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Sample records for accessory function differential

  1. Macrophages: important accessory cells for reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P E; Nishimura, K; Zhu, L; Pollard, J W

    1999-11-01

    Macrophages are found throughout reproductive tissues. To determine their role(s), we have studied mice homozygous for a null mutation (Csfm(op)) in the gene encoding the major macrophage growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). Both male and female Csfm(op)/Csfm(op) mice have fertility defects. Males have low sperm number and libido as a consequence of dramatically reduced circulating testosterone. Females have extended estrous cycles and poor ovulation rates. CSF-1 is the principal growth factor regulating macrophage populations in the testis, male accessory glands, ovary, and uterus. However, analyses of CSF-1 nullizygous mice suggest that the primary reproductive defect is in the development of feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Although not correlating with deficiencies of microglia populations, electrophysiological investigations indicate an impairment of neuronal responses. This suggests that microglia, under the influence of CSF-1, act to organize neuronal connectivity during development and that the absence of this function results in a perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Macrophages also appear to have functions in the differentiated tissues of the reproductive system, including having a positive influence on steroidogenic cells. These data suggest that macrophages, through their trophic functions, can be considered as essential accessory cells for normal reproductive functioning.

  2. Regulation of accessory cell function by retinoids in murine immune responses.

    PubMed

    Katz, D R; Drzymala, M; Turton, J A; Hicks, R M; Hunt, R; Palmer, L; Malkovský, M

    1987-06-01

    This study examines the effects of in-vivo immune regulation by vitamin A acetate (VAA) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-CRA) on in-vitro accessory cell function. Mice were fed a control diet, or diet containing VAA or 13-CRA, and monitored by body weight gains and diet consumptions at weekly intervals. At 4, 7 and 12 weeks mice were killed, differential blood counts performed and accessory cells isolated from lymphomedullary tissues. Histology confirmed that the chief feature of the lymphomedullary organs of the VAA-fed animals was an expansion of the splenic marginal zone and the paracortical region of the lymph nodes. There was an increase in the number of accessory cells present, and this included both dendritic cells and macrophages. The accessory cell function of these cells was also increased, as evidenced by both alloproliferative and allocytotoxic responses in vitro. In 13-CRA-fed animals the effects were similar to those seen with VAA, but were less pronounced. We suggest that the primary effects of these compounds on in-vivo immunoregulation could be due to their promotion of accessory cell function.

  3. Strategies for inhibiting function of HIV-1 accessory proteins: a necessary route to AIDS therapy?

    PubMed

    Richter, S N; Frasson, I; Palù, G

    2009-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genome encodes three major structural proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol and Env), two regulatory proteins (Tat and Rev) that are essential for viral replication, and four accessory proteins (Nef, Vif, Vpu, Vpr). While accessory proteins were initially reported to be unnecessary for viral growth, their importance as virulence factors is now being more and more appreciated: they can dramatically alter the course and severity of viral infection, replication and disease progression. None of the HIV accessory proteins display enzymatic activity: they rather act altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions with a number of host cell factors. All currently approved anti-HIV drugs target pol and env encoded proteins. Therefore, widening the molecular targets of HIV therapy by additionally targeting accessory proteins may expand treatment options, resulting in high impact effective new therapy. In this review we present the state of the art of compounds that target HIV accessory proteins. Most of the research has focused on the inhibition of specific accessory proteins/host cell partner interactions. Promising compounds have been found within different classes of molecules: small natural and synthetic molecules, peptides and proteins, oligonucleotides, in particular those used as RNA interference (RNAi) tools. With the assortment of compounds available, especially against Nef and Vif functions, the demonstration of the clinical efficacy of the new anti-HIV-1 drugs targeting accessory proteins is next challenge.

  4. Segregated pathways to the vomeronasal amygdala: differential projections from the anterior and posterior divisions of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Ubeda-Bañón, Isabel; Crespo, Carlos; Insausti, Ricardo; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2007-04-01

    Apically and basally located receptor neurons in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium express G(i2 alpha)- and G(o alpha)-proteins, V1R and V2R vomeronasal receptors, project to the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb and respond to different stimuli, respectively. The extent to which secondary projections from the two portions of the accessory olfactory bulb are convergent in the vomeronasal amygdala is controversial. This issue is addressed by using anterograde and retrograde tract-tracing methods in rats including electron microscopy. Injections of dextran-amines, Fluoro Gold, cholera toxin-B subunit and Fast Blue were delivered to the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal anterior amygdala and bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract/anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus. We have demonstrated that, apart from common vomeronasal-recipient areas, only the anterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial division, posteromedial part, and only the posterior accessory olfactory bulb projects to the dorsal anterior amygdala and deep cell layers of the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract and the anteroventral medial amygdaloid nucleus. These results provide evidence that, excluding areas of convergence, the V1R and V2R vomeronasal pathways project to specific areas of the amygdala. These two vomeronasal subsystems are therefore anatomically and functionally separated in the telencephalon.

  5. Differential Person Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George; Alsmadi, Abdalla

    In many testing situations, differential item functioning (DIF) is a potentially serious problem. It occurs when a test item appears to be easier for one group of examinees than another even after controlling for overall skill level. Differential person functioning (DPF) can occur when "items" can be considered raters and the persons are the…

  6. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus. PMID:22428138

  7. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

  8. Gallium arsenide exposure impairs splenic B cell accessory function.

    PubMed

    Gondre-Lewis, Timothy A; Hartmann, Constance B; Caffrey, Rebecca E; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2003-03-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is utilized in industries for its semiconductor and optical properties. Chemical exposure of animals systemically suppresses several immune functions. The ability of splenic B cells to activate antigen-specific helper CD4(+) T cell hybridomas was assessed, and various aspects of antigen-presenting cell function were examined. GaAs-exposed murine B cells were impaired in processing intact soluble protein antigens, and the defect was antigen dependent. In contrast, B cells after exposure competently presented peptides to the T cells, which do not require processing. Cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and several costimulatory molecules on splenic B cells, which are critical for helper T cell activation, was not affected by chemical exposure. GaAs exposure also did not influence the stability of MHC class II heterodimers, suggesting that the defect may precede peptide exchange. GaAs-exposed B cells contained a normal level of aspartyl cathepsin activity; however, proteolytic activities of thiol cathepsins B and L were approximately half the control levels. Furthermore, two cleavage fragments of invariant chain, a molecular chaperone of MHC class II molecules, were increased in GaAs-exposed B cells, indicative of defective degradation. Thus, diminished thiol proteolytic activity in B cells may be responsible for their impaired antigen processing and invariant chain degradation, which may contribute to systemic immunosuppression caused by GaAs exposure.

  9. Differential localization of the streptococcal accessory sec components and implications for substrate export.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yihfen T; Cameron, Todd A; Bensing, Barbara A; Seepersaud, Ravin; Zambryski, Patricia C; Sullam, Paul M

    2013-02-01

    The accessory Sec system of Streptococcus gordonii is comprised of SecY2, SecA2, and five proteins (Asp1 through -5) that are required for the export of a serine-rich glycoprotein, GspB. We have previously shown that a number of the Asps interact with GspB, SecA2, or each other. To further define the roles of these Asps in export, we examined their subcellular localization in S. gordonii and in Escherichia coli expressing the streptococcal accessory Sec system. In particular, we assessed how the locations of these accessory Sec proteins were altered by the presence of other components. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found in E. coli that SecA2 localized within multiple foci at the cell membrane, regardless of whether other accessory Sec proteins were expressed. Asp2 alone localized to the cell poles but formed a similar punctate pattern at the membrane when SecA2 was present. Asp1 and Asp3 localized diffusely in the cytosol when expressed alone or with SecA2. However, these proteins redistributed to the membrane in a punctate arrangement when all of the accessory Sec components were present. Cell fractionation studies with S. gordonii further corroborated these microscopy results. Collectively, these findings indicate that Asp1 to -3 are not integral membrane proteins that form structural parts of the translocation channel. Instead, SecA2 serves as a docking site for Asp2, which in turn attracts a complex of Asp1 and Asp3 to the membrane. These protein interactions may be important for the trafficking of GspB to the cell membrane and its subsequent translocation. PMID:23204472

  10. Functional characterisation of a TLR accessory protein, UNC93B1, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Lee, P T; Zou, J; Holland, J W; Martin, S A M; Scott, C J W; Kanellos, T; Secombes, C J

    2015-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are indispensable components of the innate immune system, which recognise conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce a series of defensive immune responses to protect the host. Biosynthesis, localisation and activation of TLRs are dependent on TLR accessory proteins. In this study, we identified the accessory protein, UNC93B1, from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs aided by the conserved gene synteny of genes flanking UNC93B1 in fish, birds and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that salmon UNC93B1 grouped with other vertebrate UNC93B1 molecules, and had highest amino acid identity and similarity to zebrafish UNC93B1. The salmon UNC93B1 gene organisation was also similar in structure to mammalian UNC93B1. Our gene expression studies revealed that salmon UNC93B1 was more highly expressed in spleen, liver and gill tissues but was expressed at a lower level in head kidney tissue in post-smolts relative to parr. Moreover, salmon UNC93B1 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated in vivo in spleen tissue from polyI:C treated salmon and in vitro in polyI:C or IFNγ stimulated Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cells. Initial studies into the functional role of salmon UNC93B1 in fish TLR signalling found that both wild type salmon UNC93B1 and a molecule with a site-directed mutation (H424R) co-immunoprecipitated with salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d. Overall, these data illustrate the potential importance of UNC93B1 as an accessory protein in fish TLR signalling.

  11. Versatile Roles of V-ATPases Accessory Subunit Ac45 in Osteoclast Formation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhen; Pavlos, Nathan J.; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Jiake; Dai, Ke R.; Zheng, Ming H.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are macromolecular proton pumps that acidify intracellular cargos and deliver protons across the plasma membrane of a variety of specialized cells, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Extracellular acidification is crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption, a process that initiates the dissolution of mineralized bone matrix. While the importance of V-ATPases in osteoclastic resorptive function is well-defined, whether V-ATPases facilitate additional aspects of osteoclast function and/or formation remains largely obscure. Here we report that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 participates in both osteoclast formation and function. Using a siRNA-based approach, we show that targeted suppression of Ac45 impairs intracellular acidification and endocytosis, both are prerequisite for osteoclastic bone resorptive function in vitro. Interestingly, we find that knockdown of Ac45 also attenuates osteoclastogenesis owing to a reduced fusion capacity of osteoclastic precursor cells. Finally, in an effort to gain more detailed insights into the functional role of Ac45 in osteoclasts, we attempted to generate osteoclast-specific Ac45 conditional knockout mice using a Cathepsin K-Cre-LoxP system. Surprisingly, however, insertion of the neomycin cassette in the Ac45-FloxNeo mice resulted in marked disturbances in CNS development and ensuing embryonic lethality thus precluding functional assessment of Ac45 in osteoclasts and peripheral bone tissues. Based on these unexpected findings we propose that, in addition to its canonical function in V-ATPase-mediated acidification, Ac45 plays versatile roles during osteoclast formation and function. PMID:22087256

  12. Using Differentials to Differentiate Trigonometric and Exponential Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dray, Tevian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from geometric definitions, we show how differentials can be used to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions without limits, numerical estimates, solutions of differential equations, or integration.

  13. Radical retropubic prostatectomy: the influence of accessory pudendal arteries on the recovery of sexual function.

    PubMed

    Polascik, T J; Walsh, P C

    1995-07-01

    Arterial insufficiency is a major factor responsible for impotence in men following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. Previously, accessory internal pudendal arteries have been identified traveling over the anterolateral surface of the prostate. Based on this observation, during the last 7 years we have consistently looked for the presence of these arteries and have developed a surgical technique for their preservation. Between 1987 and 1994, 835 potent men underwent radical prostatectomy and accessory pudendal arteries were identified in 33 (4%). Following the development of the surgical technique, it was possible to preserve arteries in 19 of 24 patients (79%). Followup evaluation of 1 year or longer was available for 22 men who did not undergo wide excision of a neurovascular bundle. Recovery of erection sufficient for unassisted intromission and orgasm occurred in 8 of 12 patients (67%) in whom the arteries were preserved and in 5 of 10 (50%) in whom the arteries were sacrificed. We conclude that 1) the presence of accessory internal pudendal arteries is rare (4%); 2) although these arteries were preserved in 79% of the patients, dissection of these arteries from the dorsal vein complex may be associated with excessive bleeding, and 3) because potency rates are similar in men with or without preservation of accessory arteries, routine preservation may not be productive.

  14. Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáñez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahão, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the Gαi2- and Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male-male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB.

  15. Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáñez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahão, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the Gαi2- and Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male–male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB. PMID:21457258

  16. Human CLC-K Channels Require Palmitoylation of Their Accessory Subunit Barttin to Be Functional*

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Kim Vanessa; Gorinski, Nataliya; Wojciechowski, Daniel; Todorov, Vladimir; Guseva, Daria; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Fahlke, Christoph; Fischer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    CLC-K/barttin chloride channels are essential for NaCl re-absorption in Henle's loop and for potassium secretion by the stria vascularis in the inner ear. Here, we studied the posttranslational modification of such channels by palmitoylation of their accessory subunit barttin. We found that barttin is palmitoylated in vivo and in vitro and identified two conserved cysteine residues at positions 54 and 56 as palmitoylation sites. Point mutations at these two residues reduce the macroscopic current amplitudes in cells expressing CLC-K/barttin channels proportionally to the relative reduction in palmitoylated barttin. CLC-K/barttin expression, plasma membrane insertion, and single channel properties remain unaffected, indicating that these mutations decrease the number of active channels. R8W and G47R, two naturally occurring barttin mutations identified in patients with Bartter syndrome type IV, reduce barttin palmitoylation and CLC-K/barttin channel activity. Palmitoylation of the accessory subunit barttin might thus play a role in chloride channel dysfunction in certain variants of Bartter syndrome. We did not observe pronounced alteration of barttin palmitoylation upon increased salt and water intake or water deprivation, indicating that this posttranslational modification does not contribute to long term adaptation to variable water intake. Our results identify barttin palmitoylation as a novel posttranslational modification of CLC-K/barttin chloride channels. PMID:26013830

  17. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  18. Homology modeling, docking studies and functional analysis of various azoreductase accessory interacting proteins of Nostoc sp.PCC7120

    PubMed Central

    Philem, Priyadarshini Devi; Adhikari, Samrat

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes have become a threat to public health because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Azoreductase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of azodyes released by industrial effluents and other resources. The degradation pathway has to be studied in detail for increasing the activity of azoreductase and for better degradation of azo dyes. But the data available on cyanobacterial azoreductase enzyme and its degradation pathway are still very less. Therefore the present work explored the azoreductase pathway of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 for better understanding of the degradation pathway and the other accessory interacting proteins involved. The accessory interacting proteins of azoreductase from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 were obtained from STRING database. The proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure and are hypothetical. The secondary structure and functional analysis indicated that the proteins are all soluble proteins, without disulphide bonds and have alpha helices only. The structural prediction and docking study showed that alr2106, alr1063 and alr2326 have best docking result which tally with the STRING database confidence score and thus these proteins could possibly enhance the azoreductase activity and better dye degradation. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway. PMID:22553385

  19. Homology modeling, docking studies and functional analysis of various azoreductase accessory interacting proteins of Nostoc sp.PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Philem, Priyadarshini Devi; Adhikari, Samrat

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes have become a threat to public health because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Azoreductase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of azodyes released by industrial effluents and other resources. The degradation pathway has to be studied in detail for increasing the activity of azoreductase and for better degradation of azo dyes. But the data available on cyanobacterial azoreductase enzyme and its degradation pathway are still very less. Therefore the present work explored the azoreductase pathway of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 for better understanding of the degradation pathway and the other accessory interacting proteins involved. The accessory interacting proteins of azoreductase from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 were obtained from STRING database. The proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure and are hypothetical. The secondary structure and functional analysis indicated that the proteins are all soluble proteins, without disulphide bonds and have alpha helices only. The structural prediction and docking study showed that alr2106, alr1063 and alr2326 have best docking result which tally with the STRING database confidence score and thus these proteins could possibly enhance the azoreductase activity and better dye degradation. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway.

  20. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  1. The functional morphology of the accessory interosseous muscle in the gibbon hand: determination of locomotor and manipulatory compromises.

    PubMed Central

    Susman, R L; Jungers, W L; Stern, J T

    1982-01-01

    The evidence for two functional roles of M. accessorius interosseus can be adduced as follows: (1) abduction of the whole finger is clearly required to resist the force of the thumb against the index during pinch grasp (Fig. 4) and when greater resistance is applied to the food, activity increases in the muscle. (2) The muscle also flexes the metacarpophalangeal joint at the onset of grasp on the ladder rung. In hanging from the finger tips or from the cage top, with the metacarpophalangeal joints extended, the muscle goes silent. From the functional point of view, the name given by Huxley (1871) to the M. accessorius interosseus ('abductor tertii internodii secundi digiti') is perhaps the most appropriate one. For reasons of economy, however, we favour continued use of the nomen Musculus accessorius interosseus (Fitzwilliams, 1910) or accessory interosseous muscle. The name coined by Keith (1894; p. 299) which implies that this muscle is an extensor of the distal interphalangeal joint, and any suggestions that the muscle functions primarily to flex the proximal interphalangeal joint are less appropriate or in error. The EMG data reveal that the M. accessorius interosseus is primarily an abductor of the index finger in gibbons, and we suggest that it is a unique feature of lesser apes that has evolved in compensation for a deep thumb-index cleft and the loss of the radial moiety of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. The primary role of this specialized muscle is in thumb-index pinch grasping. Images Fig. 5 PMID:7076537

  2. Rat dendritic cells function as accessory cells and control the production of a soluble factor required for mitogenic responses of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Klinkert, W E; LaBadie, J H; O'Brien, J P; Beyer, C F; Bowers, W E

    1980-01-01

    Transformation of T lymphocytes, induced by treatment with periodate or with neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase, requires the participation of accessory cells. Procedures were developed for the fractionation of rat lymph node cells, by which most of the lymphocytes can be recovered as a major population of cells that do not respond to mitogenic stimulation unless accessory cells from a separated minor population are added. Further purification led to a 1000-fold overall increase in accessory activity per cell, with a 50-70% yield. The purest preparations were virtually free of macrophages and contained more than 90% typical dendritic cells. Maximum responses occurred at a ratio of only one dendritic cell per 200 periodate-treated lymphocytes. This evidence thus indicates strongly that in rats, dendritic cells--not macrophages--function as accessory cells. Further, the number of dendritic cells in a preparation governed the magnitude of the mitogenic response and was limiting in the case of unfractionated lymph node cells. In addition, when oxidized with periodate or with neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase, the dendritic cell served as a very potent indirect stimulator of untreated responder lymphocytes. Both functions of the dendritic cell appeared to lack species specificity, since mouse dendritic cells were very active when tested with rat responder lymphocytes. A soluble factor (accessory cell-replacing factor), produced by cultures of lymph node or spleen cells subjected to oxidative mitogenesis, enabled otherwise unresponsive mitogen-treated lymphocytes to respond. Dendritic cells were required for the production of this factor but may not be solely responsible for its production. Images PMID:6968911

  3. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery.

  4. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  5. Differential dopamine function in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Daniel S; MacKie, Palmer J; Kareken, David A; Hutchins, Gary D; Chumin, Evgeny J; Christian, Bradley T; Yoder, Karmen K

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 30 % of Americans suffer from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia (FM), which can cause debilitating pain. Many pain-killing drugs prescribed for chronic pain disorders are highly addictive, have limited clinical efficacy, and do not treat the cognitive symptoms reported by many patients. The neurobiological substrates of chronic pain are largely unknown, but evidence points to altered dopaminergic transmission in aberrant pain perception. We sought to characterize the dopamine (DA) system in individuals with FM. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]fallypride (FAL) was used to assess changes in DA during a working memory challenge relative to a baseline task, and to test for associations between baseline D2/D3 availability and experimental pain measures. Twelve female subjects with FM and 11 female controls completed study procedures. Subjects received one FAL PET scan while performing a "2-back" task, and one while performing a "0-back" (attentional control, "baseline") task. FM subjects had lower baseline FAL binding potential (BP) in several cortical regions relative to controls, including anterior cingulate cortex. In FM subjects, self-reported spontaneous pain negatively correlated with FAL BP in the left orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Baseline BP was significantly negatively correlated with experimental pain sensitivity and tolerance in both FM and CON subjects, although spatial patterns of these associations differed between groups. The data suggest that abnormal DA function may be associated with differential processing of pain perception in FM. Further studies are needed to explore the functional significance of DA in nociception and cognitive processing in chronic pain.

  6. Topologies for neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Bounded topologies are considered for functional differential equations of the neutral type in which present dynamics of the system are influenced by its past behavior. A special bounded topology is generated on a collection of absolutely continuous functions with essentially bounded derivatives, and an application to a class of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations due to Driver (1965) is presented.

  7. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Shpak, Guy; Zylbertal, Asaph; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican). In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs) following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states. PMID:25642164

  8. Detecting Differential Person Functioning in Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmadi, Yahia M.; Alsmadi, Abdalla A.

    2009-01-01

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is a widely used term in test development literature. It is very important to analyze test's data for DIF because It is a serious threat to validity. If the same data matrix was transposed, similar analysis can be carried for Differential Person Functioning (DPF). The purpose of this paper is to introduce and…

  9. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine.

  10. Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas

    2010-08-27

    Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

  11. Differential plasticity of microglial cells in the rostrocaudal neuraxis of the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice following mating and stud male exposure.

    PubMed

    Okere, Chuma O

    2012-04-11

    The formation of an olfactory recognition memory by female mice for the stud male pheromones requires two fundamental conditions: incidence of mating and retention of the stud male with the female for a critical 6h interval following mating. This biologically critical recognition memory results from plasticity of reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In this study, a microglia marker antibody (ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein, Iba1) was used to determine how mating and stud pheromones affect microglia in the AOB rostrocaudal axis in female mice. The results showed that compared with estrus and mating only, mating and pheromone exposure significantly increased Iba1 immunoreactivity in the AOB evidenced by increased complexity of ramified microglial processes characteristic of resting microglial morphological phenotype, particularly in the rostral AOB. The density of Iba1 staining after mating and stud pheromone exposure was higher in the rostral - compared to caudal - AOB and was most prevalent in the external plexiform layer, the site of reciprocal mitral-granule dendrodendritic synapses. While cells with activated phenotype were observed in caudal AOB during estrus, mating/pheromone exposure appeared to induce a morphological transformation to the resting microglia phenotype. Since previous evidence implicate the rostral AOB in processing pheromonal signals and microglial cells monitor active synapses, these observations have important functional implications for a potential role for microglia in processing pheromonal signals in the AOB during the formation of olfactory memory.

  12. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  13. A class of neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Formulation and study of the initial value problem for neutral functional differential equations. The existence, uniqueness, and continuation of solutions to this problem are investigated, and an analysis is made of the dependence of the solutions on the initial conditions and parameters, resulting in the derivation of a continuous dependence theorem in which the fundamental mathematical principles underlying the continuous dependence problem for a very general system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations are separated out.

  14. Advantages of reusable accessories.

    PubMed

    Wolfsen, H C

    2000-04-01

    Despite scant evidence supporting the use of disposable accessories, these devices have been widely disseminated. Manufacturers and governmental regulators, the most devout proponents of one-time use accessories, have framed the issue in economic terms-parsimonious practitioners reusing disposable accessories at the risk of cross-contamination, mechanical failure and product liability. This simplistic view represents revisionist history and ignores the long tradition of reusing these devices. This article reviews the numerous studies that support the safe and cost effective reuse of disposable and reusable accessories.

  15. Sexual Behavior Increases Cell Proliferation in the Rostral Migratory Stream and Promotes the Differentiation of the New Cells into Neurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Rebeca; Retana-Márquez, Socorro; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated, that 15 days after female rats pace the sexual interaction, there is an increase in the number of new cells that reach the granular cell layer (GrL) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate, if the first sexual experience in the female rat increases cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also tested if this behavior promotes the survival of the new cells that integrate into the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and AOB 45 days after the behavioral test. Sexually, naive female rats were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on the day of the behavioral test. They were randomly divided into the following groups: Female rats placed alone in the mating cage (1); Females exposed to amyl acetate odor [banana scent, (2)]; Females that could see, hear, and smell the male but physical contact was not possible [exposed to male, (3)]; Female rats that could pace the sexual interaction (4); and females that mated without the possibility of pacing the sexual interaction (5). Animals were sacrificed 2 days after the behavioral test (proliferation) or 45 days later (survival). Our results show that 2 days after females were exposed to banana scent or to the male, they had a higher number of cells in the SVZ. Females, that mated in pace and no-paced conditions had more new cells in the RMS. At 45 days, no significant differences were found in the number of new cells that survived in the MOB or in the AOB. However, mating increased the percentage of new cells, that differentiated into neurons in the GrL of the AOB. These new cells expressed c-Fos after a second sexual encounter just before the females were sacrificed. No significant differences in plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were observed between groups. Our results indicate that the first sexual experience increases cell proliferation in the RMS and mating

  16. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gligorov, Dragan; Sitnik, Jessica L; Maeda, Robert K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Karch, François

    2013-03-01

    In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR.

  17. Accessory genes in the darA operon of bacteriophage P1 affect antirestriction function, generalized transduction, head morphogenesis, and host cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Iida, S; Hiestand-Nauer, R; Sandmeier, H; Lehnherr, H; Arber, W

    1998-11-10

    Bacteriophage P1 mutants with the 8.86-kb region between the invertible C-segment and the residential IS1 element deleted from their genome are still able to grow vegetatively and to lysogenize stably, but they show several phenotypic changes. These include the formation of minute plaques due to delayed cell lysis, the abundant production of small-headed particles, a lack of specific internal head proteins, sensitivity to type I host restriction systems, and altered properties to mediate generalized transduction. In the wild-type P1 genome, the accessory genes encoding the functions responsible for these characters are localized in the darA operon that is transcribed late during phage production. We determined the relevant DNA sequence that is located between the C-segment and the IS1 element and contains the cin gene for C-inversion and the accessory genes in the darA operon. The darA operon carries eight open reading frames that could encode polypeptides containing >100 amino acids. Genetic studies indicate that some of these open reading frames, in particular those residing in the 5' part of the darA operon, are responsible for the phenotypic traits identified. The study may contribute to a better comprehension of phage morphogenesis, of the mobilization of host DNA into phage particles mediating generalized transduction, of the defense against type I restriction systems, and of the control of host lysis.

  18. Detecting Differential Item Functioning and Differential Step Functioning due to Differences that "Should" Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tess; Chahine, Saad; Childs, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study illustrates the use of differential item functioning (DIF) and differential step functioning (DSF) analyses to detect differences in item difficulty that are related to experiences of examinees, such as their teachers' instructional practices, that are relevant to the knowledge, skill, or ability the test is intended to measure. This…

  19. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  20. Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

  1. A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

  2. Control of functional differential equations with function space boundary conditions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    The results of various authors dealing with problems involving functional differential equations with terminal conditions in function space are reviewed. The review includes not only very recent results, but also some little known results of Soviet mathematicians prior to 1970. Particular attention is given to results concerning controllability, existence of optimal controls, and necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality.

  3. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  4. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  5. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  6. Synchronization with propagation - The functional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rǎsvan, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The structure represented by one or several oscillators couple to a one-dimensional transmission environment (e.g. a vibrating string in the mechanical case or a lossless transmission line in the electrical case) turned to be attractive for the research in the field of complex structures and/or complex behavior. This is due to the fact that such a structure represents some generalization of various interconnection modes with lumped parameters for the oscillators. On the other hand the lossless and distortionless propagation along transmission lines has generated several research in electrical, thermal, hydro and control engineering leading to the association of some functional differential equations to the basic initial boundary value problems. The present research is performed at the crossroad of the aforementioned directions. We shall associate to the starting models some functional differential equations - in most cases of neutral type - and make use of the general theorems for existence and stability of forced oscillations for functional differential equations. The challenges introduced by the analyzed problems for the general theory are emphasized, together with the implication of the results for various applications.

  7. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  8. Visual determination of differential renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.F.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Forty patients (43 studies) referred for determination of differential renal function were imaged 24 hours after intravenous administration of Tc-99m-2, 3 DMSA. Visual assessment of relative renal uptake was estimated independently by three observers at three different hospitals from analog images on standard x-ray film. The results were compared with the relative DMSA uptake obtained by summing counts in computer-assisted regions of interest placed over each kidney. There was excellent correlation between the visual estimates of each observer and the computer-generated values (r = 0.98, 0.96, and 0.98, respectively). If a computer is not available, good visual estimates of differential uptake still may be obtained when static imaging agents such as DMSA are administered.

  9. Differential person functioning applied to baseball.

    PubMed

    Johanson, George A; Brooks, Gordon P

    2008-12-01

    The question of whether a baseball player generally hits better against a left-handed or right-handed pitcher is difficult to answer since handedness is only one of many possible attributes of pitchers. The concept of differential functioning from psychometrics is applied, considering both the effect of the handedness of the pitcher and his earned run average (the mean number of runs scored against a pitcher per 9 innings pitched excluding runs due to errors). Two interesting cases are examined, a left-handed batter and a switch-hitter. Suggestions for further research are offered.

  10. Accessory fissures of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, D.; Tarver, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory fissures of the lung are commonly observed in lung specimens, but are often unappreciated or misinterpreted in radiographs and computer tomographic (CT) scans. They usually occur at the boundaries between bronchopulmonary segments. Most common are the inferior accessory fissure, which demarcates the medial basal segment; the superior accessory fissure, which demarcates the superior segment; and the left minor fissure, which demarcates the lingula. This essay will illustrate the findings of the common accessory fissures both on plain radiographs and on CT scans.

  11. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  12. Distinguishing Differential Testlet Functioning from Differential Bundle Functioning Using the Multilevel Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Walker, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the multilevel measurement model to handle testlet-based dependencies. A flexible two-level testlet response model (the MMMT-2 model) for dichotomous items is introduced that permits assessment of differential testlet functioning (DTLF). A distinction is made between this study's conceptualization of DTLF and that of…

  13. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-08-10

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy.

  14. Reutilization of accessories in gastrointestinal endoscopic practice.

    PubMed

    Haber, G

    2000-10-01

    The key issues that determine the decision between reusable versus disposable accessories are cost and functionality. In most health-care systems the availability and dissemination of endoscopic services relates directly to the resources (i.e. budget) of that system. Given the limitations of health-care budgets, access to endoscopic services will depend upon the cost efficiency of endoscopic practice. The onus on endoscopists and health-care providers, therefore, is to meticulously evaluate the necessary steps for safe reutilization of accessories. This paper addresses the principles of reuse, quality assurance and particularly disinfection practices. Any change to a more costly disposable accessory policy must bear the responsibility of denied access to endoscopic services in a system with finite resources.

  15. Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed Central

    London, J.; London, N. J.; Kay, S. P.

    1996-01-01

    Accessory nerve injury produces considerable disability. The nerve is most frequently damaged as a complication of radical neck dissection, cervical lymph node biopsy and other surgical procedures. The problem is frequently compounded by a failure to recognise the error immediately after surgery when surgical repair has the greatest chance of success. We present cases which outline the risk of accessory nerve injury, the spectrum of clinical presentations and the problems produced by a failure to recognise the deficit. Regional anatomy, consequences of nerve damage and management options are discussed. Diagnostic biopsy of neck nodes should not be undertaken as a primary investigation and, when indicated, surgery in this region should be performed by suitably trained staff under well-defined conditions. Awareness of iatrogenic injury and its consequences would avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. Images Figure 2 PMID:8678450

  16. Phylogenetic Insights into the Functional Relationship between Primate Lentiviral Reverse Transcriptase and Accessory Proteins Vpx/Vpr

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yosuke; Doi, Naoya; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Adachi, Akio; Nomaguchi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of reverse transcription to synthesize viral DNA in infected cells greatly influences replication kinetics of retroviruses. However, viral replication in non-dividing cells such as resting T cells and terminally differentiated macrophages is potently and kinetically restricted by a host antiviral factor designated SAMHD1 (sterile alpha motif and HD-domain containing protein 1). SAMHD1 reduces cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools and affects viral reverse transcription step. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and some simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have Vpx or Vpr to efficiently degrade SAMHD1. Interestingly, the reverse transcriptase (RT) derived from HIV-1 that encodes no anti-SAMHD1 proteins has been previously demonstrated to uniquely exhibit a high enzymatic activity. It is thus not irrational to assume that some viruses may have acquired or lost the specific RT property to better adapt themselves to the low dNTP environments confronted in non-dividing cells. This adaptation process may probably be correlated with the SAMHD1-antagonizing ability by viruses. In this report, we asked whether such adaptive events can be inferable from Vpx/Vpr and RT phylogenetic trees overlaid with SAMHD1-degrading capacity of Vpx/Vpr and with kinetic characteristics of RT. Resultant two trees showed substantially similar clustering patterns, and therefore suggested that the properties of RT and Vpx/Vpr can be linked. In other words, HIV/SIVs may possess their own RT proteins to adequately react to various dNTP circumstances in target cells. PMID:27803699

  17. A new kind of auxiliary heart in insects: functional morphology and neuronal control of the accessory pulsatile organs of the cricket ovipositor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In insects, the pumping of the dorsal heart causes circulation of hemolymph throughout the central body cavity, but not within the interior of long body appendages. Hemolymph exchange in these dead-end structures is accomplished by special flow-guiding structures and/or autonomous pulsatile organs (“auxiliary hearts”). In this paper accessory pulsatile organs for an insect ovipositor are described for the first time. We studied these organs in females of the cricket Acheta domesticus by analyzing their functional morphology, neuroanatomy and physiological control. Results The lumen of the four long ovipositor valves is subdivided by longitudinal septa of connective tissue into efferent and afferent hemolymph sinuses which are confluent distally. The countercurrent flow in these sinuses is effected by pulsatile organs which are located at the bases of the ovipositor valves. Each of the four organs consists of a pumping chamber which is compressed by rhythmically contracting muscles. The morphology of the paired organs is laterally mirrored, and there are differences in some details between the dorsal and ventral organs. The compression of the pumping chambers of each valve pair occurs with a left-right alternating rhythm with a frequency of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz and is synchronized between the dorsal and ventral organs. The more anteriorly located genital chamber shows rhythmical lateral movements simultaneous to those of the ovipositor pulsatile organs and probably supports the hemolymph exchange in the abdominal apex region. The left-right alternating rhythm is produced by a central pattern generator located in the terminal ganglion. It requires no sensory feedback for its output since it persists in the completely isolated ganglion. Rhythm-modulating and rhythm-resetting interneurons are identified in the terminal ganglion. Conclusion The circulatory organs of the cricket ovipositor have a unique functional morphology. The pumping apparatus at the base

  18. Legendre-tau approximations for functional differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, K.; Teglas, R.

    1986-01-01

    The numerical approximation of solutions to linear retarded functional differential equations are considered using the so-called Legendre-tau method. The functional differential equation is first reformulated as a partial differential equation with a nonlocal boundary condition involving time-differentiation. The approximate solution is then represented as a truncated Legendre series with time-varying coefficients which satisfy a certain system of ordinary differential equations. The method is very easy to code and yields very accurate approximations. Convergence is established, various numerical examples are presented, and comparison between the latter and cubic spline approximation is made.

  19. Computations involving differential operators and their actions on functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Peter E.; Grossman, Robert; Larson, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The algorithms derived by Grossmann and Larson (1989) are further developed for rewriting expressions involving differential operators. The differential operators involved arise in the local analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems. These algorithms are extended in two different directions: the algorithms are generalized so that they apply to differential operators on groups and the data structures and algorithms are developed to compute symbolically the action of differential operators on functions. Both of these generalizations are needed for applications.

  20. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  1. Net and Global Differential Item Functioning in PISA Polytomously Scored Science Items: Application of the Differential Step Functioning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akour, Mutasem; Sabah, Saed; Hammouri, Hind

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply two types of Differential Item Functioning (DIF), net and global DIF, as well as the framework of Differential Step Functioning (DSF) to real testing data to investigate measurement invariance related to test language. Data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)-2006 polytomously scored…

  2. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than

  3. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  4. Accessories or necessities? Exploring consensus on usage of stoma accessories.

    PubMed

    Rudoni, Caroline; Dennis, Heather

    Usage and opinion of accessory products in stoma care vary enormously. The aim of this study was to identify what constitutes an accessory product and to find out whether there is any standardization regarding their recommendation. Views of both patients and stoma nurses were examined. Patients identify accessory products as being necessary both physically and psychologically in improving their quality of life. While stoma nurses identify that the psychological effects of having a stoma should never be underestimated, there is still concern regarding the cost of recommending these products and their clinical necessity. It would appear that clinical necessity is based on nurses' opinions and is not always evidence or research based. Since accessory products have been shown to be essential to many patients with a stoma, should stoma nurses be more empathetic when considering their recommendation?

  5. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  6. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  7. Curriculum, Translation, and Differential Functioning of Measurement and Geometry Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenogu, Barnabas C.; Childs, Ruth A.

    2005-01-01

    A test item exhibits differential item functioning (DIF) if students with the same ability find it differentially difficult. When the item is administered in French and English, differences in language difficulty and meaning are the most likely explanations. However, curriculum differences may also contribute to DIF. The responses of Ontario…

  8. Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin

    2013-08-15

    The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

  9. Local behavior of autonomous neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Basic problems for a special class of neutral functional differential equations (NFDE) are formulated, and some contributions to a general qualitative theory in the neighborhood of an equilibrium point are indicated. The properties of a NFDE (G,f) are examined to determine in what sense these properties are insensitive to small changes in (G,f) in the topology G x F. The special class of equations that is introduced includes retarded functional differential equations and difference equations.

  10. Functional implications of differential chromosome banding.

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, H

    1975-01-01

    Information on DNA content and banding patterns has been utilized in the construction of a novel ideogram of the human complement. Correspondence between certain features of this ideogram and the clinical record of human autosomal imbalance supports the idea that banding patterns reflect structural as well as functional heterogeneity of chromosomes. PMID:51585

  11. Fuzzy fractional functional differential equations under Caputo gH-differentiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, Ngo Van

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the fuzzy fractional functional differential equations (FFFDEs) under the Caputo generalized Hukuhara differentiability are introduced. We study the existence and uniqueness results of solutions for FFFDEs under some suitable conditions. Also the solution to fuzzy fractional functional initial value problem under Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives by a modified Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method (MABMM) is presented. The method is illustrated by solving some examples.

  12. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  13. Functional differentiability in time-dependent quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Penz, Markus Ruggenthaler, Michael

    2015-03-28

    In this work, we investigate the functional differentiability of the time-dependent many-body wave function and of derived quantities with respect to time-dependent potentials. For properly chosen Banach spaces of potentials and wave functions, Fréchet differentiability is proven. From this follows an estimate for the difference of two solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that evolve under the influence of different potentials. Such results can be applied directly to the one-particle density and to bounded operators, and present a rigorous formulation of non-equilibrium linear-response theory where the usual Lehmann representation of the linear-response kernel is not valid. Further, the Fréchet differentiability of the wave function provides a new route towards proving basic properties of time-dependent density-functional theory.

  14. Differential Forms Basis Functions for Better Conditioned Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; White, D; Stowell, M; Rieben, R; Sharpe, R; Madsen, N; Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Jandhyala, V; Pingenot, J

    2005-01-13

    Differential forms offer a convenient way to classify physical quantities and set up computational problems. By observing the dimensionality and type of derivatives (divergence,curl,gradient) applied to a quantity, an appropriate differential form can be chosen for that quantity. To use these differential forms in a simulation, the forms must be discretized using basis functions. The 0-form through 2-form basis functions are formed for surfaces. Twisted 1-form and 2-form bases will be presented in this paper. Twisted 1-form (1-forms) basis functions ({Lambda}) are divergence-conforming edge basis functions with units m{sup -1}. They are appropriate for representing vector quantities with continuous normal components, and they belong to the same function space as the commonly used RWG bases [1]. They are used here to formulate the frequency-domain EFIE with Galerkin testing. The 2-form basis functions (f) are scalar basis functions with units m{sup -2} and with no enforced continuity between elements. At lowest order, the 2-form basis functions are similar to pulse basis functions. They are used here to formulate an electrostatic integral equation. It should be noted that the derivative of an n-form differential form basis function is an (n+1)-form, i.e. the derivative of a 1-form basis function is a 2-form. Because the basis functions are constructed such that they have spatial units, the spatial units are removed from the degrees of freedom, leading to a better-conditioned system matrix. In this conference paper, we look at the performance of these differential forms and bases by examining the conditioning of matrix systems for electrostatics and the EFIE. The meshes used were refined across the object to consider the behavior of these basis transforms for elements of different sizes.

  15. Regulatory T Cells: Differentiation and Function.

    PubMed

    Plitas, George; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    The immune system of vertebrate animals has evolved to mount an effective defense against a diverse set of pathogens while minimizing transient or lasting impairment in tissue function that could result from the inflammation caused by immune responses to infectious agents. In addition, misguided immune responses to "self" and dietary antigens, as well as to commensal microorganisms, can lead to a variety of inflammatory disorders, including autoimmunity, metabolic syndrome, allergies, and cancer. Regulatory T cells expressing the X chromosome-linked transcription factor Foxp3 suppress inflammatory responses in diverse biological settings and serve as a vital mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 721-5. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27590281

  16. Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Morris, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    Nambury S. Raju (1937-2005) developed two model-based indices for differential item functioning (DIF) during his prolific career in psychometrics. Both methods, Raju's area measures (Raju, 1988) and Raju's DFIT (Raju, van der Linden, & Fleer, 1995), are based on quantifying the gap between item characteristic functions (ICFs). This approach…

  17. The Differential Diagnosis of Functional Symptoms in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Functional complaints constitute the major reason why adolescents visit the physician's office. These complaints may coexist with organic illness of minor or major significance. Proposes a definition of functional disorders, sets forth a classification of the differential diagnosis of these disorders and suggests techniques for their management.…

  18. Green's function of the second order differential operator with involution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Sarsenbi, Abdisalam A.

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the Green's function of the second order differential operator L defined by formula L u =α u″ (x ) -u″ (-x ) =λ u (x ) ,-1 function is established.

  19. Decisions that Make a Difference in Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Rios, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous statistical procedures for detecting items that function differently across subgroups of examinees that take a test or survey. However, in endeavouring to detect items that may function differentially, selection of the statistical method is only one of many important decisions. In this article, we discuss the important decisions…

  20. Serum amyloid A inhibits osteoclast differentiation to maintain macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiseon; Yang, Jihyun; Park, Ok-Jin; Kang, Seok-Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Serum amyloid A is an acute phase protein that is elevated under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, the serum levels of serum amyloid A are associated with the progression of inflammatory arthritis; thus, serum amyloid A might be involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we examined the effects of serum amyloid A on osteoclast differentiation and function. When bone marrow-derived macrophages, as osteoclast precursors, were stimulated with serum amyloid A in the presence of M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoclast differentiation and its bone-resorption activity were substantially inhibited. TLR2 was important in the inhibitory effect of serum amyloid A on osteoclast differentiation, because serum amyloid A stimulated TLR2. The inhibitory effect was absent in bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from TLR2-deficient mice. Furthermore, serum amyloid A inhibited the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation, but prevented downregulation of IFN regulatory factor-8, a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation. In contrast, serum amyloid A sustained the endocytic capacity of bone marrow-derived macrophages and their ability to induce the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Taken together, these results suggest that serum amyloid A, when increased by inflammatory conditions, inhibits differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, likely to maintain macrophage function for host defense.

  1. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  2. Advantages of disposable endoscopic accessories.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B T

    2000-04-01

    Despite the prevailing emphasis on falling reimbursements and cost containment, the use of disposable endoscopic accessories has grown tremendously. They offer simplicity of use, certain sterility, and reduced labor costs in exchange for higher purchase costs per procedure and the burden of waste disposal. Disposable accessories provide greater variety, complexity, and utility. They carry a cost burden that may be acceptable when the devices are difficult to reprocess, when they incorporate features that justify the added cost, or when their unit cost approaches purchase plus reprocessing costs for reusable alternatives, such as for biopsy forceps. Units with small volumes may prefer the ease of disposable accessories independent of relative cost issues, while large high-volume units may need to evaluate cost data more carefully to maintain sustainable practices.

  3. The LIM protein LIMD1 influences osteoblast differentiation and function

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, Hilary F.; Bai Shuting; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2008-09-10

    The balance between bone resorption and bone formation involves the coordinated activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Communication between these two cell types is essential for maintenance of normal bone homeostasis; however, the mechanisms regulating this cross talk are not completely understood. Many factors that mediate differentiation and function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts have been identified. The LIM protein Limd1 has been implicated in the regulation of stress osteoclastogenesis through an interaction with the p62/sequestosome protein. Here we show that Limd1 also influences osteoblast progenitor numbers, differentiation, and function. Limd1{sup -/-} calvarial osteoblasts display increased mineralization and accelerated differentiation. While no significant differences in osteoblast number or function were detected in vivo, bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Limd1{sup -/-} mice contain significantly more osteoblast progenitors compared to wild type controls when cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in nuclear {beta}-catenin staining in differentiating Limd1{sup -/-} calvarial osteoblasts suggesting that Limd1 is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. These results demonstrate that Limd1 influences not only stress osteoclastogenesis but also osteoblast function and osteoblast progenitor commitment. Together, these data identify Limd1 as a novel regulator of both bone osetoclast and bone osteoblast development and function.

  4. HYPERDIRE-HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction: Mathematica-based packages for the differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions: Lauricella function FC of three variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2016-09-01

    We present a further extension of the HYPERDIRE project, which is devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica-based program packages for manipulations with Horn-type hypergeometric functions on the basis of differential equations. Specifically, we present the implementation of the differential reduction for the Lauricella function FC of three variables.

  5. Intrahepatic accessory spleen: imaging features.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Luciano; Caputo, Maria; Galati, Gaspare

    2004-06-01

    The authors present a case report of a 60-year-old man with a hepatic unknown mass. For diagnosis, they used ECO, CT (with and without contrast), MR (with and without contrast) and an ultrasound-assisted percutaneous lesion biopsy. Thus the mass-lesion in the liver appeared to be an intrahepatic accessory spleen in a patient afflicted with chronic hepatitis.

  6. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  7. IRT Differential Item Functioning: An Examination of Ability Scale Purifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautenschlager, Gary J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) methods used to determine the accuracy of item classification as biased or unbiased were studied. Results from simulations show that the iterative linking and ability scale purification method can be more effective than iterative linking alone primarily by reducing false negatives.…

  8. Exploring Crossing Differential Item Functioning by Gender in Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore crossing differential item functioning (DIF) in a test drawn from a national examination of mathematics for 11-year-old pupils in England. An empirical dataset was analyzed to explore DIF by gender in a mathematics assessment. A two-step process involving the logistic regression (LR) procedure for…

  9. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  10. The epigenetic landscape of mammary gland development and functional differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the development and functional differentiation in the mammary gland occur after birth. Epigenetics is defined as the stable alterations in gene expression potential that arise during development and proliferation. Epigenetic changes are mediated at the biochemical level by the chromatin conf...

  11. Three Classes of Nonparametric Differential Step Functioning Effect Estimators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2008-01-01

    The examination of measurement invariance in polytomous items is complicated by the possibility that the magnitude and sign of lack of invariance may vary across the steps underlying the set of polytomous response options, a concept referred to as differential step functioning (DSF). This article describes three classes of nonparametric DSF effect…

  12. A Comparison of Methods for Detecting Differential Distractor Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the odds-ratio method (Penfield, 2008) and the multinomial logistic regression method (Kato, Moen, & Thurlow, 2009) for measuring differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects in comparison to the standardized distractor analysis approach (Schmitt & Bleistein, 1987). Students classified as participating…

  13. Using Mixed Methods to Interpret Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) is often used to determine if cross-lingual assessments are equivalent across languages. However, evidence on the causes of cross-lingual DIF is still evasive. Expert appraisal is a qualitative method useful for obtaining detailed information about problematic elements in the different linguistic…

  14. Assessing and Explaining Differential Item Functioning Using Logistic Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Noortgate, Wim; De Boeck, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Although differential item functioning (DIF) theory traditionally focuses on the behavior of individual items in two (or a few) specific groups, in educational measurement contexts, it is often plausible to regard the set of items as a random sample from a broader category. This article presents logistic mixed models that can be used to model…

  15. Differential Item Functioning (DIF): Current Problems and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    With the rising concerns over the fairness of language tests, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) has been increasingly applied in bias analysis. Despite its widespread use in psychometric circles, DIF is facing a number of serious problems. This paper is an attempt to shed light on a number of the issues involved in DIF analysis. Specifically,…

  16. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  17. The Effects of Testlets on Reliability and Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teker, Gulsen Tasdelen; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Reliability and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were conducted on testlets displaying local item dependence in this study. The data set employed in the research was obtained from the answers given by 1,500 students to the 20 items included in six testlets given in English Proficiency Exam by the School of Foreign Languages of a state…

  18. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  19. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  20. Master integrals for splitting functions from differential equations in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gituliar, Oleksandr

    2016-02-01

    A method for calculating phase-space master integrals for the decay process 1 → n masslesspartonsinQCDusingintegration-by-partsanddifferentialequationstechniques is discussed. The method is based on the appropriate choice of the basis for master integrals which leads to significant simplification of differential equations. We describe an algorithm how to construct the desirable basis, so that the resulting system of differential equations can be recursively solved in terms of (G) HPLs as a series in the dimensional regulator ɛ to any order. We demonstrate its power by calculating master integrals for the NLO time-like splitting functions and discuss future applications of the proposed method at the NNLO precision.

  1. Almost automorphic solutions for some partial functional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzinbi, Khalil; N'guerekata, Gaston Mandata

    2007-04-01

    In this work, we study the existence of almost automorphic solutions for some partial functional differential equations. We prove that the existence of a bounded solution on implies the existence of an almost automorphic solution. Our results extend the classical known theorem by Bohr and Neugebauer on the existence of almost periodic solutions for inhomegeneous linear almost periodic differential equations. We give some applications to hyperbolic equations and Lotka-Volterra type equations used to describe the evolution of a single diffusive animal species.

  2. [FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN BRYOZOAN COLONY: A PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS].

    PubMed

    Kutyumov, V A; Maltseva, A L; Kotenko, N; Ostrovsky, A N

    2016-01-01

    Bryozoans are typical modular organisms. They consist of repetitive structural units, the zooids. Bryozoan colonies grow by zooidal budding, with the distribution pattern of the budding loci underlying the diversity of colony forms. Budding is usually restricted to the zooids at the periphery of the colony, which form a "growing edge" or local terminal growth zones. Non-budding parts of the colony can be functionally subdivided, too. In many species colonies consists of regular, often repetitive zones of feeding and non-feeding modules, associated with a periodical degeneration and regeneration of the polypide, retractile tentacle crown with a gut and the accompanying musculature. So, there is functional differentiation in bryozoan colonies but its mechanisms are unknown. Presumably, budding and/or polypide recycling in different colony parts are induced or inhibited by certain determinants of functional specialization. An effective tool of their identification is the comparison of proteomes of functionally different zones. Here we report the results of proteomic analysis of three bryozoan species from the White Sea, which have a different colony form: Flustrellidra hispida, Terminoflustra membranaceotruncata and Securiflustra securifrons. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we compared proteomes of the growing edge and the zones consisting of feeding and non-feeding zooids in these species. We estimated the overall proteome variability, revealed proteins whose relative abundance gradually changed along the proximal-distal colony axis and suggested that they might be involved in the functional differentiation of the colony.

  3. [FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN BRYOZOAN COLONY: A PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS].

    PubMed

    Kutyumov, V A; Maltseva, A L; Kotenko, N; Ostrovsky, A N

    2016-01-01

    Bryozoans are typical modular organisms. They consist of repetitive structural units, the zooids. Bryozoan colonies grow by zooidal budding, with the distribution pattern of the budding loci underlying the diversity of colony forms. Budding is usually restricted to the zooids at the periphery of the colony, which form a "growing edge" or local terminal growth zones. Non-budding parts of the colony can be functionally subdivided, too. In many species colonies consists of regular, often repetitive zones of feeding and non-feeding modules, associated with a periodical degeneration and regeneration of the polypide, retractile tentacle crown with a gut and the accompanying musculature. So, there is functional differentiation in bryozoan colonies but its mechanisms are unknown. Presumably, budding and/or polypide recycling in different colony parts are induced or inhibited by certain determinants of functional specialization. An effective tool of their identification is the comparison of proteomes of functionally different zones. Here we report the results of proteomic analysis of three bryozoan species from the White Sea, which have a different colony form: Flustrellidra hispida, Terminoflustra membranaceotruncata and Securiflustra securifrons. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we compared proteomes of the growing edge and the zones consisting of feeding and non-feeding zooids in these species. We estimated the overall proteome variability, revealed proteins whose relative abundance gradually changed along the proximal-distal colony axis and suggested that they might be involved in the functional differentiation of the colony. PMID:27220253

  4. Differential Expression and Network Inferences through Functional Data Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Neira, Mauricio; Etzioni, Ruth; Gleave, Martin; Nelson, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Time–course microarray data consist of mRNA expression from a common set of genes collected at different time points. Such data are thought to reflect underlying biological processes developing over time. In this article we propose a model that allows us to examine differential expression and gene network relationships using time course microarray data. We model each gene expression profile as a random functional transformation of the scale, amplitude and phase of a common curve. Inferences about the gene–specific amplitude parameters allow us to examine differential gene expression. Inferences about measures of functional similarity based on estimated time transformation functions allow us to examine gene networks while accounting for features of the gene expression profiles. We discuss applications to simulated data as well as to microarray data on prostate cancer progression. PMID:19053995

  5. Limited role of functional differentiation in early diversification of animals

    PubMed Central

    Knope, M.L.; Heim, N.A.; Frishkoff, L.O.; Payne, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of most animal phyla and classes during the Cambrian explosion has been hypothesized to represent an ‘early burst’ of evolutionary exploration of functional ecological possibilities. However, the ecological history of marine animals has yet to be fully quantified, preventing an assessment of the early-burst model for functional ecology. Here we use ecological assignments for 18,621 marine animal genera to assess the relative timing of functional differentiation versus taxonomic diversification from the Cambrian to the present day. We find that functional diversity increased more slowly than would be expected given the history of taxonomic diversity. Contrary to previous inferences of rapid ecological differentiation from the early appearances of all well-fossilized phyla and classes, explicit coding of functional characteristics demonstrates that Cambrian genera occupied comparatively few modes of life. Functional diversity increased in the Ordovician and, especially, during the recoveries from the end-Permian and end-Cretaceous mass extinctions. Permanent shifts in the relationship between functional and taxonomic diversity following the era-bounding extinctions indicates a critical role for these biotic crises in coupling taxonomic and functional diversity. PMID:25737406

  6. Directed Differentiation of Zebrafish Pluripotent Embryonic Cells to Functional Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Gao, Maomao; Gao, Luna; Zhao, Yu; Hong, Qiang; Li, Zhigang; Yao, Jing; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2016-09-13

    A cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro system from zebrafish embryos remains to be established. Here, we have determined pluripotency window of zebrafish embryos by analyzing their gene-expression patterns of pluripotency factors together with markers of three germ layers, and have found that zebrafish undergoes a very narrow period of pluripotency maintenance from zygotic genome activation to a brief moment after oblong stage. Based on the pluripotency and a combination of appropriate conditions, we established a rapid and efficient method for cardiomyocyte generation in vitro from primary embryonic cells. The induced cardiomyocytes differentiated into functional and specific cardiomyocyte subtypes. Notably, these in vitro generated cardiomyocytes exhibited typical contractile kinetics and electrophysiological features. The system provides a new paradigm of cardiomyocyte differentiation from primary embryonic cells in zebrafish. The technology provides a new platform for the study of heart development and regeneration, in addition to drug discovery, disease modeling, and assessment of cardiotoxic agents. PMID:27569061

  7. Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporters in Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wagner, Carsten A.; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Hofstetter, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa) transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies. PMID:25910236

  8. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Albano, Giuseppe; Moor, Matthias; Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wagner, Carsten A; Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Hofstetter, Willy; Bonny, Olivier; Fuster, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa) transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies.

  9. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    PubMed

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  10. Optimized higher-order automatic differentiation for the Faddeeva function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Considerable research efforts have been directed at implementing the Faddeeva function w(z) and its derivatives with respect to z, but these did not consider the key computing issue of a possible dependence of z on some variable t. The general case is to differentiate the compound function w(z(t)) = w ∘ z(t) with respect to t by applying the chain rule for a first order derivative, or Faà di Bruno's formula for higher-order ones. Higher-order automatic differentiation (HOAD) is an efficient and accurate technique for derivative calculation along scientific computing codes. Although codes are available for w(z) , a special symbolic HOAD is required to compute accurate higher-order derivatives for w ∘ z(t) in an efficient manner. A thorough evaluation is carried out considering a nontrivial case study in optics to support this assertion.

  11. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  12. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Function by EZH2.

    PubMed

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Chistofides, Anthos; Barhdan, Kankana; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2016-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), one of the polycomb-group proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity, while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12, and RpAp46/48, induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency, and cancer biology, being currently at the cutting edge of research. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD.

  13. Osteoclast differentiation and function in aquaglyceroporin AQP9 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yangjian; Song, Linhua; Wang, Yiding; Rojek, Aleksandra; Nielsen, Søren; Agre, Peter; Carbrey, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Information Osteoclasts are cells specialized for bone resorption and play important roles in bone growth and calcium homeostasis. Differentiation of osteoclasts involves fusion of bone marrow macrophage mononuclear precursors in response to extracellular signals. A dramatic increase in osteoclast cell volume occurs during osteoclast biogenesis and is believed to be mediated by Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), a membrane protein that can rapidly transport water and other small neutral solutes across cell membranes. Results Here we report an increase in expression of AQP9 during differentiation of a mouse macrophage cell line into osteoclasts. Bone marrow macrophages from wild type and AQP9 null mice differentiate into osteoclasts that have similar morphology, contain comparable numbers of nuclei, and digest synthetic bone to the same extent. Bones from wild type and AQP9 null mice contain similar numbers of osteoclasts and have comparable density and structure as measured by X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography. Conclusions Our data confirm that AQP9 expression rises during osteoclast biogenesis but indicate that AQP9 is not essential for osteoclast function or differentiation under normal physiological conditions. PMID:18666888

  14. Control of functional differential equations to target sets in function space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kent, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Optimal control of systems governed by functional differential equations of retarded and neutral type is considered. Problems with function space initial and terminal manifolds are investigated. Existence of optimal controls, regularity, and bang-bang properties are discussed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived, and several solved examples which illustrate the theory are presented.

  15. Accessory spleen hypertrophy mimicking colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ates, I; Yazici, O; Yazilitas, D; Ozdemir, N; Zengin, N

    2016-09-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital form of an ectopic splenic tissue. In this report, we present a case of a patient who was followed with the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid colon cancer and an accessory spleen hypertrophy, which was thought to be colon cancer metastasis in the left hypochondriac region. After colectomy and splenectomy, accessory spleen that mimics cancer metastasis was diffrentially diagnosed using scintigraphy. PMID:27685531

  16. Accessory suprarenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kirici, Y; Mas, M R; Saglamkaya, U; Oztas, E; Ozan, H

    2001-06-01

    The suprarenal glands are normally located at the superomedial aspect of the kidneys. Accessory cortical masses are seen in approximately half of the newborn but usually disappear later. Several cases with accessory cortical tissues located near the main suprarenal glands have been reported but their usual locations have been rarely described. Here we report a case with accessory cortical tissue located on the right in the retrocrural space with compression symptoms. Such a lesion may be confused with lymphadenopathy radiologically.

  17. [Skull fracture or accessory suture in a child?].

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Katrin; Lange, Lena M; Plenzig, Stefanie; Verhoff, Marcel A; Kölzer, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between accessory sutures and fractures in the skull of an infant can be difficult. Apart from the regular sutures there is a multitude of variations that may be mistaken for a fracture line. Such variations include for instance the intraparietal suture between the two ossification centers of the parietal bone or the mendosal suture between the supraoccipital and interparietal bone of the occipital squama. The presented case refers to an approximately 20-month-old female child. During autopsy, a discontinuity in the right paramedian posterior cranial fossa parallel to the internal occipital crest with connection to the foramen magnum was observed. The macroscopic findings suggested a fracture line because of its course. However, neither a hemorrhage in the soft tissue nor callus formation was discernible. The discontinuity was preserved with the adjacent parts of the occipital bone for further histological examination. In the report of a cranial CT, which was carried out five days before the child's death, an accessory suture paramedially in the right posterior cranial fossa was described. When the clinical CT records were re-evaluated, a similar discontinuity at the corresponding position on the other side was detected, though of noticeably shorter length. Additionally, the preserved occipital bone fragment including the discontinuity was histologically processed. In the radiological literature, precise (radiological) criteria for differential diagnosis are indicated. A zigzag pattern with sclerotic borders and a bilateral and fairly symmetric occurrence indicate a suture, whereas a sharp lucency with non-sclerotic edges and a unilateral occurrence indicate a fracture. Taking all the findings into account, the depicted discontinuity was regarded as an accessory suture. This case demonstrates that differentiation between a fracture and an accessory suture may be difficult in the autopsy of a child and underlines the importance of a postmortem CT

  18. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  19. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Sirt6 regulates dendritic cell differentiation, maturation, and function

    PubMed Central

    Lasigliè, Denise; Boero, Silvia; Bauer, Inga; Morando, Sara; Damonte, Patrizia; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Paizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Uccelli, Antonio; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Poggi, Alessandro; Nencioni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that critically influence decisions about immune activation or tolerance. Impaired DC function is at the core of common chronic disorders and contributes to reduce immunocompetence during aging. Knowledge on the mechanisms regulating DC generation and function is necessary to understand the immune system and to prevent disease and immunosenescence. Here we show that the sirtuin Sirt6, which was previously linked to healthspan promotion, stimulates the development of myeloid, conventional DCs (cDCs). Sirt6-knockout (Sirt6KO) mice exhibit low frequencies of bone marrow cDC precursors and low yields of bone marrow-derived cDCs compared to wild-type (WT) animals. Sirt6KO cDCs express lower levels of class II MHC, of costimulatory molecules, and of the chemokine receptor CCR7, and are less immunostimulatory compared to WT cDCs. Similar effects in terms of differentiation and immunostimulatory capacity were observed in human monocyte-derived DCs in response to SIRT6 inhibition. Finally, while Sirt6KO cDCs show an overall reduction in their ability to produce IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion varies dependent on the stimulus, being reduced in response to CpG, but increased in response to other Toll-like receptor ligands. In conclusion, Sirt6 plays a crucial role in cDC differentiation and function and reduced Sirt6 activity may contribute to immunosenescence. PMID:26761436

  1. Role of PPARγ in the Differentiation and Function of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Utreras, Elias; Cabezas-Opazo, Fabián A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal processes (neurites and axons) have an important role in brain cells communication and, generally, they are damaged in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence has showed that the activation of PPARγ pathway promoted neuronal differentiation and axon polarity. In addition, activation of PPARγ using thiazolidinediones (TZDs) prevented neurodegeneration by reducing neuronal death, improving mitochondrial function, and decreasing neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain. In this review, we will discuss important evidence that supports a possible role of PPARγ in neuronal development, improvement of neuronal health, and pain signaling. Therefore, activation of PPARγ is a potential target with therapeutic applications against neurodegenerative disorders, brain injury, and pain regulation. PMID:25246934

  2. Finding first order differential invariants through the S-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.; Nunez, E.

    2016-10-01

    The method presented in Duarte and da Mota (2009) and Avellar et al. (2014) to search for first order invariants of second order ordinary differential equation (2ODEs) makes use of the so called Darboux polynomials. The main difficulty involved in this process is the determination of the Darboux polynomials, which is computationally very expensive. Here, we introduce an optional argument in the main routine that enables a shortcut in the calculations through the use of the S-function associated with the 2ODE.

  3. Silibinin Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Differentiation in Functional Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Ignazio; Vanella, Luca; Cambria, Maria T.; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Guarnaccia, Laura; Zappalà, Agata; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a natural plant flavonolignan is the main active constituent found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum). It is known to have hepatoprotective, anti-neoplastic effect, and suppresses lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silibinin on adipogenic differentiation and thermogenic capacity of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Silibinin (10 μM) treatment, either at the beginning or at the end of adipogenic differentiation, resulted in an increase of SIRT-1, PPARα, Pgc-1α, and UCPs gene expression. Moreover, silibinin administration resulted in a decrease of PPARγ, FABP4, FAS, and MEST/PEG1 gene expression during the differentiation, confirming that this compound is able to reduce fatty acid accumulation and adipocyte size. Our data showed that silibinin regulated adipocyte lipid metabolism, inducing thermogenesis and promoting a brown remodeling in adipocyte. Taken together, our findings suggest that silibinin increases UCPs expression by stimulation of SIRT1, PPARα, and Pgc-1α, improved metabolic parameters, decreased lipid mass leading to the formation of functional adipocytes. PMID:26834634

  4. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  5. Nodal centrality of functional network in the differentiation of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene; Goñi, Joaquín; Kent, Jerillyn S; Howell, Josselyn; Bolbecker, Amanda; Puce, Aina; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2015-10-01

    A disturbance in the integration of information during mental processing has been implicated in schizophrenia, possibly due to faulty communication within and between brain regions. Graph theoretic measures allow quantification of functional brain networks. Functional networks are derived from correlations between time courses of brain regions. Group differences between SZ and control groups have been reported for functional network properties, but the potential of such measures to classify individual cases has been little explored. We tested whether the network measure of betweenness centrality could classify persons with schizophrenia and normal controls. Functional networks were constructed for 19 schizophrenic patients and 29 non-psychiatric controls based on resting state functional MRI scans. The betweenness centrality of each node, or fraction of shortest-paths that pass through it, was calculated in order to characterize the centrality of the different regions. The nodes with high betweenness centrality agreed well with hub nodes reported in previous studies of structural and functional networks. Using a linear support vector machine algorithm, the schizophrenia group was differentiated from non-psychiatric controls using the ten nodes with the highest betweenness centrality. The classification accuracy was around 80%, and stable against connectivity thresholding. Better performance was achieved when using the ranks as feature space as opposed to the actual values of betweenness centrality. Overall, our findings suggest that changes in functional hubs are associated with schizophrenia, reflecting a variation of the underlying functional network and neuronal communications. In addition, a specific network property, betweenness centrality, can classify persons with SZ with a high level of accuracy. PMID:26299706

  6. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque... drive system to prevent damage to these components from excessive accessory load. Powerplant...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque... drive system to prevent damage to these components from excessive accessory load. Powerplant...

  8. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  13. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  14. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  15. Exploration of the Validity of Gender Differences in Mathematics Assessment Using Differential Bundle Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian Scott; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are (a) to examine the sources of differential functioning by gender via differential bundle functioning (DBF) in mathematics assessment and (b) to use DBF to explore whether the differential functioning displayed is construct-relevant or construct-irrelevant. Three qualitatively different areas, namely curriculum domains,…

  16. Redundancy of myostatin and growth/differentiation factor 11 function

    PubMed Central

    McPherron, Alexandra C; Huynh, Thanh V; Lee, Se-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Background Myostatin (Mstn) and growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) are highly related transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family members that play important roles in regulating embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Despite their high degree of sequence identity, targeted mutations in these genes result in non-overlapping phenotypes affecting distinct biological processes. Loss of Mstn in mice causes a doubling of skeletal muscle mass while loss of Gdf11 in mice causes dramatic anterior homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton, kidney agenesis, and an increase in progenitor cell number in several tissues. In order to investigate the possible functional redundancy of myostatin and Gdf11, we analyzed the effect of eliminating the functions of both of these signaling molecules. Results We show that Mstn-/- Gdf11-/- mice have more extensive homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton than Gdf11-/- mice in addition to skeletal defects not seen in single mutants such as extra forelimbs. We also show that deletion of Gdf11 specifically in skeletal muscle in either Mstn+/+ or Mstn-/- mice does not affect muscle size, fiber number, or fiber type. Conclusion These results provide evidence that myostatin and Gdf11 have redundant functions in regulating skeletal patterning in mice but most likely not in regulating muscle size. PMID:19298661

  17. Accessory function of Kupffer cells in the antigen-specific blastogenic response of an L3T4+ T-lymphocyte clone to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, S H; Wing, E J

    1990-01-01

    The function of Kupffer cells in the development of protective immunity to infection by Listeria monocytogenes is controversial. To determine their role in antilisterial host defenses, Kupffer cells were separated from other nonparenchymal cells of the liver by centrifugation on a metrizamide gradient followed by adherence to glass or plastic. The resultant highly enriched Kupffer cell population supported the antigen-specific blastogenic response [( 3H]thymidine incorporation) of cloned L3T4+ T lymphocytes to L. monocytogenes in vitro. Blastogenesis was dependent upon the duration of the incubation period, the concentration of the antigen, and the number of Kupffer cells in culture. Maximum reactivity was greater than that observed when the same T-cell population was incubated with adherent peritoneal exudate cells and antigen under optimal conditions. The addition of antibodies specific for murine interleukin-1 beta to cocultures of Kupffer cells and T lymphocytes eliminated the antigen-stimulated incorporation of [3H]thymidine, indicating a requirement for interleukin-1. Analysis of the culture supernatants demonstrated that, in addition to interleukin-1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, and gamma interferon were elaborated in cocultures containing cloned T lymphocytes, Kupffer cells, and antigen. These results suggest that Kupffer cells may serve a critical role in the development of immunity to infection by L. monocytogenes in vivo. Images PMID:2114361

  18. Differential Assemblage of Functional Units in Paddy Soil Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongkyu; Liesack, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Flooded rice fields are not only a global food source but also a major biogenic source of atmospheric methane. Using metatranscriptomics, we comparatively explored structural and functional succession of paddy soil microbiomes in the oxic surface layer and anoxic bulk soil. Cyanobacteria, Fungi, Xanthomonadales, Myxococcales, and Methylococcales were the most abundant and metabolically active groups in the oxic zone, while Clostridia, Actinobacteria, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Anaerolineae, and methanogenic archaea dominated the anoxic zone. The protein synthesis potential of these groups was about 75% and 50% of the entire community capacity, respectively. Their structure-function relationships in microbiome succession were revealed by classifying the protein-coding transcripts into core, non-core, and taxon-specific transcripts based on homologous gene distribution. The differential expression of core transcripts between the two microbiomes indicated that structural succession is primarily governed by the cellular ability to adapt to the given oxygen condition, involving oxidative stress, nitrogen/phosphorus metabolism, and fermentation. By contrast, the non-core transcripts were expressed from genes involved in the metabolism of various carbon sources. Among those, taxon-specific transcripts revealed highly specialized roles of the dominant groups in community-wide functioning. For instance, taxon-specific transcripts involved in photosynthesis and methane oxidation were a characteristic of the oxic zone, while those related to methane production and aromatic compound degradation were specific to the anoxic zone. Degradation of organic matters, antibiotics resistance, and secondary metabolite production were detected to be expressed in both the oxic and anoxic zones, but by different taxonomic groups. Cross-feeding of methanol between members of the Methylococcales and Xanthomonadales was suggested by the observation that in the oxic zone, they both

  19. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor–ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  20. Multiscale functions, scale dynamics, and applications to partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Modeling phenomena from experimental data always begins with a choice of hypothesis on the observed dynamics such as determinism, randomness, and differentiability. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following: "With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature? From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of multi-scale functions, scale calculus, and scale dynamics based on the time scale calculus [see Bohner, M. and Peterson, A., Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2001)] which is used to introduce the notion of scale equations. These definitions will be illustrated on the multi-scale Okamoto's functions. Scale equations are analysed using scale regimes and the notion of asymptotic model for a scale equation under a particular scale regime. The introduced formalism explains why a single scale equation can produce distinct continuous models even if the equation is scale invariant. Typical examples of such equations are given by the scale Euler-Lagrange equation. We illustrate our results using the scale Newton's equation which gives rise to a non-linear diffusion equation or a non-linear Schrödinger equation as asymptotic continuous models depending on the particular fractional scale regime which is considered.

  1. Defining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC DifferentiationDefining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC Differentiation Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) undergo mitochondrial maturation leading to a switch from a system dependent upon glycolysis to a re...

  2. Dystroglycan depletion inhibits the functions of differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zárate, Alma Delia; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Alonso-Rangel, Lea; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Winder, Steve J; Cerecedo, Doris

    2014-06-01

    Dystroglycan has recently been characterized in blood tissue cells, as part of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex but to date nothing is known of its role in the differentiation process of neutrophils. We have investigated the role of dystroglycan in the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60 differentiated to neutrophils. Depletion of dystroglycan by RNAi resulted in altered morphology and reduced properties of differentiated HL-60 cells, including chemotaxis, respiratory burst, phagocytic activities and expression of markers of differentiation. These findings strongly implicate dystroglycan as a key membrane adhesion protein involved in the differentiation process in HL-60 cells.

  3. Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian, Greek man with spontaneous unilateral trapezius palsy with an insidious course. To the best of our knowledge, few such cases have been documented in the literature. The unusual clinical presentation and functional performance mismatch with the imaging findings were also observed. Our patient showed a deterioration that was different from the usual course of this pathology, with an early onset of irreversible trapezius muscle dysfunction two months after the first clinical signs started to manifest. A surgical reconstruction was proposed as the most efficient treatment, but our patient declined this. Although he failed to recover fully after conservative treatment for eight months, he regained moderate function and is currently virtually pain-free. Conclusion Clinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary. PMID:20507553

  4. Building the blocks of executive functioning: Differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Dorothy J.; Ward, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in monkeys (M. fascicularis) by using an error analysis approach where traditional measures of the tasks, as well as identification of major error patterns are related. Results show that during the infancy and early juvenile period, two processes that help support set-maintenance could be differentiated: modulation of responses to novelty and persistence despite negative feedback. The results suggest that these two aspects of set-maintenance were largely independent. Modulation of responses to novelty was most prominent in the infancy and early juvenile period. The ability to persist with a response set despite negative feedback emerged in the early juvenile period and was related to task performance until the end of the study. PMID:21563178

  5. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories... accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if the good is an originating...

  6. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... good will be treated as a material used in the production of the good, if— (a) The accessories, spare... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  7. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories... accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if the good is an originating...

  8. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... good will be treated as a material used in the production of the good, if— (a) The accessories, spare... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  9. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... good will be treated as a material used in the production of the good, if— (a) The accessories, spare... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  10. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... good will be treated as a material used in the production of the good, if— (a) The accessories, spare... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  11. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... good will be treated as a material used in the production of the good, if— (a) The accessories, spare... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  12. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories... accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if the good is an originating...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in the event it malfunctions. (d) If the continued rotation of any accessory remotely driven by the engine is hazardous when malfunctioning occurs, a means to prevent rotation without interfering with...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in the event it malfunctions. (d) If the continued rotation of any accessory remotely driven by the engine is hazardous when malfunctioning occurs, a means to prevent rotation without interfering with...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in the event it malfunctions. (d) If the continued rotation of any accessory remotely driven by the engine is hazardous when malfunctioning occurs, a means to prevent rotation without interfering with...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in the event it malfunctions. (d) If the continued rotation of any accessory remotely driven by the engine is hazardous when malfunctioning occurs, a means to prevent rotation without interfering with...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the event it malfunctions. (d) If the continued rotation of any accessory remotely driven by the engine is hazardous when malfunctioning occurs, a means to prevent rotation without interfering with...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  1. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.671 Accessories. Each light, receptacle and switch exposed to the weather must...

  2. Functional differentiation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and targeted cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gian C; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Galati, Giuseppe; Kluwe, William M

    2014-10-01

    There is no nationally or internationally binding definition of the term "cytotoxic drug" although this term is used in a variety of regulations for pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of drugs as well as in regulations for protecting medical personnel from occupational exposure in pharmacy, hospital, and other healthcare settings. The term "cytotoxic drug" is frequently used as a synonym for any and all oncology or antineoplastic drugs. Pharmaceutical companies generate and receive requests for assessments of the potential hazards of drugs regularly - including cytotoxicity. This publication is intended to provide functional definitions that help to differentiate between generically-cytotoxic cancer drugs of significant risk to normal human tissues, and targeted cancer therapeutics that pose much lesser risks. Together with specific assessments, it provides comprehensible guidance on how to assess the relevant properties of cancer drugs, and how targeted therapeutics discriminate between cancer and normal cells. The position of several regulatory agencies in the long-term is clearly to regulate all drugs regardless of classification, according to scientific risk based data. Despite ongoing discussions on how to replace the term "cytotoxic drugs" in current regulations, it is expected that its use will continue for the near future.

  3. Phosphoinositides differentially regulate alpha-actinin flexibility and function.

    PubMed

    Corgan, Anne Marie; Singleton, CoreyAyne; Santoso, Cynthia B; Greenwood, Jeffrey A

    2004-03-15

    Alpha-actinin is a cell-adhesion and cytoskeletal protein that bundles actin microfilaments and links these filaments directly to integrin-adhesion receptors. Phosphoinositides bind to and regulate the interaction of a-actinin with actin filaments and integrin receptors. In the present study, we demonstrate that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 inhibits and disrupts a-actinin-bundling activity, whereas PtdIns(4,5)P2 can only inhibit activity. In addition, a protease-sensitivity assay was developed to examine the flexibility of the linker region between the actin-binding domain and the spectrin repeats of a-actinin. Both phosphoinositides influenced the extent of proteolysis and the cleavage sites. PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding decreased the proteolysis of a-actinin, suggesting a role in stabilizing the structure of the protein. In contrast, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding enhanced a-actinin proteolysis, indicating an increase in the flexibility of the protein. Furthermore, phosphoinositide binding influenced the proteolysis of the N- and C-terminal domains of a-actinin, indicating regulation of structure within both domains. These results support the hypothesis that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 differentially regulate a-actinin function by modulating the structure and flexibility of the protein.

  4. Phosphoinositides differentially regulate alpha-actinin flexibility and function.

    PubMed Central

    Corgan, Anne Marie; Singleton, CoreyAyne; Santoso, Cynthia B; Greenwood, Jeffrey A

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-actinin is a cell-adhesion and cytoskeletal protein that bundles actin microfilaments and links these filaments directly to integrin-adhesion receptors. Phosphoinositides bind to and regulate the interaction of a-actinin with actin filaments and integrin receptors. In the present study, we demonstrate that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 inhibits and disrupts a-actinin-bundling activity, whereas PtdIns(4,5)P2 can only inhibit activity. In addition, a protease-sensitivity assay was developed to examine the flexibility of the linker region between the actin-binding domain and the spectrin repeats of a-actinin. Both phosphoinositides influenced the extent of proteolysis and the cleavage sites. PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding decreased the proteolysis of a-actinin, suggesting a role in stabilizing the structure of the protein. In contrast, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding enhanced a-actinin proteolysis, indicating an increase in the flexibility of the protein. Furthermore, phosphoinositide binding influenced the proteolysis of the N- and C-terminal domains of a-actinin, indicating regulation of structure within both domains. These results support the hypothesis that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 differentially regulate a-actinin function by modulating the structure and flexibility of the protein. PMID:14670080

  5. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators differentially potentiate brain mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R W; Yao, J; To, J; Hamilton, R T; Cadenas, E; Brinton, R D

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity of the brain is important for long-term neurological health and is influenced by endocrine hormone responsiveness. The present study aimed to determine the role of oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in regulating mitochondrial function using selective agonists for ERα (propylpyrazoletriol; PPT) and ERβ (diarylpropionitrile; DPN). Ovariectomised female rats were treated with 17β-oestradiol (E(2) ), PPT, DPN or vehicle control. Both ER selective agonists significantly increased the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity relative to vehicle. Western blots of purified whole brain mitochondria detected ERα and, to a greater extent, ERβ localisation. Pre-treatment with DPN, an ERβ agonist, significantly increased ERβ association with mitochondria. In the hippocampus, DPN activated mitochondrial DNA-encoded COX I expression, whereas PPT was ineffective, indicating that mechanistically ERβ, and not ERα, activated mitochondrial transcriptional machinery. Both selective ER agonists increased protein expression of nuclear DNA-encoded COX IV, suggesting that activation of ERβ or ERα is sufficient. Selective ER agonists up-regulated a panel of bioenergetic enzymes and antioxidant defence proteins. Up-regulated proteins included pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, manganese superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin V. In vitro, whole cell metabolism was assessed in live primary cultured hippocampal neurones and mixed glia. The results of analyses conducted in vitro were consistent with data obtained in vivo. Furthermore, lipid peroxides, accumulated as a result of hormone deprivation, were significantly reduced by E(2) , PPT and DPN. These findings suggest that the activation of both ERα and ERβ is differentially required to potentiate mitochondrial function in brain. As active components in hormone therapy, synthetically designed oestrogens as well as natural phyto-oestrogen cocktails

  6. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture. PMID:23162438

  7. Manual therapy of the mandibular accessory ligaments for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico

    2011-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are characterized by chronic or acute musculoskeletal or myofascial pain with dysfunction of the masticatory system. Treatment modalities include occlusal splints, patient education, activity modification, muscle and joint exercises, myofascial therapy, acupuncture, and manipulative therapy. In the physiology of the temporomandibular joint, accessory ligaments limit the movement of the mandible. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of accessory ligaments is necessary for good clinical management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Although general principles regarding the anatomy of the ligaments are relatively clear, very little substantiated information on the dimension, orientation, and function of the ligaments has been published, to the authors' knowledge. The authors review the literature concerning the accessory ligaments of the temporomandibular joint and describe treatment options, including manual techniques for mobilizing the accessory ligaments. PMID:21357496

  8. Laparoscopic excision of infarcted accessory spleen.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Yasmin; Cameron, Brian H; Maizlin, Zeev V; Boutross-Tadross, Odette

    2010-04-01

    An accessory spleen is present in about 10-30% of the population and, usually, does not cause symptoms. We present a case report of an unusual presentation of accessory spleen infarction, with a literature review. A 12-year old male presented with acute left-upper quadrant pain that slowly resolved. An ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed a 3.5 x 2.5 x 2 cm solid mass abutting and displacing the splenic flexure of the colon, with surrounding inflammatory changes. This was interpreted as a colonic duplication cyst, and the boy was treated with antibiotics and underwent elective laparoscopic exploration. It was removed laparoscopically without complication and, on pathologic examination, proved to be consistent with an infarcted accessory spleen. Less than two dozen similar cases of accessory spleen infarction have been reported in the literature, most presenting with acute abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnoses included appendicitis, ovarian torsion, neoplasm, and, in our case, colonic duplication. The natural course of infarcted accessory spleen would be to atrophy, but, even with advanced imaging techniques, it may be impossible to diagnose infarcted accessory spleen with enough confidence to avoid surgery.

  9. Carcinoma origin dictates differential skewing of monocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Nijland, Philip G.; Gül, Nuray; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Fijneman, Remond J.A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are versatile cells, which phenotype is profoundly influenced by their environment. Pro-inflammatory classically activated or M1 macrophages, and anti-inflammatory alternatively-activated or M2 macrophages represent two extremes of a continuum of functional states. Consequently, macrophages that are present in tumors can exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity, depending on the tumor milieu. In this study we investigated how human monocytes—the precursors of macrophages—are influenced by carcinoma cells of different origin. We demonstrate that monocytes, stimulated with breast cancer supernatant, showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8 and chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, which are associated with an alternatively-activated phenotype. By contrast, monocytes that were cultured in supernatants of colon cancer cells produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNFα) and reactive oxygen species. Secretome analysis revealed differential secretion of proteins by colon and breast cancer cell lines, of which the proteoglycan versican was exclusively secreted by colon carcinoma cell lines. Reducing active versican by blocking with monoclonal antibodies or shRNA diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. Thus, colon carcinoma cells polarize monocytes toward a more classically-activated anti-tumorigenic phenotype, whereas breast carcinomas predispose monocytes toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Interestingly, presence of macrophages in breast or colon carcinomas correlates with poor or good prognosis in patients, respectively. The observed discrepancy in macrophage activation by either colon or breast carcinoma cells may therefore explain the dichotomy between patient prognosis and macrophage presence in these different tumors. Designing new therapies, directing development of monocytes toward M1 activated tumor macrophages in cancer patients, may have great clinical benefits. PMID:23162747

  10. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  11. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  1. Identification and comparative analysis of accessory gland proteins in Orthoptera.

    PubMed

    Braswell, W Evan; Andrés, José A; Maroja, Luana S; Harrison, Richard G; Howard, Daniel J; Swanson, Willie J

    2006-09-01

    Accessory reproductive gland proteins (Acps) in Drosophila evolve quickly and appear to play an important role in ensuring the fertilization success of males. Moreover, Acps are thought to be involved in establishing barriers to fertilization between closely related species. While accessory glands are known to occur in the males of many insect groups, the proteins that are passed on to females by males during mating have not been well characterized outside of Drosophila. To gain a better understanding of these proteins, we characterized ESTs from the accessory glands of two cricket species, Allonemobius fasciatus and Gryllus firmus. Using an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach, followed by bioinformatic and evolutionary analyses, we found that many proteins are secreted and, therefore, available for transfer to the female during mating. Further, we found that most ESTs are novel, showing little sequence similarity between taxa. Evolutionary analyses suggest that cricket proteins are subject to diversifying selection and indicate that Allonemobius is much less polymorphic than Gryllus. Despite rapid nucleotide sequence divergence, there appears to be functional conservation of protein classes among Drosophila and cricket taxa.

  2. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms. PMID:26113808

  3. Quasi-Newton methods for parameter estimation in functional differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Dennis W.

    1988-01-01

    A state-space approach to parameter estimation in linear functional differential equations is developed using the theory of linear evolution equations. A locally convergent quasi-Newton type algorithm is applied to distributed systems with particular emphasis on parameters that induce unbounded perturbations of the state. The algorithm is computationally implemented on several functional differential equations, including coefficient and delay estimation in linear delay-differential equations.

  4. The Item Parameter Replication Method for Detecting Differential Functioning in the Polytomous DFIT Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Fortmann-Johnson, Kristen A.; Kim, Wonsuk; Morris, Scott B.; Nering, Michael L.; Oshima, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent study of Oshima, Raju, and Nanda proposes the item parameter replication (IPR) method for assessing statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index within the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) framework. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have found that the appropriate cutoff…

  5. A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

    2006-01-01

    One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

  6. A Comparison of Function-Based Differential Reinforcement Interventions for Children Engaging in Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling-Turner, Heather; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellone, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief…

  7. The Impact of Multidimensionality on the Detection of Differential Bundle Functioning Using Simultaneous Item Bias Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlow, Carolyn F.; Ross, Terris Raiford; Gagne, Phill

    2009-01-01

    Douglas, Roussos, and Stout introduced the concept of differential bundle functioning (DBF) for identifying the underlying causes of differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, reference group was simulated to have higher mean ability than the focal group on a nuisance dimension, resulting in DIF for each of the multidimensional items…

  8. Establishing Effect Size Guidelines for Interpreting the Results of Differential Bundle Functioning Analyses Using SIBTEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Cindy M.; Zhang, Bo; Banks, Kathleen; Cappaert, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this simulation study was to establish general effect size guidelines for interpreting the results of differential bundle functioning (DBF) analyses using simultaneous item bias test (SIBTEST). Three factors were manipulated: number of items in a bundle, test length, and magnitude of uniform differential item functioning (DIF)…

  9. An unusual case of retroperitoneal accessory spleen with vascular supply directly from the aorta.

    PubMed

    Souparis, A; Papaziogas, B; Alexandrakis, A; Koutelidakis, J; Paraskevas, G; Papaziogas, T

    2002-08-01

    We report on a case of a retroperitoneal accessory spleen with vascular supply directly from the aorta. A 47-year old woman presented with a six-month history of epigastric pain, intermittent nausea and vomiting. The CT scan of the abdomen revealed the presence of a retroperitoneal tumor between the spleen, left kidney and pancreas. The MR-tomography confirmed the presence of a solid tumor, with vascular supply directly from the aorta. The exploratory laparotomy showed the presence of a well-shaped accessory spleen, which was confirmed by the histological examination of the specimen. The surgeon should be aware of the possible existence of accessory spleens for the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumors.

  10. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  11. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  12. Differentiation mechanism and function of the cereal aleurone cells and hormone effects on them.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The cereal aleurone cells differentiate from the endosperm epidermis with the exception of endosperm transfer cells. Aleurone cells contain proteins, lipids, and minerals, and are important for digesting the endosperm storage products to nurse the embryo under effects of several hormones during the seed germination. The differentiation of aleurone cells is related to location effect and special gene expression. Moreover, the differentiation of aleurone cells is probably affected by the cues from maternal tissues. In the paper, differentiation mechanism and function of aleurone cells and hormone effects on them are reviewed. Some speculations about the differentiation mechanism of aleurone cells are given here.

  13. Differential inequalities imposed by the extended hypergeometric function.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z; Al-Janaby, Hiba F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the generalized hypergeometric function is extended by utilizing the Beta function. Based on this type of function, we introduce a new operator in the open unit disk. The present article investigates some subordination and superordination results for certain normalized analytic functions in the open unit disk, which are acted upon by the generalized Noor integral operator. Some of outcomes improve and generalize previously known outcomes.

  14. [Accessory symptomatology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette's disease].

    PubMed

    Achkova, M; Terziev, D

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome were examined. They had typical multiple tics and accessory disturbances--impulsive and reactive symptoms. The authors described the classification of accessory symptoms and the therapeutic approaches.

  15. Metabolic regulation of T cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Benjamin V.; Pan, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Upon encountering pathogens, T cells mount immune responses by proliferating, increasing cellular mass and differentiating. These cellular changes impose significant energetic challenges on T cells. It was believed that TCR and cytokine-mediated signaling are dominant dictators of T cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, it was recognized that T cells utilize metabolic transporters and metabolic sensors that allow them to rapidly respond to nutrient-limiting inflammatory environments. Metabolic sensors allow T cells to find a balance between energy consumption (anabolic metabolism) and production (catabolic metabolism) in order to mount effective immune responses. Also, metabolic regulators interact with cytokine-dependent transcriptional regulators, suggesting a more integrative and advanced model of T cell activation and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss recent discoveries regarding the roles of metabolic regulators in effector and memory T cell development and their interaction with canonical transcription factors. PMID:26277275

  16. Human dermal stem cells differentiate into functional epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fukunaga-Kalabis, Mizuho; Yu, Hong; Xu, Xiaowei; Kong, Jun; Lee, John T; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2010-03-15

    Melanocytes sustain a lifelong proliferative potential, but a stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Here, we show that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human foreskins lacking hair follicles are able to home to the epidermis to differentiate into melanocytes. These dermal stem cells, grown as three-dimensional spheres, displayed a capacity for self-renewal and expressed NGFRp75, nestin and OCT4, but not melanocyte markers. In addition, cells derived from single-cell clones were able to differentiate into multiple lineages including melanocytes. In a three-dimensional skin equivalent model, sphere-forming cells differentiated into HMB45-positive melanocytes, which migrated from the dermis to the epidermis and aligned singly among the basal layer keratinocytes in a similar fashion to pigmented melanocytes isolated from the epidermis. The dermal stem cells were negative for E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas they acquired E-cadherin expression and lost NGFRp75 expression upon contact with epidermal keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that stem cells in the dermis of human skin with neural-crest-like characteristics can become mature epidermal melanocytes. This finding could significantly change our understanding of the etiological factors in melanocyte transformation and pigmentation disorders; specifically, that early epigenetic or genetic alterations leading to transformation may take place in the dermis rather than in the epidermis.

  17. Dynamic Network-Based Relevance Score Reveals Essential Proteins and Functional Modules in Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Lin, Che

    2015-01-01

    The induction of stem cells toward a desired differentiation direction is required for the advancement of stem cell-based therapies. Despite successful demonstrations of the control of differentiation direction, the effective use of stem cell-based therapies suffers from a lack of systematic knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying directed differentiation. Using dynamic modeling and the temporal microarray data of three differentiation stages, three dynamic protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. The interaction difference networks derived from the constructed networks systematically delineated the evolution of interaction variations and the underlying mechanisms. A proposed relevance score identified the essential components in the directed differentiation. Inspection of well-known proteins and functional modules in the directed differentiation showed the plausibility of the proposed relevance score, with the higher scores of several proteins and function modules indicating their essential roles in the directed differentiation. During the differentiation process, the proteins and functional modules with higher relevance scores also became more specific to the neuronal identity. Ultimately, the essential components revealed by the relevance scores may play a role in controlling the direction of differentiation. In addition, these components may serve as a starting point for understanding the systematic mechanisms of directed differentiation and for increasing the efficiency of stem cell-based therapies. PMID:25977693

  18. T Cell Receptor Signaling in the Control of Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming O.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (TReg cells), a specialized T cell lineage, have a pivotal function in the control of self-tolerance and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have revealed a discrete mode of TCR signaling that regulates Treg cell differentiation, maintenance and function and that impacts on gene expression, metabolism, cell adhesion and migration of these cells. Here, we discuss the emerging understanding of TCR-guided differentiation of Treg cells in the context of their function in health and disease. PMID:27026074

  19. Replication and pathogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory gene mutants in SCID-hu mice.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrovandi, G M; Zack, J A

    1996-01-01

    The functional roles of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory genes (nef, vpr, vpu, and vif) are as yet unclear. Using the SCID-hu model system, we have examined the infectivity, replicative capacity, and pathogenicity of strains of the molecular clone HIV-1NL4-3 that contain deletion mutations in these individual accessory genes. We determined that deletion of these genes had differential effects on both infectivity and pathogenicity. Deletion of vpr had little or no effect on viral infectivity, replication, and pathogenicity; however, deletion of vpu or vif had a significant effect on infectivity and moderate effects on pathogenicity. nef-minus strains were the most attenuated in this system, demonstrating significantly lower levels of infectivity and pathogenicity. However, deletion of these individual genes attenuated but did not abrogate the pathogenic properties of HIV-1. Mutant viruses still retained the ability to induce thymocyte depletion to various degrees if implants were infected with higher doses of virus or observed for longer periods of time. The relative contributions of these genes to in vivo pathogenic potential should be taken into consideration when one is contemplating a live attenuated vaccine for HIV-1. PMID:8627668

  20. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  1. Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J

    1980-01-01

    A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified. PMID:7431036

  2. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or... be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or... be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  4. Normal variants of the accessory hemiazygos vein

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, J M; Franco, A

    2011-01-01

    This short communication describes two normal variants of the accessory hemiazygous vein in a 15-year-old female. The article demonstrates that knowledge of the aberrant venous anatomy and the collateral pathway is important for the practising radiologist. PMID:21697414

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  15. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  17. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  20. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  8. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  9. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.3020...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the...

  10. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form...

  11. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.3020...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the...

  12. 19 CFR 10.2020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.2020... Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  13. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form...

  14. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  15. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  17. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form...

  18. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  2. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  10. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  12. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  2. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  3. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  6. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  14. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  15. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  6. JAKEF: a portable symbolic differentiator of functions given by algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hillstrom, K.E.

    1982-08-01

    JAKEF is a compiler that accepts as data a single or double precision FORTRAN subroutine program defining an objective function F(x) or a vector function f(x) and produces as output a single or double precision FORTRAN program defining the gradient of F(x) or the jacobian of f(x).

  7. Exploring Differential Bundle Functioning in Mathematics by Gender: The Effect of Hierarchical Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2013-01-01

    Researchers interested in exploring substantive group differences are increasingly attending to bundles of items (or testlets): the aim is to understand how gender differences, for instance, are explained by differential performances on different types or bundles of items, hence differential bundle functioning (DBF). Some previous work has…

  8. Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Alfonso, Zeni; Zhang, Rong; Leung, Joanne; Wu, Benjamin; Ignarro, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal function of a multitude of organs including the intestine, urinary tract and the vascular system. The use of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising alternative for smooth muscle repair. For such strategies to succeed, a reliable source of smooth muscle precursor cells must be identified. Adipose tissue provides an abundant source of multipotent cells. In this study, the capacity of processed lipoaspirate (PLA) and adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into phenotypic and functional smooth muscle cells was evaluated. To induce differentiation, PLA cells were cultured in smooth muscle differentiation medium. Smooth muscle differentiation of PLA cells induced genetic expression of all smooth muscle markers and further confirmed by increased protein expression of smooth muscle cell-specific α actin (ASMA), calponin, caldesmon, SM22, myosin heavy chain (MHC), and smoothelin. Clonal studies of adipose derived multipotent cells demonstrated differentiation of these cells into smooth muscle cells in addition to trilineage differentiation capacity. Importantly, smooth muscle-differentiated cells, but not their precursors, exhibit the functional ability to contract and relax in direct response to pharmacologic agents. In conclusion, adipose-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells and, thus, adipose tissue can be a useful source of cells for treatment of injured tissues where smooth muscle plays an important role. PMID:16880387

  9. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  10. Collective Dynamics Differentiates Functional Divergence in Protein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Glembo, Tyler J.; Farrell, Daniel W.; Gerek, Z. Nevin; Thorpe, M. F.; Ozkan, S. Banu

    2012-01-01

    Protein evolution is most commonly studied by analyzing related protein sequences and generating ancestral sequences through Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods, and/or by resurrecting ancestral proteins in the lab and performing ligand binding studies to determine function. Structural and dynamic evolution have largely been left out of molecular evolution studies. Here we incorporate both structure and dynamics to elucidate the molecular principles behind the divergence in the evolutionary path of the steroid receptor proteins. We determine the likely structure of three evolutionarily diverged ancestral steroid receptor proteins using the Zipping and Assembly Method with FRODA (ZAMF). Our predictions are within ∼2.7 Å all-atom RMSD of the respective crystal structures of the ancestral steroid receptors. Beyond static structure prediction, a particular feature of ZAMF is that it generates protein dynamics information. We investigate the differences in conformational dynamics of diverged proteins by obtaining the most collective motion through essential dynamics. Strikingly, our analysis shows that evolutionarily diverged proteins of the same family do not share the same dynamic subspace, while those sharing the same function are simultaneously clustered together and distant from those, that have functionally diverged. Dynamic analysis also enables those mutations that most affect dynamics to be identified. It correctly predicts all mutations (functional and permissive) necessary to evolve new function and ∼60% of permissive mutations necessary to recover ancestral function. PMID:22479170

  11. On the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty: An Issue of Methods? Item Response Theory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between differential item functioning (DIF) and item difficulty on the SAT is such that more difficult items tended to exhibit DIF in favor of the focal group (usually minority groups). These results were reported by Kulick and Hu, and Freedle and have been enthusiastically discussed by more recent literature. Examining the…

  12. Regulation of ES cell differentiation by functional and conformational modulation of p53.

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, K; Klemm, M; Jaenisch, R; Wagner, E F

    1997-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were used to examine the role of p53 during in vitro differentiation. Undifferentiated ES cells express high levels of p53 exclusively in the wild-type conformation, immunoprecipitable by monoclonal antibody PAb246, and p53 was found to be functionally active as determined by its ability to bind DNA specifically and to activate transcription of target genes. Differentiation in vitro resulted in a decrease in the levels of p53 and in a shift in its conformational status to the mutant form, detectable by monoclonal antibody PAb240, with a concomitant loss of functional activity. The presence of functional p53 in the undifferentiated ES cells renders them hypersensitive to UV irradiation, whereas the differentiated cells were resistant to UV treatment. ES cells lacking p53 exhibit enhanced proliferation in both the undifferentiated and differentiated state, and apoptosis accompanying differentiation was found to be reduced. Furthermore, wild-type ES cells undergoing apoptosis expressed functional p53. Expression of the temperature-sensitive p53val135 mutant in wild-type ES cells resulted in a reduction of apoptosis accompanying differentiation when it adopted a mutant conformation at 39 degrees C. These data demonstrate that functional inactivation of p53 allows differentiating cells to escape from apoptosis, and suggest that the conformational switch could regulate the inactivation process. PMID:9321401

  13. Mental Functioning, Perceptual Differentiation, Personality, and Achievement among Art and Non-Art Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorethy, Rex; Reeves, Dan

    1979-01-01

    College art majors, art education majors, and nonart majors were compared on measures of brain hemisphere dominance, general intelligence, brain functioning, visual perceptual differentiation, grade point average, flexibility-rigidity, and personal-social adjustment. (SJL)

  14. Subicular and CA1 hippocampal projections to the accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Prieto, C; Ubeda-Banon, I; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Saiz-Sanchez, D; Insausti, R; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2009-02-01

    The hippocampal formation is anatomically and functionally related to the olfactory structures especially in rodents. The entorhinal cortex (EC) receives afferent projections from the main olfactory bulb; this constitutes an olfactory pathway to the hippocampus. In addition to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory (or vomeronasal) system. The relationships between the hippocampal formation and the vomeronasal system are virtually unexplored. Recently, a centrifugal projection from CA1 to the accessory olfactory bulb has been identified using anterograde tracers. In the study reported herein, experiments using anterograde tracers confirm this projection, and injections of retrograde tracers show the distribution and morphology of a population of CA1 and ventral subicular neurons projecting to the accessory olfactory bulb of rats. These results extend previous descriptions of hippocampal projections to the accessory olfactory bulb by including the ventral subiculum and characterizing the morphology, neurochemistry (double labeling with somatostatin), and distribution of such neurons. These data suggest feedback hippocampal control of chemosensory stimuli in the accessory olfactory bulb. Whether this projection processes spatial information on conspecifics or is involved in learning and memory processes associated with chemical stimuli remains to be elucidated.

  15. Monopolar active accessories can be connected to Covidien ForceTriad electrosurgical generators incorrectly, disabling coagulation mode.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    The monopolar output receptacle on the Covidien ForceTriad electrosurgical generator is designed in such a way that users can unknowingly connect active accessories in the wrong orientation, disabling the system's coagulation function. The manufacturer is developing labeling for ForceTriad production units that depicts the proper orientation in which to connect the accessory during setup. Covidien is currently considering how it will address units already in the field.

  16. Differentiating High-Functioning Autism and Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…

  17. Differential function of Themis CABIT domains during T cell development.

    PubMed

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Nitta, Takeshi; Kaji, Kentaro; Takashima, Akiko; Oda, Hiroyo; Tamehiro, Norimasa; Goto, Motohito; Okamura, Tadashi; Patrick, Michael S; Suzuki, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    Themis (also named Gasp) is a newly identified Grb2-binding protein that is essential for thymocyte positive selection. Despite the possible involvement of Themis in TCR-mediated signal transduction, its function remains unresolved and controversial. Themis contains two functionally uncharacterized regions called CABIT (cysteine-containing, all-β in Themis) domains, a nuclear localization signal (NLS), and a proline-rich sequence (PRS). To elucidate the role of these motifs in Themis's function in vivo, we established a series of mutant Themis transgenic mice on a Themis(-/-) background. Deletion of the highly conserved Core motif of CABIT1 or CABIT2 (Core1 or Core2, respectively), the NLS, or the PRS abolished Grb2-association, as well as TCR-dependent tyrosine-phosphorylation and the ability to induce positive selection in the thymus. The NLS and Core1 motifs were required for the nuclear localization of Themis, whereas Core2 and PRS were not. Furthermore, expression of ΔCore1- but not ΔCore2-Themis conferred dominant negative-type inhibition on T cell development. Collectively, our current results indicate that PRS, NLS, CABIT1, and CABIT2 are all required for positive selection, and that each of the CABIT domains exerts distinct functions during positive selection. PMID:24586531

  18. Role of CrkII Signaling in RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation and Function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Seong, Semun; Nam, Kwang-Il; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Keun; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-02-01

    Rac1, a member of small GTPases, is a key regulator of osteoclast differentiation and function. The Crk family adaptor proteins, consisting of Src homology (SH) 2 and SH3 protein-binding domains, regulate cell proliferation, migration, and invasion through Rac1 activation. In this study, we examined the role of CrkII in osteoclast differentiation and function. Retroviral overexpression of CrkII in osteoclast precursors enhanced osteoclast differentiation and resorptive function through Rac1 activation. The knockdown of CrkII in osteoclast precursors using small interfering RNA inhibited osteoclast differentiation and its resorption activity. Unlike wild-type CrkII, overexpression of the three SH domains in mutant forms of CrkII did not enhance either osteoclast differentiation or function. Phosphorylation of p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas) by osteoclastogenic cytokines in preosteoclasts increased the interaction between p130Cas and CrkII, which is known to be involved in Rac1 activation. Furthermore, transgenic mice overexpressing CrkII under control of a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase promoter exhibited a low bone mass phenotype, associated with increased resorptive function of osteoclasts in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that the p130Cas/CrkII/Rac1 signaling pathway plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation and function, both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Hyperbolic deformation of the strip-equation and the accessory parameters for the torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2013-09-01

    By applying an hyperbolic deformation to the uniformization problem for the infinite strip, we give a method for computing the accessory parameter for the torus with one source as an expansion in the modular parameter q. At O( q 0) we obtain the same equation for the accessory parameter and the same value of the semiclassical action as the one obtained from the b → 0 limit of the quantum one point function. The procedure can be carried over to the full O( q 2) or even higher order corrections although the procedure becomes somewhat complicated. Here we compute to order q 2 the correction to the weight parameter intervening in the conformal factor and it is shown that the unwanted contribution O( q) to the accessory parameter equation cancel exactly.

  20. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - MATERIAL DEDICATION ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL AND ACCESSORIES FROM A COMMERCIAL GRADE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    M.D. Stine

    1996-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to select the critical characteristics to be verified for steel sets and accessories and the verification methods to be implemented through a material dedication process for the procurement and use of commercial grade structural steel sets and accessories (which have a nuclear safety function) to be used in ground support (with the exception of alcove ground support and alcove opening framing, which are not addressed in this analysis) for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Spring (TS) Loop. The ESF TS Loop includes the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp underground openings.

  1. Decellularized Tracheal Extracellular Matrix Supports Epithelial Migration, Differentiation, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kutten, Johannes C.; McGovern, David; Hobson, Christopher M.; Luffy, Sarah A.; Nieponice, Alejandro; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J.; Reynolds, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal loss is a source of significant morbidity for affected patients with no acceptable solution. Interest in engineering tracheal transplants has created a demand for small animal models of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Here, we examine the use of a decellularized graft in a murine model of tracheal replacement. Fresh or decellularized tracheas harvested from age-matched female donor C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tracheas were decellularized using repeated washes of water, 3% Triton X-100, and 3 M NaCl under cyclic pressure changes, followed by disinfection with 0.1% peracetic acid/4% ethanol, and terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation. Tracheas were explanted for immunolabeling at 1, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Video microscopy and computed tomography were performed to assess function and structure. Decellularized grafts supported complete reepithelialization by 8 weeks and motile cilia were observed. Cartilaginous portions of the trachea were maintained in mice receiving fresh transplants, but repopulation of the cartilage was not seen in mice receiving decellularized transplants. We observed superior postsurgical survival, weight gain, and ciliary function in mice receiving fresh transplants compared with those receiving decellularized transplants. The murine orthotopic tracheal transplant provides an appropriate model to assess the repopulation and functional regeneration of decellularized tracheal grafts. PMID:24980864

  2. Decellularized tracheal extracellular matrix supports epithelial migration, differentiation, and function.

    PubMed

    Kutten, Johannes C; McGovern, David; Hobson, Christopher M; Luffy, Sarah A; Nieponice, Alejandro; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J; Reynolds, Susan D; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal loss is a source of significant morbidity for affected patients with no acceptable solution. Interest in engineering tracheal transplants has created a demand for small animal models of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Here, we examine the use of a decellularized graft in a murine model of tracheal replacement. Fresh or decellularized tracheas harvested from age-matched female donor C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tracheas were decellularized using repeated washes of water, 3% Triton X-100, and 3 M NaCl under cyclic pressure changes, followed by disinfection with 0.1% peracetic acid/4% ethanol, and terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation. Tracheas were explanted for immunolabeling at 1, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Video microscopy and computed tomography were performed to assess function and structure. Decellularized grafts supported complete reepithelialization by 8 weeks and motile cilia were observed. Cartilaginous portions of the trachea were maintained in mice receiving fresh transplants, but repopulation of the cartilage was not seen in mice receiving decellularized transplants. We observed superior postsurgical survival, weight gain, and ciliary function in mice receiving fresh transplants compared with those receiving decellularized transplants. The murine orthotopic tracheal transplant provides an appropriate model to assess the repopulation and functional regeneration of decellularized tracheal grafts. PMID:24980864

  3. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  4. Differential geometry of the Fermat quartic and theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadnot, Jason

    2012-02-01

    The universal curve over a finite cover of the moduli space of elliptic curves with level four structure is embedded in C as the Fermat quartic and is parametrized via the four Jacobi theta functions. Constructions from completely integrable systems have shown the importance of looking at the curvature of certain spaces and here we compute sectional curvatures. For our computations, we choose the ambient Fubini-Study metric of C. We also derive several theta identities which arise from the quartic's holomorphic two-form.

  5. [Function and expression of transcription factors implicated in gonadal differentiation].

    PubMed

    Morohashi, K

    1998-07-01

    Several transcription factors such as SRY, DAX-1, Ad4BP/SF-1, WT-1 and SOX -9, have been revealed to be implicated in gonadal development by analyzing the genetic disorders of human and the gene disrupted mice. All of these transcription factors are expressed in the early stage of the gonadal development and the expression profiles during the gonadal development are clearly different between the two sexes. Functions of the transcription factors are discussed by referring genes under the control of these factors. Effects of endocrine disruptants on the expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 in the fetal gonads was also discussed. PMID:9702047

  6. Mechanism of accessory cell requirement in inducing IL 2 responsiveness by human T4 lymphocytes that generate colonies under PHA stimulation.

    PubMed

    Oudrhiri, N; Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Divine, M; Bouguet, J; Fradelizi, D; Reyes, F

    1985-09-01

    PHA-driven monoclonal colony formation by low concentrations of resting T4 lymphocytes in agar culture requires the presence of interleukin 2 (IL 2) and accessory cells. Using recombinant IL 2 and anti-Tac monoclonal antibody as a probe for the IL 2 receptor, we demonstrate that the requirement of accessory cells (here an irradiated B cell line) in inducing IL 2 responsiveness relies on their enhancing effect in functional IL 2 receptor expression by the T colony progenitors. Furthermore, it is shown that cell to cell interaction between accessory cells and colony progenitors results in IL 2 response, i.e., colony formation, when the IL 2 receptor density reaches a critical threshold. The asynchronism in IL 2 responsiveness expression by the T colony progenitors upon activation and the short-lived T cell-accessory cell interaction, due to accessory cell death, determine the 10% colony efficiency of the culture system. In addition, we demonstrate that the accessory function in IL 2 receptor and IL 2 responsiveness expression by the T colony progenitors can be supported by irradiated T lymphocytes as well as B cells. The absence of lineage restriction of the signal delivered by accessory cells, and the requirement of physical interaction between T colony progenitors and accessory cells, emphasize the necessity of cross-linking the activation-signal receptors in inducing IL 2 responsiveness by resting T4 cells. PMID:3926884

  7. Vibration of plates using plate characteristic functions obtained by reduction of partial differential equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, R. B.; Mundkur, G.

    1993-02-01

    Vibration of rectangular plates is studied using a set of plate characteristic functions generated by reduction of the plate partial differential equation, and exactly solving the resulting ordinary differential equation. The plate characteristic functions are used as deflection shape functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain the natural frequencies. Because the solution is exact in one direction, the results fall in between the exact values and those obtained with the straight forward Rayleigh-Ritz method, where the complete deflection shape is assumed initially. Results are provided for rectangular plates with combinations of clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions.

  8. Detection of Gender-Based Differential Item Functioning in a Mathematics Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ning; Lane, Suzanne

    This study used three different differential item functioning (DIF) procedures to examine the extent to which items in a mathematics performance assessment functioned differently for matched gender groups. In addition to examining the appropriateness of individual items in terms of DIF with respect to gender, an attempt was made to identify…

  9. Analysis of Sources of Latent Class Differential Item Functioning in International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; Ercikan, Kadriye; Zumbo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated differential item functioning (DIF) and its sources using a latent class (LC) modeling approach. Potential sources of LC DIF related to instruction and teacher-related variables were investigated using substantive and three statistical approaches: descriptive discriminant function, multinomial logistic regression,…

  10. Building Mathematical Maturity in Calculus: Teaching Implicit Differentiation through a Review of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Angela; Phillippy, Doug

    2004-01-01

    A program on calculus is conducted, which helps students learn about inherent differentiation through a study of mathematical functions, while simultaneously reinforcing their understanding of functional concepts. This process develops their mathematical experience in the field of calculus and in other advanced quantitative programs.

  11. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  12. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  13. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Mack, Mick G.; Ragan, Moira A.; Ragan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors used differential item functioning analysis to examine if there were items in the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory functioning differently across gender and athletic membership. A total of 444 male (56.3%) and female (43.7%) participants (30.9% athletes and 69.1% non-athletes) responded to the Mental,…

  14. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  15. Starches of varied digestibilities differentially modify intestinal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Lajvardi, A; Mazarin, G I; Gillespie, M B; Satchithanandam, S; Calvert, R J

    1993-12-01

    Starches of different digestibilities may enter the colon to different extents and alter colonic function. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed diets containing 25% cooked potato starch, arrowroot starch, high amylose cornstarch or raw potato starch for 6 wk. Fecal weight, transit time, colonic thymidine kinase activity (a marker for cell proliferation), and weight, starch content and pH of the cecum and proximal and distal colon were measured. Raw potato starch was much less completely digested than high amylose cornstarch, resulting in a 32-fold greater amount of undigested starch entering the cecum in the raw potato starch group. Both the high amylose cornstarch and raw potato starch diets significantly enhanced fecal weight and produced large intestinal hypertrophy, effects that were greatest in the raw potato starch group. Raw potato starch feeding was associated with the highest level of thymidine kinase activity, although the differences in thymidine kinase activity among the four groups were not significant. This diet also produced a 50% longer transit time. Entry of a large amount of raw potato starch into the colon resulted in greater luminal acidity, greater luminal bulk and slower transit. A much smaller amount of starch entered the colon in the high amylose cornstarch group and resulted in fecal bulking but no alteration in transit. PMID:8263598

  16. Differential regional effects of octreotide on human gastrointestinal motor function.

    PubMed Central

    von der Ohe, M R; Camilleri, M; Thomforde, G M; Klee, G G

    1995-01-01

    The effects of octreotide on regional motor function in the human gut are unclear. In a randomised, blinded study the effects of octreotide (50 micrograms, subcutaneously, three times daily) and placebo on gastric, small bowel, and colonic transit, and colonic motility and tone were assessed in 12 healthy volunteers whose colon had been cleansed. Octreotide accelerated initial gastric emptying (p = 0.05), inhibited small bowel transit (p < 0.01), and reduced ileocolonic bolus transfers (p < 0.05). Colonic transit was unaltered by octreotide; the postprandial colonic tonic response was inhibited (p < 0.05 v placebo), whereas colonic phasic pressure activity was increased by octreotide (p < 0.05 v placebo). These data support the use of octreotide in diarrhoeal states but not in diseases that cause small bowel stasis and bacterial overgrowth. Simultaneous measurements of colonic transit, tone, and phasic contractility are valid in studying the effects of pharmacological changes and may be applicable to the study of the human colon in health and disease. PMID:7797125

  17. Starches of varied digestibilities differentially modify intestinal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Lajvardi, A; Mazarin, G I; Gillespie, M B; Satchithanandam, S; Calvert, R J

    1993-12-01

    Starches of different digestibilities may enter the colon to different extents and alter colonic function. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed diets containing 25% cooked potato starch, arrowroot starch, high amylose cornstarch or raw potato starch for 6 wk. Fecal weight, transit time, colonic thymidine kinase activity (a marker for cell proliferation), and weight, starch content and pH of the cecum and proximal and distal colon were measured. Raw potato starch was much less completely digested than high amylose cornstarch, resulting in a 32-fold greater amount of undigested starch entering the cecum in the raw potato starch group. Both the high amylose cornstarch and raw potato starch diets significantly enhanced fecal weight and produced large intestinal hypertrophy, effects that were greatest in the raw potato starch group. Raw potato starch feeding was associated with the highest level of thymidine kinase activity, although the differences in thymidine kinase activity among the four groups were not significant. This diet also produced a 50% longer transit time. Entry of a large amount of raw potato starch into the colon resulted in greater luminal acidity, greater luminal bulk and slower transit. A much smaller amount of starch entered the colon in the high amylose cornstarch group and resulted in fecal bulking but no alteration in transit.

  18. Differential Light Chain Assembly Influences Outer Arm Dynein Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    DiBella, Linda M.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Sakato, Miho; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Witman, George B.; King, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Tctex1 and Tctex2 were originally described as potential distorters/sterility factors in the non-Mendelian transmission of t-haplotypes in mice. These proteins have since been identified as subunits of cytoplasmic and/or axonemal dyneins. Within the Chlamydomonas flagellum, Tctex1 is a subunit of inner arm I1. We have now identified a second Tctex1-related protein (here termed LC9) in Chlamydomonas. LC9 copurifies with outer arm dynein in sucrose density gradients and is missing only in those strains completely lacking this motor. Zero-length cross-linking of purified outer arm dynein indicates that LC9 interacts directly with both the IC1 and IC2 intermediate chains. Immunoblot analysis revealed that LC2, LC6, and LC9 are missing in an IC2 mutant strain (oda6-r88) that can assemble outer arms but exhibits significantly reduced flagellar beat frequency. This defect is unlikely to be due to lack of LC6, because an LC6 null mutant (oda13) exhibits only a minor swimming abnormality. Using an LC2 null mutant (oda12-1), we find that although some outer arm dynein components assemble in the absence of LC2, they are nonfunctional. In contrast, dyneins from oda6-r88, which also lack LC2, retain some activity. Furthermore, we observed a synthetic assembly defect in an oda6-r88 oda12-1 double mutant. These data suggest that LC2, LC6, and LC9 have different roles in outer arm assembly and are required for wild-type motor function in the Chlamydomonas flagellum. PMID:16195342

  19. Steroidogenesis by testis and accessory glands of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, during reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Teresa; Freitas, Ana M M S; Canario, Adelino V M

    2015-11-01

    In teleost fish sex steroids are essential for gonadal function and have marked effects in reproductive and agonistic behavior and in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, has two male morphotypes: type I males are territorial nest-holders and have large accessory glands while type II males are smaller, have a relatively large testis and small accessory glands. In the present study, the steroidogenic activity of the testis and accessory testicular glands of the Lusitanian toadfish were examined in vitro as well as their presence in urine. The testis of type I males produced 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11β-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11βA) from tritiated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, while those of type II males produced testosterone (T) and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-andosten-3-one (11βT), but not 11KT. Additionally, the testis and accessory glands of both morphs produced mostly 5β,3α-reduced and 17,20α-hydroxylated metabolites. Type I, but not of type II, males synthesised 5β-reduced androgens in their accessory glands. The presence of 11βA exclusively in the urine of type I males during reproductive season suggests an association with maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and behavior in this morph. The urine of both types of males contained two 5α-androstane and 5β-pregnane glucuronides. Among the latter steroids, those that are 17,21-dihydroxylated are potentially metabolites from cortisol and were found only in type I males during the spawning season. The diversity of metabolites produced by the testis and accessory glands and the presence of some in urine is suggestive of a potential role in chemical communication and reproductive behavior.

  20. Polarization of an electroactive functional film on titanium for inducing osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengnan; Li, Weiping; He, Tianrui; Qian, Lei; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the surface bioactivity of titanium (Ti) prostheses, an electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was prepared on a Ti substrate to provide a mimetic of the electrical microenvironment, which facilitated the performance of cell functions. The results of cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated that polarization of the PVDF-Ti (PTi) altered its surface charge, thus inducing adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells. The polarized PVDF-Ti (PPTi) may therefore find applications in bone regeneration. PMID:27762318

  1. An unusual cause of subtalar pain and instability: accessory calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Boulet, C; De Maeseneer, M; Everaert, H; Kichouh, M; De Mey, J; Shahabpour, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on a 45-yr-old male sports instructor with chronic pain and instability of the ankle. He was a recreational basketball player, but because of repeated ankle sprains and chronic subtalar pain this activity became impossible. The radiologic findings were compatible with the diagnosis of accessory calcaneus. In an initial therapeutic approach the patient was treated conservatively with taping and physical therapy, but this failed to relieve the symptoms. Next, a ligamentoplasty was performed. The instability improved, but the pain remained the same. Finally the accessory calcaneus was resected and short term follow-up was unremarkable. Accessory calcaneus is an uncommon anatomical variation that may cause subtalar pain and instability. Resection of the accessory bone may be necessary to provide relief of symptoms. Accessory calcaneus can be well demonstrated on CT, SPECT-CT, and MR. MR and nuclear medicine can indicate instability of the accessory bone by showing bone marrow edema on MR or uptake on fusion imaging.

  2. Fisher information of special functions and second-order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, R. J.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Zarzo, A.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate a basic question of analytic information theory, namely, the evaluation of the Fisher information and the relative Fisher information with respect to a non-negative function, for the probability distributions obtained by squaring the special functions of mathematical physics which are solutions of second-order differential equations. We obtain explicit expressions for these information-theoretic properties via the expectation values of the coefficients of the differential equation. We illustrate our approach for various nonrelativistic D-dimensional wavefunctions and some special functions of physicomathematical interest. Emphasis is made in the Nikiforov-Uvarov hypergeometric-type functions, which include and generalize the Hermite functions and the Gauss and Kummer hypergeometric functions, among others.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition promotes human iTreg differentiation and suppressive function.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongxiang; Zhuo, Han; Lu, Yunjie; Deng, Lei; Jiang, Runqiu; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qin; Pu, Liyong; Wang, Xuehao; Lu, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) are essential to maintain immunological tolerance, immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity. Some studies suggest that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is involved in the mouse iTreg differentiation; however, whether GSK3β inhibits or enhances iTreg differentiation is still a matter of controversy. To address this issue, we have utilized human naïve CD4(+) T cells and investigated whether GSK3 activity changes during iTreg differentiation and whether altering GSK3 activity influences the development of iTregs and its suppressive function. As a constitutively activated kinase, during iTreg differentiation GSK3β became quickly deactivated (phosphorylated at serine 9), which is dependent on MAPK pathway rather than PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our results indicated that inhibition of GSK3β by specific inhibitors, SB216763 or TDZD-8, promoted the differentiation of iTreg and increased their suppressive activity. In contrast, overexpression of GSK3β significantly inhibited iTreg differentiation. Furthermore, GSK3β inhibition enhanced iTreg differentiation through the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrates that inhibition of GSK3β enhances human iTreg differentiation and its suppressive activity, and provides a rationale to target GSK3β as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy.

  4. A novel crosstalk between Alk7 and cGMP signaling differentially regulates brown adipocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Balkow, Aileen; Jagow, Johanna; Haas, Bodo; Siegel, Franziska; Kilić, Ana; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous burden for patients and health systems world-wide. Brown adipose tissue dissipates energy in response to cold and has been shown to be metabolically active in human adults. The type I transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (Alk7) is highly expressed in adipose tissues and is down-regulated in obese patients. Here, we studied the function of Alk7 in brown adipocytes. Methods Using pharmacological and genetic tools, Alk7 signaling pathway and its effects were studied in murine brown adipocytes. Brown adipocyte differentiation and activation was analyzed. Results Alk7 is highly upregulated during differentiation of brown adipocytes. Interestingly, Alk7 expression is increased by cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling, which enhances brown adipocyte differentiation. Activin AB effectively activates Alk7 and SMAD3 signaling. Activation of Alk7 in brown preadipocytes suppresses the master adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ and differentiation. Stimulation of Alk7 during late differentiation of brown adipocytes reduces lipid content and adipogenic marker expression but enhances UCP1 expression. Conclusions We found a so far unknown crosstalk between cGMP and Alk7 signaling pathways. Tight regulation of Alk7 is required for efficient differentiation of brown adipocytes. Alk7 has differential effects on adipogenic differentiation and the development of the thermogenic program in brown adipocytes. PMID:26266090

  5. Rectifying and negative differential resistance behaviors of a functionalized Tour wire: The position effects of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Gordon; Zhang, Zhenhua; Pan, Jinbo

    2011-09-01

    Based on Tour wire, we construct four D-π-A molecular devices with different positional functional groups, in an attempt to explore the position effects of functional groups on their electronic transport properties and to show that some interesting physical phenomena can emerge by only varying the position of functional groups. The first-principles calculations demonstrate that the position of functional groups can affect the rectifying behaviors (rectification direction and ratio) significantly and determines whether or not the negative differential resistance (NDR) can be observed as well as the physical origin of the NDR phenomenon.

  6. Sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Debnath, S C; Adhyapok, A K

    2015-09-01

    We report a rare case of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which was located anteromedial to the masseter muscle and isolated from the main parotid gland. The calculus developed from this accessory gland, and the main gland was free of lithiasis and inflammation. To our knowledge, there is no reported case of 14 stones in an accessory parotid salivary gland. The calculus was removed through a standard incision without injury to the facial nerve or a salivary fistula. PMID:26048098

  7. DiffNet: automatic differential functional summarization of dE-MAP networks.

    PubMed

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes

    2014-10-01

    The study of genetic interaction networks that respond to changing conditions is an emerging research problem. Recently, Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) proposed a technique to construct a differential network (dE-MAPnetwork) from two static gene interaction networks in order to map the interaction differences between them under environment or condition change (e.g., DNA-damaging agent). This differential network is then manually analyzed to conclude that DNA repair is differentially effected by the condition change. Unfortunately, manual construction of differential functional summary from a dE-MAP network that summarizes all pertinent functional responses is time-consuming, laborious and error-prone, impeding large-scale analysis on it. To this end, we propose DiffNet, a novel data-driven algorithm that leverages Gene Ontology (go) annotations to automatically summarize a dE-MAP network to obtain a high-level map of functional responses due to condition change. We tested DiffNet on the dynamic interaction networks following MMS treatment and demonstrated the superiority of our approach in generating differential functional summaries compared to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods. We studied the effects of parameters in DiffNet in controlling the quality of the summary. We also performed a case study that illustrates its utility.

  8. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    lung function testing by spirometry. (7) Possible alternative disinfectants to glutaraldehyde include peracetic acid (0.2-0.35%), chlorine dioxide (700-1100 ppm) and superoxidized water. These are very effective, killing vegetative bacteria, including mycobacteria, and viruses in 5 min and bacterial spores in 10 min. An endorsement of compatibility with endoscopes, accessories and processing equipment is required from both the solution/device manufacturer and the endoscope manufacturer. Other important considerations are stability, cost and safety from the user and environmental standpoints. (8) Cleaning and disinfection or sterilization should be undertaken by trained staff in a dedicated area, e.g., SSD or TSSU. A suitable training programme is described. (9) If endoscopes are processed by immersion in disinfectants, harmful residues must be removed by thorough rinsing. Sterile or bacteria free water is essential for rinsing all invasive endoscopes and accessories to prevent recontamination. (10) If an automated washer disinfector is used it must be effective, non-damaging, reliable, easy to use and its performance regularly monitored. (11) If used, washer disinfectors and other processing equipment should be disinfected on a regular basis, i.e., between patients or at the start of each session. This will prevent biofilm formation and recontamination of instruments during rinsing. Disinfection should include the water treatment system, if present. (12) To comply with the Medical Devices Directive, manufacturers are obliged to provide full details on how to decontaminate the reusable devices they supply. This should include details of compatibility with heat, pressure, moisture, processing chemicals and ultrasonics. (13) The Infection Control Team should always be involved in the formulation and implementation of decontamination policies. Wherever possible, the national good practice guidelines produced by the Medical Devices Agency and/or professional societies shoul

  9. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    PubMed

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  10. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Baklacı, Deniz; Güngör, Volkan; Özcan, Müge; Yılmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Ünal, Adnan; Çolak, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland is a small salivary gland tissue separated from main part of parotid gland. It is located on the masseter muscle anterior to the Stensen's duct. Tumors of accessory parotid gland are rare. In this article, we report an unusual case of adenoid cystic carcinoma involving accessory parotid gland. The patient presented with a progressively growing mass in the middle portion of her cheek. She underwent a partial parotidectomy including both the superficial and accessory lobes. The histopathologic diagnosis was adenoid cystic carcinoma of cribriform type. PMID:26476520

  11. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices... portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory...

  12. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    PubMed

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects.

  13. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin; Cho, Si Young; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

  14. Normal Form of Saddle-Node-Hopf Bifurcation in Retarded Functional Differential Equations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Heping; Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli

    In this paper, we firstly employ the normal form theory of delayed differential equations according to Faria and Magalhães to derive the normal form of saddle-node-Hopf bifurcation for the general retarded functional differential equations. Then, the dynamical behaviors of a Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with time delay and nonmonotonic functional response are considered. Specially, the dynamical classification near the saddle-node-Hopf bifurcation point is investigated by using the normal form and the center manifold approaches. Finally, the numerical simulations are employed to support the theoretical results.

  15. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  16. Convergent functional genomics of oligodendrocyte differentiation identifies multiple autoinhibitory signaling circuits.

    PubMed

    Gobert, Rosanna Pescini; Joubert, Lara; Curchod, Marie-Laure; Salvat, Catherine; Foucault, Isabelle; Jorand-Lebrun, Catherine; Lamarine, Marc; Peixoto, Hélène; Vignaud, Chloé; Frémaux, Christèle; Jomotte, Thérèse; Françon, Bernard; Alliod, Chantal; Bernasconi, Lilia; Abderrahim, Hadi; Perrin, Dominique; Bombrun, Agnes; Zanoguera, Francisca; Rommel, Christian; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob

    2009-03-01

    Inadequate remyelination of brain white matter lesions has been associated with a failure of oligodendrocyte precursors to differentiate into mature, myelin-producing cells. In order to better understand which genes play a critical role in oligodendrocyte differentiation, we performed time-dependent, genome-wide gene expression studies of mouse Oli-neu cells as they differentiate into process-forming and myelin basic protein-producing cells, following treatment with three different agents. Our data indicate that different inducers activate distinct pathways that ultimately converge into the completely differentiated state, where regulated gene sets overlap maximally. In order to also gain insight into the functional role of genes that are regulated in this process, we silenced 88 of these genes using small interfering RNA and identified multiple repressors of spontaneous differentiation of Oli-neu, most of which were confirmed in rat primary oligodendrocyte precursors cells. Among these repressors were CNP, a well-known myelin constituent, and three phosphatases, each known to negatively control mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. We show that a novel inhibitor for one of the identified genes, dual-specificity phosphatase DUSP10/MKP5, was also capable of inducing oligodendrocyte differentiation in primary oligodendrocyte precursors. Oligodendrocytic differentiation feedback loops may therefore yield pharmacological targets to treat disease related to dysfunctional myelin deposition.

  17. Convergent Functional Genomics of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation Identifies Multiple Autoinhibitory Signaling Circuits▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pescini Gobert, Rosanna; Joubert, Lara; Curchod, Marie-Laure; Salvat, Catherine; Foucault, Isabelle; Jorand-Lebrun, Catherine; Lamarine, Marc; Peixoto, Hélène; Vignaud, Chloé; Frémaux, Christèle; Jomotte, Thérèse; Françon, Bernard; Alliod, Chantal; Bernasconi, Lilia; Abderrahim, Hadi; Perrin, Dominique; Bombrun, Agnes; Zanoguera, Francisca; Rommel, Christian; van Huijsduijnen, Rob Hooft

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate remyelination of brain white matter lesions has been associated with a failure of oligodendrocyte precursors to differentiate into mature, myelin-producing cells. In order to better understand which genes play a critical role in oligodendrocyte differentiation, we performed time-dependent, genome-wide gene expression studies of mouse Oli-neu cells as they differentiate into process-forming and myelin basic protein-producing cells, following treatment with three different agents. Our data indicate that different inducers activate distinct pathways that ultimately converge into the completely differentiated state, where regulated gene sets overlap maximally. In order to also gain insight into the functional role of genes that are regulated in this process, we silenced 88 of these genes using small interfering RNA and identified multiple repressors of spontaneous differentiation of Oli-neu, most of which were confirmed in rat primary oligodendrocyte precursors cells. Among these repressors were CNP, a well-known myelin constituent, and three phosphatases, each known to negatively control mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. We show that a novel inhibitor for one of the identified genes, dual-specificity phosphatase DUSP10/MKP5, was also capable of inducing oligodendrocyte differentiation in primary oligodendrocyte precursors. Oligodendrocytic differentiation feedback loops may therefore yield pharmacological targets to treat disease related to dysfunctional myelin deposition. PMID:19139271

  18. /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate for quantitation of differential renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Balseiro, J.; Fahey, F.H.; Le, T.V.; Dubiansky, V.

    1987-05-01

    Differential renal function was calculated by using /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (Tc-GH) in 51 patients. Computer-acquired background-corrected individual renal function was calculated by using both the 1-3-min uptake counts and the 2-4-hr delayed static counts. The degree of correlation between the two was high (r = .96). An equally high correlation was noted in 16 children who were 12 years old or younger, in 15 patients with renal size disparity greater than 60/40%, and in six patients with abnormal creatinine clearances. Ten patients had a 30-min dynamic /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study followed immediately by the injection of Tc-GH and acquisition of delayed static images 2-4 hr later. A high degree of correlation (r = .99) was seen between the 1-3-min differential function obtained by using Tc-DTPA and the 2-4-hr delayed differential function obtained by using Tc-GH. This study shows that Tc-GH is a clinically useful and valid tool for calculation of differential renal function and that Tc-GH combines many of the best aspects of Tc-DTPA and Tc-DMSA.

  19. Water extract of Acer tegmentosum reduces bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyunil; Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; An, Hyosun; Lee, Chung-Jo; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-04-01

    The stem of Acer tegmentosum has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of hepatic disorders. In this study, we investigated the bone protective effect of water extract of the stem of Acer tegmentosum (WEAT). We found that WEAT inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine for osteoclast differentiation. In osteoclast precursor cells, WEAT inhibited RANKL-induced activation of JNK, NF-κB, and cAMP response element-binding protein, leading to suppression of the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, key transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation. In addition, WEAT inhibited bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, the oral administration of WEAT reduced RANKL-induced bone resorption and trabecular bone loss in mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that WEAT possesses a protective effect on bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

  20. Differential Editosome Protein Function between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei *

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne M.; Guo, Xuemin; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. The mRNAs are differentially edited in bloodstream form (BF) and procyclic form (PF) life cycle stages, and this correlates with the differential utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation between the stages. The mechanism that controls this differential editing is unknown. Editing is catalyzed by multiprotein ∼20S editosomes that contain endonuclease, 3′-terminal uridylyltransferase, exonuclease, and ligase activities. These editosomes also contain KREPB5 and KREPA3 proteins, which have no functional catalytic motifs, but they are essential for parasite viability, editing, and editosome integrity in BF cells. We show here that repression of KREPB5 or KREPA3 is also lethal in PF, but the effects on editosome structure differ from those in BF. In addition, we found that point mutations in KREPB5 or KREPA3 differentially affect cell growth, editosome integrity, and RNA editing between BF and PF stages. These results indicate that the functions of KREPB5 and KREPA3 editosome proteins are adjusted between the life cycle stages. This implies that these proteins are involved in the processes that control differential editing and that the 20S editosomes differ between the life cycle stages. PMID:26304125

  1. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  2. Osteogenic Differentiation of MSC through Calcium Signaling Activation: Transcriptomics and Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Federica; Landini, Martina; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Petecchia, Loredana; Milanesi, Luciano; Scaglione, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The culture of progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) onto osteoconductive materials to induce a proper osteogenic differentiation and mineralized matrix regeneration represents a promising and widely diffused experimental approach for tissue-engineering (TE) applications in orthopaedics. Among modern biomaterials, calcium phosphates represent the best bone substitutes, due to their chemical features emulating the mineral phase of bone tissue. Although many studies on stem cells differentiation mechanisms have been performed involving calcium-based scaffolds, results often focus on highlighting production of in vitro bone matrix markers and in vivo tissue ingrowth, while information related to the biomolecular mechanisms involved in the early cellular calcium-mediated differentiation is not well elucidated yet. Genetic programs for osteogenesis have been just partially deciphered, and the description of the different molecules and pathways operative in these differentiations is far from complete, as well as the activity of calcium in this process. The present work aims to shed light on the involvement of extracellular calcium in MSC differentiation: a better understanding of the early stage osteogenic differentiation program of MSC seeded on calcium-based biomaterials is required in order to develop optimal strategies to promote osteogenesis through the use of new generation osteoconductive scaffolds. A wide spectrum of analysis has been performed on time-dependent series: gene expression profiles are obtained from samples (MSC seeded on calcium-based scaffolds), together with related microRNAs expression and in vivo functional validation. On this basis, and relying on literature knowledge, hypotheses are made on the biomolecular players activated by the biomaterial calcium-phosphate component. Interestingly, a key role of miR-138 was highlighted, whose inhibition markedly increases osteogenic differentiation in vitro and enhance ectopic bone formation in vivo

  3. Low-shear modelled microgravity environment maintains morphology and differentiated functionality of primary porcine hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Leonard J; Walker, Simon W; Hayes, Peter C; Plevris, John N

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocytes cultured in conventional static culture rapidly lose polarity and differentiated function. This could be explained by gravity-induced sedimentation, which prevents formation of complete three-dimensional (3D) cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions and disrupts integrin-mediated signals (including the most abundant hepatic integrin alpha(5)beta(1)), important for cellular polarity and differentiation. Cell culture in a low fluid shear modelled microgravity (about 10(-2) g) environment promotes spatial colocation/self-aggregation of dissociated cells and induction of 3D differentiated liver morphology. Previously, we demonstrated the utility of a NASA rotary bioreactor in maintaining key metabolic functions and 3D aggregate formation of high-density primary porcine hepatocyte cultures over 21 days. Using serum-free chemically defined medium, without confounding interactions of exogenous bioscaffolding or bioenhancing surface materials, we investigated features of hepatic cellular polarity and differentiated functionality, including expression of hepatic integrin alpha(5), as markers of functional morphology. We report here that in the absence of exogenous biomatrix scaffolding, hepatocytes cultured in serum-free chemically defined medium in a microgravity environment rapidly (<24 h) form macroscopic (2-5 mm), compacted 3D hepatospheroid structures consisting of a shell of glycogen-positive viable cells circumscribing a core of eosinophilic cells. The spheroid shell layers exhibited ultrastructural, morphological and functional features of differentiated, polarized hepatic tissue including strong expression of the integrin alpha(5) subunit, functional bile canaliculi, albumin synthesis, and fine ultrastructure reminiscent of in vivo hepatic tissue. The low fluid shear microgravity environment may promote tissue-like self-organization of dissociated cells, and offer advantages over spheroids cultured in conventional formats to delineate optimal conditions for

  4. Global series solutions of nonlinear differential equations with shocks using Walsh functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2014-02-01

    An orthonormal basis set composed of Walsh functions is used for deriving global solutions (valid over the entire domain) to nonlinear differential equations that include discontinuities. Function gn(x) of the set, a scaled Walsh function in sequency order, is comprised of n piecewise constant values (square waves) across the domain xa⩽x⩽xb. Only two square wave lengths are allowed in any function and a new derivation of the basis functions applies a fractal-like algorithm (infinitely self-similar) focused on the distribution of wave lengths. This distribution is determined by a recursive folding algorithm that propagates fundamental symmetries to successive values of n. Functions, including those with discontinuities, may be represented on the domain as a series in gn(x) with no occurrence of a Gibbs phenomenon (ringing) across the discontinuity. A much more powerful, self-mapping characteristic of the series is closure under multiplication - the product of any two Walsh functions is also a Walsh function. This self-mapping characteristic transforms the solution of nonlinear differential equations to the solution of systems of polynomial equations if the original nonlinearities can be represented as products of the dependent variables and the convergence of the series for n→∞ can be demonstrated. Fundamental operations (reciprocal, integral, derivative) on Walsh function series representations of functions with discontinuities are defined. Examples are presented for solution of the time dependent Burger's equation and for quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow including a shock.

  5. Detecting Differential Item Functioning of Polytomous Items for an Ideal Point Response Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei; Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing use of ideal point models to develop scales measuring important psychological constructs. For meaningful comparisons across groups, it is important to identify items on such scales that exhibit differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, the authors examined several methods for assessing DIF on polytomous items…

  6. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  7. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in Testlet-Based Items Using the Rasch Testlet Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a procedure for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous and polytomous items in testlet-based tests, whereby DIF is taken into account by adding DIF parameters into the Rasch testlet model. Simulations were conducted to assess recovery of the DIF and other parameters. Two independent variables, test type…

  8. Detecting Differential Rater Functioning over Time (DRIFT) Using a Rasch Multi-faceted Rating Scale Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Moulder, Bradley C.; Myford, Carol M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a class of rater effects, differential rater functioning over time (DRIFT), that depicts rater-by-time interactions. Also describes Rasch measurement procedures designed to identify these types of DRIFT in rating data. Applied these procedures to simulated data to show their usefulness in classifying raters as aberrant or non-aberrant…

  9. Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning on a Middle-School Mathematics Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Suzanne; And Others

    This study examined gender-related differential item functioning (DIF) using a mathematics performance assessment, the QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI), administered to middle school students. The QCAI was developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reading (QUASAR) project, which focuses on…

  10. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

  11. Detecting Differential Item Functioning of a Course Satisfaction Instrument in the Presence of Multilevel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes; French, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to test for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) between male and female students on end-of-semester class evaluations in an introductory university science course and to demonstrate DIF detection methods that take into account the complex sampling mechanism that often underlies data used in such assessments.…

  12. Differential Item Functioning By Sex and Race in The Hogan Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Richard; Han, Kyunghee; Colarelli, Stephen M.; Dai, Guangdong; King, Daniel W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined measurement bias in the Hogan Personality Inventory by investigating differential item functioning (DIF) across sex and two racial groups (Caucasian and Black). The sample consisted of 1,579 Caucasians (1,023 men, 556 women) and 523 Blacks (321 men, 202 women) who were applying for entry-level, unskilled jobs in factories.…

  13. Numerical approximation of a nonlinear delay-advance functional differential equation by a finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, M. F.

    2012-09-01

    We are particularly interested in the numerical solution of the functional differential equations with symmetric delay and advance. In this work, we consider a nonlinear forward-backward equation, the Fitz Hugh-Nagumo equation. It is presented a scheme which extends the algorithm introduced in [1]. A computational method using Newton's method, finite element method and method of steps is developped.

  14. Comparing Methods of Assessing Differential Item Functioning in a Computerized Adaptive Testing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Chen, Shu-Ying; Yu, Lan

    2006-01-01

    Mantel-Haenszel and SIBTEST, which have known difficulty in detecting non-unidirectional differential item functioning (DIF), have been adapted with some success for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study adapts logistic regression (LR) and the item-response-theory-likelihood-ratio test (IRT-LRT), capable of detecting both unidirectional…

  15. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning under Cognitive Diagnosis Models: The DINA Model Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) is routinely conducted to ensure test fairness and validity. Although many DIF assessment methods have been developed in the context of classical test theory and item response theory, they are not applicable for cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), as the underlying latent attributes of CDMs are…

  16. Explaining Crossing DIF in Polytomous Items Using Differential Step Functioning Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    Crossing, or intersecting, differential item functioning (DIF) is a form of nonuniform DIF that exists when the sign of the between-group difference in expected item performance changes across the latent trait continuum. The presence of crossing DIF presents a problem for many statistics developed for evaluating DIF because positive and negative…

  17. The Usefulness of Differential Item Functioning Methodology in Longitudinal Intervention Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for engaging in physical activity (PA) is a key variable mediating PA change in interventions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of item response modeling-based (IRM) differential item functioning (DIF) in the investigation of group differences ...

  18. Detecting Native Language Group Differences at the Subskills Level of Reading: A Differential Skill Functioning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2013-01-01

    Differential skill functioning (DSF) exists when examinees from different groups have different probabilities of successful performance in a certain subskill underlying the measured construct, given that they have the same ability on the overall construct. Using a DSF approach, this study examined the differences between two native language…

  19. Cauchy problem and Green's functions for first order differential operators and algebraic quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlhoff, Rainer

    2011-02-15

    Existence and uniqueness of advanced and retarded fundamental solutions (Green's functions) and of global solutions to the Cauchy problem is proved for a general class of first order linear differential operators on vector bundles over globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds. This is a core ingredient to CAR-/CCR-algebraic constructions of quantum field theories on curved spacetimes, particularly for higher spin field equations.

  20. Evaluation of Model Selection Strategies for Cross-Level Two-Way Differential Item Functioning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Kamata, Akihito; Kanjanawasee, Sirichai

    2012-01-01

    Model specification issues on the cross-level two-way differential item functioning model were previously investigated by Patarapichayatham et al. (2009). Their study clarified that an incorrect model specification can easily lead to biased estimates of key parameters. The objective of this article is to provide further insights on the issue by…

  1. Group-Specific Effects of Matching Subtest Contamination on the Identification of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer, Elizabeth Ann

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) simulation study was conducted to explore the type and level of impact that contamination had on type I error and power rates in DIF analyses when the suspect item favored the same or opposite group as the DIF items in the matching subtest. Type I error and power rates were displayed separately for the…

  2. A Comparison of Four Differential Item Functioning Procedures in the Presence of Multidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek

    2016-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF), or item bias, is a relatively new concept. It has been one of the most controversial and the most studied subject in measurement theory. DIF occurs when people who have the same ability level but from different groups have a different probability of a correct response. According to Item Response Theory (IRT),…

  3. Detecting and Analyzing Differential Item Functioning in an Essay Test Using the Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    A procedure was developed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in a standardized essay test using the Partial Credit Model, the general polychotomous form of the Rasch model. Using a panel of experts in the writing process, hypothesized explanations for DIF at some score points were developed. Data for the study included averaged…

  4. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Using Hierarchical Logistic Regression Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, David B.; Clauser, Brian E.; Case, Susan M.; Nungester, Ronald J.; Featherman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an approach to differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using hierarchical linear regression that makes it possible to combine results of logistic regression analyses across items to identify consistent sources of DIF, to quantify the proportion of explained variation in DIF coefficients, and to compare the predictive accuracy of…

  5. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  6. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  7. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of Math Performance of Hispanic, Asian, and White NAEP Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald; Chan, Kaling

    The differential item functioning of mathematics performance of Hispanic, Asian, and White students on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) was studied, using a modification of the Mantel-Haenszel Procedure. The sample for grades 3, 7, and 11, respectively, included: (1) 1,367, 1,570, and 1,580 Whites; (2) 265, 613, and 760…

  8. Using Multiple-Variable Matching to Identify Cultural Sources of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the sources of differential item functioning (DIF) in international assessments is very challenging, because such sources are often nebulous and intertwined. Even though researchers frequently focus on test translation and content area, few actually go beyond these factors to investigate other cultural sources of DIF. This article…

  9. A Monte Carlo Study Investigating Missing Data, Differential Item Functioning, and Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    The use of polytomous items in assessments has increased over the years, and as a result, the validity of these assessments has been a concern. Differential item functioning (DIF) and missing data are two factors that may adversely affect assessment validity. Both factors have been studied separately, but DIF and missing data are likely to occur…

  10. Myogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells That Lack a Functional Pax7 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinska, Areta M.; Grabowska, Iwona; Archacka, Karolina; Bem, Joanna; Swierczek, Barbara; Helinska, Anita; Streminska, Wladyslawa; Fogtman, Anna; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Koblowska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 plays a key role during embryonic myogenesis and sustains the proper function of satellite cells, which serve as adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Overexpression of Pax7 has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the effects of the absence of functional Pax7 in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have not yet been directly tested. Herein, we studied mouse stem cells that lacked a functional Pax7 gene and characterized the differentiation of these stem cells under conditions that promoted the derivation of myoblasts in vitro. We analyzed the expression of myogenic factors, such as myogenic regulatory factors and muscle-specific microRNAs, in wild-type and mutant cells. Finally, we compared the transcriptome of both types of cells and did not find substantial differences in the expression of genes related to the regulation of myogenesis. As a result, we showed that the absence of functional Pax7 does not prevent the in vitro myogenic differentiation of ESCs. PMID:26649785

  11. The MIMIC Method with Scale Purification for Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2009-01-01

    This study implements a scale purification procedure onto the standard MIMIC method for differential item functioning (DIF) detection and assesses its performance through a series of simulations. It is found that the MIMIC method with scale purification (denoted as M-SP) outperforms the standard MIMIC method (denoted as M-ST) in controlling…

  12. Examining Type I Error and Power for Detection of Differential Item and Testlet Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Sun; Cohen, Allan; Toro, Maritsa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of detection of differential item functioning (DIF) and testlet DIF using SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were examined in tests composed of testlets. An example using data from a reading comprehension test showed that results from SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were not completely consistent in the detection of DIF and testlet…

  13. Recursive Partitioning to Identify Potential Causes of Differential Item Functioning in Cross-National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Hernández Finch, Maria E.; French, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment is key in score validation. When DIF is present scores may not accurately reflect the construct of interest for some groups of examinees, leading to incorrect conclusions from the scores. Given rising immigration, and the increased reliance of educational policymakers on cross-national assessments…

  14. An Examination of Differential Item Functioning on the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; May, Henry; Porter, Andrew C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Goldring, Ellen; Murphy, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360-degree assessment of the effectiveness of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. In this report, we present results from a differential item functioning (DIF) study of the assessment. Using data from a national field trial, we searched for evidence of DIF on school level,…

  15. Examining Differential Item Functions of Different Item Ordered Test Forms According to Item Difficulty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Gül, Emrah; Dogan-Gül, Çilem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to examine whether differential item function is displayed in three different test forms that have item orders of random and sequential versions (easy-to-hard and hard-to-easy), based on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods and bearing item difficulty levels in mind. In the correlational research, the…

  16. Evaluation of Two Types of Differential Item Functioning in Factor Mixture Models with Binary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HwaYoung; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Conventional differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods (e.g., the Mantel-Haenszel test) can be used to detect DIF only across observed groups, such as gender or ethnicity. However, research has found that DIF is not typically fully explained by an observed variable. True sources of DIF may include unobserved, latent variables, such as…

  17. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  18. Identification of Differential Item Functioning in Multiple-Group Settings: A Multivariate Outlier Detection Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; De Boeck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We focus on the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) when more than two groups of examinees are considered. We propose to consider items as elements of a multivariate space, where DIF items are outlying elements. Following this approach, the situation of multiple groups is a quite natural case. A robust statistics technique is…

  19. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  20. A Comparison of Adjacent Categories and Cumulative Differential Step Functioning Effect Estimators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2012-01-01

    The study of measurement invariance in polytomous items that targets individual score levels is known as differential step functioning (DSF). The analysis of DSF requires the creation of a set of dichotomizations of the item response variable. There are two primary approaches for creating the set of dichotomizations to conduct a DSF analysis: the…

  1. The Effect of Differential Item Functioning in Anchor Items on Population Invariance of Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Invariant relationships in the internal mechanisms of estimating achievement scores on educational tests serve as the basis for concluding that a particular test is fair with respect to statistical bias concerns. Equating invariance and differential item functioning are both concerned with invariant relationships yet are treated separately in the…

  2. A Synthesis of the Peer-Reviewed Differential Bundle Functioning Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a synthesis of the peer-reviewed differential bundle functioning (DBF) research that has been conducted to date. A total of 16 studies were synthesized according to the following characteristics: tests used and learner groups, organizing principles used for developing bundles, DBF detection methods used,…

  3. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  4. Correlates of Communalities as Matching Variables in Differential Item Functioning Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Huseyin H.; Yildirim, Selda

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate matching in Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analyses may contribute to understand the sources of DIF. In this context, detecting appropriate additional matching variables is a crucial issue. This present article argues that the variables which are correlated with communalities in item difficulties can be used as an additional…

  5. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  6. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  7. Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

  8. The differentiation and protective function of cytolytic CD4 T cells in influenza infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigen in the context of Class II MHC can differentiate into various subsets that are characterized by their helper functions. However, increasing evidence indicates that CD4 cells with direct cytolytic activity play a role in chronic, as well as, acute infections...

  9. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  10. The Matching Criterion Purification for Differential Item Functioning Analyses in a Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HyeSun; Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of matching criterion purification on the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection in large-scale assessments. The three matching approaches for DIF analyses (block-level matching, pooled booklet matching, and equated pooled booklet matching) were employed with the Mantel-Haenszel…

  11. Iterative Purification and Effect Size Use with Logistic Regression for Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Maller, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Two unresolved implementation issues with logistic regression (LR) for differential item functioning (DIF) detection include ability purification and effect size use. Purification is suggested to control inaccuracies in DIF detection as a result of DIF items in the ability estimate. Additionally, effect size use may be beneficial in controlling…

  12. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  13. Accommodations and Item-Level Analyses Using Mixture Differential Item Functioning Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpati, Stanley E.; Wells, Craig S.; Lewis, Christine; Jirka, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use differential item functioning (DIF) and latent mixture model analyses to explore factors that explain performance differences on a large-scale mathematics assessment between examinees allowed to use a calculator or who were afforded item presentation accommodations versus those who did not receive the same…

  14. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  15. A Robust Outlier Approach to Prevent Type I Error Inflation in Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; De Boeck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The identification of differential item functioning (DIF) is often performed by means of statistical approaches that consider the raw scores as proxies for the ability trait level. One of the most popular approaches, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method, belongs to this category. However, replacing the ability level by the simple raw score is a source…

  16. Diverse broad-host-range plasmids from freshwater carry few accessory genes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Celeste J; Sen, Diya; Yano, Hirokazu; Bauer, Matthew L; Rogers, Linda M; Van der Auwera, Geraldine A; Top, Eva M

    2013-12-01

    Broad-host-range self-transferable plasmids are known to facilitate bacterial adaptation by spreading genes between phylogenetically distinct hosts. These plasmids typically have a conserved backbone region and a variable accessory region that encodes host-beneficial traits. We do not know, however, how well plasmids that do not encode accessory functions can survive in nature. The goal of this study was to characterize the backbone and accessory gene content of plasmids that were captured from freshwater sources without selecting for a particular phenotype or cultivating their host. To do this, triparental matings were used such that the only required phenotype was the plasmid's ability to mobilize a nonconjugative plasmid. Based on complete genome sequences of 10 plasmids, only 5 carried identifiable accessory gene regions, and none carried antibiotic resistance genes. The plasmids belong to four known incompatibility groups (IncN, IncP-1, IncU, and IncW) and two potentially new groups. Eight of the plasmids were shown to have a broad host range, being able to transfer into alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria. Because of the absence of antibiotic resistance genes, we resampled one of the sites and compared the proportion of captured plasmids that conferred antibiotic resistance to their hosts with the proportion of such plasmids captured from the effluent of a local wastewater treatment plant. Few of the captured plasmids from either site encoded antibiotic resistance. A high diversity of plasmids that encode no or unknown accessory functions is thus readily found in freshwater habitats. The question remains how the plasmids persist in these microbial communities.

  17. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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  19. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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  20. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  1. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  8. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

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  10. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  11. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251 Section 121.251 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  13. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hysteroscope and accessories. 884.1690 Section 884.1690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1690 Hysteroscope and accessories....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes....

  15. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  16. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2640 Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884.2960 Section 884.2960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884.2700 Section 884.2700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification....

  5. Morphological characteristics of the cranial root of the accessory nerve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Fu; Won, Hyung-Sun; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-11-01

    There has been the controversy surrounding the cranial root (CR) of the accessory nerve. This study was performed to clarify the morphological characteristics of the CR in the cranial cavity. Fifty sides of 25 adult cadaver heads were used. The accessory nerve was easily distinguished from the vagus nerve by the dura mater in the jugular foramen in 80% of 50 specimens. The trunk of the accessory nerve from the spinal cord penetrated the dura mater at various distances before entering the jugular foramen. In 20% of the specimens there was no dural boundary. In these cases, the uppermost cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve could be identified by removing the dura mater around the jugular foramen where it joined to the trunk of the accessory nerve at the superior vagal ganglion. The cranial rootlet was formed by union of two to four short filaments emerging from the medulla oblongata (66%) and emerged single, without filament (34%), and usually joined the trunk of the accessory nerve directly before the jugular foramen. The mean number of rootlets of the CR was 4.9 (range 2-9) above the cervicomedullary junction. The CR of the accessory nerve was composed of two to nine rootlets, which were formed by the union of two to four short filaments and joined the spinal root of the accessory nerve. The CR is morphologically distinct from the vagus nerve, confirming its existence.

  6. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  7. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  11. Disruption of endogenous perlecan function improves differentiation of rat articular chondrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakamura, Fumio; Fukunaga, Shigeharu

    2015-04-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are necessary for normal cartilage development and chondrocyte differentiation. However, recent studies demonstrated that HSPG accelerate dedifferentiation and catabolism in chondrocytes from degenerative cartilage. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of HSPG on chondrocyte differentiation in vitro. Rat articular chondrocytes were cultured at low (0.3 × 10(4) cells/cm(2) ) and high (1.5 × 10(5) cells/cm(2) ) density in the presence or absence of heparitinase I, an HS degrading enzyme. Cells cultured at low density dedifferentiated and exhibited an elongated morphology, and treatment with heparitinase I precluded cell elongation. Conversely, populations of chondrocytes cultured at high density exhibited either a dedifferentiated or differentiated phenotype. Glycosaminoglycan accumulation increased in heparitinase I-treated cells. To determine the function of perlecan, an important HSPG for cartilage development, in chondrocyte differentiation, rat chondrocyte cultures were exposed to an anti-perlecan antiserum to inhibit perlecan function. Western blotting analysis indicated that preventing perlecan activity increased type II collagen synthesis. Our results suggest that HSPG are negative regulators of chondrocyte differentiation in vitro and that perlecan contributes to chondrocyte dedifferentiation in vitro.

  12. Identification of the microRNA networks contributing to macrophage differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Eyers, Fiona; Xiang, Yang; Herbert, Cristan; Tay, Hock L.

    2016-01-01

    Limited evidence is available about the specific miRNA networks that regulate differentiation of specific immune cells. In this study, we characterized miRNA expression and associated alterations in expression with putative mRNA targets that are critical during differentiation of macrophages. In an effort to map the dynamic changes in the bone marrow (BM), we profiled whole BM cultures during differentiation into macrophages. We identified 112 miRNAs with expression patterns that were differentially regulated 5-fold or more during BMDM development. With TargetScan and MeSH databases, we identified 1267 transcripts involved in 30 canonical pathways linked to macrophage biology as potentially regulated by these specific 112 miRNAs. Furthermore, by employing miRanda and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) analysis systems, we identified 18 miRNAs that are temporally linked to the expression of CSF1R, CD36, MSR1 and SCARB1; 7 miRNAs linked to the regulation of the transcription factors RUNX1 and PU.1, and 14 miRNAs target the nuclear receptor PPARα and PPARγ. This novel information provides an important reference resource for further study of the functional links between miRNAs and their target mRNAs for the regulation of differentiation and function of macrophages. PMID:27119502

  13. Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator functions in balancing growth and differentiation in skin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Pasolli, H Amalia; Fuchs, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    In mammals, skin begins as a single-layered epithelium, which, through a series of signals, either stratifies and differentiates to become epidermis or invaginates downward to make hair follicles (HFs). To achieve and maintain proper tissue architecture, keratinocytes must intricately balance growth and differentiation. Here, we uncover a critical and hitherto unappreciated role for Yes-associated protein (YAP), an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator with potent oncogenic potential. We show that YAP is highly expressed and nuclear in single-layered basal epidermal progenitors. Notably, nuclear YAP progressively declines with age and correlates with proliferative potential of epidermal progenitors. Shortly after initiation of HF morphogenesis, YAP translocates to the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. Through genetic analysis, we demonstrate a role for YAP in maintaining basal epidermal progenitors and regulating HF morphogenesis. YAP overexpression causes hair placodes to evaginate into epidermis rather than invaginate into dermis. YAP also expands basal epidermal progenitors, promotes proliferation, and inhibits terminal differentiation. In vitro gain-and-loss of function studies show that primary mouse keratinocytes (MKs) accelerate proliferation, suppress differentiation, and inhibit apoptosis when YAP is activated and reverse these features when YAP is inhibited. Finally, we identify Cyr61 as a target of YAP in MKs and demonstrate a requirement for TEA domain (TEAD) transcriptional factors to comediate YAP functions in MKs.

  14. Integrin-Linked Kinase Is Indispensable for Keratinocyte Differentiation and Epidermal Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Leclerc, Valerie; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-02-01

    A functional permeability barrier is essential to prevent the passage of water and electrolytes, macromolecules, and pathogens through the epidermis. This is accomplished in terminally differentiated keratinocytes through formation of a cornified envelope and the assembly of tight intercellular junctions. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein essential for hair follicle morphogenesis and epidermal attachment to the basement membrane. However, the biological functions of ILK in differentiated keratinocytes remain poorly understood. Furthermore, whether ILK is implicated in keratinocyte differentiation and intercellular junction formation has remained an unresolved issue. Here we describe a pivotal role for ILK in keratinocyte differentiation responses to increased extracellular Ca(2+), regulation of adherens and tight junction assembly, and the formation of an outside-in permeability barrier toward macromolecules. In the absence of ILK, the calcium sensing receptor, E-cadherin, and ZO-1 fail to translocate to the cell membrane, through mechanisms that involve abnormalities in microtubules and in RhoA activation. In situ, ILK-deficient epidermis exhibits reduced tight junction formation and increased outside-in permeability to a dextran tracer, indicating reduced barrier properties toward macromolecules. Therefore, ILK is an essential component of keratinocyte differentiation programs that contribute to epidermal integrity and the establishment of its barrier properties. PMID:26967476

  15. Identification of the microRNA networks contributing to macrophage differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Eyers, Fiona; Xiang, Yang; Herbert, Cristan; Tay, Hock L; Foster, Paul S; Yang, Ming

    2016-05-17

    Limited evidence is available about the specific miRNA networks that regulate differentiation of specific immune cells. In this study, we characterized miRNA expression and associated alterations in expression with putative mRNA targets that are critical during differentiation of macrophages. In an effort to map the dynamic changes in the bone marrow (BM), we profiled whole BM cultures during differentiation into macrophages. We identified 112 miRNAs with expression patterns that were differentially regulated 5-fold or more during BMDM development. With TargetScan and MeSH databases, we identified 1267 transcripts involved in 30 canonical pathways linked to macrophage biology as potentially regulated by these specific 112 miRNAs. Furthermore, by employing miRanda and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) analysis systems, we identified 18 miRNAs that are temporally linked to the expression of CSF1R, CD36, MSR1 and SCARB1; 7 miRNAs linked to the regulation of the transcription factors RUNX1 and PU.1, and 14 miRNAs target the nuclear receptor PPARα and PPARγ. This novel information provides an important reference resource for further study of the functional links between miRNAs and their target mRNAs for the regulation of differentiation and function of macrophages. PMID:27119502

  16. Surviving Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Coupled to Altered Chondrocyte Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Cheslett, Deborah; Chan, Wilson C. W; So, Chi Leong; Melhado, Ian G; Chan, Tori W. Y; Kwan, Kin Ming; Hunziker, Ernst B; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Bateman, John F; Cheung, Kenneth M. C; Cheah, Kathryn S. E

    2007-01-01

    In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling (ERSS) protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs) during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del), misfolded α1(X) chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia. PMID:17298185

  17. Tracking the Spatial and Functional Gradient of Monocyte-To-Macrophage Differentiation in Inflamed Lung

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Debasish; Jones, Stephen M.; Oswald, Erin M.; Pinkard, Henry; Corbin, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages are at the heart of the immune effector function in an inflammatory response. But because of the lack of an efficient imaging system to trace these cells live during their migration and maturation in their native environment at sub-cellular resolution, our knowledge is limited to data available from specific time-points analyzed by flow cytometry, histology, genomics and other immunological methods. Here, we have developed a ratiometric imaging method for measuring monocyte maturation in inflamed mouse lungs in situ using real-time using 2-photon imaging and complementary methods. We visualized that while undifferentiated monocytes were predominantly found only in the vasculature, a semi-differentiated monocyte/macrophage population could enter the tissue and resembled more mature and differentiated populations by morphology and surface phenotype. As these cells entered and differentiated, they were already selectively localized near inflamed airways and their entry was associated with changes in motility and morphology. We were able to visualize these during the act of differentiation, a process that can be demonstrated in this way to be faster on a per-cell basis under inflammatory conditions. Finally, our in situ analyses demonstrated increases, in the differentiating cells, for both antigen uptake and the ability to mediate interactions with T cells. This work, while largely confirming proposed models for in situ differentiation, provides important in situ data on the coordinated site-specific recruitment and differentiation of these cells and helps elaborate the predominance of immune pathology at the airways. Our novel imaging technology to trace immunogenic cell maturation in situ will complement existing information available on in situ differentiation deduced from other immunological methods, and assist better understanding of the spatio-temporal cellular behavior during an

  18. Multicopper manganese oxidase accessory proteins bind Cu and heme.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Cristina N; Tao, Lizhi; Chacón, Kelly N; Spiro, Thomas G; Blackburn, Ninian J; Casey, William H; Britt, R David; Tebo, Bradley M

    2015-12-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) catalyze the oxidation of a diverse group of metal ions and organic substrates by successive single-electron transfers to O2 via four bound Cu ions. MnxG, which catalyzes MnO2 mineralization by oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III), is unique among multicopper oxidases in that it carries out two energetically distinct electron transfers and is tightly bound to accessory proteins. There are two of these, MnxE and MnxF, both approximately 12kDa. Although their sequences are similar to those found in the genomes of several Mn-oxidizing Bacillus species, they are dissimilar to those of proteins with known function. Here, MnxE and MnxF are co-expressed independent of MnxG and are found to oligomerize into a higher order stoichiometry, likely a hexamer. They bind copper and heme, which have been characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Cu is found in two distinct type 2 (T2) copper centers, one of which appears to be novel; heme is bound as a low-spin species, implying coordination by two axial ligands. MnxE and MnxF do not oxidize Mn in the absence of MnxG and are the first accessory proteins to be required by an MCO. This may indicate that Cu and heme play roles in electron transfer and/or Cu trafficking.

  19. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  20. Exponential rational function method for space-time fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Esin; Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, exponential rational function method is applied to obtain analytical solutions of the space-time fractional Fokas equation, the space-time fractional Zakharov Kuznetsov Benjamin Bona Mahony, and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers' equations. As a result, some exact solutions for them are successfully established. These solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. The exact solutions obtained by the proposed method indicate that the approach is easy to implement and effective.

  1. Viscoelastic Properties of Differentiating Blood Cells Are Fate- and Function-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Whyte, Graeme; Chalut, Kevin; Pagliara, Stefano; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Fiddler, Christine; Paschke, Stephan; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Guck, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Although cellular mechanical properties are known to alter during stem cell differentiation, understanding of the functional relevance of such alterations is incomplete. Here, we show that during the course of differentiation of human myeloid precursor cells into three different lineages, the cells alter their viscoelastic properties, measured using an optical stretcher, to suit their ultimate fate and function. Myeloid cells circulating in blood have to be advected through constrictions in blood vessels, engendering the need for compliance at short time-scales (differentiated cell types reduce their steady-state viscosity by more than 50% and show over 140% relative increase in their ability to migrate through tissue-like pores at long time-scales (>minutes), compared to undifferentiated cells. These findings suggest that reduction in steady-state viscosity is a physiological adaptation for enhanced migration through tissues. Our results indicate that the material properties of cells define their function, can be used as a cell differentiation marker and could serve as target for novel therapies. PMID:23028868

  2. Fractional Order Digital Differentiator Design Based on Power Function and Least squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we propose the use of power function and least squares method for designing of a fractional order digital differentiator. The input signal is transformed into a power function by using Taylor series expansion, and its fractional derivative is computed using the Grunwald-Letnikov (G-L) definition. Next, the fractional order digital differentiator is modelled as a finite impulse response (FIR) system that yields fractional order derivative of the G-L type for a power function. The FIR system coefficients are obtained by using the least squares method. Two examples are used to demonstrate that the fractional derivative of the digital signals is computed by using the proposed technique. The results of the third and fourth examples reveal that the proposed technique gives superior performance in comparison with the existing techniques.

  3. Lhx1 Controls Terminal Differentiation and Circadian Function of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Bedont, Joseph L.; LeGates, Tara A.; Slat, Emily A.; Byerly, Mardi S.; Wang, Hong; Hu, Jianfei; Rupp, Alan C.; Qian, Jiang; Wong, G. William; Herzog, Erik D.; Hattar, Samer; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrate circadian rhythms are organized by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Despite its physiological importance, SCN development is poorly understood. Here, we show that Lim homeodomain transcription factor 1 (Lhx1) is essential for terminal differentiation and function of the SCN. Deletion of Lhx1 in the developing SCN results in loss of SCN-enriched neuropeptides involved in synchronization and coupling to downstream oscillators, among other aspects of circadian function. Intact, albeit damped, clock gene expression rhythms persist in Lhx1-deficient SCN; however, circadian activity rhythms are highly disorganized and susceptible to surprising changes in period, phase, and consolidation following neuropeptide infusion. Our results identify a factor required for SCN terminal differentiation. In addition, our in vivo study of combinatorial SCN neuropeptide disruption uncovered synergies among SCN-enriched neuropeptides in regulating normal circadian function. These animals provide a platform for studying the central oscillator's role in physiology and cognition. PMID:24767996

  4. Functional Maintenance of Differentiated Embryoid Bodies in Microfluidic Systems: A Platform for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Sinan; Lindsey, Jennifer S.; Poudel, Ishwari; Chinthala, Sireesha; Nickerson, Michael D.; Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Gurkan, Umut A.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapies have become important for treating diseases such as premature ovarian failure or menopausal complications. The clinical use of bioidentical hormones might significantly reduce some of the potential risks reportedly associated with the use of synthetic hormones. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility and advantage of a microfluidic chip culture system to enhance the development of personalized, on-demand, treatment modules using embryoid bodies (EBs). Functional EBs cultured on microfluidic chips represent a platform for personalized, patient-specific treatment cassettes that can be cryopreserved until required for treatment. We assessed the viability, differentiation, and functionality of EBs cultured and cryopreserved in this system. During extended microfluidic culture, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and anti-müllerian hormone levels were measured, and the expression of differentiated steroidogenic cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry assay for the ovarian tissue markers anti-müllerian hormone receptor type II, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, and inhibin β-A and the estrogen biosynthesis enzyme aromatase. Our studies showed that under microfluidic conditions, differentiated steroidogenic EBs continued to secrete estradiol and progesterone at physiologically relevant concentrations (30–120 pg/ml and 150–450 pg/ml, respectively) for up to 21 days. Collectively, we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a microfluidic chip system with continuous flow for the differentiation and extended culture of functional steroidogenic stem cell-derived EBs, the differentiation of EBs into cells expressing ovarian antigens in a microfluidic system, and the ability to cryopreserve this system with restoration of growth and functionality on thawing. These results present a platform for the development of a new therapeutic system for personalized medicine. PMID:25666845

  5. Functional maintenance of differentiated embryoid bodies in microfluidic systems: a platform for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Guven, Sinan; Lindsey, Jennifer S; Poudel, Ishwari; Chinthala, Sireesha; Nickerson, Michael D; Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Gurkan, Umut A; Anchan, Raymond M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-03-01

    Hormone replacement therapies have become important for treating diseases such as premature ovarian failure or menopausal complications. The clinical use of bioidentical hormones might significantly reduce some of the potential risks reportedly associated with the use of synthetic hormones. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility and advantage of a microfluidic chip culture system to enhance the development of personalized, on-demand, treatment modules using embryoid bodies (EBs). Functional EBs cultured on microfluidic chips represent a platform for personalized, patient-specific treatment cassettes that can be cryopreserved until required for treatment. We assessed the viability, differentiation, and functionality of EBs cultured and cryopreserved in this system. During extended microfluidic culture, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and anti-müllerian hormone levels were measured, and the expression of differentiated steroidogenic cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry assay for the ovarian tissue markers anti-müllerian hormone receptor type II, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, and inhibin β-A and the estrogen biosynthesis enzyme aromatase. Our studies showed that under microfluidic conditions, differentiated steroidogenic EBs continued to secrete estradiol and progesterone at physiologically relevant concentrations (30-120 pg/ml and 150-450 pg/ml, respectively) for up to 21 days. Collectively, we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a microfluidic chip system with continuous flow for the differentiation and extended culture of functional steroidogenic stem cell-derived EBs, the differentiation of EBs into cells expressing ovarian antigens in a microfluidic system, and the ability to cryopreserve this system with restoration of growth and functionality on thawing. These results present a platform for the development of a new therapeutic system for personalized medicine. PMID:25666845

  6. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  7. Ostensible oncocytoma of accessory lacrimal glands.

    PubMed

    Pecorella, I; Garner, A

    1997-03-01

    Benign oncocytomas of the accessory lacrimal glands can be found in the lacrimal caruncle, plica semilunaris or conjunctival fornices, but are extremely rare. A series of 15 supposed oncocytomas of the ocular adnexa was reviewed retrospectively, and histological differences were noted with respect to the parotid gland counterpart. Lesions could be divided into three histological groups: (1) tumours composed of tubules lined by tall columnar epithelium with finely granular cytoplasm; the tubules often had dilated lumens containing mucinous secretion; (2) cystic tumours with prominent epithelial tufts projecting from much of the cyst wall; (3) tumours with solid areas composed of variably cuboidal or polygonal cells, largely in trabecular arrangement, and co-existing with the previously described tubular and cystic elements. A striking resemblance to Warthin's tumour without a lymphocytic component, such as may affect the parotid salivary gland, was noted in several tumours.

  8. Detecting differential rater functioning over time (DRIFT) using a Rasch multi-faceted rating scale model.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E W; Moulder, B C; Myford, C M

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a class of rater effects that depict rater-by-time interactions. We refer to this class of rater effects as DRIFT differential rater functioning over time. This article describes several types of DRIFT (primacy/recency, differential centrality/extremism, and practice/fatigue) and Rasch measurement procedures designed to identify these types of DRIFT in rating data. These procedures are applied to simulated data and are shown to be useful in classifying raters as being aberrant or non-aberrant for primacy, recency, and differential centrality and extremism, particularly for moderate or larger effect sizes. Rates of correct classification for practice and fatigue were lower and statistical power exceeded.50 only with very large effect sizes. Type I error rates (i.e., incorrect nomination) were near expected levels in all cases.

  9. Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

  10. Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

  11. Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu

  12. Butyrate affects differentiation, maturation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Millard, A L; Mertes, P M; Ittelet, D; Villard, F; Jeannesson, P; Bernard, J

    2002-01-01

    We studied the in vitro effects of butyric acid on differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ) generated from human monocytes. A non-toxic dose of butyrate was shown to alter the phenotypic differentiation process of DC as assessed by a persistence of CD14, and a decreased CD54, CD86 and HLA class II expression. The more immature differentiation stage of treated cells was confirmed further by their increased phagocytic capability, their altered capacity to produce IL-10 and IL-12, and their weak allostimulatory abilities. Butyrate also altered DC terminal maturation, regardless of the maturation inducer, as demonstrated by a strong down-regulation of CD83, a decreased expression of CD40, CD86 and HLA class II. Similarly, butyrate altered MΦ differentiation, down-regulating the expression of the restricted membrane antigens and reducing the phagocytic capacity of treated cells. To investigate further the mechanism by which butyrate hampers the monocyte dual differentiation pathway, we studied the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in combination with butyrate on the phenotypic features of DC. Unlike 1,25(OH)2D3, butyrate inhibited DC differentiation without redirecting it towards MΦ. Combined treatment gave rise to a new cell subset (CD14high, CD86 and HLA-DRlow) phenotypically distinct from monocytes. These results reveal an alternative mechanism of inhibition of DC and MΦ differentiation. Altogether, our data demonstrate a novel immune suppression property of butyrate that may modulate both inflammatory and immune responses and support further the interest for butyrate and its derivatives as new immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:12390312

  13. H19 activates Wnt signaling and promotes osteoblast differentiation by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei-Cheng; Fu, Wei-Ming; Wang, Yu-Bing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Liang-Liang; Wong, Cheuk-Wa; Chan, Kai-Ming; Li, Gang; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Zhang, Jin-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is tightly orchestrated and maintained by the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Recent studies have greatly expanded our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cellular differentiation. However, the functional roles of non-coding RNAs particularly lncRNAs in remodeling bone architecture remain elusive. In our study, lncRNA H19 was found to be upregulated during osteogenesis in hMSCs. Stable expression of H19 significantly accelerated in vivo and in vitro osteoblast differentiation. Meanwhile, by using bioinformatic investigations and RIP assays combined with luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that H19 functioned as an miRNA sponge for miR-141 and miR-22, both of which were negative regulators of osteogenesis and Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Further investigations revealed that H19 antagonized the functions of these two miRNAs and led to de-repression of their shared target gene β-catenin, which eventually activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and hence potentiated osteogenesis. In addition, we also identified a novel regulatory feedback loop between H19 and its encoded miR-675-5p. And miR-675-5p was found to directly target H19 and counteracted osteoblast differentiation. To sum up, these observations indicate that the lncRNA H19 modulates Wnt/β-catenin pathway by acting as a competing endogenous RNA, which may shed light on the functional role of lncRNAs in coordinating osteogenesis. PMID:26853553

  14. Fetal dexamethasone exposure accelerates development of renal function: relationship to dose, cell differentiation and growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, T A; Seidler, F J; Kavlock, R J; Gray, J A

    1992-02-01

    Fetal exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids slows cellular development and impairs organ performance, in association with growth retardation. Nevertheless, low doses of glucocorticoids may enhance cell differentiation and accelerate specific functions. The current study examined this apparent paradox in the developing rat kidney, using doses of dexamethasone that span the threshold for growth impairment: 0.05 or 0.2 mg/kg given on gestational days 17, 18 and 19. At the lower dose, which did not significantly retard body growth, the postnatal development of tubular reabsorptive capabilities for sodium, potassium, osmotic particles, water and urea was accelerated. These effects were less notable at the higher dose, which caused initial body growth impairment. The selectivity toward promotion of tubular function was evidenced by the absence of effect of either dose of dexamethasone on development of glomerular filtration rate. Because of the wide spectrum of dexamethasone's effects on tubular function, we also assessed fetal kidney adenylate cyclase as a means of detecting altered cell differentiation in the prenatal period during which dexamethasone was given. Either glucocorticoid dose increased the total adenylate cyclase catalytic activity (assessed with forskolin). Thus, the net effect of fetal dexamethasone exposure on development of renal excretory capabilities probably represents the summation of promoted cell differentiation and slowed development consequent to growth retardation. At low dose levels, the former effect predominates, leading to enhanced functional development, whereas higher doses that interfere with general growth and development can offset the direct promotional effect.

  15. Functional network analysis of genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis in soc1ful woody Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Davin, Nicolas; Edger, Patrick P; Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Schuetz, Mathias; Smets, Erik; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Schranz, Michael E; Lens, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Many plant genes are known to be involved in the development of cambium and wood, but how the expression and functional interaction of these genes determine the unique biology of wood remains largely unknown. We used the soc1ful loss of function mutant - the woodiest genotype known in the otherwise herbaceous model plant Arabidopsis - to investigate the expression and interactions of genes involved in secondary growth (wood formation). Detailed anatomical observations of the stem in combination with mRNA sequencing were used to assess transcriptome remodeling during xylogenesis in wild-type and woody soc1ful plants. To interpret the transcriptome changes, we constructed functional gene association networks of differentially expressed genes using the STRING database. This analysis revealed functionally enriched gene association hubs that are differentially expressed in herbaceous and woody tissues. In particular, we observed the differential expression of genes related to mechanical stress and jasmonate biosynthesis/signaling during wood formation in soc1ful plants that may be an effect of greater tension within woody tissues. Our results suggest that habit shifts from herbaceous to woody life forms observed in many angiosperm lineages could have evolved convergently by genetic changes that modulate the gene expression and interaction network, and thereby redeploy the conserved wood developmental program. PMID:26952251

  16. Divergent regulation of functionally distinct γ-tubulin complexes during differentiation.

    PubMed

    Muroyama, Andrew; Seldin, Lindsey; Lechler, Terry

    2016-06-20

    Differentiation induces the formation of noncentrosomal microtubule arrays in diverse tissues. The formation of these arrays requires loss of microtubule-organizing activity (MTOC) at the centrosome, but the mechanisms regulating this transition remain largely unexplored. Here, we use the robust loss of centrosomal MTOC activity in the epidermis to identify two pools of γ-tubulin that are biochemically and functionally distinct and differentially regulated. Nucleation-competent CDK5RAP2-γ-tubulin complexes were maintained at centrosomes upon initial epidermal differentiation. In contrast, Nedd1-γ-tubulin complexes did not promote nucleation but were required for anchoring of microtubules, a previously uncharacterized activity for this complex. Cell cycle exit specifically triggered loss of Nedd1-γ-tubulin complexes, providing a mechanistic link connecting MTOC activity and differentiation. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that distinct γ-tubulin complexes regulate different microtubule behaviors at the centrosome and show that differential regulation of these complexes drives loss of centrosomal MTOC activity. PMID:27298324

  17. A parsimonious statistical method to detect groupwise differentially expressed functional connectivity networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Kang, Jian; Xing, Yishi; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    Group-level functional connectivity analyses often aim to detect the altered connectivity patterns between subgroups with different clinical or psychological experimental conditions, for example, comparing cases and healthy controls. We present a new statistical method to detect differentially expressed connectivity networks with significantly improved power and lower false-positive rates. The goal of our method was to capture most differentially expressed connections within networks of constrained numbers of brain regions (by the rule of parsimony). By virtue of parsimony, the false-positive individual connectivity edges within a network are effectively reduced, whereas the informative (differentially expressed) edges are allowed to borrow strength from each other to increase the overall power of the network. We develop a test statistic for each network in light of combinatorics graph theory, and provide p-values for the networks (in the weak sense) by using permutation test with multiple-testing adjustment. We validate and compare this new approach with existing methods, including false discovery rate and network-based statistic, via simulation studies and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging case-control study. The results indicate that our method can identify differentially expressed connectivity networks, whereas existing methods are limited.

  18. A Parsimonious Statistical Method to Detect Groupwise Differentially Expressed Functional Connectivity Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuo; Kang, Jian; Xing, Yishi; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Group-level functional connectivity analyses often aim to detect the altered connectivity patterns between subgroups with different clinical or psychological experimental conditions, for example, comparing cases and healthy controls. We present a new statistical method to detect differentially expressed connectivity networks with significantly improved power and lower false-positive rates. The goal of our method was to capture most differentially expressed connections within networks of constrained numbers of brain regions (by the rule of parsimony). By virtue of parsimony, the false-positive individual connectivity edges within a network are effectively reduced, whereas the informative (differentially expressed) edges are allowed to borrow strength from each other to increase the overall power of the network. We develop a test statistic for each network in light of combinatorics graph theory, and provide p-values for the networks (in the weak sense) by using permutation test with multiple-testing adjustment. We validate and compare this new approach with existing methods, including false discovery rate and network-based statistic, via simulation studies and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging case–control study. The results indicate that our method can identify differentially expressed connectivity networks, whereas existing methods are limited. PMID:26416398

  19. An Efficient Spectral Method for Ordinary Differential Equations with Rational Function Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Torres, David; Hagstrom, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present some relations that allow the efficient approximate inversion of linear differential operators with rational function coefficients. We employ expansions in terms of a large class of orthogonal polynomial families, including all the classical orthogonal polynomials. These families obey a simple three-term recurrence relation for differentiation, which implies that on an appropriately restricted domain the differentiation operator has a unique banded inverse. The inverse is an integration operator for the family, and it is simply the tridiagonal coefficient matrix for the recurrence. Since in these families convolution operators (i.e. matrix representations of multiplication by a function) are banded for polynomials, we are able to obtain a banded representation for linear differential operators with rational coefficients. This leads to a method of solution of initial or boundary value problems that, besides having an operation count that scales linearly with the order of truncation N, is computationally well conditioned. Among the applications considered is the use of rational maps for the resolution of sharp interior layers.

  20. A parsimonious statistical method to detect groupwise differentially expressed functional connectivity networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Kang, Jian; Xing, Yishi; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    Group-level functional connectivity analyses often aim to detect the altered connectivity patterns between subgroups with different clinical or psychological experimental conditions, for example, comparing cases and healthy controls. We present a new statistical method to detect differentially expressed connectivity networks with significantly improved power and lower false-positive rates. The goal of our method was to capture most differentially expressed connections within networks of constrained numbers of brain regions (by the rule of parsimony). By virtue of parsimony, the false-positive individual connectivity edges within a network are effectively reduced, whereas the informative (differentially expressed) edges are allowed to borrow strength from each other to increase the overall power of the network. We develop a test statistic for each network in light of combinatorics graph theory, and provide p-values for the networks (in the weak sense) by using permutation test with multiple-testing adjustment. We validate and compare this new approach with existing methods, including false discovery rate and network-based statistic, via simulation studies and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging case-control study. The results indicate that our method can identify differentially expressed connectivity networks, whereas existing methods are limited. PMID:26416398

  1. Accessory bands of the hamstring tendons: A clinical anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Yasin, M N; Charalambous, C P; Mills, S P; Phaltankar, P M

    2010-10-01

    Gracilis and semitendinosus tendons are commonly used as grafts in ligamentous reconstruction. Awareness of accessory bands of these tendons is essential in preventing inadvertent diversion of the tendon harvester into the main tendon resulting in premature tendon amputation and inadequate tendon graft. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of these accessory bands. Twenty five patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendons were included. The number of accessory bands and distance of the most proximal band from the distal periosteal insertion point on the tibial crest was recorded for both gracilis and semitendinosus. In most cases gracilis had two accessory bands; the average distance of the most proximal band from the tibial crest insertion being 5.1 cm. Semitendinosus had three bands in most cases, the average distance of the most proximal band from the tibial crest insertion being 8.1 cm. Five (20%) semitendinosus but no gracilis tendons had an accessory band originating greater than 10 cm from the tibial crest insertion. Semitendinosus had more accessory bands compared to gracilis. A significant proportion (20%) of semitendinosus and none of the gracilis tendons had bands originating greater than 10 cm proximal to the tibial crest insertion. This knowledge about the accessory bands of the hamstrings can guide toward safe harvesting of these tendons.

  2. On the generalization of statistical thermodynamic functions by a Riccati differential equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. J.; Rubio-Ponce, A.; Morales, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we propose a non-linear differential equation of Riccati-type, where the standard partition function Z(T) is taken as its particular solution leading to their generalization Zg(T); from there, other related statistical thermodynamic functions are generalized. As an useful application of our proposal, other thermodynamic functions, namely, the internal energy, heat capacity, Helmholtz free energy and entropy, associated to the model of the ideal monatomic gas in D-dimensions are generalized. According to our results, thermodynamic properties derived from the standard partition functions by means of ordinary statistical mechanics are incomplete. In fact, although asymptotically with the increasing of temperature the generalized statistical thermodynamic functions reduce to the standard ones, these contain an extra term which is dominant at very low temperature indicating that standard findings should be corrected.

  3. Using Item Response Theory and Model-Data Fit to Conceptualize Differential Item and Person Functioning for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to describe a conceptual framework for examining differential item functioning (DIF) and differential person functioning (DPF) as types of model-data misfit within the context of assessing students with disabilities. Specifically, DIF and DPF can be viewed through the lens of residual analyses. Residual analyses…

  4. It Might Not Make a Big DIF: Improved Differential Test Functioning Statistics That Account for Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, R. Philip; Counsell, Alyssa; Flora, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Differential test functioning, or DTF, occurs when one or more items in a test demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) and the aggregate of these effects are witnessed at the test level. In many applications, DTF can be more important than DIF when the overall effects of DIF at the test level can be quantified. However, optimal statistical…

  5. A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O.

    2006-01-01

    A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score…

  6. Neurons Differentiated from Transplanted Stem Cells Respond Functionally to Acoustic Stimuli in the Awake Monkey Brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing-Kuan; Wang, Wen-Chao; Zhai, Rong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Rizak, Joshua; Li, Ling; Xu, Li-Qi; Liu, Li; Pan, Ming-Ke; Hu, Ying-Zhou; Ghanemi, Abdelaziz; Wu, Jing; Yang, Li-Chuan; Li, Hao; Lv, Long-Bao; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Yong; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian; Wang, Zheng-Bo

    2016-07-26

    Here, we examine whether neurons differentiated from transplanted stem cells can integrate into the host neural network and function in awake animals, a goal of transplanted stem cell therapy in the brain. We have developed a technique in which a small "hole" is created in the inferior colliculus (IC) of rhesus monkeys, then stem cells are transplanted in situ to allow for investigation of their integration into the auditory neural network. We found that some transplanted cells differentiated into mature neurons and formed synaptic input/output connections with the host neurons. In addition, c-Fos expression increased significantly in the cells after acoustic stimulation, and multichannel recordings indicated IC specific tuning activities in response to auditory stimulation. These results suggest that the transplanted cells have the potential to functionally integrate into the host neural network.

  7. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  8. Neurons Differentiated from Transplanted Stem Cells Respond Functionally to Acoustic Stimuli in the Awake Monkey Brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing-Kuan; Wang, Wen-Chao; Zhai, Rong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Rizak, Joshua; Li, Ling; Xu, Li-Qi; Liu, Li; Pan, Ming-Ke; Hu, Ying-Zhou; Ghanemi, Abdelaziz; Wu, Jing; Yang, Li-Chuan; Li, Hao; Lv, Long-Bao; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Yong; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian; Wang, Zheng-Bo

    2016-07-26

    Here, we examine whether neurons differentiated from transplanted stem cells can integrate into the host neural network and function in awake animals, a goal of transplanted stem cell therapy in the brain. We have developed a technique in which a small "hole" is created in the inferior colliculus (IC) of rhesus monkeys, then stem cells are transplanted in situ to allow for investigation of their integration into the auditory neural network. We found that some transplanted cells differentiated into mature neurons and formed synaptic input/output connections with the host neurons. In addition, c-Fos expression increased significantly in the cells after acoustic stimulation, and multichannel recordings indicated IC specific tuning activities in response to auditory stimulation. These results suggest that the transplanted cells have the potential to functionally integrate into the host neural network. PMID:27425612

  9. Multiple functions of Maf in the regulation of cellular development and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cellular muscular aponeurotic fibrosarcoma (c‐Maf) is a member of the large macrophage‐activating factor family. C‐Maf plays important roles in the morphogenetic processes and cellular differentiation of the lens, kidneys, liver, T cells and nervous system, and it is particularly important in pancreatic islet and erythroblastic island formation. However, the exact role of c‐Maf remains to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the research to clarify the functions of c‐Maf in the cellular development and differentiation. The expression of c‐Maf is higher in pancreatic duct cells than in pancreatic islet cells. Therefore, we suggest that pancreatic duct cells may be converted to the functional insulin‐secreting cells by regulating c‐Maf. © 2015 National Natural Science Foundation of China. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26122665

  10. Regeneration of Thyroid Function by Transplantation of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kurmann, Anita A; Serra, Maria; Hawkins, Finn; Rankin, Scott A; Mori, Munemasa; Astapova, Inna; Ullas, Soumya; Lin, Sui; Bilodeau, Melanie; Rossant, Janet; Jean, Jyh C; Ikonomou, Laertis; Deterding, Robin R; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Kotton, Darrell N

    2015-11-01

    Differentiation of functional thyroid epithelia from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) holds the potential for application in regenerative medicine. However, progress toward this goal is hampered by incomplete understanding of the signaling pathways needed for directed differentiation without forced overexpression of exogenous transgenes. Here we use mouse PSCs to identify key conserved roles for BMP and FGF signaling in regulating thyroid lineage specification from foregut endoderm in mouse and Xenopus. Thyroid progenitors derived from mouse PSCs can be matured into thyroid follicular organoids that provide functional secretion of thyroid hormones in vivo and rescue hypothyroid mice after transplantation. Moreover, by stimulating the same pathways, we were also able to derive human thyroid progenitors from normal and disease-specific iPSCs generated from patients with hypothyroidism resulting from NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. Our studies have therefore uncovered the regulatory mechanisms that underlie early thyroid organogenesis and provide a significant step toward cell-based regenerative therapy for hypothyroidism. PMID:26593959

  11. Differential relationships between personal and community stressors and children's neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana; Warner, Tara; Krebs, Christopher; Trevarthen, Nancy; Flannery, Barbara; Hammond, Jane

    2009-11-01

    Early adversity can alter development of neurocognition, including executive cognitive and emotional regulatory functions. This is the first study to explore differential relationships between personal (physical and emotional abuse and neglect, school and parental stressors) and community (neighborhood problems and witnessing neighborhood violence) stressors and neurocognition. Predominantly Latino children (n = 553) aged 10 to 12 years completed tasks measuring intelligence, impulsivity, problem solving, cognitive flexibility, decision making, and emotion attributions. Adjusting for age and parent education, bivariate regression analyses found exposure to personal stressors to be associated with relative deficits in at least one neurocognitive function. Community stressors were related to relative deficits in emotion attributions and problem solving. In multivariate analyses, neglect was related to misattributions of emotion and IQ deficits, and physical abuse was related to problem solving. Community stressors were not correlated with neurocognition when viewed relative to personal stressors. Stressor types were differentially associated with performance on specific neurocognitive tasks.

  12. Unsteady Solution of Non-Linear Differential Equations Using Walsh Function Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Walsh functions form an orthonormal basis set consisting of square waves. The discontinuous nature of square waves make the system well suited for representing functions with discontinuities. The product of any two Walsh functions is another Walsh function - a feature that can radically change an algorithm for solving non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). The solution algorithm of non-linear differential equations using Walsh function series is unique in that integrals and derivatives may be computed using simple matrix multiplication of series representations of functions. Solutions to PDEs are derived as functions of wave component amplitude. Three sample problems are presented to illustrate the Walsh function series approach to solving unsteady PDEs. These include an advection equation, a Burgers equation, and a Riemann problem. The sample problems demonstrate the use of the Walsh function solution algorithms, exploiting Fast Walsh Transforms in multi-dimensions (O(Nlog(N))). Details of a Fast Walsh Reciprocal, defined here for the first time, enable inversion of aWalsh Symmetric Matrix in O(Nlog(N)) operations. Walsh functions have been derived using a fractal recursion algorithm and these fractal patterns are observed in the progression of pairs of wave number amplitudes in the solutions. These patterns are most easily observed in a remapping defined as a fractal fingerprint (FFP). A prolongation of existing solutions to the next highest order exploits these patterns. The algorithms presented here are considered a work in progress that provide new alternatives and new insights into the solution of non-linear PDEs.

  13. The DIF-Free-Then-DIF Strategy for the Assessment of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Sun, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The DIF-free-then-DIF (DFTD) strategy consists of two steps: (a) select a set of items that are the most likely to be DIF-free and (b) assess the other items for DIF (differential item functioning) using the designated items as anchors. The rank-based method together with the computer software IRTLRDIF can select a set of DIF-free polytomous items…

  14. Finite-difference models of ordinary differential equations - Influence of denominator functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Ronald E.; Smith, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence on the solutions of finite-difference schemes of using a variety of denominator functions in the discrete modeling of the derivative for any ordinary differential equation. The results obtained are a consequence of using a generalized definition of the first derivative. A particular example of the linear decay equation is used to illustrate in detail the various solution possibilities that can occur.

  15. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  16. The accessory limb model: an alternative experimental system of limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Gardiner, David M; Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Accessory limb model (ALM) was developed as an experimental model and functional assay for limb regeneration. The ALM provides several ways to identify pathways and test for signaling molecules that regulate limb regeneration. Here, we summarize the history of the ALM and describe the specific details involved in inducing ectopic blastemas and limbs from a skin wound on the side of the arm. PMID:25740480

  17. Sonography of the accessory head of the biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Lutterbach-Penna, Ricardo Augusto; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Robertson, Brian; Kim, Sung Moon; Jacobson, Jon A; Fessell, David P

    2014-10-01

    Anatomic variations in the anterior aspect of the shoulder, such as an accessory head of the biceps brachii muscle, are not uncommon. The magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic appearance of the accessory head of the biceps brachii has been recently described. This series demonstrates the sonographic appearance of the accessory head of the biceps brachii in the bicipital groove. It is an asymptomatic, flat, echogenic structure with average measurements of 7.7 × 1.2 mm in cross section. Knowledge of this anatomic variant can avoid the misdiagnosis of a longitudinal split tear and improve the accuracy of sonography.

  18. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-06-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present.

  19. Spatial congregation of STAT binding directs selective nuclear architecture during T-cell functional differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Ofir; Sung, Myong-Hee; Nakayamada, Shingo; Voss, Ty C.; Baek, Songjoon; Hager, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Higher-order genome organization shows tissue-specific patterns. However, functional relevance and the mechanisms shaping the genome architecture are poorly understood. Here we report a profound shift from promiscuous to highly selective genome organization that accompanies the effector lineage choice of differentiating T cells. As multipotent naive cells receive antigenic signals and commit to a T helper (Th) pathway, the genome-wide contacts of a lineage-specific cytokine locus are preferentially enriched for functionally relevant genes. Despite the establishment of divergent interactomes and global reprogramming of transcription in Th1 versus Th2, the overall expression status of the contact genes is surprisingly similar between the two lineages. Importantly, during differentiation, the genomic contacts are retained and strengthened precisely at DNA binding sites of the specific lineage-determining STAT transcription factor. In cells from the specific STAT knock-out mouse, the signature cytokine locus is unable to shed the promiscuous contacts established in the naive T cells, indicating the importance of genomic STAT binding. Altogether, the global aggregation of STAT binding loci from genic and nongenic regions highlights a new role for differentiation-promoting transcription factors in direct specification of higher-order nuclear architecture through interacting with regulatory regions. Such subnuclear environments have significant implications for efficient functioning of the mature effector lymphocytes. PMID:23212947

  20. Isotonic Modeling with Non-Differentiable Loss Functions with Application to Lasso Regularization.

    PubMed

    Painsky, Amichai; Rosset, Saharon

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present an algorithmic approach for fitting isotonic models under convex, yet non-differentiable, loss functions. It is a generalization of the greedy non-regret approach proposed by Luss and Rosset (2014) for differentiable loss functions, taking into account the sub-gradiental extensions required. We prove that our suggested algorithm solves the isotonic modeling problem while maintaining favorable computational and statistical properties. As our suggested algorithm may be used for any non-differentiable loss function, we focus our interest on isotonic modeling for either regression or two-class classification with appropriate log-likelihood loss and lasso penalty on the fitted values. This combination allows us to maintain the non-parametric nature of isotonic modeling, while controlling model complexity through regularization. We demonstrate the efficiency and usefulness of this approach on both synthetic and real world data. An implementation of our suggested solution is publicly available from the first author's website (https://sites.google.com/site/amichaipainsky/software).

  1. Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cees A W; Veldkamp, Bernard P

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as differential item functioning [DIF]) related to various background variables such as gender, marital status and educational level, this study emphasizes the importance of evaluating the impact of DIF on population inferences as made in health surveys and clinical trials, and on the diagnosis of individual patients. Using a sample from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), four symptoms for gender, one symptom for marital status, and three symptoms for educational level were significantly flagged as DIF, but their impact on diagnosis was fairly small. We conclude that the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD do not produce substantially biased results in the investigated subpopulations, and there should be few reservations regarding their use. Further, although the impact of DIF (i.e. the influence of differential symptom functioning on diagnostic results) was found to be quite small in the current study, we recommend that diagnosticians always perform a DIF analysis of various subpopulations using the methodology presented here to ensure the diagnostic criteria is valid in their own studies.

  2. Use of multilevel logistic regression to identify the causes of differential item functioning.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, María Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Given that a key function of tests is to serve as evaluation instruments and for decision making in the fields of psychology and education, the possibility that some of their items may show differential behaviour is a major concern for psychometricians. In recent decades, important progress has been made as regards the efficacy of techniques designed to detect this differential item functioning (DIF). However, the findings are scant when it comes to explaining its causes. The present study addresses this problem from the perspective of multilevel analysis. Starting from a case study in the area of transcultural comparisons, multilevel logistic regression is used: 1) to identify the item characteristics associated with the presence of DIF; 2) to estimate the proportion of variation in the DIF coefficients that is explained by these characteristics; and 3) to evaluate alternative explanations of the DIF by comparing the explanatory power or fit of different sequential models. The comparison of these models confirmed one of the two alternatives (familiarity with the stimulus) and rejected the other (the topic area) as being a cause of differential functioning with respect to the compared groups.

  3. Redundancy of Cav2.1 channel accessory subunits in transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Kaja, Simon; Todorov, Boyan; van de Ven, Rob C G; Ferrari, Michel D; Frants, Rune R; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Plomp, Jaap J

    2007-04-27

    Ca(v)2.1 (P/Q-type) channels possess a voltage-sensitive pore-forming alpha(1) subunit that can associate with the accessory subunits alpha(2)delta, beta and gamma. The primary role of Ca(v)2.1 channels is to mediate transmitter release from nerve terminals both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Whole-cell voltage-clamp studies in in vitro expression systems have indicated that accessory channel subunits can have diverse modulatory effects on membrane expression and biophysical properties of Ca(v)2.1 channels. However, there is only limited knowledge on whether similar modulation also occurs in the specific presynaptic environment in vivo and, hence, whether accessory subunits influence neurotransmitter release. Ducky, lethargic and stargazer are mutant mice that lack functional alpha(2)delta-2, beta(4) and gamma(2) accessory Ca(v) channel subunits, respectively. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a peripheral synapse, where transmitter release is governed exclusively by Ca(v)2.1 channels, and which can be characterized electrophysiologically with relative experimental ease. In order to investigate a possible synaptic influence of accessory subunits in detail, we electrophysiologically measured acetylcholine (ACh) release at NMJs of these three mutants. Surprisingly, we did not find any changes compared to wild-type littermates, other than a small reduction (25%) of evoked ACh release at ducky NMJs. This effect is most likely due to the approximately 40% reduced synapse size, associated with the reduced size of ducky mice, rather than resulting directly from reduced Ca(v)2.1 channel function due to alpha(2)delta-2 absence. We conclude that alpha(2)delta-2, beta(4), and gamma(2) accessory subunits are redundant for the transmitter release-mediating function of presynaptic Ca(v)2.1 channels at the mouse NMJ.

  4. New results for global exponential synchronization in neural networks via functional differential inclusions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongshu; Huang, Lihong; Tang, Longkun

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the synchronization dynamical behaviors for a class of delayed neural networks with discontinuous neuron activations. Continuous and discontinuous state feedback controller are designed such that the neural networks model can realize exponential complete synchronization in view of functional differential inclusions theory, Lyapunov functional method and inequality technique. The new proposed results here are very easy to verify and also applicable to neural networks with continuous activations. Finally, some numerical examples show the applicability and effectiveness of our main results. PMID:26328554

  5. Pointwise estimates of the Green's function of a second order differential operator with the variable coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Tetikoglu, Fatih Sabahattin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the Green's function of the second order differential operator Ax defined by the formula Axu =-a (x )ux x(x )+δ u (x ), δ ≥0 , a (x )=a (x +2 π ), x ∈ℝ1 with domain D (Ax)={ u (x ):u (x ),u '(x ),u″(x )∈C (ℝ1),u (x )=u (x +2 π ), x ∈ℝ1,∫0 2 π u (x )d x =0 } is presented. The estimates for the Green's function and it's derivative are obtained. The positivity of the operator Ax is proved.

  6. Cellular Trafficking of Phospholamban and Formation of Functional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Myocyte DIfferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenoien, David L.; Knyushko, Tatyana V.; Londono, Monica P.; Opresko, Lee; Mayer, M. Uljana; Brady, Scott T.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2007-06-01

    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) family members are transmembrane proteins that play an essential role in regulating intracellular calcium levels. Phospholamban (PLB), a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein, regulates SERCA activity in adult heart and skeletal muscle. Using the C2C12 myocyte cell line, we find endogenous PLB constitutively expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas SERCA expression coincides with activation of the differentiation program. PLB has a punctuate distribution in myoblasts changing to a reticular distribution in myotubes where it colocalizes with SERCAs. To examine the distribution and dynamics of PLB and SERCA, we expressed fluorescent fusion proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP) of PLB and SERCA in myoblasts. Coexpressed PLB and SERCA localize to distinct cellular compartments in myoblasts but begin to colocalize as cells differentiate. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) studies show different recovery patterns for each protein in myoblasts confirming their localization to distinct compartments. To extend these studies, we created stable cell lines expressing O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) fusions with PLB or SERCA to track their localization as myocytes differentiate. These experiments demonstrate that PLB localizes to punctate vesicles in myoblasts and adopts a reticular distribution that coincides with SERCA distribution after differentiation. Colocalization experiments indicate that a subset of PLB in myoblasts colocalizes with endosomes, Golgi, and the plasma membrane however PLB also localizes to other, as yet unidentified vesicles. Our results indicate that differentiation plays a critical role in regulating PLB distribution to ensure its colocalization within the same cellular compartment as SERCA in differentiated cells. The presence and altered distribution of PLB in undifferentiated myoblasts raises the possibility that this protein has additional functions distinct from SERCA regulation.

  7. Age-related Differential Item Functioning for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Functioning Items

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Sylvia H; Spritzer, Karen L; Morales, Leo S; Hays, Ron D

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the equivalence of the PROMIS® wave 1 physical functioning item bank, by age (50 years or older versus 18-49). Materials and methods A total of 114 physical functioning items with 5 response choices were administered to English- (n=1504) and Spanish-language (n=640) adults. Item frequencies, means and standard deviations, item-scale correlations, and internal consistency reliability were estimated. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by age was evaluated. Results Thirty of the 114 items were fagged for DIF based on an R-squared of 0.02 or above criterion. The expected total score was higher for those respondents who were 18-49 than those who were 50 or older. Conclusions Those who were 50 years or older versus 18-49 years old with the same level of physical functioning responded differently to 30 of the 114 items in the PROMIS® physical functioning item bank. This study yields essential information about the equivalence of the physical functioning items in older versus younger individuals. PMID:24052925

  8. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... operations rather than the manufacturing or production of rebuilt parts or accessories. The sale of a... accessories. 48.4061(b)-3 Section 48.4061(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt parts or accessories. Rebuilding of...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operations rather than the manufacturing or production of rebuilt parts or accessories. The sale of a... accessories. 48.4061(b)-3 Section 48.4061(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt parts or accessories. Rebuilding of...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... operations rather than the manufacturing or production of rebuilt parts or accessories. The sale of a... accessories. 48.4061(b)-3 Section 48.4061(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt parts or accessories. Rebuilding of...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... operations rather than the manufacturing or production of rebuilt parts or accessories. The sale of a... accessories. 48.4061(b)-3 Section 48.4061(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt parts or accessories. Rebuilding of...

  12. Stimulus set meaningfulness and neurophysiological differentiation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Boly, Melanie; Sasai, Shuntaro; Gosseries, Olivia; Oizumi, Masafumi; Casali, Adenauer; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A meaningful set of stimuli, such as a sequence of frames from a movie, triggers a set of different experiences. By contrast, a meaningless set of stimuli, such as a sequence of 'TV noise' frames, triggers always the same experience--of seeing 'TV noise'--even though the stimuli themselves are as different from each other as the movie frames. We reasoned that the differentiation of cortical responses underlying the subject's experiences, as measured by Lempel-Ziv complexity (incompressibility) of functional MRI images, should reflect the overall meaningfulness of a set of stimuli for the subject, rather than differences among the stimuli. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the differentiation of brain activity patterns in response to a movie sequence, to the same movie scrambled in time, and to 'TV noise', where the pixels from each movie frame were scrambled in space. While overall cortical activation was strong and widespread in all conditions, the differentiation (Lempel-Ziv complexity) of brain activation patterns was correlated with the meaningfulness of the stimulus set, being highest in the movie condition, intermediate in the scrambled movie condition, and minimal for 'TV noise'. Stimulus set meaningfulness was also associated with higher information integration among cortical regions. These results suggest that the differentiation of neural responses can be used to assess the meaningfulness of a given set of stimuli for a given subject, without the need to identify the features and categories that are relevant to the subject, nor the precise location of selective neural responses.

  13. Olig1 function is required for oligodendrocyte differentiation in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K; Ahrendsen, Jared T; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-03-11

    Oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination are tightly regulated processes orchestrated by a complex transcriptional network. Two bHLH transcription factors in this network, Olig1 and Olig2, are expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes after late embryonic development. Although the role of Olig2 in the lineage is well established, the role of Olig1 is still unclear. The current studies analyzed the function of Olig1 in oligodendrocyte differentiation and developmental myelination in brain. Both oligodendrocyte progenitor cell commitment and oligodendrocyte differentiation were impaired in the corpus callosum of Olig1-null mice, resulting in hypomyelination throughout adulthood in the brain. As seen in previous studies with this mouse line, although there was an early myelination deficit in the spinal cord, essentially full recovery with normal spinal cord myelination was seen. Intriguingly, this regional difference may be partially attributed to compensatory upregulation of Olig2 protein expression in the spinal cord after Olig1 deletion, which is not seen in brain. The current study demonstrates a unique role for Olig1 in promoting oligodendrocyte progenitor cell commitment, differentiation, and subsequent myelination primarily in brain, but not spinal cord.

  14. Functions of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins in Stem Cell Potency and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qishan; Jin, Min; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells possess huge importance in developmental biology, disease modelling, cell replacement therapy, and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine because they have the remarkable potential for self-renewal and to differentiate into almost all the cell types in the human body. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating stem cell potency and differentiation is essential and critical for extensive application. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are modular proteins consisting of RNA-binding motifs and auxiliary domains characterized by extensive and divergent functions in nucleic acid metabolism. Multiple roles of hnRNPs in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation enable them to be effective gene expression regulators. More recent findings show that hnRNP proteins are crucial factors implicated in maintenance of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency and cell differentiation. The hnRNPs interact with certain sequences in target gene promoter regions to initiate transcription. In addition, they recognize 3′UTR or 5′UTR of specific gene mRNA forming mRNP complex to regulate mRNA stability and translation. Both of these regulatory pathways lead to modulation of gene expression that is associated with stem cell proliferation, cell cycle control, pluripotency, and committed differentiation. PMID:23984388

  15. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system controls and monitors the dialysate circulating through the dialysate compartment of the dialyzer. (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air...) The dialysate delivery system consists of mechanisms that monitor and control the...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions, and that consists of a peritoneal access device, an administration set...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions, and that consists of a peritoneal access device, an administration set...