrated by its response to corticosteroids, a known maturation factor that causes a decreased CT endocytosis by this pathway.

  20. Quantitative detection of Vibrio cholera toxin by real-time and dynamic cytotoxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dazhi; Luo, Yun; Zheng, Min; Li, Haijing; Zhang, Jing; Stampfl, Melinda; Xu, Xiao; Ding, Gangqiang; Zhang, Yanjun; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-12-01

    We report here the quantitative detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in isolates and stool specimens by dynamic monitoring of the full course of CT-mediated cytotoxicity in a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system. Four cell lines, including Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, small intestine epithelial (FHs74Int) cells, and mouse adrenal gland (PC12-Adh) cells, were evaluated for their suitability for CT-induced cytotoxicity testing. Among them, the Y-1 line was demonstrated to be the most sensitive for CT-mediated cytotoxicity, with limits of detection of 7.0 pg/ml for purified CT and 0.11 ng/ml for spiked CT in pooled negative stool specimens. No CT-mediated cytotoxicity was observed for nontoxigenic V. cholerae, non-V. cholerae species, or non-V. cholerae enterotoxins. The CT-RTCA assay was further validated with 100 stool specimens consecutively collected from patients with diarrhea and 200 V. cholerae isolates recovered from patients and the environment, in comparison to a reference using three detection methods. The CT-RTCA assay had sensitivities and specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%, respectively, for V. cholerae isolates and 90.0% and 97.2% for stool specimens. For stool specimens spiked with CT concentrations ranging from 3.5 pg/ml to 1.8 ng/ml, the inoculation-to-detection time was 1.12 ± 0.38 h, and the values were inversely correlated with CT concentrations (ρ = -1; P = 0.01). The results indicate that the CT-RTCA assay with the Y-1 cell line provides a rapid and sensitive tool for the quantitative detection of CT activities in clinical specimens.

  1. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  2. Immunoglobulin and specific-antibody synthesis in vitro by enteral and nonenteral lymphoid tissues after subcutaneous cholera immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Svennerholm, A M; Holmgren, J

    1977-01-01

    An in vitro culture technique with synthesis of 14C-labeled protein has been used to study immunoglobulin and specific-antibody formation by spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and small intestine of rabbits, which were immunized twice subcutaneously with Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enterotoxin; saline-injected rabbits served as controls. Newly synthesized immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM were quantitated by liquid scintillation after their isolation by means of affinity chromatography from columns with immunoglobulin class-specific antibodies coupled to Sepharose. Specific antibodies were similarly measured after purification from gels derivatized with LPS or cholera toxin. The isolated antibodies had full biological activity as studied in protection tests. The immunization increased the overall IgM synthesis in the spleen. It also enhanced the production of IgA and IgG in Peyer's patches and of IgA in intestine. Significant synthesis of radiolabeled antibodies against both V. cholerae LPS and enterotoxin was found in spleen as well as in Peyer's patches of immunized animals. Titration with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed significant levels of IgG as well as IgA antibodies in incubation medium from all the studied tissues, whereas specific IgM was only found for spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Simultaneous tissue incubations at 37 degrees C and in an ice bath indicated that the major part of the antibodies registered with the ELISA represented de novo synthesis. PMID:844901

  3. Mechanisms of staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced emesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong-Liang; Nakane, Akio

    2014-01-05

    Pathogenic bacteria use various strategies to interact with the host organisms. Among them, toxin production constitutes an efficient way to alter specific functions of target cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, diarrhea, or in the intestinal inflammation process. Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) with demonstrated emetic activity; and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model or have yet to be tested. SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElX) types. These toxins possess superantigenic activity and are highly resistant to denaturation which allows them to remain intact in contaminated foods and trigger food poisoning outbreaks. Symptoms are of rapid onset, and include nausea and violent vomiting. SEA is the most recognizable toxin causing food poisoning in humans throughout the world. However, it remains unclear how SEs induce emesis and via which signal pathway. This review is divided into four parts, and will focus on the following: (1) how bacterial toxins interact with the nervous system, (2) biological characteristics of SEs and SEls, (3) mechanisms of SE-induced emesis, and (4) use of a vaccine for the prevention of SE-induced emesis.

  4. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  5. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  6. Intrahepatic accessory spleen: imaging features.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Luciano; Caputo, Maria; Galati, Gaspare

    2004-06-01

    The authors present a case report of a 60-year-old man with a hepatic unknown mass. For diagnosis, they used ECO, CT (with and without contrast), MR (with and without contrast) and an ultrasound-assisted percutaneous lesion biopsy. Thus the mass-lesion in the liver appeared to be an intrahepatic accessory spleen in a patient afflicted with chronic hepatitis.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or...

  8. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D; Bouma, Menno J; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-15

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  9. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  10. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

  11. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  12. Four foodborne disease outbreaks caused by a new type of enterotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Monma, Chie; Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Obata, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Keiko; Konishi, Noriko; Itoh, Takeshi; Kai, Akemi

    2015-03-01

    The epidemiological and bacteriological investigations on four foodborne outbreaks caused by a new type of enterotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens are described. C. perfringens isolated from patients of these outbreaks did not produce any known enterotoxin and did not carry the C. perfringens enterotoxin gene. However, the culture filtrates of these isolates induced the accumulation of fluid in rabbit ileal loop tests. The molecular weight of the new enterotoxin may be between 50,000 and 100,000, although the known C. perfringens enterotoxin is ca. 35,000. This new enterotoxin was heat labile, and its biological activities were inactivated by heating for 5 min at 60°C. The new enterotoxin was sensitive to pH values higher than 11.0 and protease treatment but was resistant to trypsin treatment. These results suggest that the new enterotoxin may be a protein. Although C. perfringens enterotoxin induced morphological changes in Vero cells, the changes induced by the new enterotoxin differed from those by the known C. perfringens enterotoxin. The new enterotoxin also induced morphological changes in L929 cells, whereas the known C. perfringens enterotoxin did not, because L929 cells lacked an appropriate enterotoxin receptor. Although C. perfringens enterotoxin is recognized as the only diarrheagenic toxin responsible for C. perfringens foodborne outbreaks, the results of the present study indicate that C. perfringens isolated from these four outbreaks produced a new type of enterotoxin.

  13. The enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis is a metalloprotease.

    PubMed Central

    Moncrief, J S; Obiso, R; Barroso, L A; Kling, J J; Wright, R L; Van Tassell, R L; Lyerly, D M; Wilkins, T D

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, strains of Bacteroides fragilis that produce an enterotoxin have been implicated in diarrheal disease in animals and humans. The extracellular enterotoxin has been purified and characterized as a single polypeptide (M(r), approximately 20,000). Single specific primer-PCR was used to clone a portion of the B. fragilis enterotoxin gene. The recombinant protein expressed by the cloned gene fragment reacted with monospecific antibodies to B. fragilis enterotoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a signature zinc-binding consensus motif (HEXXHXXGXXH/Met-turn) characteristic of metalloproteases termed metzincins. Sequence comparisons showed close identity to matrix metalloproteases (e.g., human fibroblast collagenase) within the zinc-binding and Met-turn region. Purified enterotoxin contained 1 g-atom of Zn2+ per molecule and hydrolyzed gelatin, azocoll, actin, tropomyosin, and fibrinogen. The enterotoxin also underwent autodigestion. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of two autodigestion products were identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the recombinant enterotoxin and revealed cleavage at Cys-Leu and Ser-Leu peptide bonds. Gelatinase (type IV collagenase) activity comigrated with the toxin when analyzed by gel fractionation and zymography, indicating that protease activity is due to the enterotoxin and not to a contaminating protease(s). Optimal proteolytic activity occurred at 37 degrees C and pH 6.5. Primary proteolytic cleavage sites in actin were identified, revealing cleavage at Gly-Met and Thr-Leu peptide bonds. Enzymatic activity was inhibited by metal chelators but not by inhibitors of other classes of proteases. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of the enterotoxin on human carcinoma HT-29 cells was inhibited by acetoxymethyl ester EDTA. The metalloprotease activity of the enterotoxin suggests a possible mechanism for enterotoxicity and may have additional

  14. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    PubMed

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  15. Identification of a Gene within a Pathogenicity Island of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli H10407 Required for Maximal Secretion of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, James M.; Lindler, Luther E.; Elsinghorst, Eric A.; Dale, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies of the pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) have largely centered on extrachromosomal determinants of virulence, in particular the plasmid-encoded heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins and the colonization factor antigens. ETEC causes illnesses that range from mild diarrhea to severe cholera-like disease. These differences in disease severity are not readily accounted for by our current understanding of ETEC pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that Tia, a putative adhesin of ETEC H10407, is encoded on a large chromosomal element of approximately 46 kb that shares multiple features with previously described E. coli pathogenicity islands. Further analysis of the region downstream from tia revealed the presence of several candidate open reading frames (ORFs) in the same transcriptional orientation as tia. The putative proteins encoded by these ORFs bear multiple motifs associated with bacterial secretion apparatuses. An in-frame deletion in one candidate gene identified here as leoA (labile enterotoxin output) resulted in marked diminution of secretion of the LT enterotoxin and lack of fluid accumulation in a rabbit ileal loop model of infection. Although previous studies have suggested that E. coli lacks the capacity to secrete LT, our studies show that maximal release of LT from the periplasm of H10407 is dependent on one or more elements encoded on a pathogenicity island. PMID:10768971

  16. Vibrio cholerae in the environment.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Abdul Lateef; Junejo, Nasreen

    2004-08-01

    The emergence of cholera has been a significant public health problem around the world and battle to completely control this deadly disease continues. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) microorganisms in the environment was considered as the most important factor in this regard. Soil, fresh water, sea water, aquatic plants, animals and some birds have been made target for search if they were providing reserve shelter to the causative agent during inter epidemic periods. Multiple environmental factors have been considered to have the aetiological relationship as no single source is found to host the microorganisms in an inter-epidemic period. We have attempted to review the literature from different parts of the world; encompassing experimental and isolation studies of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae in the environment. The non-pathogenic strains were also included due to converting behavior of the agents in the changing environmental scenario to pathogenic forms.

  17. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  18. Heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin production in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, S C; Moon, H W; Lyon, N C

    1975-01-01

    Hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets were infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on day 4 of life. Samples of feces and intestinal contents were collected and tested in infant mice for enterotoxic activity. Positive enterotoxic responses were observed in mice given filtrates of feces and intestinal contents from piglets infected withe enterotoxigenic E. coli known to produce heat-stable enterotoxin but not heat-liabile enterotoxin in vitro. It is concluded that heat-stable enterotoxigenic E. coli induce diarrhea by production of heat-stable enterotoxin in vivo. PMID:1097335

  19. Binding of flavonoids to staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Benedik, Evgen; Skrt, Mihaela; Podlipnik, Crtomir; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins are metabolic products of Staphylococcus aureus that are responsible for the second-most-commonly reported type of food poisoning. Polyphenols are known to interact with proteins to form complexes, the properties of which depend on the structures of both the polyphenols and the protein. In the present study, we investigated the binding of four flavonoid polyphenols to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at pH 7.5 and 25 °C: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), kaempferol-3-glucoside (KAM-G) and kaempferol (KAM). Fluorescence emission spectrometry and molecular docking were applied to compare experimentally determined binding parameters with molecular modeling. EGCG showed an order of magnitude higher binding constant (1.4 × 10(5) M(-1)) than the other studied polyphenols. Our blind-docking results showed that EGCG and similar polyphenolic ligands is likely to bind to the channel at the surface of SEB that is responsible for the recognition of the T-cell beta chain fragment and influence the adhesion of SEB to T cells.

  20. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  1. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  2. Crystal structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin type A.

    PubMed Central

    Schad, E M; Zaitseva, I; Zaitsev, V N; Dohlsten, M; Kalland, T; Schlievert, P M; Ohlendorf, D H; Svensson, L A

    1995-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins are prototype superantigens characterized by their ability to bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and subsequently activate a large fraction of T-lymphocytes. The crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA), a 27 kDa monomeric protein, was determined to 1.9 A resolution with an R-factor of 19.9% by multiple isomorphous replacement. SEA is a two domain protein composed of a beta-barrel and a beta-grasp motif demonstrating the same general structure as staphylococcal enterotoxins SEB and TSST-1. Unique for SEA, however, is a Zn2+ coordination site involved in MHC class II binding. Four amino acids including Ser1, His187, His225 and Asp227 were found to be involved in direct coordination of the metal ion. SEA is the first Zn2+ binding enterotoxin that has been structurally determined. Images PMID:7628431

  3. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions.

  4. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A.; Olukoya, Daniel K.; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions. PMID:27487957

  5. Extracranial spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Donner, T R; Kline, D G

    1993-06-01

    Eighty-three consecutive patients with extracranial accessory nerve injury seen over a 12-year period are reviewed. The most common etiology was iatrogenic injury to the nerve at the time of previous surgery. Such operations were usually minor in nature and often related to lymph node or benign tumor removal. Examination usually distinguished winging due to trapezius weakness from that of serratus anterior palsy. Trapezius weakness was seen in all cases. Sternocleidomastoid weakness was unusual. Patients with accessory palsy were evaluated by both clinical and electromyographic studies. Patients who exhibited no clinical or electrical evidence of regeneration were operated on (44 cases). Based on intraoperative nerve action potential studies, 8 lesions in continuity had neurolysis alone. Resection with repair either by end-to-end suture or by grafts was necessary in 31 cases. One case had suture removed from nerve, two had nerve placed into target muscle, and two had more proximal neurotization. Function was usually improved in both operative and nonoperative patients. Related anatomy is discussed.

  6. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  7. Detection of Escherichia coli enterotoxins in stools.

    PubMed Central

    Merson, M H; Yolken, R H; Sack, R B; Froehlich, J L; Greenberg, H B; Huq, I; Black, R W

    1980-01-01

    We determined whether enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea could be diagnosed by direct examination of stools for heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. The Y-1 adrenal cell and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected LT in 85 and 93%, respectively, of stool specimens obtained from adults with acute diarrhea from whom an LT- and ST-producing organism had been isolated. Furthermore, the ELISA assay detected LT in 8 of 35 stool specimens from which no LT-producing E. coli had been isolated. The infant mouse assay was utilized to detect ST in these stool specimens and was found to be an insensitive method, showing positive results in only 36% of the specimens from which an ST-producing organism was isolated. Further studies are warranted to determine the diagnostic value of direct detection of LT in stools, especially by the ELISA method. PMID:6995331

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  13. General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sandkvist, M; Michel, L O; Hough, L P; Morales, V M; Bagdasarian, M; Koomey, M; DiRita, V J; Bagdasarian, M

    1997-11-01

    The general secretion pathway (GSP) of Vibrio cholerae is required for secretion of proteins including chitinase, enterotoxin, and protease through the outer membrane. In this study, we report the cloning and sequencing of a DNA fragment from V. cholerae, containing 12 open reading frames, epsC to -N, which are similar to GSP genes of Aeromonas, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas spp. In addition to the two previously described genes, epsE and epsM (M. Sandkvist, V. Morales, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 123: 81-86, 1993; L. J. Overbye, M. Sandkvist, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 132:101-106, 1993), it is shown here that epsC, epsF, epsG, and epsL also encode proteins essential for GSP function. Mutations in the eps genes result in aberrant outer membrane protein profiles, which indicates that the GSP, or at least some of its components, is required not only for secretion of soluble proteins but also for proper outer membrane assembly. Several of the Eps proteins have been identified by use of the T7 polymerase-promoter system in Escherichia coli. One of them, a pilin-like protein, EpsG, was analyzed also in V. cholerae and found to migrate as two bands on polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that in this organism it might be processed or otherwise modified by a prepilin peptidase. We believe that TcpJ prepilin peptidase, which processes the subunit of the toxin-coregulated pilus, TcpA, is not involved in this event. This is supported by the observations that apparent processing of EpsG occurs in a tcpJ mutant of V. cholerae and that, when coexpressed in E. coli, TcpJ cannot process EpsG although the PilD peptidase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae can.

  14. Widespread epidemic cholera caused by a restricted subset of Vibrio cholerae clones.

    PubMed

    Moore, S; Thomson, N; Mutreja, A; Piarroux, R

    2014-05-01

    Since 1817, seven cholera pandemics have plagued humankind. As the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous in the aquatic ecosystem and some studies have revealed links between outbreaks and fluctuations in climatic and aquatic conditions, it has been widely assumed that cholera epidemics are triggered by environmental factors that promote the growth of local bacterial reservoirs. However, mounting epidemiological findings and genome sequence analysis of clinical isolates have indicated that epidemics are largely unassociated with most of the V. cholerae strains in aquatic ecosystems. Instead, only a specific subset of V. cholerae El Tor 'types' appears to be responsible for current epidemics. A recent report examining the evolution of a variety of V. cholerae strains indicates that the current pandemic is monophyletic and originated from a single ancestral clone that has spread globally in successive waves. In this review, we examine the clonal nature of the disease, with the example of the recent history of cholera in the Americas. Epidemiological data and genome sequence-based analysis of V. cholerae isolates demonstrate that the cholera epidemics of the 1990s in South America were triggered by the importation of a pathogenic V. cholerae strain that gradually spread throughout the region until local outbreaks ceased in 2001. Latin America remained almost unaffected by the disease until a new toxigenic V. cholerae clone was imported into Haiti in 2010. Overall, cholera appears to be largely caused by a subset of specific V. cholerae clones rather than by the vast diversity of V. cholerae strains in the environment.

  15. Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  16. Enterotoxin production, phage typing and serotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical materials and food.

    PubMed Central

    Melconian, A. K.; Brun, Y.; Fleurette, J.

    1983-01-01

    The production of enterotoxins A, B, C and F by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various clinical sources and from isolates implicated in food poisoning was investigated. One hundred and ninety one of the 374 clinical strains (51.1%) were found to be enterotoxigenic; of these, 81 (27.7%) strains produced enterotoxin A, 57 (15.3%) strains produced enterotoxin B, 23 (6.2%) strains produced enterotoxin C, and 64 (17.1%) strains produced enterotoxin F. These enterotoxigenic strains were most frequently lysed by phages of group III (21.5%) or were not typable (22%). Eighteen of the 29 strains implicated in food poisoning were enterotoxigenic. The correlation of antigens and bacteriophage patterns with enterotoxigenicity was determined: enterotoxin A being related to a4 antigen, enterotoxin B to phages of 94/96 complex with c1, o antigens, and enterotoxin F to phages of group I with 2632, k1k2, m antigens. PMID:6227656

  17. Comparison of different purification procedure for extraction of staphylococcal enterotoxin A from foods.

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, A; Lindroth, S

    1976-01-01

    Different procedures commonly used for extraction, purification, and concentration of staphylococcal enterotoxins from foods were investigated with 131I- and 125I-labeled staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Loss of labeled enterotoxin A was compared with loss of total nitrogen. The results showed that in most of the common procedures, such as gel filtration, ion exchange, and heat treatment, the percentage of loss of labeled enterotoxin A was greater than the loss of total nitrogen. Chloroform extraction and acid precipitation with hydrochloric acid had nearly the same effect on the purification of both labeled enterotoxin A and total nitrogen. Ammonium sulfate precipitation proved to be practical and was successfully used for purification of enterotoxin A from sausage extract. Simultaneous use of trypsin and Pseudomonas peptidase for treatment of food extracts considerably reduced food proteins capable of interfering with serological detection of enterotoxins but did not essentailly influence the loss of enterotoxin A. PMID:984824

  18. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation. PMID:25732338

  19. Thermal Inactivation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Veronal Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Read, R. B.; Bradshaw, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    The times and temperatures required to inactivate staphylococcal enterotoxin B were studied by use of the double-gel-diffusion technique to assay enterotoxin. Enterotoxin B (99 +% pure) was suspended in 0.04 M Veronal buffer, dispensed into borosilicate vials, and the vials were sealed and heated in an oil bath. An amount of 30 μg/ml of this toxin was reduced to less than 0.7 μg/ml in 103.0, 87.1, 70.5, 57.2, 39.1, 27.6, 16.4, and 12.0 min, respectively, at temperatures of 96, 99, 101.7, 104.4, 110, 115.6, 121, and 126.7 C. The end point for enterotoxin inactivation by gel diffusion was identical to that by intravenous injection of cats. Limited studies with crude enterotoxin B showed that the crude preparation was slightly more thermostable. The respective D values of crude and purified enterotoxin B were 64.5 and 52.3, 40.5 and 34.4, 29.7 and 23.5, 18.8 and 16.6, and 11.4 and 9.9 min at temperatures of 99, 104.4, 110, 115.6, and 121 C. The z value for purified enterotoxin B was 32.4 C. The experimental activation energy was 20,700 cal/g mole, standard enthalpy of activation at 120 C was 19,900 cal/g mole, standard entropy of activation at 120 C was -21.4 cal/g mole K, and the standard free energy of activation at 120 C was 28,200 cal/g mole. PMID:4958146

  20. Diagnostic limitations to accurate diagnosis of cholera.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A; Sultana, Marzia; Nair, G Balakrish; Sadique, A; Faruque, A S G; Endtz, Hubert P; Sack, R B; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    The treatment regimen for diarrhea depends greatly on correct diagnosis of its etiology. Recent diarrhea outbreaks in Bangladesh showed Vibrio cholerae to be the predominant cause, although more than 40% of the suspected cases failed to show cholera etiology by conventional culture methods (CMs). In the present study, suspected cholera stools collected from every 50th patient during an acute diarrheal outbreak were analyzed extensively using different microbiological and molecular tools to determine their etiology. Of 135 stools tested, 86 (64%) produced V. cholerae O1 by CMs, while 119 (88%) tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by rapid cholera dipstick (DS) assay; all but three samples positive for V. cholerae O1 by CMs were also positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay. Of 49 stools that lacked CM-based cholera etiology despite most being positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay, 25 (51%) had coccoid V. cholerae O1 cells as confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, 36 (73%) amplified primers for the genes wbe O1 and ctxA by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR), and 31 (63%) showed El Tor-specific lytic phage on plaque assay (PA). Each of these methods allowed the cholera etiology to be confirmed for 97% of the stool samples. The results suggest that suspected cholera stools that fail to show etiology by CMs during acute diarrhea outbreaks may be due to the inactivation of V. cholerae by in vivo vibriolytic action of the phage and/or nonculturability induced as a host response.

  1. Rapid cell-based assay for detection and quantification of active staphylococcal enterotoxin type D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences...

  2. Normal Variants: Accessory Muscles About the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Accessory muscles around the ankle are commonly encountered as incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging. Mostly asymptomatic, accessory muscles sometimes mimic mass lesions. They have been implicated as the cause of tarsal tunnel syndrome, impingement of surrounding structures, and chronic pain. Distinguishing these muscles can be challenging, because some travel along a similar path. This article describes these accessory muscles in detail, including their relationships to the aponeurosis of the lower leg. An imaging algorithm is proposed to aid in identification of these muscles, providing a valuable tool in diagnostic accuracy and subsequent patient management.

  3. Production and properties of crude enterotoxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Batish, V K; Srinivasan, R A

    1990-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa CTM-3 was found to be the most potentially enterotoxigenic strain out of the 12 isolates recovered from milk, as a high fluid length ratio, i.e. F/L (1.1) in rabbit gut and a strong permeability response in rabbit skin (38.5 mm2 necrotic zone) was obtained with this culture. No clear-cut relationship between the two tests was observed. Six of the ethidium bromide (300 micrograms/ml) cured variants of this culture completely lost their ability to produce enterotoxin indicating the possible involvement of a plasmid in enterotoxin synthesis. The crude enterotoxin from P. aeruginosa CTM-3 was completely inactivated in 15 s at 72 degrees C. However, it was fairly stable at pH values in the range 4.5-7.5. Both pepsin and trypsin inactivated the enterotoxin activity at a concentration of 40 micrograms/ml. Organic acids, formalin and hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the enterotoxin activity. The need for further investigations with purified preparations is emphasized.

  4. Ecological study of Vibrio cholerae in Vellore.

    PubMed Central

    Jesudason, M. V.; Balaji, V.; Mukundan, U.; Thomson, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Vellore is endemic for cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. In a previous study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes and sewage outfalls in a single 2-months period in Vellore, India was determined. In addition water samples from three sites were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. This follow on study has examined how the environmental distribution of V. cholerae at the same sites alters over a 12-month period and the relationship to the clinical pattern of cholera in Vellore. Samples of water were collected from fixed sites at three water bodies each month between April 1997 and March 1998. Bacteria isolated from samples were identified by standard biochemical tests and isolated strains of V. cholerae tested for their ability to agglutinate O1 and O139 antisera. Samples were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. The clinical isolation rate of V. cholerae in Vellore, maximum temperature and rainfall were also studied. The results demonstrate the presence in the environment of viable but non-cultivable (VNC) V. cholerae in 10 of 12 months of the study year as well as their viability. Their prevalence in the environment also correlated with the isolation of these pathogens from clinical samples over the same study period. PMID:10813143

  5. How Will Climate Change Impact Cholera Outbreaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Rahimikolu, J.; Akanda, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental parameters associated with cholera are well documented. However, cholera continues to be a global public health threat. Uncertainty in defining environmental processes affecting growth and multiplication of the cholera bacteria can be affected significantly by changing climate at different temporal and spatial scales, either through amplification of the hydroclimatic cycle or by enhanced variability of large scale geophysical processes. Endemic cholera in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia has a unique pattern of two seasonal peaks and there are associated with asymmetric and episodic variability in river discharge. The first cholera outbreak in spring is related with intrusion of bacteria laden coastal seawater during low river discharge. Cholera occurring during the fall season is hypothesized to be associated with high river discharge related to a cross-contamination of water resources and, therefore, a second wave of disease, a phenomenon characteristic primarily in the inland regions. Because of difficulties in establishing linkage between coarse resolutions of the Global Climate Model (GCM) output and localized disease outbreaks, the impact of climate change on diarrheal disease has not been explored. Here using the downscaling method of Support Vector Machines from HADCM3 and ECHAM models, we show how cholera outbreak patterns are changing in the Bengal Delta. Our preliminary results indicate statistically significant changes in both seasonality and magnitude in the occurrence of cholera over the next century. Endemic cholera is likely to transform into epidemic forms and new geographical areas will be at risk for cholera outbreaks.

  6. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  7. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  8. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    PubMed Central

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  9. Distribution of food-borne Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, W D

    2016-01-29

    We identified and analyzed 5 new-type enterotoxin genes, including SEj, SEl, SEq, SEm, and SEr, to explore the distribution of 5 enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus of different origins as well as their correlations and differences. We examined the distribution of the S. aureus enterotoxin genes and their pathogenic mechanisms. A total of 660 specimens were collected from January 2011 to December 2014, and 217 strains of S. aureus were isolated. The template DNA of S. aureus was extracted. The Primer6.0 and Oligo7 software were used to design and synthesize polymerase chain reaction primers. Amplification results were analyzed by electrophoresis, and the amplification products were recovered and sequenced. Thirty-six bacterial strains contained the SEj gene (16.6%), including 15, 8, 8, 4, and 1 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, raw milk, human purulent tissue, and living environment, respectively. Thirty-one bacterial strains contained the SEr gene (14.3%), including 16, 9, and 6 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, and raw milk, respectively. Twenty-one bacterial strains contained the enterotoxin SEq gene (9.7%), including 8, 6, 6, and 1 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, raw milk, and human purulent tissue, respectively. No SEm and SEl genes were detected. Different types of foods carry different types of enterotoxins, providing a basis for quick tracing for food poisoning. Three enterotoxin genes, SEj, SEr, and SEq, showed the highest carrier rate in quick-frozen food. It is imperative to improve their detection in quick-frozen food.

  10. Actions of cholera toxin and the prevention and treatment of cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Jan

    1981-07-01

    The drastic intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes that is characteristic of cholera is the result of reasonably well understood cellular and biochemical actions of the toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. Based on this understanding it is possible to devise new techniques for the treatment and prophylaxis of cholera to complement those based on fluid replacement therapy and sanitation.

  11. Role of various enterotoxins in Aeromonas hydrophila-induced gastroenteritis: generation of enterotoxin gene-deficient mutants and evaluation of their enterotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Kozlova, E V; Chopra, A K

    2002-04-01

    Three enterotoxins from the Aeromonas hydrophila diarrheal isolate SSU have been molecularly characterized in our laboratory. One of these enterotoxins is cytotoxic in nature, whereas the other two are cytotonic enterotoxins, one of them heat labile and the other heat stable. Earlier, by developing an isogenic mutant, we demonstrated the role of a cytotoxic enterotoxin in causing systemic infection in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the role of these three enterotoxins in evoking diarrhea in a murine model by developing various combinations of enterotoxin gene-deficient mutants by marker-exchange mutagenesis. A total of six isogenic mutants were prepared in a cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act)-positive or -negative background strain of A. hydrophila. We developed two single knockouts with truncation in either the heat-labile (alt) or the heat-stable (ast) cytotonic enterotoxin gene; three double knockouts with truncations of genes encoding (i) alt and ast, (ii) act and alt, and (iii) act and ast genes; and a triple-knockout mutant with truncation in all three genes, act, alt, and ast. The identity of these isogenic mutants developed by double-crossover homologous recombination was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that the expression of different enterotoxin genes in the mutants was correspondingly abrogated. We tested the biological activity of these mutants in a diet-restricted and antibiotic-treated mouse model with a ligated ileal loop assay. Our data indicated that all of these mutants had significantly reduced capacity to evoke fluid secretion compared to that of wild-type A. hydrophila; the triple-knockout mutant failed to induce any detectable level of fluid secretion. The biological activity of selected A. hydrophila mutants was restored after complementation. Taken together, we have established a role for three enterotoxins in A. hydrophila-induced gastroenteritis in a mouse model with the greatest

  12. Influence of Route of Administration on Immediate and Extended Protection in Rats Immunized with Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, Frederick A.; Engert, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of route of administration, dosage, and number of boosts employed during immunization with the polymyxin-release form of Escherichia coli heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin on the degree and duration of protection afforded was evaluated in rats which were challenged by the ligated loop technique. Increasing the boosting dosage by fivefold from 50 to 250 μg resulted in a marked increase in protection against challenge with toxin in rats immunized either just by the parenteral route (i.p./i.p.) or by a parenteral prime, followed by peroral boosts (i.p./p.o.) in rats pretreated with cimetidine to ablate gastric secretions; such was not the case, however, even with a 50-fold increase in dosage in rats immunized just by the peroral route (p.o./p.o.). Four weekly peroral boosts were required to achieve the strongest degree of protection. Increasing the boosting dosage also increased the degree of protection against challenge with viable LT+/ST− and LT+/ST+ strains (ST indicates heat-stable enterotoxin) in rats immunized by the i.p./p.o., but not by the i.p./i.p., route; no protection was evident against an LT−/ST+ strain. Protection was lost within 3 weeks after immunization in rats immunized by the i.p./i.p. route. In contrast, protection was extended over the 3-month observation period in those immunized by the i.p./p.o. route; the degree of protection was enhanced in rats which received an additional boost at 2 months. These observations establish the fact that immunization with LT is similar to that with cholera toxin in that arousal of the local immune intestinal response by means of peroral immunization provides maximal extended protection. PMID:6987180

  13. Survival of classic cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Siddique, A K; Baqui, A H; Eusof, A; Haider, K; Hossain, M A; Bashir, I; Zaman, K

    1991-05-11

    During the present cholera pandemic the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae has completely displaced the classic biotype, except in Bangladesh. We studied the distribution of these two biotypes in twenty-four rural districts during epidemics in 1988-89; there was clustering of the classic biotype in the southern region and of the El Tor biotype in all other regions. These findings suggest that the southern coastal region is now (and may always have been) the habitat of classic cholera. The selective distribution of V cholerae O1 biotypes in Bangladesh may have been affected by ecological changes occurring in the country.

  14. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A- and B: binding to the enterocyte brush border and uptake by perturbation of the apical endocytic membrane traffic.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Karlsdóttir, Edda

    2013-04-01

    Enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus are among the most common causes of food poisoning. Acting as superantigens they intoxicate the organism by causing a massive uncontrolled T cell activation that ultimately may lead to toxic shock and death. In contrast to our detailed knowledge regarding their interaction with the immune system, little is known about how they penetrate the epithelial barrier to gain access to their targets. We therefore studied the uptake of two staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), SEA and SEB, using organ cultured porcine jejunal explants as model system. Attachment of both toxins to the villus surface was scarce and patchy compared with that of cholera toxin B (CTB). SEA and SEB also bound to microvillus membrane vesicles in vitro, but less efficiently than CTB, and the binding was sensitive to treatment with endoglycoceramidase II, indicating that a glycolipid, possibly digalactosylceramide, acts as cell surface receptor at the brush border. Both SEs partitioned poorly with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) of the microvillus, suggesting a weak association with lipid raft microdomains. Where attachment occurred, cellular uptake of SEA and SEB was also observed. In enterocytes, constitutive apical endocytosis normally proceeds only to subapical early endosomes present in the actomyosin-rich "terminal web" region. But, like CTB, both SEA and SEB penetrated deep into the cytoplasm. In conclusion, the data show that after binding to the enterocyte brush border SEA and SEB perturb the apical membrane trafficking, enabling them to engage in transcytosis to reach their target cells in the subepithelial lamina propria.

  16. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  6. Stochastic dynamics of cholera epidemics.

    PubMed

    Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    We describe the predictions of an analytically tractable stochastic model for cholera epidemics following a single initial outbreak. The exact model relies on a set of assumptions that may restrict the generality of the approach and yet provides a realm of powerful tools and results. Without resorting to the depletion of susceptible individuals, as usually assumed in deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered models, we show that a simple stochastic equation for the number of ill individuals provides a mechanism for the decay of the epidemics occurring on the typical time scale of seasonality. The model is shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the empirical data of the 2000/2001 cholera epidemic which took place in the Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with possibly notable epidemiological implications.

  7. Understanding the cholera epidemic, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Piarroux, Renaud; Barrais, Robert; Faucher, Benoit; Haus, Rachel; Piarroux, Martine; Gaudart, Jean; Magloire, Roc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-07-01

    After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, assess relative risk associated with the epidemic's spread, and investigate causes of its rapid expansion in Artibonite Department. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted 5 significant clusters (p<0.001): 1 near Mirebalais (October 16-19) next to a United Nations camp with deficient sanitation, 1 along the Artibonite River (October 20-28), and 3 caused by the centrifugal epidemic spread during November. The regression model indicated that cholera more severely affected communes in the coastal plain (risk ratio 4.91) along the Artibonite River downstream of Mirebalais (risk ratio 4.60). Our findings strongly suggest that contamination of the Artibonite and 1 of its tributaries downstream from a military camp triggered the epidemic.

  8. Stochastic dynamics of cholera epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    We describe the predictions of an analytically tractable stochastic model for cholera epidemics following a single initial outbreak. The exact model relies on a set of assumptions that may restrict the generality of the approach and yet provides a realm of powerful tools and results. Without resorting to the depletion of susceptible individuals, as usually assumed in deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered models, we show that a simple stochastic equation for the number of ill individuals provides a mechanism for the decay of the epidemics occurring on the typical time scale of seasonality. The model is shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the empirical data of the 2000/2001 cholera epidemic which took place in the Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with possibly notable epidemiological implications.

  9. Staphylococcus enterotoxin profile of China isolates and the superantigenicity of some novel enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Menglu; Li, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Dai, Songbao; Wang, Jiashun; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jinhai

    2017-02-24

    The genus of staphylococcus widely distributes in environments and contributes to a variety of animal and human diseases. The enterotoxins (SEs) secreted by this type of pathogen have been the leading cause of bacterial toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning, and thus present a substantial concern to public health. In this study, we analyzed the superantigen profile of 122 staphylococcus strains isolated from diverse sources. When screened for the presence and prevalence of 17 known se or se-like (sel) genes, except selj, all other genes were detected in these isolates. In particular, 95.9% of the isolates harbored at least one se/sel gene. Moreover, 47.5% of them bore at least 5. Remarkably, several non-pathogenic species of animal- and environment-origin were also found to carry multiple se/sels. The most frequent genes detected were tsst (62.3%), sei (54.1%), and seb (46.7%), followed by some sel genes (selo, selu, and selm), which also were present at relatively high frequency (20-30%). The generated data improved understanding of strain-specific differences in enterotoxin expression. The gene products of the latter (selo and selu) were subsequently analyzed for their antigenicity in a mouse model using purified E. coli-based recombinant proteins. The studies revealed a strong activity for SEO in induction of T-lymphocyte proliferation and production of various inflammatory cytokines either in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, SEU exhibited little superantigenic effects. The molecular basis for the difference in antigenicity was analyzed by 3D homology remodeling, which revealed a difference in binding and affinities for MHC-II molecules and TCR Vβ region.

  10. Rapid Quantitative Serological Assay of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    PubMed Central

    Weirether, Francis J.; Lewis, Evelyn E.; Rosenwald, Albert J.; Lincoln, Ralph E.

    1966-01-01

    A simple, rapid method, based on the Oudin single diffusion technique, is described for the quantitative assay of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The method yields reproducible results without close control of such assay variables as temperature, antiserum dilution, and assay time, provided that the ionic strength is maintained above 0.2 n sodium chloride equivalent. PMID:4959985

  11. Smallpox vaccination techniques. 2. Accessories and aftercare.

    PubMed

    Baxby, Derrick

    2003-03-28

    The various accessories used for smallpox vaccination are surveyed. These included modified vaccination instruments and various other items which facilitated the procedure, containers for preservation and transport of vaccine, sterilising equipment, aids to interpretation and recording, and a variety of skin preparations and dressings. Three phases can be discerned in the development and use of such items and procedures. Initially, in the pre-bacteriological era, there was little need for accessory equipment apart from the means of preserving and transporting vaccine. Later, particularly by the end of the 19th century, the importance of aseptic and antiseptic procedures was realised, use was made of more traumatic vaccination techniques and glass capillaries became the standard method for preservation and transport. All this led to the increasing availability of a wide range of accessories, particularly of skin preparations and dressings. Finally, from about 1930, it was appreciated that skin preparation and dressings were often unnecessary, and could be counter-productive. So, although accessories for this were still available their use was very much reduced. In some respects the use of accessories during this last phase, based on scientific analysis was a return to the earliest, 'pre-scientific', era.

  12. Development and evaluation of a rapid strategy to determine enterotoxin gene content in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Adrien; Francois, Patrice; Holtfreter, Silva; Broeker, Barbara; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    Enterotoxins of S. aureus are important molecules displaying superantigenic properties. To date no less than 18 enterotoxins have been identified in S. aureus and their role has been documented in very diverse diseases. Using available nucleotide sequence information, we developed a rapid and automated PCR-based approach to evaluate enterotoxin content in S aureus. We studied a collection of S. aureus strains previously analyzed for enterotoxins gene content and report a perfect correlation between simplex and multiplex PCR assays for the presence of all enterotoxin genes described so far. The determination of enterotoxin content relies on 4 multiplex PCR tubes whose amplification products are resolved by a rapid microcapillary electrophoresis. Automated analysis of the PCR profiles evaluates for the presence of the 18 enterotoxin genes in less than 3 h and at moderate cost. Finally, the use of enterotoxin gene content for genotyping purpose was compared to multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat assay and spa genotyping. Analysis revealed an important homogeneity of the genetic backgrounds for strains harboring the egc cluster as well as a large diversity for strains harboring other enterotoxins but lacking the egc cluster. A combined genotyping method that includes rapid enterotoxin content determination appears informative for various epidemiological survey purposes.

  13. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus under gastrointestinal conditions and their immunological detection by commercially available kits.

    PubMed

    Ceuppens, Siele; Rajkovic, Andreja; Hamelink, Stefanie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-12-01

    Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA™) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath(®) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their applicability to gastrointestinal simulation samples were evaluated. Then, the stability and production of enterotoxins Hbl and Nhe under gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Enterotoxin production was absent or impaired at acidic pH, i.e., in gastric medium with pH 5.0 and lasagne verde with pH 5.5. B. cereus did produce enterotoxins Nhe and Hbl during anaerobic growth in intestinal medium at pH 7.0, but the toxins were instantly degraded by the enzymes in the host's digestive secretions. Preformed enterotoxins did not withstand gastrointestinal passage under the simulated conditions, which suggests that preformed enterotoxins in food do not contribute to the diarrheal food poisoning syndrome. In conclusion, diarrhea is probably caused by de novo enterotoxin production by B. cereus cells located closely to the host's intestinal epithelium.

  14. Molecular mechanism of acquisition of the cholera toxin genes.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Bischerour, Julien; Barre, Francois-Xavier

    2011-02-01

    One of the major pathogenic determinants of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin, is encoded in the genome of a filamentous phage, CTXφ. CTXφ makes use of the chromosome dimer resolution system of V. cholerae to integrate its single stranded genome into one, the other, or both V. cholerae chromosomes. Here, we review current knowledge about this smart integration process.

  15. Cholera in United States associated with epidemic in Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Newton, Anna E; Heiman, Katherine E; Schmitz, Ann; Török, Tom; Apostolou, Andria; Hanson, Heather; Gounder, Prabhu; Bohm, Susan; Kurkjian, Katie; Parsons, Michele; Talkington, Deborah; Stroika, Steven; Madoff, Lawrence C; Elson, Franny; Sweat, David; Cantu, Venessa; Akwari, Okey; Mahon, Barbara E; Mintz, Eric D

    2011-11-01

    Cholera is rare in the United States (annual average 6 cases). Since epidemic cholera began in Hispaniola in 2010, a total of 23 cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 have been confirmed in the United States. Twenty-two case-patients reported travel to Hispaniola and 1 reported consumption of seafood from Haiti.

  16. The value of cholera vaccination in promoting travel health.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Terry

    Cholera is a diarrhoeal disease caused by intestinal infection with Vibrio cholerae bacterium (Health Protection Agency, 2004). Travellers are now able to obtain a cholera vaccine in the UK. Although cholera is rare in travellers from the UK, its potential severity is a cause for concern. Nurses will need to consider the availability of this new vaccine when providing health promotion to travellers.

  17. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  18. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  19. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  20. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  1. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  2. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  3. Nepalese origin of cholera epidemic in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, R R; Keim, P S; Barrais, R; Piarroux, R

    2012-06-01

    Cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010 for the first time in recorded history. The causative agent was quickly identified by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Since then, >500 000 government-acknowledged cholera cases and >7000 deaths have occurred, the largest cholera epidemic in the world, with the real death toll probably much higher. Questions of origin have been widely debated with some attributing the onset of the epidemic to climatic factors and others to human transmission. None of the evidence on origin supports climatic factors. Instead, recent epidemiological and molecular-genetic evidence point to the United Nations peacekeeping troops from Nepal as the source of cholera to Haiti, following their troop rotation in early October 2010. Such findings have important policy implications for shaping future international relief efforts.

  4. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M. )

    1989-02-07

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits.

  5. Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Choopun, Nipa; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Gangle, Brian; Jiang, Sunny C.; Rubin, Andrea; Patz, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to natural waters and can pose a health risk when it is consumed via untreated water or contaminated shellfish. The correlation between the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay and environmental factors was investigated over a 3-year period. Water and plankton samples were collected monthly from five shore sampling sites in northern Chesapeake Bay (January 1998 to February 2000) and from research cruise stations on a north-south transect (summers of 1999 and 2000). Enrichment was used to detect culturable V. cholerae, and 21.1% (n = 427) of the samples were positive. As determined by serology tests, the isolates, did not belong to serogroup O1 or O139 associated with cholera epidemics. A direct fluorescent-antibody assay was used to detect V. cholerae O1, and 23.8% (n = 412) of the samples were positive. V. cholerae was more frequently detected during the warmer months and in northern Chesapeake Bay, where the salinity is lower. Statistical models successfully predicted the presence of V. cholerae as a function of water temperature and salinity. Temperatures above 19°C and salinities between 2 and 14 ppt yielded at least a fourfold increase in the number of detectable V. cholerae. The results suggest that salinity variation in Chesapeake Bay or other parameters associated with Susquehanna River inflow contribute to the variability in the occurrence of V. cholerae and that salinity is a useful indicator. Under scenarios of global climate change, increased climate variability, accompanied by higher stream flow rates and warmer temperatures, could favor conditions that increase the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:12732548

  6. Cholera outbreaks in the classical biotype era.

    PubMed

    Siddique, A K; Cash, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In the Indian subcontinent description of a disease resembling cholera has been mentioned in Sushruta Samita, estimated to have been written between ~400 and 500 BC. It is however not clear whether the disease known today as cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae O1 is the evolutionary progression of the ancient disease. The modern history of cholera began in 1817 when an explosive epidemic broke out in the Ganges River Delta region of Bengal. This was the first of the seven recorded cholera pandemics cholera pandemics that affected nearly the entire world and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The bacterium responsible for this human disease was first recognised during the fifth pandemic and was named V. cholerae which was grouped as O1, and was further differentiated into Classical and El Tor biotypes. It is now known that the fifth and the sixth pandemics were caused by the V. cholerae O1 of the Classical biotype Classical biotype and the seventh by the El Tor biotype El Tor biotype . The El Tor biotype of V. cholerae, which originated in Indonesia Indonesia and shortly thereafter began to spread in the early 1960s. Within the span of 50 years the El Tor biotype had invaded nearly the entire world, completely displacing the Classical biotype from all the countries except Bangladesh. What prompted the earlier pandemics to begin is not clearly understood, nor do we know how and why they ended. The success of the seventh pandemic clone over the pre-existing sixth pandemic strain remains largely an unsolved mystery. Why classical biotype eventually disappeared from the world remains to be explained. For nearly three decades (1963-1991) during the Seventh cholera pandemic seventh pandemic, cholera in Bangladesh has recorded a unique history of co-existence of Classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae O1 as epidemic and endemic strain. This long co-existence has provided us with great opportunity to improve our understanding of the disease itself

  7. A nontoxic chimeric enterotoxin adjuvant induces protective immunity in both mucosal and systemic compartments with reduced IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Mi-Na; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Fumiko; Tamura, Shinichi; Van Ginkel, Frederik W; Miyauchi, Akira; Takagi, Hiroaki; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Hamabata, Takashi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; McGhee, Jerry R; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    A novel nontoxic form of chimeric mucosal adjuvant that combines the A subunit of mutant cholera toxin E112K with the pentameric B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was constructed by use of the Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system (mCTA/LTB). Nasal immunization of mice with tetanus toxoid (TT) plus mCTA/LTB elicited significant TT-specific immunoglobulin A responses in mucosal compartments and induced high serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A anti-TT antibody responses. Although TT plus native CT induced high total and TT-specific immunoglobulin E responses, use of the chimera molecule as mucosal adjuvant did not. Furthermore, all mice immunized with TT plus mCTA/LTB were protected from lethal systemic challenge with tetanus toxin. Importantly, the mice were completely protected from influenza virus infection after nasal immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine together with mCTA/LTB. These results show that B. choshinensis-derived mCTA/LTB is an effective and safe mucosal adjuvant for the induction of protective immunity against potent bacterial exotoxin and influenza virus infection.

  8. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  9. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  10. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  11. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  2. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  3. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  4. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  5. [The detection of a choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin in clinical strains of Proteus isolated in different infections].

    PubMed

    Gabidullin, Z G; Zhukova, S L; Ezepchuk, Iu V; Bondarenko, V M

    1989-12-01

    The capacity of Proteus strains, isolated from patients with purulent inflammatory, urological and enteric infections, for the production of choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin was studied by means of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the use of antitoxic serum to Escherichia coli enterotoxin. Out of 125 strains, 27 (21.6%) showed the capacity for producing choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin in EIA experiments. The results thus obtained indicate that EIA techniques can be used, in principle, for detecting the capacity of Proteus for the production of choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin.

  6. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  15. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  16. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  17. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  19. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  8. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  10. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  16. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  17. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  18. Mesenteric Panniculitis Associated With Vibrio cholerae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roginsky, Grigory; Mazulis, Andrew; Ecanow, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of acute Vibrio cholerae infection with computed tomography (CT) changes consistent with mesenteric panniculitis (MP). A 78-year-old Indian man returned from overseas travel with progressively severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. His stool tested positive twice for Vibrio cholerae. CT revealed prominent lymph nodes and a hazy mesentery consistent with MP. Antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of MP on follow-up CT 8 months later. In the setting of Vibrio cholerae infection, the CT finding of MP appears to be the result of a immunologically mediated reactive inflammatory disorder of the mesentery. PMID:26504876

  19. Sensitive, rapid, quantitative and in vitro method for the detection of biologically active staphylococcal enterotoxin type E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infections and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens that activa...

  20. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  1. Coat and enterotoxin-related proteins in Clostridium perfringens spores.

    PubMed

    Ryu, S; Labbe, R G

    1989-11-01

    Coat proteins from mature spores of two enterotoxin-positive (Ent+) and two enterotoxin-negative (Ent-) strains of Clostridium perfringens were solubilized using 50 mM-dithiothreitol and 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate at pH 9.7, and alkylated using 110 mM-iodoacetamide to prevent aggregation. The coat proteins and C. perfringens type A enterotoxin (CPE) were separated by SDS-PAGE and analysed by Western blotting using anti-CPE antibody. As previously reported, CPE aggregated in the presence of SDS, but no aggregation occurred at concentrations below 15 micrograms CPE ml-1. Two CPE-related proteins (34 and 48 kDa) were found in the solubilized spore coat protein of Ent+ strains while only the 48 kDa CPE-related protein was found in the spore coat fraction of Ent- strains. CPE-related proteins comprised 2.7% and 0.8% of the total solubilized coat protein of Ent+ and Ent- strains respectively. CPE-related proteins could be extracted from the spores with 1% SDS alone. They could also be released by disruption of whole spores, indicating that the CPE-related proteins may be in the spore core or trapped between the core and coat layers. The results suggest that CPE is not a major structural component of the coat fraction of C. perfringens spores.

  2. Staphylococcal enterotoxins bind H-2Db molecules on macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We screened a panel of monoclonal antibodies against selected macrophage cell surface molecules for their ability to inhibit enterotoxin binding to major histocompatibility complex class II-negative C2D (H-2b) macrophages. Two monoclonal antibodies, HB36 and TIB126, that are specific for the alpha 2 domain of major histocompatibility complex class I, blocked staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB, respectively) binding to C2D macrophages in a specific and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibitory activities were haplotype-specific in that SEA and SEB binding to H-2k or H-2d macrophages was not inhibited by either monoclonal antibody. HB36, but not TIB126, inhibited enterotoxin-induced secretion of cytokines by H-2b macrophages. Lastly, passive protection of D-galactosamine-sensitized C2D mice by injection with HB36 antibody prevented SEB-induced death. Therefore, SEA and SEB binding to the alpha 2 domain of the H-2Db molecule induces biological activity and has physiological consequences.

  3. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-specific electrochemiluminescence and lateral flow device assays cross-react with staphylococcal enterotoxin D.

    PubMed

    Tallent, Sandra M; Hait, Jennifer; Bennett, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Guam school children and faculty members experienced symptoms of vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea shortly after eating breakfast prepared by contracted caterers. The first illness was reported within an hour after breakfast, affecting 295 students and two faculty members. Local hospitals treated 130 people, and 61 were admitted for further treatment. Reported symptoms were consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning. Initial food testing using a lateral flow device and electrochemiluminescence method incorrectly implicated staphylococcal enterotoxin B as the causative agent, prompting partial activation of Guam's Emergency Response Center. Traditional ELISAs proved that the food poisoning agent was staphylococcal enterotoxin D. More specific and sensitive assays would have alleviated the issues and confusion that surrounded the reporting and investigation of this outbreak.

  4. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md. Sazzadul I.; Sharif, Mohsena B.; Rahman, Sabita R.; Sack, David A.; Sack, R. Bradley; George, Christine M.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city. PMID:27803695

  5. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial).

    PubMed

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md Sazzadul I; Sharif, Mohsena B; Rahman, Sabita R; Sack, David A; Sack, R Bradley; George, Christine M; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city.

  6. Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

  7. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number).

  8. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  9. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  10. Pursuing Justice in Haiti's Cholera Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Weinmeyer, Richard

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, the nation of Haiti was leveled by a shattering earthquake that killed thousands and devastated its already fragile infrastructure. During relief efforts to aid Haiti's suffering population, the United Nations sent troops to Haiti to assist the rebuilding of country's most basic services. But those troops unknowingly carried with them the bacteria that cause cholera, and through the UN's negligent actions, it triggered a horrifying cholera epidemic that continues to harm the Haitian people. Those injured by the cholera epidemic have sought relief in the US federal court system to obtain justice for those killed or sickened by the cholera outbreak. The UN has declared legal immunity for causing the epidemic, yet the litigation on this matter is ongoing.

  11. Invasive Vibrio cholerae Infection Following Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    as asymptomatic col- onization, otitis , gastroenteritis, soft-tissue infection, sepsis, or even cerebritis. In contrast, epidemic V. cholerae (O-1 or...cholerae grows well on common blood agar, with decreased bacterial over- growth on selective media , such as TCBS agar. As noted in our case (Figure 1), it...is possible for both epidemic and nonepidemic strains to have a “rugose” phenotype on nonselective media , and usually a smooth phenotype on TCBS.11

  12. Accessory cells for β-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Heremans, Y; Coppens, V; Van Gassen, N; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; Van Riet, I; Luttun, A; Heimberg, H; De Leu, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, insulin therapy remains a treatment, not a cure, for diabetes mellitus with persistent risk of glycaemic alterations and life-threatening complications. Restoration of the endogenous β-cell mass through regeneration or transplantation offers an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, signals that drive β-cell regeneration remain enigmatic and β-cell replacement therapy still faces major hurdles that prevent its widespread application. Co-transplantation of accessory non-islet cells with islet cells has been shown to improve the outcome of experimental islet transplantation. This review will highlight current travails in β-cell therapy and focuses on the potential benefits of accessory cells for islet transplantation in diabetes.

  13. Influence of water temperature and salinity on seasonal occurrences of Vibrio cholerae and enteric bacteria in oyster-producing areas of Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Castañeda Chávez, Maria del Refugio; Pardio Sedas, Violeta; Orrantia Borunda, Erasmo; Lango Reynoso, Fabiola

    2005-12-01

    The influence of temperature and salinity on the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. associated with water and oyster samples was investigated in two lagoons on the Atlantic Coast of Veracruz, Mexico over a 1-year period. The results indicated that seasonal salinity variability and warm temperatures, as well as nutrient influx, may influence the occurrence of V. cholera. non-O1 and O1. The conditions found in the Alvarado (31.12 degrees C, 6.27 per thousand, pH=8.74) and La Mancha lagoons (31.38 degrees C, 24.18 per thousand, pH=9.15) during the rainy season 2002 favored the occurrence of V. cholera O1 Inaba enterotoxin positive traced in oysters. Vibrio alginolyticus was detected in Alvarado lagoon water samples during the winter season. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were isolated from water samples from the La Mancha (90-96.7% and 86.7-96.7%) and Alvarado (88.6-97.1% and 88.6-100%) lagoons. Occurrence of bacteria may be due to effluents from urban, agricultural and industrial areas.

  14. PREDICTIVE MODELING OF CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN BANGLADESH

    PubMed Central

    Koepke, Amanda A.; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Wakefield, Jon; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model. The entire system is treated as a continuous-time hidden Markov model, where the hidden Markov states are the numbers of people who are susceptible, infected, or recovered at each time point, and the observed states are the numbers of cholera cases reported. We use a Bayesian framework to fit this hidden SIRS model, implementing particle Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to sample from the posterior distribution of the environmental and transmission parameters given the observed data. We test this method using both simulation and data from Mathbaria, Bangladesh. Parameter estimates are used to make short-term predictions that capture the formation and decline of epidemic peaks. We demonstrate that our model can successfully predict an increase in the number of infected individuals in the population weeks before the observed number of cholera cases increases, which could allow for early notification of an epidemic and timely allocation of resources. PMID:27746850

  15. The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.

    PubMed

    Deen, Jacqueline; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Luquero, Francisco J; Troeger, Christopher; Reyburn, Rita; Lopez, Anna Lena; Debes, Amanda; Sack, David A

    2016-01-01

    Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and so prioritisation is needed. We have developed a scenario approach to systematically classify situations in which oral cholera vaccination might be useful. Our scenario approach distinguishes between five types of cholera epidemiology based on experiences from around the world and provides evidence that we hope will spur the development of detailed guidelines on how and where oral cholera vaccines could, and should, be most rationally deployed.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in food samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated and rapid method for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) is needed. A sandwich assay was developed using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) at subpicomolar concentration. Assay conditions were optimized for capturing...

  17. TNF as biomarker for rapid quantification of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infection and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens t...

  18. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N′,N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and

  19. Comparison of enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between emetic and enterotoxic Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Kim, Jai-Moung; Kim, So-Yeong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Yong-Bae; Choi, Na-Jung; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-07-01

    Bacillus cereus was divided into emetic toxin (cereulide)- and enterotoxin-producing strains, but emetic toxin-producing B. cereus is difficult to detect immunochemically. Screening methods for emetic toxin-producing B. cereus are needed. The objectives of this study were to identify and detect emetic toxin-producing B. cereus among 160 B. cereus strains, and to compare enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between the emetic toxin-producing and enterotoxin-producing strains. Forty emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Among the emetic toxin-producing strains (n = 40), 31 (77.5%) and 3 (7.5%) strains produced nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and hemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxins, respectively. In addition, 107 (89.2%) and 100 (83.3%) strains produced NHE and HBL enterotoxins among the enterotoxin-producing strains (n = 120). The number of strains positive for starch hydrolysis, salicin fermentation, and hemolysis among the emetic toxin-producing strains were 3 (7.5%), 3 (7.5%), and 26 (65.0%), respectively, and among enterotoxin-producing strains, these numbers were 101 (84.2%), 100 (83.3%), and 111 (92.5%), respectively. In particular, the three emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains (JNHE 6, JNHE 36, and KNIH 28) produced the HBL and NHE enterotoxins and were capable of starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation. The absence of HBL enterotoxin and certain phenotypic properties, such as starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation, indicates that these properties were not critical characteristics of the emetic toxin-producing B. cereus tested in this study.

  20. Spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of spatial autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the dependency of the spatial distribution of cholera prevalence on the spatial neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.

  1. Accessories to the crime: recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology.

    PubMed

    Gramberg, Thomas; Sunseri, Nicole; Landau, Nathaniel R

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself. HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary battle. The virus is remarkably adept at co-opting cellular degradative pathways to destroy the protective proteins. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding three of the accessory proteins-virion infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R (Vpr), and viral protein U (Vpu)-that target different restriction factors to ensure virus replication. These proteins may provide promising targets for the development of novel classes of antiretroviral drugs.

  2. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  3. [A promoter responsible for over-expression of cholera toxin B subunit in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene].

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Shi, C; Li, P; Ma, Q

    1997-01-01

    A promoter sequence, which promotes the transcription of cholera toxin B subunit gene, was found in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene. The transcription starts at the adenine Located at +833, that is 456bp upstream to the A of the initiation codon ATG of cholera toxin B gene. Under the control of the promoter, cholera toxin B subunit was over-expressed as high as 200 mg/L at an optimized culture condition. The chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene and beta-galactosidase could also be efficiently expressed under the direction of the promoter. This promoter may be responsible for the 6 fold and 7 fold higher expression level of cholera toxin B subunit than cholera toxin A subunit in V. cholerae and Escheria coli respectively. The over-expression of CTB may be useful in preparing vaccine against cholera and facilitating the construction of peptide-bearing immunogenic hybrid proteins.

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of 26 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Watve, Samit S.; Chande, Aroon T.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Jordan, I. King

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae employs several adaptive mechanisms for environmental persistence, including natural transformation and type VI secretion, creating a reservoir for the spread of disease. Here, we report whole-genome sequences of 26 diverse V. cholerae isolates, significantly increasing the sequence diversity of publicly available V. cholerae genomes. PMID:28007852

  5. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930... cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification. Vibrio cholerae serological reagents are devices that are used in the agglutination (an antigen-antibody clumping reaction) test to identify Vibrio...

  6. Purified Shigella enterotoxin does not alter intestinal motility.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, A; Sninsky, C A; O'Brien, A D; Clench, M H; Mathias, J R

    1984-01-01

    A purified Shigella enterotoxin (pST) and a cell-free lysate with pST removed (CFL-pST) from the whole-cell lysate of Shigella dysenteriae 60 R were used to study their effect on the myoelectric activity and mucosal integrity of rabbit ileal segments. We have previously defined two myoelectric patterns: the migrating action potential complex and repetitive bursts of action potentials that occur in response to certain bacteria and their enterotoxins. The in vivo model consisted of isolated ileal segments in male New Zealand White rabbits. The segments were infused with sterile saline (1 ml/h), pST (2.4-micrograms injection), or CFL-pST (1 ml/h). Myoelectric activity in the segments exposed to pST was similar to that with the saline infusion, but CFL-pST induced significant alterations in myoelectric activity in the form of repetitive bursts of action potentials. The mucosa of the segments exposed to pST showed only mild inflammatory changes. In contrast, CFL-pST caused moderate to severe inflammatory changes with enterocyte necrosis. These studies show that pST, a known enterotoxin, did not alter myoelectric activity and had no significant effect on the integrity of ileal mucosa, as determined by light microscopy. CFL-pST caused both inflammation and tissue necrosis with significant alterations in motor activity. These studies suggest that S. dysenteriae 60 R produces a substance or substances other than pST that cause florid in vivo cytotoxicity and alter myoelectric activity. Images PMID:6363286

  7. Seasonal Cholera Caused by Vibrio cholerae Serogroups O1 and O139 in the Coastal Aquatic Environment of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A.; Sadique, Abdus; Bhuiyan, N. A.; Ahmed, Kabir U.; Nusrin, Suraia; Nair, G. Balakrish; Siddique, A. K.; Sack, R. Bradley; Sack, David A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2006-01-01

    Since Vibrio cholerae O139 first appeared in 1992, both O1 El Tor and O139 have been recognized as the epidemic serogroups, although their geographic distribution, endemicity, and reservoir are not fully understood. To address this lack of information, a study of the epidemiology and ecology of V. cholerae O1 and O139 was carried out in two coastal areas, Bakerganj and Mathbaria, Bangladesh, where cholera occurs seasonally. The results of a biweekly clinical study (January 2004 to May 2005), employing culture methods, and of an ecological study (monthly in Bakerganj and biweekly in Mathbaria from March 2004 to May 2005), employing direct and enrichment culture, colony blot hybridization, and direct fluorescent-antibody methods, showed that cholera is endemic in both Bakerganj and Mathbaria and that V. cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 are autochthonous to the aquatic environment. Although V. cholerae O1 and O139 were isolated from both areas, most noteworthy was the isolation of V. cholerae O139 in March, July, and September 2004 in Mathbaria, where seasonal cholera was clinically linked only to V. cholerae O1. In Mathbaria, V. cholerae O139 emerged as the sole cause of a significant outbreak of cholera in March 2005. V. cholerae O1 reemerged clinically in April 2005 and established dominance over V. cholerae O139, continuing to cause cholera in Mathbaria. In conclusion, the epidemic potential and coastal aquatic reservoir for V. cholerae O139 have been demonstrated. Based on the results of this study, the coastal ecosystem of the Bay of Bengal is concluded to be a significant reservoir for the epidemic serogroups of V. cholerae. PMID:16751520

  8. Seasonal dynamics of Vibrio cholerae and its phages in riverine ecosystem of Gangetic West Bengal: cholera paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Subham; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Einsporn, Marc H; Lara, Ruben J; Sarkar, Banwarilal; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Palit, Anup

    2014-10-01

    The Gangetic delta is a century-old cholera endemic belt where the role of riverine-estuarine ecosystem in cholera transmission has never been elucidated. Seasonality, distribution, and abundance of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and vibriophage in Hooghly riverine-estuarine environment and their correlation with cholera incidence pattern in West Bengal, India, have been analyzed for the first time across summer, monsoon, and winter months. A total of 146 water samples collected from two sites of the Hooghly River (Howrah and Diamond Harbour) were analyzed physicochemically along with cultivable Vibrio count (CVC), V. cholerae O1/O139, and vibriophages. V. cholerae O1 was detected in 56 (38.3%) samples, while 66 (45.2%) were positive for V. cholerae O1 phages. Flood tide, water temperature (31 ± 1.6 °C), and turbidity (≥250 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU)) significantly stimulated V. cholerae and vibriophage abundance in riverine ecosystem. Solitary existence of V. cholerae O1 and phages (p < 0.0001) in aquatic environment divulges the dominance of either of the entity (V. cholerae O1 or V. cholerae O1 Φ) on the other. Significant association (p < 0.05) between Kolkata cholera cases and V. cholerae O1 in aquatic environment implies the role of riverine-estuarine ecosystem in cholera transmission. A "biomonitoring tool" of physicochemical stimulants, tidal, and climatic variants has been proposed collating V. cholerae and phage dynamics that can forewarn any impending cholera outbreak.

  9. Role of Shrimp Chitin in the Ecology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Cholera Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Shamsun; Sultana, Marzia; Naser, M. Niamul; Nair, Gopinath B.; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shouji; Endtz, Hubert; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, R. Bradley; Hasan, Nur A.; Sadique, Abdus; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Alam, Munirul

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW–CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining bacterial culturable count. V. cholerae within the microenvironments of chitin and chitin-associated biofilms remained metabolically active even in a high acidic environment without losing either viability or virulence. It is concluded that the abundance of chitin that occurs during blooms plays an important role in the aquatic life cycle of V. cholerae and, ultimately, in the seasonal transmission of cholera. PMID:22319512

  10. Role of Shrimp Chitin in the Ecology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Cholera Transmission.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Shamsun; Sultana, Marzia; Naser, M Niamul; Nair, Gopinath B; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shouji; Endtz, Hubert; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, R Bradley; Hasan, Nur A; Sadique, Abdus; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Alam, Munirul

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining bacterial culturable count. V. cholerae within the microenvironments of chitin and chitin-associated biofilms remained metabolically active even in a high acidic environment without losing either viability or virulence. It is concluded that the abundance of chitin that occurs during blooms plays an important role in the aquatic life cycle of V. cholerae and, ultimately, in the seasonal transmission of cholera.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Diarrhea and Cholera following an Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaign in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Eleanor; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ogaoga, Divi; Gaiofa, Jenny; Jilini, Gregory; Halpin, Alison; Dietz, Vance; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Hyde, Terri; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Yen, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to a 2011 cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, the Government of the Solomon Islands initiated a cholera prevention program which included cholera disease prevention and treatment messaging, community meetings, and a pre-emptive cholera vaccination campaign targeting 11,000 children aged 1–15 years in selected communities in Choiseul and Western Provinces. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted a post-vaccination campaign, household-level survey about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea and cholera in areas targeted and not targeted for cholera vaccination. Respondents in vaccinated areas were more likely to have received cholera education in the previous 6 months (33% v. 9%; p = 0.04), to know signs and symptoms (64% vs. 22%; p = 0.02) and treatment (96% vs. 50%; p = 0.02) of cholera, and to be aware of cholera vaccine (48% vs. 14%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in water, sanitation, and hygiene practices. Conclusions This pre-emptive OCV campaign in a cholera-naïve community provided a unique opportunity to assess household-level knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea, cholera, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Our findings suggest that education provided during the vaccination campaign may have reinforced earlier mass messaging about cholera and diarrheal disease in vaccinated communities. PMID:27548678

  12. Transferable quinolone resistance in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Bin; Wang, Minghua; Ahmed, Sabeena; Park, Chi Hye; LaRocque, Regina C; Faruque, Abu S G; Salam, Mohammed A; Khan, Wasif A; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Jacoby, George A; Hooper, David C

    2010-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin was introduced for treatment of patients with cholera in Bangladesh because of resistance to other agents, but its utility has been compromised by the decreasing ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae over time. We correlated levels of susceptibility and temporal patterns with the occurrence of mutation in gyrA, which encodes a subunit of DNA gyrase, followed by mutation in parC, which encodes a subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV. We found that ciprofloxacin activity was more recently further compromised in strains containing qnrVC3, which encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein of the Qnr subfamily, members of which protect topoisomerases from quinolone action. We show that qnrVC3 confers transferable low-level quinolone resistance and is present within a member of the SXT integrating conjugative element family found commonly on the chromosomes of multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae and on the chromosomes of Escherichia coli transconjugants constructed in the laboratory. Thus, progressive increases in quinolone resistance in V. cholerae are linked to cumulative mutations in quinolone targets and most recently to a qnr gene on a mobile multidrug resistance element, resulting in further challenges for the antimicrobial therapy of cholera.

  13. Resurgence of cholera in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. H.; Lai, S. T.; Lai, J. Y.; Leung, N. K.

    1996-01-01

    Cholera is one of the three diseases subject to the International Health Regulations. After a period of over 30 years, the seventh pandemic of cholera, which started in South East Asia in 1961, still shows no sign of a decline. On the contrary, it has increased its severity and invaded many other countries in Africa and Latin America. In the last two years, there has been a recrudescence of the disease in South East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. The discovery of a new strain of Vibrio cholerae 0139 in these regions is causing concern in view of its potential to cause major epidemics and higher mortality. Hong Kong had two intensive outbreaks of cholera in the last two years. The cause of these outbreaks was not clear, but adverse environmental conditions and increasing pollution of coastal waters have been implicated. The spread of cholera knows no geographical boundaries. There is a need for intensified efforts among health authorities in the affected areas to prevent the international spread of the disease. PMID:8760949

  14. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers.

  15. Optimization of diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1986-11-01

    The value of diffuse reflectance as an infrared or near-infrared spectroscopic sampling procedure has been limited by the low efficiency of accessories designed for it. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, these average 2-6% for integrating spheres and 10-12% for various ellipsoidal mirror arrangements. Much better performances, up to 37% efficiency, can be obtained by optimizing a concentric confocal ellipsoidal mirror arrangement by using a very large central opening in the amular collector mirror, and adapting the throughput of the detector to the geometry of the collected beam.

  16. HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

  17. Phylogenetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Endemic Cholera in Mexico from 1991 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Young; Rashed, Shah M.; Hasan, Nur A.; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Eppinger, Mark; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX−) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX+) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX+ variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX− V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V. cholerae. Three were CTX+ El Tor, two were CTX− El Tor, and the remaining strain was a CTX+ classical isolate. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed the six isolates belonged to five distinct phylogenetic clades. One CTX− isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX+ V. cholerae isolates. The other CTX− isolate joined with CTX− non-O1/O139 isolates from Haiti and seroconverted O1 isolates from Brazil and Amazonia. One CTX+ isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. Two CTX+ El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. The third CTX+ El Tor isolate contained West African-South American (WASA) recombination in VSP-II and showed relatedness to isolates from Peru and Brazil. Except for one isolate, all Mexican isolates lack SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and sensitivity to selected antibiotics, with one isolate resistant to streptomycin. No isolates were related to contemporary isolates from Asia, Africa, or Haiti, indicating phylogenetic diversity. PMID:26980836

  18. Novel platform for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B in foods.

    PubMed

    Tallent, Sandra M; Degrasse, Jeffrey A; Wang, Ningyan; Mattis, Daiva M; Kranz, David M

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcal contamination of food products and staphylococcal food-borne illnesses continue to be a problem worldwide. Screening of food for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and/or enterotoxins using traditional methods is laborious. Reliable and rapid multiplex detection methods from a single food extract or culture supernatant would simplify testing. A fluorescence-based cytometric bead array was developed for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), using magnetic microspheres coupled with either an engineered, enterotoxin-specific Vβ domain of the T-cell receptor (Vβ-TCR) or polyclonal antibodies. The binding affinity of the Vβ-TCR for SEB has been shown to be in the picomolar range, comparable to the best monoclonal antibodies. The coupled beads were validated with purified enterotoxins and tested in a variety of food matrices spiked with enterotoxins. The Vβ-TCR or antibody was shown to specifically bind SEB in four different food matrices, including milk, mashed potatoes, vanilla pudding, and cooked chicken. The use of traditional polyclonal antibodies and Vβ-TCR provides a redundant system that ensures accurate identification of the enterotoxin, and the use of labeled microspheres permits simultaneous testing of multiple enterotoxins from a single sample.

  19. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population.

  20. Phylogeny of Vibrio cholerae Based on recA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Stine, O. Colin; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gou, Qing; Zheng, Siqen; Morris, J. Glenn; Johnson, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced a 705-bp fragment of the recA gene from 113 Vibrio cholerae strains and closely related species. One hundred eighty-seven nucleotides were phylogenetically informative, 55 were phylogenetically uninformative, and 463 were invariant. Not unexpectedly, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus strains formed out-groups; we also identified isolates which resembled V. cholerae biochemically but which did not cluster with V. cholerae. In many instances, V. cholerae serogroup designations did not correlate with phylogeny, as reflected by recA sequence divergence. This observation is consistent with the idea that there is horizontal transfer of O-antigen biosynthesis genes among V. cholerae strains. PMID:11083852

  1. Hybrid Vibrio cholerae El Tor Lacking SXT Identified as the Cause of a Cholera Outbreak in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Klinzing, David C.; Choi, Seon Young; Hasan, Nur A.; Matias, Ronald R.; Tayag, Enrique; Geronimo, Josefina; Skowronski, Evan; Rashed, Shah M.; Kawashima, Kent; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Gibbons, Henry S.; Torres, Brian C.; Liles, Veni; Alfon, Alicia C.; Juan, Maria Luisa; Natividad, Filipinas F.; Cebula, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera continues to be a global threat, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In 2011, a cholera outbreak occurred in Palawan, Philippines, affecting more than 500 people, and 20 individuals died. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source attribution is critical in cholera outbreaks for proper management of the disease, as well as to control spread. In this study, three V. cholerae O1 isolates from a Philippines cholera outbreak were sequenced and their genomes analyzed to determine phylogenetic relatedness to V. cholerae O1 isolates from recent outbreaks of cholera elsewhere. The Philippines V. cholerae O1 isolates were determined to be V. cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor belonging to the seventh-pandemic clade. They clustered tightly, forming a monophyletic clade closely related to V. cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor from Asia and Africa. The isolates possess a unique multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotype (12-7-9-18-25 and 12-7-10-14-21) and lack SXT. In addition, they possess a novel 15-kb genomic island (GI-119) containing a predicted type I restriction-modification system. The CTXΦ-RS1 array of the Philippines isolates was similar to that of V. cholerae O1 MG116926, a hybrid El Tor strain isolated in Bangladesh in 1991. Overall, the data indicate that the Philippines V. cholerae O1 isolates are unique, differing from recent V. cholerae O1 isolates from Asia, Africa, and Haiti. Furthermore, the results of this study support the hypothesis that the Philippines isolates of V. cholerae O1 are indigenous and exist locally in the aquatic ecosystem of the Philippines. PMID:25900650

  2. Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: Action, Genetics, and Translational Applications.

    PubMed

    Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; McClane, Bruce A

    2016-03-16

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of several C. perfringens food- and nonfood-borne human gastrointestinal diseases. The enterotoxin gene (cpe) is located on either the chromosome (for most C. perfringens type A food poisoning strains) or large conjugative plasmids (for the remaining type A food poisoning and most, if not all, other CPE-producing strains). In all CPE-positive strains, the cpe gene is strongly associated with insertion sequences that may help to assist its mobilization and spread. During disease, CPE is produced when C. perfringens sporulates in the intestines, a process involving several sporulation-specific alternative sigma factors. The action of CPE starts with its binding to claudin receptors to form a small complex; those small complexes then oligomerize to create a hexameric prepore on the membrane surface. Beta hairpin loops from the CPE molecules in the prepore assemble into a beta barrel that inserts into the membrane to form an active pore that enhances calcium influx, causing cell death. This cell death results in intestinal damage that causes fluid and electrolyte loss. CPE is now being explored for translational applications including cancer therapy/diagnosis, drug delivery, and vaccination.

  3. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  4. Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (∼1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (∼16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  5. Cholera in a developing megacity; Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, A.; Khan, A.; Malik, T.; Fisher-Hoch, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    Despite rapid urbanization and increasing affluence in Karachi, cases of cholera are frequent. We analysed computerized isolation data from the AKUH Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Karachi, from 1990-6 to examine microbiological, temporal and demographic trends in Vibrio cholerae infections. During this period 888 strains of V. cholerae (566 V. cholerae serogroup O1, and 204 V. cholerae serogroup O139) were isolated from specimens from 886 patients; 214/464 were adult inpatients, and 250/464 paediatric inpatients, the remaining 422 outpatients. Isolations peaked between June and August. Overlapping epidemics occurred in 1993 and 1994 of serogroup O1 (May to August), and serogroup O139 (August to October). All ages and social and economic strata were affected. Forty-four percent of all isolates were from children under the age of 5 years. The mean age of all patients with serogroup O1 infections was 19.6 years (+/-0.9) compared with 367 (+/-1.7) for serogroup O139 infections (P < 0.0001, t test). More than a quarter (27%) of all serogroup O1 isolates were from babies under 2 years of age. One patient had a serogroup O1 infection followed by a serogroup O139 infection 1 year later. Another patient was infected with serogroup O1 strains 5 years apart. Emergence of resistant strains was observed, but by 1996 serogroup O139 had disappeared. An aquatic organism, cholera nevertheless continues to take its toll in this city of 11 million situated in a desert. PMID:9440430

  6. Local environmental predictors of cholera in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Emch, Michael; Feldacker, Caryl; Yunus, Mohammad; Streatfield, Peter Kim; DinhThiem, Vu; Canh, Do Gia; Ali, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    Environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera and thus might prove useful for prediction. In Bangladesh and Vietnam, temporal cholera distributions are related to satellite-derived and in-situ environmental time series data in order to examine the relationships between cholera and the local environment. Ordered probit models examine associations in Bangladesh; probit models examine associations at 2 sites in Vietnam. Increases in ocean chlorophyll concentration are related to an increased magnitude of cholera in Bangladesh. Increases in sea surface temperature are most influential in Hue, Vietnam, whereas increases in river height have a significant role in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Cholera appearance and epidemic magnitude are related to the local environment. Local environmental parameters have consistent effects when cholera is regular and more prevalent in endemic settings, but in situations where cholera epidemics are rare there are differential environmental effects.

  7. Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Tabu, Collins W; Gichuki, John

    2010-08-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa.

  8. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A.; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187

  9. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i

  10. Effect of Eleutherine americana Merr. extract on enzymatic activity and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus in broth and cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Ifesan, Beatrice O T; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2009-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract from the bulb of Eleutherine americana was investigated for its inhibitory activities against lipase and protease enzymes and enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus. Eleven isolates that demonstrated high enzyme activity with three reference strains were selected to study the effect of extract on enzyme production. Exposure of the isolates to subminimal inhibitory concentrations, (1/2) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (125 microg/mL), and (1/4)MIC (62.5 microg/mL) of the crude extract resulted in both partial and total inhibition of lipase and protease enzymes. About 15% of the 106 isolates were positive for enterotoxin production with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (11.3%), enterotoxin B (3.7%), and enterotoxin C (10.3%), and no enterotoxin D was produced. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins A-D in the presence or absence of the crude extract was carried out. In the broth system, the extract reduced enterotoxin production at subminimal inhibitory concentrations compared with the control. At MIC, total enterotoxin inhibition was observed for enterotoxin C production, whereas synthesis of enterotoxins A, B, and D was totally eliminated at 2MIC. The food system study revealed that the extract could delay production of enterotoxins A, B, and C compared with the control. The extract at 2 mg/mL delayed production of toxins A and C for 8 and 4 h, while toxin B was not detected in the pork at 48 h. The ability of E. americana extract to inhibit lipase and protease enzymes and to delay enterotoxin production in food could present it as a novel food additive to combat the growth of S. aureus in food.

  11. Enteropathogenic bacteria and enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chomvarin, Chariya; Chantarasuk, Yingrit; Srigulbutr, Sugunya; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Chaicumpar, Kunyaluk

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food in the Municipality of Khon Kaen, Thailand. Four categories of 186 food samples were collected: (1) high heat food; (2) low heat food; (3) no heat food; and, 4) on-site prepared fruit juices and beverages. Of the food samples, 145 (78%) failed to meet acceptable microbiological standards, including fruit juice and beverages (100%), no heat food (91.7%), low heat food (81.7%) and high heat food (57.9%). The most frequent bacterial indexes indicating unacceptability were the most probable number (MPN) of coliforms (78%), the bacterial colony count (58%), and the MPN of E. coli (46%). Pathogenic bacteria were found in 6.5% of food samples. Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae non O1 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found in 4.3, 1.6 and 0.5% of the total food samples, respectively. The serovars of Salmonella found in food were S. Derby, S. Give, S. Krefield, S. Paratyphi B, S. Verchow, S. Lexington and S. Senftenberg. Staphylococcus aureus concentrations of >10(2) CFU/g and >10(5) CFU/g were found in 10.8% and 1.1% of the food samples. Enterotoxin types AB and A of S. aureus were found in 2.7% of the food samples. These results indicate that more than half of the ready-to-eat foods tested in Khon Kaen municipality did not meet microbiological national standards and many kinds of enteropathogenic bacteria were found, suggesting food stalls may be a source of foodborne disease.

  12. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E.; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Ikhtear Uddin, Muhammad; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Clemens, John D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Methods Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Findings Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. Conclusion These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs. PMID:26562418

  13. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola

    PubMed Central

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J.; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6th and 7th pandemic lineages, and diverge from “modern” cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532–1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ. PMID:27786291

  14. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T; Morris, J Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-10-27

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6(th) and 7(th) pandemic lineages, and diverge from "modern" cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532-1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ.

  15. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  20. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  2. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  6. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  8. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  11. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  12. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  13. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....147 Flanges and flange accessories. (a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must... be subjected in service. (c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions, drilling, face and gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe,...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  15. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  19. Detection of classical enterotoxins and identification of enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus from milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Morandi, S; Brasca, M; Lodi, R; Cremonesi, P; Castiglioni, B

    2007-09-20

    Milk and dairy products are frequently contaminated with enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, which is often involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. The distribution of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) in S. aureus isolated from bovine, goat, sheep and buffalo milk and dairy products was verified by the presence of the corresponding SE production. A total of 112 strains of S. aureus were tested for SE production by immuno-enzymatic (SEA-SEE) and reversed passive latex agglutination (SEA-SED) methods, while multiplex-PCR was applied for SE genes (sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej and sel). Of the total strains studied, 67% were detected to have some SE genes (se), but only 52% produced a detectable amount of the classic antigenic SE types. The bovine isolates frequently had enterotoxin SEA, SED and sej, while SEC and sel predominated in the goat and sheep strains. The results demonstrated (i) marked enterotoxigenic S. aureus strain variations, in accordance with strain origin and (ii) the two methods resulted in different information but concurred on the risk of foodstuff infection by S. aureus.

  20. The Distribution of 18 Enterotoxin and Enterotoxin-Like Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Different Sources in East China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinghua; Wang, Yan; Cao, Yongzhong; Yan, Wenguang; Niu, Xiaosai; Zhou, Liping; Chen, Jianhao; Sun, Ying; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yantao

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) or SE-like (SEl) genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains from different sources in east China was investigated. Among all 496 S. aureus strains, 291 strains carried one or more SE genes. The more frequently occurred genes were sea, seb, seg, selk, sell, selm, selo, and seq; the less frequent occurred genes were sec, selj, and ser. The classic SE genes and the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) (seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, and/or selu) accounted for 25.67% and 61.68% of all detected genes, respectively. There were three gene clusters (egc, sea-sek-seq, and sed-sej-ser), of which the egc cluster was the important one that could generate novel complexes, and the sea-sek-seq cluster was a close relative to the hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The SE gene distributions were different among strains of different sources and formed diverse toxin gene profiles. The human- and foodborne-origin strains harbored classic and novel SE and SEl genes, whereas animal-origin strains harbored egc and other novel SE and SEl genes mainly. The foodborne- and human-origin strains were the main dangerous factors of classic staphylococcal foodborne poisoning, whereas the strains (especially from animals) that carried egc and other novel genes mainly should be new potential dangerous factors for food safety.

  1. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques; Bompangue, Didier; Abedi, Aaron Aruna; Koivogui, Lamine; Keita, Sakoba; Garnotel, Eric; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Ruimy, Raymond; Thomson, Nicholas; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Background Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. Conclusions/Significance To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates. PMID:26110870

  2. Cost-effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population at risk for epidemic cholera and in a population with endemic cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J.; McFarland, D. A.; Waldman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent large epidemics of cholera with high incidence and associated mortality among refugees have raised the question of whether oral cholera vaccines should be considered as an additional preventive measure in high-risk populations. The potential impact of oral cholera vaccines on populations prone to seasonal endemic cholera has also been questioned. This article reviews the potential cost-effectiveness of B-subunit, killed whole-cell (BS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population and in a population with endemic cholera. In the population at risk for endemic cholera, mass vaccination with BS-WC vaccine is the least cost-effective intervention compared with the provision of safe drinking-water and sanitation or with treatment of the disease. In a refugee population at risk for epidemic disease, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination is similar to that of providing safe drinking-water and sanitation alone, though less cost-effective than treatment alone or treatment combined with the provision of water and sanitation. The implications of these data for public health decision-makers and programme managers are discussed. There is a need for better information on the feasibility and costs of administering oral cholera vaccine in refugee populations and populations with endemic cholera. PMID:9803585

  3. Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria.

  4. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions.

  5. Outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Hemanta; Ray, Nivedita; Chowdhury, Goutam; Barman, Soumik; Mitra, Soma; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Sarkar, B L; Katyal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep; Panda, Samiran; Ghosh, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cholera struck Bihar, an Indian state, in August 2008 following a massive flood. Here we report the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from patients with diarrhea. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients with diarrhea who were admitted to medical camps or the hospital, and the strains were biochemically and serologically characterized. V. cholerae was isolated from 21 (65.6%) of 32 rectal swabs. Serological studies revealed that all the 21 isolates belonged to V. cholerae O1 Ogawa. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR showed that the isolates belonged to El Tor variant group, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) proved that these isolates were of a different lineage than the conventional El Tor variant strains. These isolates were resistant to several drugs, including ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and furazolidone. The uniqueness of the current report arises from the fact that records of cholera in Bihar are availiable for the early 1960s but not for the next 4 decades. Moreover, the present study is the first to report a cholera outbreak in Bihar that was caused by an El Tor variant strain.

  6. Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Saka, Hector Alex; Chinen, Isabel; Zoppino, Felipe C. M.; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Bocco, Jose Luis; Colombo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Autophagy is the unique, regulated mechanism for the degradation of organelles. This intracellular process acts as a prosurvival pathway during cell starvation or stress and is also involved in cellular response against specific bacterial infections. Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive intestinal pathogen that has been studied extensively as the causative agent of the human disease cholera. V. cholerae illness is produced primarily through the expression of a potent toxin (cholera toxin) within the human intestine. Besides cholera toxin, this bacterium secretes a hemolytic exotoxin termed V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) that causes extensive vacuolation in epithelial cells. In this work, we explored the relationship between the vacuolation caused by VCC and the autophagic pathway. Treatment of cells with VCC increased the punctate distribution of LC3, a feature indicative of autophagosome formation. Moreover, VCC-induced vacuoles colocalized with LC3 in several cell lines, including human intestinal Caco-2 cells, indicating the interaction of the large vacuoles with autophagic vesicles. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the vacuoles caused by VCC presented hallmarks of autophagosomes. Additionally, biochemical evidence demonstrated the degradative nature of the VCC-generated vacuoles. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition resulted in decreased survival of Caco-2 cells upon VCC intoxication. Also, VCC failed to induce vacuolization in Atg5−/− cells, and the survival response of these cells against the toxin was dramatically impaired. These results demonstrate that autophagy acts as a cellular defense pathway against secreted bacterial toxins. PMID:17267617

  7. Colony immunoblot assay for the detection of hemolysin BL enterotoxin producing Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Moravek, Maximilian; Wegscheider, Monika; Schulz, Anja; Dietrich, Richard; Bürk, Christine; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2004-09-01

    Bacillus cereus strains involved in food poisoning cases of the diarrheal type may produce two different enterotoxin complexes. To facilitate the identification of hemolysin BL-enterotoxin complex (HBL) and/or the nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) producing colonies a colony immunoblot procedure was developed, which allows a fast and easy identification of the respective colonies from blood agar plates. The enterotoxins were transferred from the blood agar medium to a nitrocellulose membrane and the immobilized toxins were probed with monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies 2A3 and 1A8 allowed the specific detection of the B component of HBL and the nheA component of NHE. The assay enabled the reliable identification of HBL expressing colonies and differentiation from NHE producing but HBL negative colonies.

  8. Characterization of a parasporal inclusion body from sporulating, enterotoxin-positive Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, A; Labbé, R

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion bodies (IB) synthesized during sporulation and enterotoxin formation by Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8239 and 8798 were isolated and characterized. IB were isolated by disruption of sporangia by sonication in the presence of tetrasodium EDTA and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Fractionation was carried out in a linear gradient of sodium bromide, sucrose, or diatrizoate sodium. Denaturing and reducing agents were necessary to solubilize the IB. An alkylating agent was required to prevent reaggregation of the subunits. Molecular weight, compositional, and serological analyses and peptide mapping revealed strong similarities between the IB subunits and the enterotoxin synthesized during sporulation by C. perfringens. IB appear to represent the structural component where overproduced enterotoxin accumulates intracellularly. Enterotoxin-like subunits in the IB appeared to be held together by noncovalent and disulfide bonds, which were generally resistant to the action of intracellular proteases of C. perfringens, trypsin, or trypsin plus bile salts. Images PMID:2867991

  9. Plesiomonas shigelloides exports a lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE) by membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Luciano Moura; Bianco, Juares Ednaldo Romero; Andrade, Célia Guadalupe Tardelli de Jesus; Falcon, Rosabel; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Yano, Tomomasa

    Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from water in Brazil was previously described as a hemorrhagic heat-labile cytotoxic-enterotoxin producer. We purified this toxin from culture supernatants using ion metallic affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by molecular exclusion chromatography. The pure toxin presented molecular mass of 50kDa and isoelectric point (pI) around 6.9 by 2D electrophoresis. When injected intravenously, the purified cytotoxic-enterotoxin induced also severe spasms followed by sudden death of mice. Hence, we entitled it as lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE). The presence of membrane vesicles (MVs) on cell surfaces of P. shigelloides was observed by scan electron microscopy (SEM). From these MVs the LCE toxin was extracted and confirmed by biological and serological assays. These data suggest that P. shigelloides also exports this cytotoxic-enterotoxin by membrane vesicles, a different mechanism of delivering extra cellular virulence factors, so far not described in this bacterium.

  10. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A. castellanii. The interaction between A. castellanii and V. cholerae strains was studied by means of amoeba cell counts, viable counts of the bacteria in the absence or presence of amoebae, and of the intracellularly growing bacteria, visualised by electron microscopy. These results show that all V. cholerae can grow and survive outside and inside the amoebae, disclosing that V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 all can be considered as facultative intracellular bacteria. PMID:27118300

  11. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  12. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen diagnosed on radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, Sara Melboucy; Archambaud, Frédérique; Prigent, Alain; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) is ectopic splenic tissue distinct from the main spleen. A 46-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C, presented in 2006 with low right chest pain which led to a diagnosis of tuberculosis pleurisy. CT scan and MRI showed a round, homogenous, well limited mass of 3cm in the pancreas tail. Tc-99m heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy with SPECT-CT was performed to confirm the diagnosis of IPAS. Most cases of IPAS described in the literature were diagnosed by pathologists after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy performed for a suspicion of pancreatic tumor. However, heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy remains the most commonly used diagnostic procedure for IPAS, even if superparamagnetic iron oxide MRI contrast agent may be used in the future.

  13. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  14. Cholera vaccine field trials in East Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, A. S.; Joseph, P. R.; Oseasohn, R. O.

    1968-01-01

    Double-blind controlled cholera-vaccine trials were carried out in rural East Pakistan in 1963 and 1964. Pretrial studies indicated that a whole-cell cholera vaccine of high mouse protective potency, at a dose of 0.5 ml, produced an antibody response and reaction pattern consistent with use in such trials. A purified Ogawa antigen, given at a dose of 100 μg, elicited no adverse reactions and evoked both agglutinating and vibriocidal antibodies against both Inaba and Ogawa test suspensions. In the field, adverse reactions to the cholera vaccines occurred primarily among adults and were observed with both the whole-cell preparation and the purified Ogawa antigen. At the dose used in the field trials (0.4 ml), the reactions elicited by the whole-cell vaccine were acceptable to the population and no more marked than those following the locally prepared typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine. Delayed reactions to the whole-cell cholera vaccine were observed beginning 4 to 7 days after the vaccine was administered; the bulk of them (60%) did not interfere with work at any time; all resolved promptly; and none developed fluctuation or was associated with abscess formation. PMID:5302328

  15. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  16. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  17. Cholera: Environmental Reservoirs and Impact on Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    ALMAGRO-MORENO, SALVADOR; TAYLOR, RONALD K.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is widely known to be the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. Cholera remains a major scourge in many developing countries, infecting hundreds of thousands every year. Remarkably, V. cholerae is a natural inhabitant of brackish riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, and only a subset of strains are known to be pathogenic to humans. Recent studies have begun to uncover a very complex network of relationships between V. cholerae and other sea dwellers, and the mechanisms associated with the occurrence of seasonal epidemics in regions where cholera is endemic are beginning to be elucidated. Many of the factors required for the organism’s survival and persistence in its natural environment have been revealed, as well as the ubiquitous presence of horizontal gene transfer in the emergence of pathogenic strains of V. cholerae. In this article, we will focus on the environmental stage of pathogenic V. cholerae and the interactions of the microorganism with other inhabitants of aquatic environments. We will discuss the impact that its environmental reservoirs have on disease transmission and the distinction between reservoirs of V. cholerae and the vectors that establish cholera as a zoonosis. PMID:25674360

  18. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  19. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V

  20. Screening, detection, and serotyping methods for toxin genes and enterotoxins in Staphylococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Hait, Jennifer M; Tallent, Sandra M; Bennett, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus continues to play a significant role in foodborne outbreak investigations, with numerous individuals sickened each year after ingesting assorted foods contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of several methods for the screening, detection, and enterotoxin serotyping of staphylococcal bacterial strains for classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE) and the newly described SE and SE-like enterotoxin genes (seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser, ses, set, and seu). Inclusivity and exclusivity panels of staphylococcal strains were tested using a multiplex PCR method in addition to three polyvalent commercially prepared ELISA systems for the detection of SEA-SEE and one monovalent assay for the identification of classical SE serotypes. The results indicate an overall agreement between serological detection methods with a few exceptions, and molecular characterization identified an abundance of SE and SE-like enterotoxin genes including several potentially enterotoxigenic isolates that would have otherwise been missed by ELISA-based methods. These findings demonstrate the significance of PCR for future screening purposes and the use of ELISA systems for the detection and enterotoxin serotyping of staphylococcal bacterial strains.

  1. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  2. Detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin B using an automated fiber optic biosensor.

    PubMed

    King, K D; Anderson, G P; Bullock, K E; Regina, M J; Saaski, E W; Ligler, F S

    1999-02-01

    The Man-portable Analyte Identification System (MANTIS), the first fully automated, self-contained, portable fiber optic biosensor, was utilized for the detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB), a bacterial toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that commonly causes food poisoning. Because of its remarkable toxicity and stability, SEB is considered a prime threat as a biological weapon of mass destruction. The assay for SEB was used to evaluate the MANTIS' ability to function in the presence of various environmental interferents. The sensor could reliably detect SEB spiked into liquid samples containing a variety of smoke particles. However, substantial interference occurred when SEB was mixed into matrices capable of adsorbing SEB, such as 1% solutions of clay, topsoil, or pollen. Of equal importance, none of the interferents produced false positives in the MANTIS. The MANTIS demonstrated the capability to perform simultaneous immunoassays rapidly in the field with little or no user intervention.

  3. Effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin A on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Beery, J T; Taylor, S L; Schlunz, L R; Freed, R C; Bergdoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was administered orally (15 micrograms) to two groups of rats. A marked immune reaction was evoked in the stomach and proximal small intestine of the first group. The second group of rats was used to study the absorptive fate and sites of action of orally administered SEA, utilizing immunoperoxidase staining. After oral dosing of the second group of rats. SEA-related immunoperoxidase staining was confined to: (i) neutrophils and macrophages, principally in the duodenum, and (ii) glomerular neutrophils and cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. Peroxidase staining of the kidney was noted within 15 min of exposure, indicating that SEA or some major postabsorption antigenic product can promptly pass through an intact gastrointestinal mucous membrane and become renally localized. Intestinal and renal detoxification and removal was indicated by an absence of detectable antigen in rats 180 min postexposure. Neuronal binding of SEA in the gastrointestinal tract was not demonstrable. Images PMID:6370862

  4. Mutations defining functional regions of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is both a superantigen and toxin. As a superantigen, SEB can bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to form a ligand for alpha/beta T cell receptors bearing particular V beta elements. As a toxin, SEB causes rapid weight loss in mice sometimes leading to death. We show here that both of these functions map to the NH2-terminal portion of the toxin. Three regions were identified: one important in MHC class II binding, one in T cell recognition, and one in both functions. These results support the conclusion that the toxicity of SEB is related to massive T cell stimulation and release of cytokine mediators and show that the residues interacting with MHC and the T cell receptor are intertwined. PMID:1370682

  5. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B Effects in Vitro: A Potential Protein Therapeutic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    involved in numerous human/animal diseases that include skin-linked maladies such as cutaneous anthrax, carbuncles, impetigo, and scalded-skin...contrast to Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin, which activates host adenylate cyclase, intracellular amounts of cAMP elicited by B. anthracis edema toxin rise...increase TNF- levels from PBMC. Such results are also similar to those previously reported for mouse macrophages with ele- vated cAMP due to cholera

  6. An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2013-01-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (107 CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼109 CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6–18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V

  7. An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera.

    PubMed

    Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2013-06-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (10(7) CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼10(9) CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6-18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V

  8. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    PubMed

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea.

  9. Rugose atypical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor responsible for 2009 cholera outbreak in India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Bhadra, Rupak K; Bag, Satyabrata; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Das, Bhabatosh; Basu, Pallabi; Nagamani, K; Nandy, Ranjan K; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera outbreaks in endemic regions where the water quality and sanitation facilities remain poor. Apart from biotype and serotype changes, V. cholerae undergoes phase variation, which results in the generation of two morphologically different variants termed smooth and rugose. In this study, 12 rugose (R-VC) and 6 smooth (S-VC) V. cholerae O1 Ogawa isolates were identified in a cholera outbreak that occurred in Hyderabad, India. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that all the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. In addition, R-VC isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (92 %), streptomycin (92 %), erythromycin (83 %), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (75 %) and tetracycline (75 %). Based on the ctxB gene analysis, all the isolates were identified as El Tor variant with mutation in two positions of ctxB, similar to the classical biotype. The R-VC isolates specifically showed excessive biofilm formation and were comparatively less motile. In addition, the majority of these isolates (~83 %) displayed random mutations in the hapR gene, which encodes haemagglutinin protease regulatory protein. In the PFGE analysis, R-VC and S-VC were placed in distinct clusters but remained clonally related. In the ribotyping analysis, all the R-VC isolates exhibited R-III pattern, which is a prevailing type among the current El Tor isolates. A hapR deletion mutant generated using an S-VC isolate expressed rugose phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of rugose V. cholerae O1 in a large cholera outbreak with extended antimicrobial resistance and random mutations in the haemagglutinin protease regulatory protein encoding gene (hapR).

  10. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera

    PubMed Central

    Hatzios, Stavroula K.; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Davis, Brigid M.; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human cholera stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, while genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance and binding of an intestinal lectin—intelectin—to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialogue in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  11. Expression and secretion of cholera toxin B subunit in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Takahiro; Kashige, Nobuhiro; Satho, Tomomitsu; Irie, Keiichi; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Sharmin, Tanjina; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Uyeda, Saori; Yamada, Seitaro; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Miyata, Takeshi; Arakawa, Takeshi; Imoto, Masumi; Toda, Akihisa; Nakashima, Yukihiko; Miake, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in various fields, including in food and medical supplies. There has been a great deal of research into vaccine development using LAB as carriers due to their "generally recognized as safe" status. Cholera is an infectious disease that causes diarrhea due to cholera toxin (CT) produced by Vibrio cholerae. The pentameric cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has no toxicity, and is used as an antigen in cholera vaccines and as a delivery molecule in vaccines to various diseases. In this study, we generated recombinant LAB expressing and secreting CTB. Here, we first report that CTB expressed and secreted from LAB bound to GM1 ganglioside. The secreted CTB was purified, and its immunogenicity was determined by intranasal administration into mice. The results of the present study suggested that it may be useful as the basis of a new oral cholera vaccine combining LAB and CTB.

  12. Cholera toxin structure, gene regulation and pathophysiological and immunological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Holmgren, J

    2008-05-01

    Many notions regarding the function, structure and regulation of cholera toxin expression have remained essentially unaltered in the last 15 years. At the same time, recent findings have generated additional perspectives. For example, the cholera toxin genes are now known to be carried by a non-lytic bacteriophage, a previously unsuspected condition. Understanding of how the expression of cholera toxin genes is controlled by the bacterium at the molecular level has advanced significantly and relationships with cell-density-associated (quorum-sensing) responses have recently been discovered. Regarding the cell intoxication process, the mode of entry and intracellular transport of cholera toxin are becoming clearer. In the immunological field, the strong oral immunogenicity of the non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has been exploited in the development of a now widely licensed oral cholera vaccine. Additionally, CTB has been shown to induce tolerance against co-administered (linked) foreign antigens in some autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  13. Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam in 2007 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Minh; Lee, Je Hee; Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Choi, Seon Young; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Anh, Dang Duc; Lee, Hye Ri; Ansaruzzaman, M; Endtz, Hubert P; Chun, Jongsik; Lopez, Anna Lena; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Clemens, John D; Kim, Dong Wook

    2009-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected during cholera outbreaks occurring from late 2007 to early 2008 in northern Vietnam were revealed to represent an altered strain containing the RS1 element followed by a CTX prophage harboring El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome.

  14. Successful treatment of accessory breast cancer with endocrine therapy#

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na

    2017-01-01

    Accessory breast cancers in males are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. In this paper, an 87-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast cancer by means of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and immunohistochemistry based on needle biopsy, and has undergone successful resection and postoperative adjuvant endocrine therapy. He was the oldest male patient with an accessory breast cancer reported in the Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database and PubMed literature from 1975 to 2015. PMID:28070998

  15. Fish as reservoirs and vectors of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Senderovich, Yigal; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2010-01-06

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments, but despite intensive efforts its ecology remains an enigma. Recently, it was suggested that copepods and chironomids, both considered as natural reservoirs of V. cholerae, are dispersed by migratory waterbirds, thus possibly distributing the bacteria between water bodies within and between continents. Although fish have been implicated in the scientific literature with cholera cases, as far as we know, no study actually surveyed the presence of the bacteria in the fish. Here we show for the first time that fish of various species and habitats contain V. cholerae in their digestive tract. Fish (n = 110) were randomly sampled from freshwater and marine habitats in Israel. Ten different fish species sampled from freshwater habitats (lake, rivers and fish ponds), and one marine species, were found to carry V. cholerae. The fish intestine of Sarotherodon galilaeus harboured ca. 5 x 10(3)V. cholerae cfu per 1 gr intestine content-high rates compared with known V. cholerae cfu numbers in the bacteria's natural reservoirs. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest that fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae. As fish carrying the bacteria swim from one location to another (some fish species move from rivers to lakes or sea and vice versa), they serve as vectors on a small scale. Nevertheless, fish are consumed by waterbirds, which disseminate the bacteria on a global scale. Moreover, V. cholerae isolates had the ability to degrade chitin, indicating a commensal relationship between V. cholerae and fish. Better understanding of V. cholerae ecology can help reduce the times that human beings come into contact with this pathogen and thus minimize the health risk this poses.

  16. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated during cholera outbreaks in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, A; Mortensen, H F; Mølbak, K; Dias, F; Serichantalergs, O; Echeverria, P

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, 19 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolated during outbreaks of cholera in Guinea-Bissau in 1987, 1994, and 1995 were characterized to investigate a possible epidemiological relationship among the isolates. On the basis of ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI, 5 strains isolated in 1987 showed two closely related ribotypes, while 14 strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 showed the same ribotype that was distinct from the ribotypes of strains isolated in 1987. Southern blot hybridization of BglI-digested genomic DNA with a cholera toxin probe demonstrated that the strains isolated in 1987 showed an identical cholera toxin genotype, whereas O1 strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 showed the same genotype that was distinct from the genotype of strains isolated in 1987. These results were supported by the results of antibiotic susceptibility testing, in which strains isolated in 1987 showed resistance to polymyxin B only, while each of the strains from 1994 and 1995 showed resistance to polymyxin B, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the vibriostatic agent O/129. Although our results are based on a limited number of V. cholerae O1 strains, they suggest that the epidemic in Guinea-Bissau in 1994 and 1995 was due to the introduction of a new strain to the country. PMID:8727901

  17. When, how, and where can oral cholera vaccines be used to interrupt cholera outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Clemens, John; Holmgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health problem, at times causing major and prolonged outbreaks in both endemic and nonendemic settings in developing countries. While improved water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) will provide the ultimate solution to prevention of this disease burden, this is a far-off goal for most developing countries. Oral cholera vaccines cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been demonstrated to be effective in the control of cholera outbreaks, and constitute useful tools to be used in conjunction with efforts to improve WASH. Two killed OCVs are prequalified by WHO for purchase by UN agencies for international use. Recently, WHO has launched a global stockpile stockpile of killed OCVs for use to control outbreaks. Rational deployment of OCV from this stockpile will require consideration of costs, feasibility, disease epidemiology epidemiology , and the protective characteristics of the vaccine deployed, as well as effective and rapid coordination of processes and logistics logistics used to make decisions on deployment and delivery of the vaccine to the population in need. Despite not having data on all the questions of relevance as to how to use OCVs to control cholera outbreaks in different settings, there is clearly more than enough evidence to initiate their use, as answers to remaining questions and refinement of policies will mainly come with experience.

  18. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Djomassi, L Dempouo; Gessner, Bradford D; Andze, G Ondobo; Mballa, G A Etoundi

    2013-11-01

    Background. The cholera burden in Cameroon has increased during the past 2 decades. During 2010 and 2011, the largest number of cholera cases in Cameroon since February 1971 were reported. This article describes cholera outbreaks during 2010-2011. Methods. Data received from the national surveillance system from 2010 and 2011 were compiled and analyzed. Results. The first suspected cholera cases were reported in the Far North region on 6 May 2010. In 2010, 10 759 cholera cases were reported by 8 of the 10 regions in the country, with 657 deaths (case-fatality ratio [CFR], 6.1%). In 2011, through September 22, 17 121 suspected cholera cases, including 636 deaths (CFR, 3.7%), were reported all over the country. During 2010, the Far North region accounted for 87.6% of cases (9421/10 759) and 91.6% of deaths (602/657) recorded. By contrast, during 2011, 5 regions (Far North, North, Center, Southwest, and Littoral) accounted for 90.6% of cases (15 511/17 121) and 84.0% of deaths recorded. Vibrio cholerae was identified in 525 stool specimens, and all organisms were serogroup O1. Conclusions. The ongoing cholera outbreak in Cameroon increased in intensity and geographic spread from 2010 to 2011. Nevertheless, the overall CFR decreased during this period. Strengthening the early warning system and enhancing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and sensitization should be considered in addressing cholera outbreaks.

  19. Modern Cholera in the Americas: An Opportunistic Societal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Americas, the only two cholera epidemics of the past century have occurred in the past 25 years. Lessons from the 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic can help to focus and refine the response to the current Haitian epidemic. After three years of acute epidemic response, we have an opportunity to refocus on the chronic conditions that make societies vulnerable to cholera. More importantly, even as international attention wanes in the aftermath of the earthquake and acute epidemic, we are faced with a need for continued and coordinated investment in improving Haiti’s structural defenses against cholera, in particular access to improved water and sanitation. PMID:24028256

  20. Modern cholera in the Americas: an opportunistic societal infection.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Rodrigo; Lee, Patrick T

    2013-11-01

    In the Americas, the only two cholera epidemics of the past century have occurred in the past 25 years. Lessons from the 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic can help to focus and refine the response to the current Haitian epidemic. After three years of acute epidemic response, we have an opportunity to refocus on the chronic conditions that make societies vulnerable to cholera. More importantly, even as international attention wanes in the aftermath of the earthquake and acute epidemic, we are faced with a need for continued and coordinated investment in improving Haiti's structural defenses against cholera, in particular access to improved water and sanitation.

  1. Transmission dynamics of cholera: Mathematical modeling and control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Xie, Jun-Hui; Huang, Sheng-He; Jin, Zhen; Li, Ming-Tao; Liu, Liqun

    2017-04-01

    Cholera, as an endemic disease around the world, has generated great threat to human society and caused enormous morbidity and mortality with weak surveillance system. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model to describe the transmission of Cholera. Moreover, basic reproduction number and the global dynamics of the dynamical model are obtained. Then we apply our model to characterize the transmission process of Cholera in China. It was found that, in order to avoid its outbreak in China, it may be better to increase immunization coverage rate and make effort to improve environmental management especially for drinking water. Our results may provide some new insights for elimination of Cholera.

  2. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid of a trocar and cannula. The device is used to pass fluids to and from the urinary...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid of a trocar and cannula. The device is used to pass fluids to and from the urinary...

  5. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  6. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions, and that consists of a peritoneal access device, an administration set...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  14. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body.

  15. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  16. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  17. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  18. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    PubMed

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8.

  19. Cholera: a continuous epidemic in Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, A; Patric, K

    2002-06-01

    Cholera continues to plague many parts of the world, but has largely been concentrated in Africa, which contributes more than 80% of the total cases worldwide. Natural disasters, like the 2000 floods in Mozambique and the volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2002, generally lead to new outbreaks of the disease. The refugee problem in many countries throughout the world also causes potential threats for disease outbreaks. Case fatality rates are high, and we are not anywhere near curbing new cholera epidemics, especially in Africa. It is thus imperative to renew discussions about the nature of this deadly disease, its treatment, measures for prevention and control, modes of transmission, its physical, social and economic impact, and potential solutions.

  20. Origins of the current seventh cholera pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalong; Liu, Bin; Feng, Lu; Ding, Peng; Guo, Xi; Wang, Min; Cao, Boyang; Reeves, Peter R; Wang, Lei

    2016-11-29

    Vibrio cholerae has caused seven cholera pandemics since 1817, imposing terror on much of the world, but bacterial strains are currently only available for the sixth and seventh pandemics. The El Tor biotype seventh pandemic began in 1961 in Indonesia, but did not originate directly from the classical biotype sixth-pandemic strain. Previous studies focused mainly on the spread of the seventh pandemic after 1970. Here, we analyze in unprecedented detail the origin, evolution, and transition to pandemicity of the seventh-pandemic strain. We used high-resolution comparative genomic analysis of strains collected from 1930 to 1964, covering the evolution from the first available El Tor biotype strain to the start of the seventh pandemic. We define six stages leading to the pandemic strain and reveal all key events. The seventh pandemic originated from a nonpathogenic strain in the Middle East, first observed in 1897. It subsequently underwent explosive diversification, including the spawning of the pandemic lineage. This rapid diversification suggests that, when first observed, the strain had only recently arrived in the Middle East, possibly from the Asian homeland of cholera. The lineage migrated to Makassar, Indonesia, where it gained the important virulence-associated elements Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I), VSP-II, and El Tor type cholera toxin prophage by 1954, and it then became pandemic in 1961 after only 12 additional mutations. Our data indicate that specific niches in the Middle East and Makassar were important in generating the pandemic strain by providing gene sources and the driving forces for genetic events.

  1. [Isolation and significance of Vibrio cholera NAG].

    PubMed

    Piantieri, G; Pedersoli, G; Cafarelli, A; Bossi, G; Bignamini, M L

    1982-01-01

    After the isolation of two Vibrio cholerae NAG from the stools of two tourists, the authors researched Vibrio in people coming home from particular countries and in resident people. The research was extended to the water of Varese lake after another isolation from a fisher who had fished, cooked and eaten the lake fish. Problems concerning the classification of Vibrio and their presence in the environment are examined.

  2. Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-11-16

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor.

  3. The role of food in the epidemiology of cholera.

    PubMed

    Albert, M J; Neira, M; Motarjemi, Y

    1997-01-01

    Cholera is an acute dehydrating diarrhoeal disease, traditionally caused by vibrio cholerae O1, and also more recently by V. cholerae O139 (Bengal). Traditionally, water was recognized as the primary vehicle for transmission of cholera, but in the past 30 years, outbreaks of cholera associated with eating contaminated food have demonstrated that food also plays an important role, although in many instances water is the source of contamination of foods. Most commonly associated with cholera is seafood, both molluscan shellfish and crustaceans. Seafood may be contaminated in its natural environment or during preparation. Other food items associated with outbreaks are fruit and vegetables, meat, cooked grains, etc. Vegetables are usually contaminated by contact with sewage in soil and fruits when injected with contaminated water to increase weight and turgor. Food items initially free from V. cholerae organism may become contaminated when mixed with water, or other contaminated food, or through handling by infected persons who have not observed proper hygiene. Refrigeration, freezing, alkaline pH, high concentration of carbohydrate, humidity and absence of competing flora enhance the survival of V. cholerae in food. Survival of V. cholerae is shorter in food with acidic pH. Foodborne cholera can be averted by the hygienic preparation of food and its consumption. However, since the vehicles of transmission vary markedly from place to place, being affected by local customs and practices, selected control and preventive measures that are most important locally must be implemented. To this end, application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system to food preparation is essential in order to identify the practices which may present a risk. Restrictions on importation of foods which do not present a risk of being contaminated from areas where cholera is endemic is not warranted.

  4. Spatially explicit modelling of cholera epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, F.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Knox, A. C.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models can provide crucial understanding about the dynamics of infectious diseases. Possible applications range from real-time forecasting and allocation of health care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. We apply a spatially explicit model to the cholera epidemic that struck Haiti in October 2010 and is still ongoing. The dynamics of susceptibles as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic infectives are modelled at the scale of local human communities. Dissemination of Vibrio cholerae through hydrological transport and human mobility along the road network is explicitly taken into account, as well as the effect of rainfall as a driver of increasing disease incidence. The model is calibrated using a dataset of reported cholera cases. We further model the long term impact of several types of interventions on the disease dynamics by varying parameters appropriately. Key epidemiological mechanisms and parameters which affect the efficiency of treatments such as antibiotics are identified. Our results lead to conclusions about the influence of different intervention strategies on the overall epidemiological dynamics.

  5. Synthetic multivalent ligands for cholera & cholera-like toxins: Protected cyclic neoglycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vajinder; Yadav, Narender; Kartha, K P Ravindranathan

    2016-08-05

    Synthesis of a set of novel glycopeptide analogues as potential cholera/cholera-like toxin inhibitors in their protected form is described. They include di-, tri-, tetra- and pentavalent scaffolds. The synthetic steps were achieved using a combination of solvent-free mechanochemical as well as the conventional solution-phase reactions. During the conventional DIC-HOBt-mediated peptide coupling followed for the preparation of certain glycopeptide analogues an interesting in situ Fmoc deprotection was observed which has been demonstrated to hold potential for synthesiszing glycopeptides/neoglycopeptides with extended polyamide chains.

  6. The Vaccine Candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 Is Protective against Cholera in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    García, Luis; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; García, Hilda; Rodríguez, Boris L.; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Suzarte, Edith; Ramírez, Margarita; Pino, Yadira; Campos, Javier; Menéndez, Jorge; Valera, Rodrigo; González, Daniel; González, Irma; Pérez, Oliver; Serrano, Teresita; Lastre, Miriam; Miralles, Fernando; del Campo, Judith; Maestre, Jorge Luis; Pérez, José Luis; Talavera, Arturo; Pérez, Antonio; Marrero, Karen; Ledón, Talena; Fando, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 638 is a living candidate cholera vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the CTXΦ prophage from C7258 (O1, El Tor Ogawa) and by insertion of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A gene into the hemagglutinin/protease coding sequence. This vaccine candidate was previously found to be well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers. This article reports a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to test short-term protection conferred by 638 against subsequent V. cholerae infection and disease in volunteers in Cuba. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. The vaccine contained 109 CFU of freshly harvested 638 buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3, while the placebo was buffer alone. After vaccine but not after placebo intake, 96% of volunteers had at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers, and 50% showed a doubling of at least the lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A titers in serum. At 1 month after vaccination, five volunteers from the vaccine group and five from the placebo group underwent an exploratory challenge study with 109 CFU of ΔCTXΦ attenuated mutant strain V. cholerae 81. Only two volunteers from the vaccine group shed strain 81 in their feces, but none of them experienced diarrhea; in the placebo group, all volunteers excreted the challenge strain, and three had reactogenic diarrhea. An additional 12 vaccinees and 9 placebo recipients underwent challenge with 7 × 105 CFU of virulent strain V. cholerae 3008 freshly harvested from a brain heart infusion agar plate and buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3. Three volunteers (25%) from the vaccine group and all from the placebo group shed the challenge agent in their feces. None of the 12 vaccinees but 7 volunteers from the placebo group had diarrhea, and 2 of the latter exhibited severe cholera (>5,000 g of diarrheal stool). These results indicate that at 1 month after ingestion of a single oral dose (109 CFU) of strain

  7. A large cholera outbreak due to a new cholera toxin variant of the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype in Orissa, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Jain, M; Goel, A K; Bhadauria, S; Sharma, S K; Kamboj, D V; Singh, L; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G B

    2009-02-01

    A total of 32 Vibrio cholerae isolates were collected during a recent large cholera outbreak in Eastern India. Biochemical and serological studies revealed that all of the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa. Two multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of various toxigenic and pathogenic genes - ace, ctxAB, hlyA, ompU, ompW, rfbO1, rtx, tcp, toxR and zot - in all of the isolates. Sequencing of the ctxB gene from the isolates revealed a novel mutation in the gene. Sequencing also confirmed the presence of altered cholera toxin B of the classical biotype in all of the El Tor isolates, suggesting infection of isolates by classical CTXPhi. The molecular diversity of V. cholerae isolates studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR, BOX-PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis uniformly showed the clonal relationship among the outbreak V. cholerae O1 isolates. The results of this study suggest that cholera-causing V. cholerae strains are constantly evolving in epidemic areas, highlighting the potential of the emergence of more virulent strains.

  8. Modeling the effect of water activity, pH, and temperature on the probability of enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a foodborne pathogen widespread in the environment and found in various food products. This pathogen can produce enterotoxins that cause illnesses in humans. The objectives of this study were to develop a probability model of S. aureus enterotoxin production as affected by w...

  9. CD154 as a potential early molecular biomarker for rapid quantification analysis of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen producing a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities, They cause gastroenteritis, and they function as a superantigens that activate large numbers of T cells. In the current stud...

  10. Distribution of classical enterotoxin genes in staphylococci from milk of cows with- and without mastitis and the cowshed environment.

    PubMed

    Piechota, M; Kot, B; Zdunek, E; Mitrus, J; Wicha, J; Wolska, M K; Sachanowicz, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze by PCR 185 isolates of Staphylococcus from milk of cows with- and without mastitis and from the cowsheds environment for their potential ability to produce five classical staphylococcal enterotoxins. Among S. aureus isolates 8 (32%) carried enterotoxin genes and only 2 of them had more than one gene. The enterotoxin genes were detected in 22 (13.7%) coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates, among them in 9 (11.4%) isolates of S. xylosus, 5 (16.7%) S. sciuri, 3 (10.3%) S. epidermidis and in 5 (22.7%) Staphylococcus spp. In some CNS 2 or 3 genes were detected simultaneously. Among the investigated enterotoxin genes, sec was the most prevalent (70%). The genes encoding enterotoxin B and D were detected in 5 (16.7%) and 6 (20%) isolates, respectively. The lowest number of isolates had sea and see genes. The genes encoding enterotoxins were often identified in staphylococci from milk of cows with mastitis (73.4% of detected genes), while only 6 (20%) isolates from milk of cows without mastitis and 2 (6.6%) isolates from cowshed environment were positive for enterotoxin genes. The results showed that CNS from bovine milk, like S. aureus, carried enterotoxin genes and may pose a risk for public health.

  11. Accessory Soleus: A Case Report of Exertional Compartment and Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Associated With an Accessory Soleus Muscle.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Scott C; Stone, Paul; Kruse, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    An accessory soleus muscle is a rare anatomic variant that frequently presents as an asymptomatic soft tissue swelling in the posteromedial ankle. Less frequently, the anomalous muscle can cause pain and swelling with activity. We present the case of a 17-year-old male with exertional compartment syndrome and associated tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary to a very large accessory soleus muscle. After surgical excision, the patient was able to return to full activity with complete resolution of symptoms.

  12. Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A, B, and C in Colloidal Dispersions1

    PubMed Central

    Woodburn, Margy; Morita, Toshiko N.; Venn, Sharon Zipperer

    1973-01-01

    Larger amounts of enterotoxin were produced when Staphylococcus aureus S-6 was grown under still (nonshaken) conditions in a medium that was a paste or gel than were produced in a liquid dispersion with the same colloidal ingredient or in control basal broth (4% NZ Amine-NAK containing 50 μg of thiamine per 100 ml and 1 mg of niacin per 100 ml). Four colloidal ingredients were used which had been previously demonstrated to not support enterotoxin production in buffer. The effect of the type of dispersion occurred earlier than that of the colloidal ingredient, but interactions were found. This effect was not observed when the cells were grown with aeration (shaken). Four other strains of S. aureus followed a similar pattern for enterotoxins A, B, and C, although liquid and paste with cornstarch and carrageenan were the only media compared to the control broth. Enterotoxins A and B were produced earlier by S. aureus S-6, and much greater quantities of enterotoxins were produced for all strains when incubated shaken. PMID:4197641

  13. Expression and production of staphylococcal enterotoxin C is substantially reduced in milk.

    PubMed

    Valihrach, Lukas; Alibayov, Babek; Zdenkova, Kamila; Demnerova, Katerina

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is a global problem. The gene encoding enterotoxin C (sec) has been reported several times as the most frequent enterotoxin gene identified in food poisoning cases caused by contaminated milk. In this study, the expression of sec was examined during the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in milk compared to routinely used laboratory media. Additionally, expression of several regulatory genes (sarA, saeS, codY, srrA, rot, hld, agrA, sigB) and other five enterotoxin genes (sea, seg, seh, sek, sel) were observed. It has been well established for that S. aureus is able to grow in milk and we found significantly reduced expression of sec in milk compared to the laboratory medium (P < 0.05). Here, we report the first study providing a comprehensive view on the expression of enterotoxin genes and its regulation in milk. The milk environment dramatically changed the expression profiles of several enterotoxin genes although staphylococcal growth was not affected at all. The mechanism of the reduction may be explained by downregulation of the agr system, although other factors are expected to be involved. The constituent of milk causing the inhibitory effect remains unidentified.

  14. Monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Wang, Wenbing; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Liqiang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-04-19

    A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established and validated for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). After routine fusion and selection, 10 monoclonal antibodies showed high affinity for SEA. An optimal pair for sandwich ELISA was selected by pairwise interaction analysis. After optimization, the limit of detection (LOD) and linear dynamic range of the method were established, and were found to be 0.0282 ng/mL and 0.06-2 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery in pure milk ranged from 82.67% to 111.95% and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 3.16% to 6.05% and from 5.16% to 10.79%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED), and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE) in this method were insignificant. These results indicate that the sandwich ELISA method developed in our study is effective for routine identification of SEA in food samples.

  15. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera.

  16. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C.; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004–2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004–2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 was Responsible for a Cholera Outbreak in 2013 in Bagalkot, North Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Roy, Subarna; Parande, Mahantesh V; Telsang, M; Seema, M H; Parande, Aisha V; Mantur, Basappa G

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a major cause of illness in the developing world. During the monsoon season, small sporadic clusters of cholera cases are reported on an annual basis in Karnataka, India. During the monsoons of 2013, there was a cholera outbreak in Badami, a remote area of Bagalkot district in Karnataka. The multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was found to be responsible for this outbreak. On 5 August 2013, a 30-year-old woman presented with severe dehydration and watery diarrhea at the Aganwadi Health Centre in Badami. A total of 49 suspected cholera cases were reported, with an attack rate of 3.5%. The V. cholerae isolates exhibited resistance to a wide range of drugs, including ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, carbenicillin, and third generation cephalosporins, and showed reduced susceptibility to third generation fluoroquinolones. All of the cephalosporin-resistant V. cholerae strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. All V. cholerae O1 isolates harbored virulent genes (ctxA, ctxB, tcpA El Tor, Tox S, VPI, ToxT, ToxR, ToxRS, ace, zot, and tcpP) and were found to be genetically similar as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cholera outbreak in the district of Bagalkot. The resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major public health concern in the region as clinicians are left with a limited choice of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera.

  18. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts.

  19. Multinational Cholera Outbreak after Wedding in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Suarez, Alba Jazmin Palmera; Meyer, Luis; Hiciano, Salvador; Newton, Anna; Morgan, Oliver; Then, Cecilia; Pimentel, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study of a cholera outbreak after a wedding in the Dominican Republic, January 22, 2011. Ill persons were more likely to report having consumed shrimp on ice (odds ratio 8.50) and ice cubes in beverages (odds ratio 3.62). Travelers to cholera-affected areas should avoid consuming uncooked seafood and untreated water. PMID:22204039

  20. Quorum Regulated Resistance of Vibrio cholerae against Environmental Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, M. Mozammel; Naser, Iftekhar Bin; Bari, S. M. Nayeemul; Zhu, Jun; Mekalanos, John J.; Faruque, Shah M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found that bacterial cell density-dependent gene expression termed “quorum sensing” which is regulated by signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) can protect V. cholerae against predatory phages. V. cholerae mutant strains carrying inactivated AI synthase genes were significantly more susceptible to multiple phages compared to the parent bacteria. Likewise when mixed cultures of phage and bacteria were supplemented with exogenous autoinducers CAI-1 or AI-2 produced by recombinant strains carrying cloned AI synthase genes, increased survival of V. cholerae and a decrease in phage titer was observed. Mutational analyses suggested that the observed effects of autoinducers are mediated in part through the quorum sensing-dependent production of haemaglutinin protease, and partly through downregulation of phage receptors. These results have implication in developing strategies for phage mediated control of cholera. PMID:27892495

  1. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  2. Malonate inhibits virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that inhibition of the TCA cycle, either through mutations or chemical inhibition, increased toxT transcription in Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we found that the addition of malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), decreased toxT transcription in V. cholerae, an observation inconsistent with the previous pattern observed. Unlike another SDH inhibitor, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which increased toxT transcription and slightly inhibited V. cholerae growth, malonate inhibited toxT transcription in both the wild-type strain and TCA cycle mutants, suggesting malonate-mediated inhibition of virulence gene expression is independent to TCA cycle activity. Addition of malonate also inhibited ctxB and tcpA expressions but did not affect aphA, aphB, tcpP and toxR expressions. Malonate inhibited cholera toxin (CT) production in both V. cholerae classical biotype strains O395N1 and CA401, and El Tor biotype strain, N16961. Consistent with previous reports, we confirmed that these strains of V. cholerae did not utilize malonate as a primary carbon source. However, we found that the addition of malonate to the growth medium stimulated V. cholerae growth. All together, these results suggest that metabolizing malonate as a nutrient source negatively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae.

  3. Satellite Water Impurity Marker (SWIM) for predicting seasonal cholera outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A. S.; Akanda, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prediction of outbreaks of cholera, a deadly water related disease, remains elusive. Since coastal brackish water provides a natural ecological niche for cholera bacteria and because a powerful evidence of new biotypes is emerging, it is highly unlikely that cholera will be fully eradicated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop cholera prediction model with several months' of lead time. Satellite based estimates of chlorophyll, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance, has been associated with proliferation of cholera bacteria. However, survival of cholera bacteria in a variety of coastal ecological environment put constraints on predictive abilities of chlorophyll algorithm since it only measures greenness in coastal waters. Here, we propose a new remote sensing reflectance based statistical index: Satellite Water Impurity Marker, or SWIM. This statistical index estimates impurity levels in the coastal waters and is based on the variability observed in the difference between the blue (412nm) and green (555nm) wavelengths in coastal waters. The developed index is bounded between clear and impure water and shows the ability to predict cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta with a predicted r2 of 78% with two months lead time. We anticipate that a predictive system based on SWIM will provide essential lead time allowing effective intervention and mitigation strategies to be developed for other cholera endemic regions of the world.

  4. Avian cholera and organochlorine residues in an American oystercatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera, was isolated from cultures of the liver and heart blood of a female, adult American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) found dead on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, in May 1973. This is apparently the first record of avian cholera in the oystercatcher. Low levels of DDE were identified in tissues of the oystercatcher.

  5. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  6. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed.

  7. Two common structural motifs for TCR recognition by staphylococcal enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Rödström, Karin E. J.; Regenthal, Paulina; Bahl, Christopher; Ford, Alex; Baker, David; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Superantigens are toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, called staphylococcal enterotoxins (abbreviated SEA to SEU). They can cross-link the T cell receptor (TCR) and major histocompatibility complex class II, triggering a massive T cell activation and hence disease. Due to high stability and toxicity, superantigens are potential agents of bioterrorism. Hence, antagonists may not only be useful in the treatment of disease but also serve as countermeasures to biological warfare. Of particular interest are inhibitors against SEA and SEB. SEA is the main cause of food poisoning, while SEB is a common toxin manufactured as a biological weapon. Here, we present the crystal structures of SEA in complex with TCR and SEE in complex with the same TCR, complemented with computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis of SEA, SEB, SEC3, SEE, and SEH. We have identified two common areas that contribute to the general TCR binding for these superantigens. This paves the way for design of single antagonists directed towards multiple toxins. PMID:27180909

  8. The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor claudins.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Archana; Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has significant medical importance due to its involvement in several common human gastrointestinal diseases. This 35 kDa single polypeptide toxin consists of two domains: a C-terminal domain involved in receptor binding and an N-terminal domain involved in oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. The action of CPE starts with its binding to receptors, which include certain members of the claudin tight junction protein family; bound CPE then forms a series of complexes, one of which is a pore that causes the calcium influx responsible for host cell death. Recent studies have revealed that CPE binding to claudin receptors involves interactions between the C-terminal CPE domain and both the 1st and 2nd extracellular loops (ECL-1 and ECL-2) of claudin receptors. Of particular importance for this binding is the docking of ECL-2 into a pocket present in the C-terminal domain of the toxin. This increased understanding of CPE interactions with claudin receptors is now fostering the development of receptor decoy therapeutics for CPE-mediated gastrointestinal disease, reagents for cancer therapy/diagnoses and enhancers of drug delivery.

  9. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  10. Role of phages in the epidemiology of cholera.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Shah M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic and ecological factors which support the periodic emergence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae causing outbreaks of cholera in regions where the disease is endemic, is vital to develop preventive measures. Besides environmental factors which are not precisely defined, bacteriophages, and horizontally transmissible genetic elements are known to have a significant role in the epidemiology and evolution of the pathogen. Cholera epidemics are also known to be self-limiting, and hence identifying natural factors which contribute to the collapse of epidemics may have important implications in controlling the disease. Phages have been shown to play a crucial role in modulating cholera epidemics, and enhance V. cholerae evolution through a bactericidal selection process which favors the emergence of new clones.

  11. Structural basis for abrogated binding between staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen vaccine and MHC-IIα

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Heike I.; Segelke, Brent W.; Ulrich, Robert G.; Ringhofer, Sabine; Knapp, Mark; Rupp, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are superantigenic protein toxins responsible for a number of life-threatening diseases. The X-ray structure of a staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) triple-mutant (L48R, D70R, and Y92A) vaccine reveals a cascade of structural rearrangements located in three loop regions essential for binding the α subunit of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules. A comparison of hypothetical model complexes between SEA and the SEA triple mutant with MHC-II HLA-DR1 clearly shows disruption of key ionic and hydrophobic interactions necessary for forming the complex. Extensive dislocation of the disulfide loop in particular interferes with MHC-IIα binding. The triple-mutant structure provides new insights into the loss of superantigenicity and toxicity of an engineered superantigen and provides a basis for further design of enterotoxin vaccines. PMID:11847286

  12. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus SP isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

    PubMed Central

    Rall, V.L.M; Sforcin, J.M.; Augustini, V.C.M.; Watanabe, M.T.; Fernandes Jr., A.; Rall, R.; Silva, M.G.; Araújo Jr., J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen. PMID:24031464

  13. Simple assay for staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C: modification of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Stiffler-Rosenberg, G; Fey, H

    1978-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) introduced for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins by Saunders et al., Simon and Terplan, and ourselves has proved to be a simple, reliable, and sensitive test. A new modification is described that uses polystyrene balls (diameter, 6 mm) coated individually with antibody against one of the toxins A, B, or C. In a single tube, 20 ml of the food extract was incubated with the three balls differently stained, which were then each tested for the uptake of enterotoxin by a competitive ELISA. A concentration of 0.1 ng or less of enterotoxin per ml can be measured, making tedious concentration procedures of the extracts superfluous. Culture supernatants and extracts from foods artificially or naturally contaminated with toxin were successfully examined. Cross-reactions did not occur, and nonspecific interfering substances did not create serious problems. PMID:365877

  14. Spread of Cholera with Newer Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Serotype Inaba, in India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, B.; Ghosh, R.; Sharma, N. C.; Pazhani, G. P.; Taneja, N.; Raychowdhuri, A.; Sarkar, B. L.; Mondal, S. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Nandy, R. K.; Bhattacharya, M. K.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Ramamurthy, T.

    2006-01-01

    During 2004 and 2005, cholera was recorded in 15 states of India, with 7 outbreaks. The newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba had a different antibiogram and ribotype, different pulsotypes, and different mutations in the wbeT gene. Due to the absence of serogroup O139, the Inaba serotype may have acquired the potential to affect the population at large. PMID:16954282

  15. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 2012 to 2013 cholera outbreaks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, R; Sadeghy, J; Shokri Moghadam, M; Bakhshi, B

    2016-08-01

    Cholera remains to be an international threat, with high rates of illness and death. In 2012 and 2013, two cholera outbreak happened in Iran, affecting lots of people. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source identification and controlling the spread of the cholera disease are two critical approaches in cholera outbreaks. In this study, thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates were selected and has been evaluated for antimicrobial resistant as well as molecular typing by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates were sero-grouped as El Tor (one isolate was classical) and 100% were related to Inaba serotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin. On the other hand, 60% of the isolates were MDR (resistant to 3 or more classes). There were three resistance patterns. The most prevalent pattern was resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ST-SXT-E-T) which was seen in 50% of isolates. Using MLVA method 14 MLVA types were identified. MLVA type 2 (5-7-7-16-15) accounted for 43% of isolates. Isolates with the same genotype often did not have the same antibiogram. Overall, the data indicate that the Iranian V. cholerae were MDR and clonaly related. Furthermore, the results of this study shows that MLVA can be used as useful method for V. cholerae genotyping in epidemiological investigations.

  16. Capsaicin, a potential inhibitor of cholera toxin production in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Asakura, Masahiro; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Haldar, Soumya; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2010-05-01

    The use of natural compounds as inhibitory agents for virulence factor production is a new approach to overcome increased antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we examined whether red chilli (Capsicum annuum) contains any such compound(s) that can repress the cholera toxin (CT) production in Vibrio cholerae. We found that the methanol extract of red chilli could inhibit CT production in recently emerged V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains without affecting their viability. Interestingly, capsaicin, a well-studied active component of red chilli, also drastically inhibited CT production in V. cholerae strains belonging to various serogroups including variants. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed that capsaicin effectively repressed the transcription of ctxA, tcpA and toxT genes, but not of toxR and toxS genes. On the contrary, capsaicin significantly enhanced the transcription of the hns gene, the product of which is known to regulate negatively the transcription of ctxAB, tcpA and toxT genes. These results suggest that capsaicin might act as a potent repressor for CT production possibly by enhancing the transcription of hns.

  17. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  18. Receptors and cGMP signalling mechanism for E. coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, L.R.; Krause, W.J.; Freeman, R.H. Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Columbia, MO )

    1988-11-01

    Receptors for the heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli were found in the kidney and intestine of the North American opossum and in cultured renal cell lines. The enterotoxin markedly increased guanosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production in slices of kidney cortex and medulla, in suspensions of intestinal mucosa, and in the opossum kidney (OK) and rat kangaroo kidney (PtK-2) cell lines. In contrast, atrial natriuretic factor elicited much smaller increases in cGMP levels of kidney, intestine, or cultured kidney cell lines. The enterotoxin receptors in OK cells had a molecular mass of approximately 120 kDa when measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of receptors crosslinked with {sup 125}I-enterotoxin. The occurrence of receptors for the E. coli peptide in OK implies that these receptors may be involved in the regulation of renal tubular function in the opossum. E. coli enterotoxin caused a much larger increase in urine cGMP excretion than did atrial natriuretic factor when these peptides were injected intravenously into opossums. However, atrial natriuretic factor elicited a marked diuresis, natriuresis, and increased urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In contrast, the enterotoxin did not acutely influence OK fluid and electrolyte excretion. Thus the substantial increase in cGMP synthesis produced by the bacterial peptide in OK cortex and medulla in vitro and the increased renal excretion of cGMP in vivo were not associated with changes in electrolyte or water excretion. Whether cGMP represents a second messenger molecule in the kidney is an interesting question that was raised but not answered in this series of experiments.

  19. Enterotoxin-Encoding Genes in Staphylococcus spp. from Food Handlers in a University Restaurant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sabina Dos Santos Paulino; Cidral, Thiago André; Soares, Maria José dos Santos; de Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus are a potential source of food poisoning. The aim of this study was to analyze genes encoding enterotoxins in coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) isolated from the anterior nostrils and hands of food handlers at a university restaurant in the city of Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirty food handlers were screened for the study. The isolates were subjected to Gram staining, a bacitracin sensitivity test, mannitol fermentation, and catalase and coagulase tests. CoNS and CoPS strains were subsequently identified by a Vitek 2 System (BioMerieux, France) and various biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect genes for enterotoxins A, B, C, D, E, G, H, and I (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei) and a disc-diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to several classes of antimicrobials. All food handlers presented staphylococci on their hands and/or noses. The study found 58 Staphylococcus spp., of which 20.7% were CoPS and 79.3% were CoNS. S. epidermidis was the most prevalent species. Twenty-nine staphylococci (50%) were positive for one or more enterotoxin genes, and the most prevalent genes were seg and sei, each with a frequency of 29.3%. Indeed, CoNS encoded a high percentage of enterotoxin genes (43.5%). However, S. aureus encoded even more enterotoxin genes (75%). Most isolates showed sensitivity to the antibiotics used for testing, except for penicillin (only 35% sensitive). The results from this study reinforce that coagulase-negative as well as coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from food handlers are capable of genotypic enterotoxigenicity.

  20. Enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus spp. from bulk goat milk.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Daniele G; Sousa, Francisca G C; Borges, Maria F; Givisiez, Patrícia E N; Queiroga, Rita C R E; Souza, Evandro L; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Oliveira, Celso J B

    2013-02-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus has been implicated as the main Staphylococcus species causing human food poisoning, recent studies have shown that coagulase-negative Staphylococcus could also harbor enterotoxin-encoding genes. Such organisms are often present in goat milk and are the most important mastitis-causing agents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes among coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci isolated from raw goat milk produced in the semi-arid region of Paraiba, the most important region for goat milk production in Brazil. Enterotoxin-encoding genes were screened in 74 staphylococci isolates (30 CoPS and 44 CoNS) by polymerase chain reaction targeting the genes sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei. Enterotoxin-encoding genes were found in nine (12.2%) isolates, and four different genes (sea, sec, seg, and sei) were identified amongst the isolates. The most frequent genes were seg and sei, which were often found simultaneously in 44.5% of the isolates. The gene sec was the most frequent among the classical genes, and sea was found only in one isolate. All CoPS isolates (n=7) harboring enterotoxigenic genes were identified as S. aureus. The two coagulase-negative isolates were S. haemolyticus and S. hominis subsp. hominis and they harbored sei and sec genes, respectively. A higher frequency of enterotoxin-encoding genes was observed amongst CoPS (23.3%) than CoNS (4.5%) isolates (p<0.05), reinforcing the importance of S. aureus as a potential foodborne agent. However, the potential risk posed by CoNS in goat milk should not be ignored because it has a higher occurrence in goat milk and enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in some isolates.

  1. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    1965-01-01

    In a controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines, it was demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or Vibrio El Tor gave over 50% protection for the first two months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine rapidly declined after three to four months. The V. El Tor vaccine gave protection for six months, but its effectiveness declined. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an increasing degree of protection of long duration, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5294176

  2. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Cruz, A.; Pesigan, T. P.; Alvero, M.; Camena, T.; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.; Gomez, C. Z.

    1967-01-01

    A controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or El Tor vibrios gave over 50% protection for the first 2 months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine declined rapidly after 3 to 4 months. The effectiveness of the El Tor vaccine continued for 6 months. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an equally high degree of protection for a longer period of time, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5300874

  3. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well as a subepithelial lamina propria, harboring the immune cells of the gut mucosa.

  4. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times.

  5. Zonal organization of the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, K; von Campenhause, H; Yoshihara, Y

    2000-01-01

    Zonal organization is one of the characteristic features observed in both main and accessory olfactory systems. In the main olfactory system, most of the odorant receptors are classified into four groups according to their zonal expression patterns in the olfactory epithelium. Each group of odorant receptors is expressed by sensory neurons distributed within one of four circumscribed zones. Olfactory sensory neurons in a given zone of the epithelium project their axons to the glomeruli in a corresponding zone of the main olfactory bulb. Glomeruli in the same zone tend to represent similar odorant receptors having similar tuning specificity to odorants. Vomeronasal receptors (or pheromone receptors) are classified into two groups in the accessory olfactory system. Each group of receptors is expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons in either the apical or basal zone of the vomeronasal epithelium. Sensory neurons in the apical zone project their axons to the rostral zone of the accessory olfactory bulb and form synaptic connections with mitral tufted cells belonging to the rostral zone. Signals originated from basal zone sensory neurons are sent to mitral tufted cells in the caudal zone of the accessory olfactory bulb. We discuss functional implications of the zonal organization in both main and accessory olfactory systems. PMID:11205342

  6. Genetic characteristics of drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Shah M; Mannan, Shahnewaj B; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, M Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Watanabe, Haruo; Sack, R Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro; Alam, Munirul

    2012-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), causing the seventh cholera pandemic, was recently replaced in Bangladesh by an altered ET possessing ctxB of the Classical (CL) biotype, which caused the first six cholera pandemics. In the present study, V. cholerae O1 strains associated with endemic cholera in Dhaka between 2006 and 2011 were analysed for major phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Of 54 representative V. cholerae isolates tested, all were phenotypically ET and showed uniform resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and furazolidone (FR). Resistance to tetracycline (TE) and erythromycin (E) showed temporal fluctuation, varying from year to year, while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (CN) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). Year-wise data revealed erythromycin resistance to be 33.3 % in 2006 and 11 % in 2011, while tetracycline resistance accounted for 33, 78, 0, 100 and 27 % in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively; interestingly, all isolates tested were sensitive to TE in 2011, as observed in 2008. All V. cholerae isolates tested possessed genetic elements such as SXT, ctxAB, tcpA(ET), rstR(ET) and rtxC; none had IntlI (Integron I). Double mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR followed by DNA sequencing and analysis of the ctxB gene revealed a point mutation at position 58 (C→A), which has resulted in an amino acid substitution from histidine (H) to asparagine (N) at position 20 (genotype 7) since 2008. Although the multi-resistant strains having tetracycline resistance showed minor genetic divergence, V. cholerae strains were clonal, as determined by a PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. This study shows 2008-2010 to be the time of transition from ctxB genotype 1 to genotype 7 in V. cholerae ET causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  7. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    PubMed

    Price, Gregory A; McFann, Kim; Holmes, Randall K

    2013-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB) contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP) with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN), IP, and subcutaneously (SC). Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival). Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  8. In vitro and in vivo cholera toxin production by classical and El Tor isolates of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, P C; Lee, J V; Miliotis, M D; Still, C S; Isaäcson, M; Ahmad, Q S

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the in vitro production of cholera toxin by 19 Vibrio cholerae El Tor isolates from patients with cholera in South Africa, one El Tor isolate from a patient in Malawi (a country approximately 1000 km north-northeast of South Africa), 6 El Tor and 12 classical type isolates from patients in Bangladesh, and 5 culture collection classical strains. Identical phage types and indistinguishable toxigenicities among the South African and Malawi V. cholerae, representing isolations obtained over a 10-year period, indicated that essentially a single strain was involved in the cholera of these regions. Similarly, phage typing and toxin profiles indicated that the 12 classical and 6 El Tor V. cholerae cultures in Bangladesh, all isolated in November 1983, represented just two strains. As assessed by titrations in Y-1 mouse adrenal and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, the general order of toxigenicities was Bangladesh and culture collection classical greater than Bangladesh El Tor greater than southern African El Tor. The African isolates consistently gave rise to very low titers. Their relative reluctance to produce the toxin in vitro compared with the culture collection classical strains, particularly strain 569B, was confirmed by rocket electrophoresis. In somewhat of a contrast, maximum in vivo titers in rice water stools from cholera patients in South Africa and from both classical and El Tor type cholera patients in Bangladesh were essentially equal. It is postulated that under the continuous culture conditions that occur in vivo, cholera toxin concentrations can accumulate to a maximum level, depending on the rate of purging by the diarrheal fluid rather than the toxigenicity of the infecting stain. The relevance of these findings to the relative severities of classical and El Tor types of cholera is discussed. Images PMID:4008618

  9. Detection of genes encoding for enterotoxins and determination of the production of enterotoxins by HBL blood plates and immunoassays of psychrotrophic strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from pasteurised milk.

    PubMed

    in't Veld, P H; Ritmeester, W S; Delfgou-van Asch, E H; Dufrenne, J B; Wernars, K; Smit, E; van Leusden, F M

    2001-02-28

    The presence of genes for the production of the three components of the HBL enterotoxin complex and enterotoxin-T in Bacillus cereus was evaluated by PCR tests for strains isolated from milk. In addition enterotoxin production of B. cereus was evaluated by means of the HBL blood agar plate and two commercially available toxin tests. All three genes for the HBL enterotoxin complex were detected in 55% of the 86 strains tested, the enterotoxin-T gene was detected in 62% of the strains. A few strains showed a weak reaction in the PCR tests for the L1 or L2 components of the HBL enterotoxin complex. Many strains that were found to contain the genes for the HBL complex gave negative or doubtful results in the HBL blood agar plate test. All strains that contain the L2 part of the HBL complex showed a titer of at least 8 in the Oxoid RPLA test. Two strains that did not contain the L2 part of the HBL enterotoxin complex gave high titers (= 64) in the RPLA test.

  10. Hydroclimatological And Anthropogenic Drivers For Cholera Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetto, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The nature of waterborne diseases, among which cholera has a prominent importance, calls for a better understanding of the link between epidemic spreading, water and climate. To this end, we have developed a framework which involves a network-based description of a river system, connected with local communities which act as nodes of the network. This has allowed us to produce consistent simulations of real case studies. More recent investigations comprise the evaluation of the spreading velocity of an epidemic wave by means of a reaction-diffusion modeling approach. In particular, we have found that both transport processes and epidemiological quantities, such as the basic reproduction number, have a crucial effect in controlling the spreading of the epidemics. We first developed a description of bacterial movement along the network driven by advection and diffusion; afterward, we have included the movement of human populations. This latter model allowed us to establish the conditions that can trigger epidemic waves that start from the coastal region, where bacteria are autochthonous, and travel inland. In particular, our findings suggest that even relatively low values of human diffusion can have the epidemic propagate upstream. The interaction between climate, hydrology and epidemic events is still much debated, since no clear correlation between climatologic and epidemiological phenomena has emerged so far. However, a spatial assessment of hydrological and epidemiological mechanisms could be crucial to understand the evolution of cholera outbreaks. In particular, a hotly debated topic is the understanding of the mechanisms that can generate patterns of cholera incidence that exhibit an intra-annual double peak, as frequently observed in endemic region such as Bangladesh. One of the possible explanations proposed in the literature is that spring droughts cause bacteria concentration in water to rise dramatically, triggering the first peak. On the other hand

  11. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    PubMed Central

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  12. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Hendricks, Matthew R.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s) from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s) in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease. PMID:27965452

  13. Molecular tools in understanding the evolution of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Md. Habibur; Islam, Tarequl; Colwell, Rita R.; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, has been a scourge for centuries. Cholera remains a serious health threat for developing countries and has been responsible for millions of deaths globally over the past 200 years. Identification of V. cholerae has been accomplished using a variety of methods, ranging from phenotypic strategies to DNA based molecular typing and currently whole genomic approaches. This array of methods has been adopted in epidemiological investigations, either singly or in the aggregate, and more recently for evolutionary analyses of V. cholerae. Because the new technologies have been developed at an ever increasing pace, this review of the range of fingerprinting strategies, their relative advantages and limitations, and cholera case studies was undertaken. The task was challenging, considering the vast amount of the information available. To assist the study, key references representative of several areas of research are provided with the intent to provide readers with a comprehensive view of recent advances in the molecular epidemiology of V. cholerae. Suggestions for ways to obviate many of the current limitations of typing techniques are also provided. In summary, a comparative report has been prepared that includes the range from traditional typing to whole genomic strategies. PMID:26500613

  14. Vibrio cholerae Hemagglutinin/Protease Degrades Chironomid Egg Masses

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Gancz, Hanan; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2003-01-01

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. The disease does not persist in a chronic state in humans or animals. The pathogen is naturally present as a free-living organism in the environment. Recently, it was suggested that egg masses of the nonbiting midge Chironomus sp. (Diptera) harbor and serve as a nutritive source for V. cholerae, thereby providing a natural reservoir for the organism. Here we report that V. cholerae O9, O1, and O139 supernatants lysed the gelatinous matrix of the chironomid egg mass and inhibited eggs from hatching. The extracellular factor responsible for the degradation of chironomid egg masses (egg mass degrading factor) was purified from V. cholerae O9 and O139 and was identified as the major secreted hemagglutinin/protease (HA/P) of V. cholerae. The substrate in the egg mass was characterized as a glycoprotein. These findings show that HA/P plays an important role in the interaction of V. cholerae and chironomid egg masses. PMID:12839800

  15. Studies of cholera El Tor in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, W. H.; Alvero, M. G.; Joseph, P. R.; Tamayo, J. F.; Gomez, C. Z.; Montague, T.; Dizon, J. J.; Henderson, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    As part of a broad study on the epidemiology of cholera El Tor in the Philippines, the authors conducted bacteriological surveys among the community contacts of suspect cholera patients hospitalized in the Negros Occidental Provincial Hospital from August through October 1962. Fourteen (2%) of 698 community contacts of persons with confirmed cholera patients were found on initial culture to be infected. Intensive studies in two communities suggested that infection was spread primarily by close personal contact; in a third community, contamined well-water presumably served as a vehicle for the transmission of infection. Diagnosed and undiagnosed cases, undiagnosed cholera deaths and asymptomatic infections all played a role in cholera transmission. The studies tend to confirm that the second or recurrent epidemic in Negros Occidental was primarily caused by person-to-person spread. Although the seemingly isolated or sporadic cases were sometimes associated with a more general distribution of the cholera vibrio, the cholera infections invariably were highly localized among close contacts even within densely populated areas with poor sanitation. PMID:5295146

  16. How community ecology can improve our understanding of cholera dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Hasan, Nur A.; Roche, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal emergence and reemergence of cholera is challenging due to the complex dynamics of different protagonists. The abundance of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera and a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments, fluctuates according to abiotic, and biotic factors. Among the biotic factors, the zooplankton community dynamics has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the survival, persistence, and natural competence of V. cholerae. However, factors regulating V. cholerae population structure and seasonal dynamics are still not fully understood. Investigation of the temporal shifts and variability in aquatic community composition in relation to the occurrence or abundance of V. cholerae appears very promising yet remained underexplored. Recent advances in metagenomics, facilitated by high-throughput ultra deep sequencing, have greatly improved our ability for a broader and deeper exploration of microbial communities including an understanding of community structure, function, as well as inter- and intra-specific competitions. Here, we discuss possible areas of research focusing how combination of community ecology and metagenomic approaches could be applied to study the cholera system. PMID:24765090

  17. Molecular tools in understanding the evolution of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Md Habibur; Islam, Tarequl; Colwell, Rita R; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, has been a scourge for centuries. Cholera remains a serious health threat for developing countries and has been responsible for millions of deaths globally over the past 200 years. Identification of V. cholerae has been accomplished using a variety of methods, ranging from phenotypic strategies to DNA based molecular typing and currently whole genomic approaches. This array of methods has been adopted in epidemiological investigations, either singly or in the aggregate, and more recently for evolutionary analyses of V. cholerae. Because the new technologies have been developed at an ever increasing pace, this review of the range of fingerprinting strategies, their relative advantages and limitations, and cholera case studies was undertaken. The task was challenging, considering the vast amount of the information available. To assist the study, key references representative of several areas of research are provided with the intent to provide readers with a comprehensive view of recent advances in the molecular epidemiology of V. cholerae. Suggestions for ways to obviate many of the current limitations of typing techniques are also provided. In summary, a comparative report has been prepared that includes the range from traditional typing to whole genomic strategies.

  18. [Cholera epidemics on Reunion Island during the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2012-01-01

    The first cholera outbreak on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island) was recorded in January 1820. The disease was imported from Mauritius Island aboard the steamer Pivert. The epidemic began on Mauritius in November 1819 after the English frigate, La Topaze, called from Calcutta, India. Dr. François Vinson demonstrated the transmissibility of cholera during this epidemic. Drastic sanitary measures spared Reunion from the two epidemics on Mauritius Island, in 1854 and 1856. The second outbreak of cholera on Reunion Island was recorded on March 6, 1859. The disease was introduced from East Africa by the steamer Mascareignes, which carried indentured servants. The captain (d'Agnel) et the supercargo (Menon) of the steamer claimed to the doctor who boarded the ship before landing that no passengers or crew had had cholera, in flagrant contradiction to the autopsy report issued by Navy surgeon Alfred Vaillant, who had concluded that cholera was present when the vessel left the African coast. This report was withheld from the boarding physician. Cholera spread quickly on the island and affected the poorest people, especially freed slaves, most severely. Dr. Petit, the chief Navy Physician and Director of the Health Department, obtained a confession by Menon about the fraudulent statements. On January 24, 1860, a trial for public health endangerment began on Reunion Island; it ended on February 1 with a not-guilty verdict, based largely on the testimony of several island doctors that cholera was not contagious.

  19. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  20. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites.

    PubMed

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Begum, Anowara

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost culturability within one hour after inoculation but remained culturable on cloth and wood for up to four hours. VBNC V. cholerae on dry fomite surfaces was detected and quantified by EMA-qPCR even 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the prolonged survival of V. cholerae on various household fomites may play vital role in cholera transmission and needs to be further investigated.

  1. Predictive modeling of cholera using GRACE and TRMM satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cholera outbreaks can be classified in three forms- epidemic (sudden or seasonal outbreaks), endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years) and mixed-mode endemic (combination of certain epidemic and endemic conditions) with significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Endemic cholera is related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data obtained from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), understanding dynamics of river discharge is now feasible. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during the spring and autumn season, two separate models, between TWS and disease time series (2002 to 2010) were developed. TWS, hence water availability, showed an asymmetrical, strong association with spring (τ=-0.53; p<0.001) and autumn (τ=0.45; p<0.001) cholera prevalence up to five to six months in advance. One unit (cm of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% [confidence interval (CI) 20-31%; p<0.05] in the spring season, while an increase in regional water by one unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% [CI:22-33%; p<0.05]. Epidemic cholera is related with warm temperatures and heavy rainfall. Using TRMM data for several locations in Asia and Africa, probability of cholera increases 18% [CI:15-23%; p<0.05] after heavy precipitation resulted in a societal conditions where access to safe water and sanitation was disrupted. Results from mechanistic modeling framework using systems approach that include satellite based hydroclimatic information with tradition disease transmission models will also be presented.

  2. Evaluation of the VIDAS staph enterotoxin II (SET 2) immunoassay method for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in selected foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Jechorek, Robert P; Johnson, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    A multilaboratory study was conducted to determine the limit of detection (LOD) of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) in 5 foods. Cooked chicken, ham, potato salad, pasteurized liquid whole milk, and canned mushrooms were each spiked with a different enterotoxin (A, B, C1, D, or E), and tested at 0.25 and 0.5 ng/g SET levels to determine the LOD of the assay for those foods in a collaborative study. Unspiked controls were also included. A total of 19 laboratories representing government and industry participated. In this study, 1674 test portions were analyzed, of which 1638 were used in the statistical analysis. Of the 1638 test portions used in the statistical analysis, 1104 were spiked test portions, of which 1073 were positive by the VIDAS Staph enterotoxin II (SET 2) method. The detection rates at the 0.25 ng/mL level were cooked chicken, 98.2%; ham, 99.0%; potato salad, 99.1%; liquid whole milk, 85.2%; and canned mushrooms, 100%. The detection rates at the 0.5 ng/mL level were cooked chicken, 97.4%; ham, 98.1%; potato salad, 100%; liquid whole milk, 99.0%; and canned mushrooms, 100%. The data indicate that the SET 2 method is capable of detecting SET at 0.25 ng/g in cooked chicken, ham, potato salad, and canned mushrooms and at 0.5 ng/g in pasteurized liquid whole milk.

  3. PCR primers for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins K, L, and M and survey of staphylococcal enterotoxin types in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food poisoning cases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Tung; Lin, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chi-Yea; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-05-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are important causative agents in gastroenteritidis and food poisoning cases. They are serologically grouped into five major classical types, i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. In addition, new SEs, such as SEG through SEM, have recently been identified and characterized. In an attempt to survey the distribution of classical and new SEs in organisms responsible for staphylococcal infections in Taiwan, we developed PCR primers for the genes that define the SEK, SEL, and SEM types. Bacterial strains other than sek, sel, and sem Staphylococcus aureus, including strains of other Staphylococcus species, did not generate any false-positive results when examined with these primers. The expression potential for the sek, sel, and sem types were also determined by reverse transcription-PCR. Together with the PCR primers specific for the classical SEs and other new SEs, including SEG, SEH, SEI, and SEJ, we surveyed the SE genes in S. aureus strains isolated from food poisoning cases. For 147 S. aureus isolates originating from food poisoning cases, 109 (74.1%) were positive for one or more SE genes. Of them, the major classical enterotoxin type was sea (28.6%), followed by seb (20.4%), sec (8.2%), and sed (2.0%). For the new SE types, sei (30.6%) was detected the most often, followed by sek (18.4%), sem (12.9%), and sel (8.2%). Also, 64 (43.5%) of the total bacterial strains had more than one enterotoxin gene.

  4. [Isolation of the R'his plasmids of Vibrio cholerae].

    PubMed

    Rusina, O Iu; Tiganova, I G; Aleshkin, G I; Andreeva, I V; Skavronskaia, A G

    1987-06-01

    V. cholerae strain VT5104 capable of donor activity in conjugation has been constructed by the genetic technique based on plasmid RP4::Mucts62 integration into V. cholerae chromosome due to plasmid homology with Mucts62 inserted into the chromosome. The gene for histidine synthesis has been mobilized and transferred into the recipient cells from VT5104 donor. The conjugants obtained are able to efficiently transfer his+ gene included into the plasmid structure in conjugation with eltor recipient. Thus, the constructed strain VT5104 generates R' plasmids carrying V. cholerae chromosomal genes.

  5. A generalized cholera model and epidemic-endemic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Liao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The transmission of cholera involves both human-to-human and environment-to-human pathways that complicate its dynamics. In this paper, we present a new and unified deterministic model that incorporates a general incidence rate and a general formulation of the pathogen concentration to analyse the dynamics of cholera. Particularly, this work unifies many existing cholera models proposed by different authors. We conduct equilibrium analysis to carefully study the complex epidemic and endemic behaviour of the disease. Our results show that despite the incorporation of the environmental component, there exists a forward transcritical bifurcation at R (0)=1 for the combined human-environment epidemiological model under biologically reasonable conditions.

  6. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  7. [The knowledge of the population about cholera].

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A M; de Rojas, V; Delgado, J; Alonso, A; Finlay, C M

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the impact of the educational campaign about cholera on the knowledge and believes of the population, a survey was made in 1993 among 1324 persons from 14 provinces and from Isla de la Juventud special municipality. 85% were 20-59 years old and 89% had an secondary basic or higher educational level. 69% had the minimum knowledge to face the disease, 90% would see a doctor if they had and suspicion, 72% knew that diarrhea is the main symptom of cholera, 54% new how it is transmitted 89% thought that they may be infected by drinking water, 54% understood the importance of giving liquids to the sick subject, and 78% realized the significance of washing their hands before eating anf cooking. It is concluded that even though our population has a general knowledge about the disease, due to the fact that our country is located in an endemic zone, health education must be reinforced, specifically those aspects connected with the communication and with the increase of liquids administration to the patients.

  8. Methods to Assess the Impact of Mass Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaigns under Real Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Jacqueline; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS) and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC). The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd) protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine. PMID:24516595

  9. Cholera toxin production by the El Tor variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 compared to prototype El Tor and classical biotypes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Banerjee, J; Senoh, M; Takahashi, T; Hamabata, T; Barman, S; Koley, H; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Ramamurthy, T; Chatterjee, S; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S; Nair, G B; Takeda, Y

    2010-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains produced much more cholera toxin than did prototype El Tor strains. The amount of cholera toxin produced by El Tor variant strains both in vitro and in vivo was more or less equivalent to that produced by classical strains.

  10. From genome to toxicity: a combinatory approach highlights the complexity of enterotoxin production in Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Jeßberger, Nadja; Krey, Viktoria M.; Rademacher, Corinna; Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Mohr, Ann-Katrin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Scherer, Siegfried; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Bacillus cereus has gained increasing importance as a food poisoning pathogen. It is the eponymous member of the B. cereus sensu lato group that consists of eight closely related species showing impressive diversity of their pathogenicity. The high variability of cytotoxicity and the complex regulatory network of enterotoxin expression have complicated efforts to predict the toxic potential of new B. cereus isolates. In this study, comprehensive analyses of enterotoxin gene sequences, transcription, toxin secretion and cytotoxicity were performed. For the first time, these parameters were compared in a whole set of B. cereus strains representing isolates of different origin (food or food poisoning outbreaks) and of different toxic potential (enteropathogenic and apathogenic) to elucidate potential starting points of strain-specific differential toxicity. While toxin gene sequences were highly conserved and did not allow for differentiation between high and low toxicity strains, comparison of nheB and hblD enterotoxin gene transcription and Nhe and Hbl protein titers revealed not only strain-specific differences but also incongruence between toxin gene transcripts and toxin protein levels. With one exception all strains showed comparable capability of protein secretion and so far, no secretion patterns specific for high and low toxicity strains were identified. These results indicate that enterotoxin expression is more complex than expected, possibly involving the orchestrated interplay of different transcriptional regulator proteins, as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulatory mechanisms plus additional influences of environmental conditions. PMID:26113843

  11. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Heidinger, Joelle C; Winter, Carl K; Cullor, James S

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative microbial risk assessment was constructed to determine consumer risk from Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin in raw milk. A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to assess the risk from raw milk consumption using data on levels of S. aureus in milk collected by the University of California-Davis Dairy Food Safety Laboratory from 2,336 California dairies from 2005 to 2008 and using U.S. milk consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2003 and 2004. Four modules were constructed to simulate pathogen growth and staphylococcal enterotoxin A production scenarios to quantify consumer risk levels under various time and temperature storage conditions. The three growth modules predicted that S. aureus levels could surpass the 10(5) CFU/ml level of concern at the 99.9th or 99.99th percentile of servings and therefore may represent a potential consumer risk. Results obtained from the staphylococcal enterotoxin A production module predicted that exposure at the 99.99th percentile could represent a dose capable of eliciting staphylococcal enterotoxin intoxication in all consumer age groups. This study illustrates the utility of quantitative microbial risk assessments for identifying potential food safety issues.

  12. Development and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, B A; Stringer, M F; Watson, G N; Gilbert, R J

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to quantitate faecal Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in the investigation of C perfringens food poisoning. The sandwich ELISA could be carried out in 24 h and was sensitive enough to detect as little as 5 ng/g of enterotoxin in faeces. Specificity of the assay was shown by comparing results with those obtained from other standard toxin assays, such as double gel diffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and by the assay of faecal material from control groups. By means of the ELISA method, 515 faecal samples from 50 separate outbreaks of C perfringens food poisoning were examined, together with 21 food samples from 12 of the outbreaks. A clear distinction was noted between faecal samples collected on the first two days of an outbreak, where 77% were enterotoxin positive, and those specimens collected later than the second day, when only 33% had detectable enterotoxin. The ELISA is recommended as a valuable tool in the investigation of C perfringens foodborne illness. PMID:2857184

  13. Distribution of Toxin Genes and Enterotoxins in Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Microbial Insecticide Products.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Lee, Yea-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jo; Yoo, Young-Bin; Bak, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-12-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis microbial insecticide products have been applied worldwide. Although a few cases of B. thuringiensis foodborne illness have been reported, little is known about the toxigenic properties of B. thuringiensis isolates. The aims of this study were to estimate the pathogenic potential of B. thuringiensis selected from microbial insecticide products, based on its possession of toxin genes and production of enterotoxins. Fifty-two B. thuringiensis strains selected from four kinds of microbial insecticide products were analyzed. PCR assay for detection of toxin genes and immunoassay for detection of enterotoxins were performed. The hemolysin BL complex as a major enterotoxin was produced by 17 (32.7%), whereas the nonhemolytic enterotoxin complex was detected in 1 (1.9%) of 52 B. thuringiensis strains. However, cytK, entFM, and ces genes were not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis strains. The potential risk of food poisoning by B. thuringiensis along with concerns over B. thuringiensis microbial insecticide products has gained attention recently. Thus, microbial insecticide products based on B. thuringiensis should be carefully controlled.

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Ivo Brito, Carla; de Oliveira, Adilson; Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Patrícia; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly containing the non-classical enterotoxin genes seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates. PMID:26389954

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; de Oliveira, Adilson; Martins, Patrícia Yoshida Faccioli; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-09-14

    Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly producing the non-classical enterotoxins seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates.

  16. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  17. Importance of Flagella and Enterotoxins for Aeromonas Virulence in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. When 1...

  18. In vitro cell based assay for activity analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a leading cause of food poisoning. They function both as toxins that cause gastroenteritis after ingestion and as superantigens that non-specifically activate large numbers of T cells. Monkey or kitten bioassays were historically developed for analysis of SE act...

  19. Detection and expression of enterotoxin genes in plant-associated strains of Bacillus cereus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus cereus is an environmental microbe that commonly inhabits plants and soil. Twenty five plant-associated B. cereus isolates were obtained from apple, cacao, tomato, and potato. The isolates were screened for the presence and expression of enterotoxin B (BcET) components of the nonhemolytic e...

  20. The olive compound 4-hydroxytyrosol inactivates Staphyloccoccus aureus bacteria and Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single chain protein which consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27,078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, ...

  1. Genotypes and enterotoxin gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 108 S. aureus isolates from 16 hospitals located in 14 different provinces in China were characterized for the profiles of 19 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes by PCR and genotyped by PFGE and MLST. Of these strains, 88.9% (96/108) harbored SE genes, in which tsst was the most prevale...

  2. Techniques for rapid detection and quantification of active foodborne Staphylococcus Enterotoxin(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen and causative agent of foodborne illnesses.Staphylococcal enterotoxins(SEs)produced by this organism act upon the gastrointestinal tract and generate a superantigen immune response in low concentrations. Recent S. aureus foodborne ...

  3. Inhibitory effect of totarol on exotoxin proteins hemolysin and enterotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ce; Zhao, Xingchen; Li, Wenli; Meng, Rizeng; Liu, Zonghui; Liu, Mingyuan; Guo, Na; Yu, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes a wide variety of infections, which are of major concern worldwide. S. aureus produces multiple virulence factors, resulting in food infection and poisoning. These virulence factors include hyaluronidases, proteases, coagulases, lipases, deoxyribonucleases and enterotoxins. Among the extracellular proteins produced by S. aureus that contribute to pathogenicity, the exotoxins α-hemolysin, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are thought to be of major significance. Totarol, a plant extract, has been revealed to inhibit the proliferation of several pathogens effectively. However, there are no reports on the effects of totarol on the production of α-hemolysin, SEA or SEB secreted by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of totarol on these three exotoxins. Hemolysis assay, western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay were performed to identify the influence of graded subinhibitory concentrations of totarol on the production of α-hemolysin and the two major enterotoxins, SEA and SEB, by S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the TNF-α production of RAW264.7 cells stimulated by S. aureus supernatants was inhibited by subinhibitory concentrations of totarol. Form the data, we propose that totarol could potentially be used as a promising natural compound in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. The formation of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin in food environments and advances in risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wallin-Carlquist, Nina; Thorup Cohn, Marianne; Lindqvist, Roland; Barker, Gary C; Rådström, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The recent finding that the formation of staphylococcal enterotoxins in food is very different from that in cultures of pure Staphylococcus aureus sheds new light on, and brings into question, traditional microbial risk assessment methods based on planktonic liquid cultures. In fact, most bacteria in food appear to be associated with surfaces or tissues in various ways, and interaction with other bacteria through molecular signaling is prevalent. Nowadays it is well established that there are significant differences in the behavior of bacteria in the planktonic state and immobilized bacteria found in multicellular communities. Thus, in order to improve the production of high-quality, microbiologically safe food for human consumption, in situ data on enterotoxin formation in food environments are required to complement existing knowledge on the growth and survivability of S. aureus. This review focuses on enterotoxigenic S. aureus and describes recent findings related to enterotoxin formation in food environments, and ways in which risk assessment can take into account virulence behavior. An improved understanding of how environmental factors affect the expression of enterotoxins in foods will enable us to formulate new strategies for improved food safety. PMID:22030860

  5. Influence of starch source on sporulation and enterotoxin production by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Labbe, R; Somers, E; Duncan, C

    1976-03-01

    Of 16 different starch preparations tested, Clostridium perfringes NCTC 8798 yielded maximum sporulation and enterotoxin formation when ICN-soluble starch was included in Duncan and Strong sporulation medium. In general soluble starches were better than potato, corn, or arrowroot starch with regard to these two parameters.

  6. 76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  8. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  10. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  12. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia.

  13. Effects of frozen storage on survival of Staphylococcus aureus and enterotoxin production in precooked tuna meat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xulei; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in precooked tuna meat for producing canned products during frozen storage (-20 ± 2 °C) as well as its growth and enterotoxin production at 35 to 37 °C after the storage. Samples (50 ± 5 g) of precooked albacore (loin, chunk, and flake) and skipjack (chunk and flake) tuna were inoculated with 5 enterotoxin-producing strains of S. aureus at a level of approximately 3.5 log CFU/g and individually packed in a vacuum bag after 3 h incubation at 35 to 37 °C. Vacuum-packed samples were stored in a freezer (-20 ± 2 °C) for 4 wk. The frozen samples were then thawed in 37 °C circulating water for 2 h and incubated at 35 to 37 °C for 22 h. Populations of S. aureus in all precooked tuna samples decreased slightly (<0.7 log CFU/g) after 4 wk of storage at -20 ± 2 °C, but increased rapidly once the samples were thawed and held at 35 to 37 °C. Total S. aureus counts in albacore and skipjack samples increased by greater than 3 log CFU/g after 6 and 8 h of exposure to 35 to 37 °C, respectively. All samples became spoiled after 10 h of exposure to 35 to 37 °C, while no enterotoxin was detected in any samples. However, enterotoxins were detected in albacore loin and other samples after 12 and 24 h of incubation at 35 to 37 °C, respectively. Frozen precooked tuna meat should be used for producing canned tuna within 6 to 8 h of thawing to avoid product spoilage and potential enterotoxin production by S. aureus in contaminated precooked tuna meat.

  14. A novel electrochemical immunosensor based on magnetosomes for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longyun; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Fang; Sun, Xiulan; Zhang, Yinzhi; Li, Zaijun

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, a novel electrochemical immunosensor to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin B based on bio-magnetosomes, polyaniline nano-gold composite and 1,2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid, was developed, and found to exhibit high sensitivity and stability. The specific antibody to staphylococcal enterotoxin B conjugated with the magnetosomes showed rapid immunoreactions and good dispersion, which contributed to the formation of a nanostructurally smooth and dense film on the surface of a gold electrode. Polyaniline nano-gold composite and 1,2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid were used to modify the electrode as mediators to improve the electron transfer and offer an excellent biocompatible microenvironment for the antibody to retain its activity to enhance the response of the electrochemical sensor. Under optimal conditions, the developed immunosensor showed a good linear response in the range from 0.05 to 5 ng/mL (R(2)=0.9957) with a detection limit as low as 0.017 ng/mL, compared with the one without magnetosomes (0.05-5 ng/mL, 0.033 ng/mL), this developed immunosensor showed a wider response range and a reduced detection limit. And a good specificity with little adsorption to staphylococcal enterotoxin A, C and Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) was obtained. Moreover, the immunosensor exhibited a good long-time stability at 4 °C reaching up to 60 days, which showed a relatively long working life. Meanwhile the immunosensor could be regenerated four times using NaOH elution. The sensor also displayed a good repeatability with a relative standard deviation of 5.02% for staphylococcal enterotoxin B detection (1 ng/mL, n=9). Furthermore, high recoveries in milk samples from 81% to 118% were achieved and successfully applied to milk sample detection. The obtained results demonstrate that the developed electrochemical immunosensor is a promising tool for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in food.

  15. Nasal Vaccination with the 40-Kilodalton Outer Membrane Protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis and a Nontoxic Chimeric Enterotoxin Adjuvant Induces Long-Term Protective Immunity with Reduced Levels of Immunoglobulin E Antibodies▿

    PubMed Central

    Momoi, Fumiki; Hashizume, Tomomi; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the 40-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis (40-kDa OMP) nasally administered with a nontoxic chimeric adjuvant that combines the A subunit of mutant cholera toxin E112K with the pentameric B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (mCTA/LTB) elicited a long-term protective immune response. Immunization with the 40-kDa OMP and mCTA/LTB induced high levels of 40-kDa-OMP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies (Abs) in sera and elicited a significant IgA anti-40-kDa OMP Ab response in saliva. These Ab responses were maintained for at least 1 year after the immunization. Although using adjuvant mCTA/LTB gave Ab responses in the saliva comparable to those obtained using native cholera toxin (nCT) as the adjuvant, the levels of total IgE and 40-kDa-OMP-specific IgE Abs as well as interleukin-4 levels induced by the immunization with mCTA/LTB were lower than those induced by the immunization with nCT. Importantly, IgG Abs generated by nasal immunization with the 40-kDa OMP plus mCTA/LTB inhibited the coaggregation and hemagglutinin activities of P. gingivalis. Furthermore, the mice given nasal 40-kDa OMP plus mCTA/LTB showed a significant reduction of alveolar bone loss caused by oral infection with P. gingivalis even 1 year after the immunization compared to the loss in unimmunized mice. Because mCTA/LTB is nontoxic, nasally administered 40-kDa OMP together with mCTA/LTB should be an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in humans and may be an important tool for the prevention of chronic periodontitis. PMID:18411288

  16. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  17. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  18. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  19. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  20. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...