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Sample records for accessory gland infection

  1. Semen alterations and flow-citometry evaluation in patients with male accessory gland infections.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R; D'Agata, R; Vicari, E; Calogero, A E

    2012-02-01

    Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) represent a major cause of male infertility mainly through the secretory dysfunction of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and nonconventional sperm parameters in these patients, therefore 150 patients with MAGI were selected. Each of them underwent to two sperm analyses and evaluation of DNA fragmentation mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, chromatin compactness, by flow cytometry. Results showed that patients with MAGI had a lower sperm progressive motility (11.4 ± 5.0 vs 34.0 ± 7.0%), and percentage of normal forms (9.0 ± 3.7 vs 33.0 ± 13.0%) compared to controls, instead, these patients showed higher number of seminal white blood cells (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 0.4 ± 0.6 106/ml). Patients with MAGI showed a higher number of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation compared to controls (8.2 ± 3.0 vs 1.0 ± 1.0%). In addition, they have also a higher percentage of spermatozoa with low MMP (28.0 ± 4.0 vs 2.0 ± 2.0%). Patients with MAGI, showed a higher percentage of spermatozoa with PS externalization (8.0 ± 4.0 vs 3.0 ± 3.0%), an early sign of apoptosis, and lower percentage of viable spermatozoa (64.5 ± 12.0 vs 88.0 ± 10.0%). An increased percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin compactness (18.0 ± 4.0 vs 5.0 ± 3.0%) was found in patients with MAGI. In conclusion, patients with MAGI show alterations of conventional and biofunctional sperm parameters compared to controls. These results suggest to consider the flow cytometry evaluation among the diagnostic tools for male infertility.

  2. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Favilla, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE) among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) associated (MAGI-APEpos). US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg) which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool). The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis), V (vesiculitis), and E (epididymitis) in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI). Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  3. Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Patients with Male Accessory Gland Infection: Usefulness of the Ultrasound Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the ultrasound (US) features of 20 patients with MAGI and concomitant papilloma virus (HPV) infection compared to 20 patients with microbial (presence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone) MAGI and 20 patients with amicrobial (inflammatory) MAGI. Patients with HPV infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher total prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymal US signs (18.0 ± 2.0) compared to the other 2 groups (12.0 ± 4.0 versus 10.0 ± 3.0, resp.). In addition, patients with MAGI and HPV had a higher prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI [prostatovesiculitis (PV) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE)] and a higher frequency of the fibrosclerotic variant compared to the other groups (70.0 ± 10.0% versus 48.0 ± 5.0% versus 15.0 ± 10.0%). Moreover, HPV infected patients had a higher number of US criteria suggestive for MAGI in the periurethral region of the prostate compared to the other groups. In particular, the patients showed a higher ratio between periurethral and lobar US criteria distribution (5.0 versus 0.5). Finally, the seminal fluid concentration of CD45pos leukocytes (2.0 ± 0.2 versus 1.3 ± 0.3 versus 1.0 ± 0.3 mil/mL) was significantly higher and sperm progressive motility was significantly lower in these patients compared to other groups. PMID:27242899

  4. Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: transrectal ultrasound examination helps to understand the links.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; La Vignera, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) plus irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. In addition, another objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characterization of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum using transrectal ultrasonography. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: 1) infertility, 2) diagnosis of CBP, and 3) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following 2 age-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who had fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent an accurate patient history; administration of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively; physical examination; semen analysis; and transrectal ultrasound evaluation (limited to patients with CBP and IBS or CBP alone). A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leukocyte concentration compared with patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both groups of patients without MAGI. With ultrasound evaluation, a significantly higher frequency of dilatation of prostatic venous plexus was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (75%) compared with patients with CBP alone (10%). Patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of

  5. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland.

  7. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  8. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  9. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    PubMed

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects.

  10. Relationship between androstenone content in fat, intensity of boar taint and size of accessory sex glands in boars.

    PubMed

    Førland, D M; Lundstrøm, K; Andresen, O

    1980-05-01

    Coefficients of correlation in the range of 0.6-0.8 were found between the size of the accessory sex glands and level of androstenone in subcutaneous fat. The length and weight of accessory sex glands combined in a multiple regression equation explained 64% of the variation in androstenone content. The correlation between boar taint intensity and size of accessory sex glands varied between 0.28 and 0.34.

  11. Steroidogenesis by testis and accessory glands of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, during reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Teresa; Freitas, Ana M M S; Canario, Adelino V M

    2015-11-01

    In teleost fish sex steroids are essential for gonadal function and have marked effects in reproductive and agonistic behavior and in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, has two male morphotypes: type I males are territorial nest-holders and have large accessory glands while type II males are smaller, have a relatively large testis and small accessory glands. In the present study, the steroidogenic activity of the testis and accessory testicular glands of the Lusitanian toadfish were examined in vitro as well as their presence in urine. The testis of type I males produced 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11β-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11βA) from tritiated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, while those of type II males produced testosterone (T) and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-andosten-3-one (11βT), but not 11KT. Additionally, the testis and accessory glands of both morphs produced mostly 5β,3α-reduced and 17,20α-hydroxylated metabolites. Type I, but not of type II, males synthesised 5β-reduced androgens in their accessory glands. The presence of 11βA exclusively in the urine of type I males during reproductive season suggests an association with maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and behavior in this morph. The urine of both types of males contained two 5α-androstane and 5β-pregnane glucuronides. Among the latter steroids, those that are 17,21-dihydroxylated are potentially metabolites from cortisol and were found only in type I males during the spawning season. The diversity of metabolites produced by the testis and accessory glands and the presence of some in urine is suggestive of a potential role in chemical communication and reproductive behavior.

  12. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology.

  13. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  14. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  15. Proteome profiling reveals tissue-specific protein expression in male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Quanmei; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-05-01

    Male accessory gland (MAG) and female accessory gland (FAG) of the reproductive system are, respectively, responsible for producing seminal proteins and adhesive proteins during copulation and ovulation. Seminal proteins are ejaculated to female along with sperms, whereas adhesive proteins are excreted along with eggs. Proteins from the male and female reproductive organs are usually indicative of rapid adaptive evolution. Understanding the reproductive isolation and species divergence requires identifying reproduction-related proteins from many different species. Here, we present our proteomic analyses of male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Using LC/MS-MS, we identified 2133 MAG proteins and 1872 FAG proteins. In total, 652 proteins were significant more abundant in the MAG than in the FAG, including growth factors, odorant-binding proteins, enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Growth factors and odorant-binding proteins are potential signaling molecules, whereas most of proteins of unknown function were found to be Lepidoptera-specific proteins with high evolutionary rates. Microarray experiments and semi-quantitative RT-PCR validated that MAG-specific proteins were expressed exclusively in male moths. Totally, 192 proteins were considered as FAG-specific proteins, including protease inhibitors, enzymes, and other proteins. Protease inhibitors were found to be the most abundant FAG-specific proteins, which may protect eggs from infection by inhibiting pathogen-derived proteases. These results provide comprehensive insights into copulation and oviposition. Moreover, the newly identified Lepidoptera-specific MAG proteins provide useful data for future research on the evolution of reproductive proteins in insects.

  16. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  17. Chapter Eleven: The Drosophila Accessory Gland as a Model for Prostate Cancer and Other Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C.; Leiblich, A.; Goberdhan, D.C.I.; Hamdy, F.

    2017-01-01

    The human prostate is a gland of the male reproductive tract, which together with the seminal vesicles, is responsible for most seminal fluid production. It is a common site of cancer, and unlike other glands, it typically enlarges in aging men. In flies, the male accessory glands make many major seminal fluid components. Like their human equivalents, they secrete proteins from several conserved families, including proteases, lectins, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins, some of which interact with sperm and affect fertility. A key protein, sex peptide, is not conserved in vertebrates but plays a central role in mediating long-term effects on females after mating. Although postmitotic, one epithelial cell type in the accessory glands, the secondary cell, continues to grow in adults. It secretes microvesicles called exosomes from the endosomal multivesicular body, which, after mating, fuse with sperm. They also appear to affect female postmating behavior. Remarkably, the human prostate epithelium also secretes exosomes, which fuse to sperm in vitro to modulate their activity. Exosomes from prostate and other cancer cells are increasingly proposed to play fundamental roles in modulating the tumor microenvironment and in metastasis. Here we review a diverse accessory gland literature, which highlights functional analogies between the male reproductive glands of flies and humans, and a critical role for extracellular vesicles in allowing seminal fluid to promote male interests within the female. We postulate that secondary cells and prostate epithelial cells use common mechanisms to control growth, secretion, and signaling, which are relevant to prostate and other cancers, and can be genetically dissected in the uniquely tractable fly model. PMID:28057306

  18. Morphology and development of the accessory glands in various female cricket species.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The study presents new results with regard to the morphometric and ultrastructural development of the accessory glands in females of the three cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus assimilis, and Acheta domesticus. Furthermore, possible age-dependence of secretory productivity of single organs was analyzed by application of the ligature technique introduced in a previous contribution. Within the first 12 days of the adult phase, the accessory glands of all investigated cricket species exhibit a significant increase in length and width which assumes values between 50 and 100%. This gland growth is rather the result of a continuous increase in cellular volume and less that of mitotic cell propagation. In all species height and width of single gland cells increase by 60-80% within the studied time interval. These changes in morphometry are commonly accompanied by ultrastructural modifications. Total glandular secretion is subject to an increase from the 5th to the 12th day of adult age. This development corresponds well with the number of eggs contemporaneously oviposited into the substrate and thus underlines the hypothesis, according to which the main function of the secretion consists in acting as a lubricant for the facilitated transport of the oocytes through the ovipositor.

  19. Female receptivity in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is not modulated by male accessory gland products.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolás; Contreras-Navarro, Yair; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2014-11-01

    In numerous insects, accessory gland products (AGPs) transferred from males to females during mating are responsible for female sexual inhibition, but these products can be affected by male condition. Here, we investigated the effect of AGPs on female receptivity of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the effect of male and female strain, male irradiation, AGP dose and sexual activity period on the effectiveness of these AGPs in inhibiting female remating. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females did not reduce their receptivity either at 0.2 or 0.8 male equivalent. Females injected with AGPs behaved like virgin females and not as mated females. Neither male origin, female origin (wild versus mass-reared), nor male irradiation (sterile versus fertile males) had an effect in inhibiting female remating. Also, injections of glands obtained during the sexual calling period of males, or obtained during the morning when males are not sexually active had no effect on female remating behavior. Mated mass-reared females were more likely to remate than wild females. We conclude that inhibition of female sexual receptivity of A. ludens is mediated by factors other than AGPs, such as the number of sperm stored by females, the stimulus of copulation per se or more probably, mediated by a combination of factors. More research is needed to elucidate the role of AGPs in this species.

  20. Histological convergent evolution of the accessory submandibular glands in four species of frog-eating bats.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Phillips, C J; Nagato, T

    1996-08-01

    The accessory submandibular glands in four species of bats were examined by electron microscopy. These four species represent two independently evolved lineages. The fringe-lipped bat, Trachops cirrhosis, is a Neotropical phyllostomid species, whereas the false vampire bats of southeast Asia, Megaderma lyra and M. spasma, and the heart-nosed bat, Cardioderma cor, of East Africa are megadermatid species. These glands show extreme deviation from typical salivary gland histology: their secretory endpieces are in the form of follicles and their ducts lack the cytological details that permit identification of diverse duct segments. Despite their unusual histology, the secretory endpieces in M. lyra, M. spasma, and C. cor consist of secretory cells that conform to typical secretory cell morphology. In contrast, secretion by follicular cells in T. cirrhosis involves unusual cytoplasmic bodies, and their mitochondria frequently have intracristal crystalloids. Ducts in all four species consist of simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium without basal striations. Follicles and ducts in all four bats are surrounded by numerous myoepithelial cells and are heavily innervated by hypolemmal nerve terminals. Despite their widely separated geographical ranges, all four bat species consume frogs and other vertebrates. Frogs and toads often possess toxic cutaneous glands that provide a chemical defense against predation. It is postulated that the unusual accessory glands in the four frog-eating species secrete toxin-neutralizing salivary factors. The follicular form of the endpieces permits storage of preformed saliva and their coterie of myoepithelial cells and hypolemmal nerve terminals facilitates the sudden and rapid expulsion of saliva into the oral cavity during the consumption of noxious amphibians.

  1. Management of midcheek masses and tumors of the accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Giacomo; Meloni, Silvio M; Massarelli, Olindo; Tullio, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Tumors of the lateral wall of the mouth have different origins and behaviors. These lesions often arise from salivary tissues, such as the accessory parotid gland, but tumors can also originate from the muscles, buccal fat pad, or other structures. Surgical approaches are limited in this region by the presence of the facial nerve and the Stensen's duct. In this article, we present 9 cases of midcheek masses that were operated on via extra- or intraoral approaches. We discuss the problems related to the diagnosis of such tumors, as well as the indications and rationales for different treatment approaches.

  2. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Ping; Xue, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionarily conserved paired domain consists of the N-terminal PAI and the C-terminal RED domains, each containing a helix-turn-helix motif capable of binding DNA. Despite its conserved sequence, the physiological functions of the RED domain remain elusive. Here, we constructed a prd transgene expressing a truncated Paired (Prd) protein without the RED domain, and examined its rescue ability in prd mutants. We found that the RED domain is specifically required for the expression of Acp26Aa and sex peptide in male accessory glands, and the induction of female post-mating response. Our data thus identified an important physiological function for the evolutionarily conserved RED domain.

  3. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The sperm, which are packaged in a spermatophore, are exchanged and received in an organ called the diverticulum. Because of its length, this organ was previously proposed to be a female anatomical adaptation that may limit the dart interference with the recipient's sperm usage. For reproductive success of the donor, an anatomically long spermatophore, relative to the partner's diverticulum, is beneficial as sperm can avoid digestion by exiting through the spermatophore's tail safely. However, the snail Eobania vermiculata possesses a diverticulum that is three times longer than the spermatophore it receives. Here, we report that the love-dart mucus of this species contains a contraction-inducing substance that shortens the diverticulum, an effect that is only properly revealed when the mucus is applied to another helicid species, Cornu aspersum. This finding suggests that E. vermiculata may have evolved a physiological resistance to the manipulative substance received via the love-dart by becoming insensitive to it. This provides useful insight into the evolution of female resistance to male manipulations, indicating that it can remain hidden if tested on a single species. PMID:28062580

  4. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands.

  5. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  6. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew J; Fullmer, Matthew S; Gogarten, Johann P; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development.

  8. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host

  9. Senescence and steroid hormone receptor reactivities in accessory sex glands of elderly rats (Sprague-Dawley) following exogenous hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Montico, Fabio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the stromal and epithelial distribution of AR, ERα and ERβ reactivities in the different accessory sex glands of elderly rats and during strong hormonal changes. Ten month old male rats were divided into six senile groups and submitted to treatment: Senile/Control group (SC); Senile/Testosterone group (ST): Senile/Estrogen group (SE); Castrated group (CA); Castrated/Testosterone group (CT); Castrated/Estrogen group (CE). After a 30-day treatment, the prostatic ventral lobe (VL), dorsal lobe (DL) and coagulating gland (CG) samples were processed for immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. The results showed that AR immunoreactivity was characterized in the epithelium of VL and DL in senile/control rats and senile rats submitted to exogenous hormonal therapy. AR reactivity in the coagulating gland was verified predominantly in the stromal cells in the different experimental groups. ERα reactivity occurred predominantly in the stromal compartment in all accessory sex glands. In the DL and CG, ERα immunoreactivities were intense in the groups which received testosterone (ST) and estrogen (SE). ERβ immunoreactivity in the CG was verified in the stromal compartment in the different experimental groups, showing a positive response to both increased testosterone and estrogen levels. ERβ reactivity, in the DL, was intensified in the stroma of senile rats with higher serum testosterone levels, and in senile rats with increased serum estrogen levels, especially in the glandular epithelium. Thus, the results revealed different distribution pattern of steroid hormone receptors in each one of the prostatic lobes in senescence, especially in the prostate dorsal lobe and coagulating gland, which is a fundamental factor due to the fact that major prostatic diseases occur in a later period of life.

  10. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms

  11. Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel

  12. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up.

  13. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability

  14. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  15. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  16. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  17. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  18. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  19. Oxytocin administration before sperm collection by transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in mouflons and bucks.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Abril-Sánchez, Silvia; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Beracochea, Florencia; Castaño, Cristina; Giriboni, Julia; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2016-10-01

    Transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) is an alternative technique for sperm collection which decreases negative animal welfare concerns of electroejaculation. However, quality of collected sperm with TUMASG is less than that collected by electroejaculation. Utilisation of TUMASG may not, however, induce strong muscular contractions, so administration of oxytocin before the procedure may improve sperm quality. Therefore, two studies were designed to determine if administration of oxytocin before TUMASG improves the procedure and quality of the collected semen. The first study was performed with anaesthetised mouflons, and the second with non-anaesthetised Gabon bucks. Time length, number of electric pulses applied and numbers of vocalizations were recorded, and sperm characteristics were analysed. The number of electrical pulses and sperm characteristics did not differ with oxytocin administration in mouflons. However, oxytocin administration decreased time length (P=0.02) and tended to decrease the number of electric pulses needed for induction of ejaculation (P=0.08) in bucks. The number of vocalizations and sperm variables did not differ when the two procedures were used. In conclusion, oxytocin administration before TUMASG shortened the procedure and tended to decrease the number of electrical pulses needed to induce ejaculation in conscious bucks, thus, decreasing welfare concerns for the animals in which TUMASG is used. Therefore, its routine inclusion in this species should be considered.

  20. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  1. Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Paddock, Christopher D; Bartlett, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R

    2008-09-01

    A wide spectrum of adrenal gland pathology is seen during bacterial infections. Hemorrhage is particularly associated with meningococcemia, while abscesses have been described with several neonatal infections. We studied adrenal gland histopathology of 65 patients with bacterial infections documented in a variety of tissues by using immunohistochemistry. The infections diagnosed included Neisseria meningitidies, group A streptococcus, Rickettsia rickettsii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Ehrlichia sp., Bacillus anthracis, Leptospira sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Legionella sp., Yersinia pestis, and Treponema pallidum. Bacteria were detected in the adrenal of 40 (61%) cases. Adrenal hemorrhage was present in 39 (60%) cases. Bacteria or bacterial antigens were observed in 31 (79%) of the cases with adrenal hemorrhage including 14 with N. meningitidis, four with R. rickettsii, four with S. pneumoniae, three with group A streptococcus, two with S. aureus, two with B. anthracis, one with T. pallidum, and one with Legionella sp. Bacterial antigens were observed in nine of 26 non-hemorrhagic adrenal glands that showed inflammatory foci (four cases), edema (two cases), congestion (two cases), or necrosis (one case). Hemorrhage is the most frequent adrenal gland pathology observed in fatal bacterial infections. Bacteria and bacterial antigens are frequently seen in adrenal glands with hemorrhage and may play a pathogenic role. Although N. meningitidis is the most frequent bacteria associated with adrenal gland pathology, a broad collection of bacteria can also cause adrenal lesions.

  2. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gligorov, Dragan; Sitnik, Jessica L; Maeda, Robert K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Karch, François

    2013-03-01

    In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  4. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-11-19

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets.

  5. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  6. Structure of a D-protein gene and amino-acid sequences of the highly repetitive D-proteins secreted by the accessory glands of the mealworm beetle.

    PubMed

    Paesen, G C; Feng, X; Happ, G M

    1996-04-16

    The D-group proteins form the major component of the proteinaceous secretion of the tubular accessory glands of the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. In a previous paper, we reported the sequence of two D-protein cDNAs and their inferred translation products. Both proteins contain three highly repetitive domains (A, A' and B). In this paper, we present the cDNA-inferred sequences of 8 more D-proteins, none of which contains an A' domain. We also present the structure of a D-protein gene. Southern analysis suggests that genes coding for an A' domain are relatively rare. Genes with a total of 7 or 8 (A + B domain) repeats seem most common.

  7. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W.; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in Ae. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48hr post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control. PMID:25107876

  8. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2014-11-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

  9. The Female Post-Mating Response Requires Genes Expressed in the Secondary Cells of the Male Accessory Gland in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Jessica L; Gligorov, Dragan; Maeda, Robert K; Karch, François; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-03-01

    Seminal proteins from the Drosophila male accessory gland induce post-mating responses (PMR) in females. The PMR comprise behavioral and physiological changes that include increased egg laying, decreased receptivity to courting males, and changes in the storage and use of sperm. Many of these changes are induced by a "sex peptide" (SP) and are maintained by SP's binding to, and slow release from, sperm. The accessory gland contains two secretory cell types with distinct morphological and developmental characteristics. Products of these "main" and "secondary" cells work interdependently to induce and maintain the PMR. To identify individual genes needed for the morphology and function of secondary cells, we studied iab-6(cocu) males, whose secondary cells have abnormal morphology and fail to provide products to maintain the PMR. By RNA-seq, we identified 77 genes that are downregulated by a factor of >5× in iab-6(cocu) males. By functional assays and microscopy, we tested 20 candidate genes and found that at least 9 are required for normal storage and release of SP in mated females. Knockdown of each of these 9 genes consequently leads to a reduction in egg laying and an increase in receptivity over time, confirming a role for the secondary cells in maintaining the long-term PMR. Interestingly, only 1 of the 9 genes, CG3349, encodes a previously reported seminal fluid protein (Sfp), suggesting that secondary cells may perform essential functions beyond the production and modification of known Sfps. At least 3 of the 9 genes also regulate the size and/or abundance of secondary cell vacuoles, suggesting that the vacuoles' contents may be important for the machinery used to maintain the PMR.

  10. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-07-01

    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.

  11. HPV Infection, but Not EBV or HHV-8 Infection, Is Associated with Salivary Gland Tumours.

    PubMed

    Hühns, Maja; Simm, Georg; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Zimpfer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9%) moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin's tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin's tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities.

  12. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (≥70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected

  13. The host-seeking inhibitory peptide, Aea-HP-1, is made in the male accessory gland and transferred to the female during copulation

    PubMed Central

    Naccarati, Chiara; Audsley, Neil; Keen, Jeffrey N.; Kim, Jung-Ha; Howell, Gareth J.; Kim, Young-Joon; Isaac, R. Elwyn

    2012-01-01

    Male accessory glands (MAGs) of insects are responsible for the production of many of the seminal fluid proteins and peptides that elicit physiological and behavioral responses in the post-mated female. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seminal fluid components are responsible for stimulating egg production, changing female behavior away from host-seeking toward egg-laying and mating refractoriness, but hitherto no behavior-modifying molecule from the MAGs has been structurally characterized. We now show using mass spectrometry and HPLC/ELISA that the MAG is a major site of synthesis of the biologically active decapeptide, Aea-HP-1 (pERPhPSLKTRFamide) that was first characterized by Matsumoto and colleagues in 1989 from mosquito head extracts and shown to have host-seeking inhibitory properties. The peptide is localized to the anterior portion of the MAG, occurs at high concentrations in the gland and is transferred to the female reproductive tract on copulation. Aea-HP-1 has a pyroglutamic acid at the N-terminus, an amidated carboxyl at the C-terminus and an unusual 4-hydroxyproline in position 4 of the peptide. The structure of the peptide with its blocked N- and C-termini confers resistance to metabolic inactivation by MAG peptidases; however the peptide persists for less than 2 h in the female reproductive tract after copulation. Aea-HP-1 is not a ligand for the mosquito sex peptide/myoinhibitory peptide receptor. A. aegypti often mate close to the host and therefore it is possible that male-derived Aea-HP-1 induces short-term changes to female host-seeking behavior to reduce potentially lethal encounters with hosts soon after insemination. PMID:22080116

  14. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  15. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  16. Evolution of the long terminal repeat and accessory genes of feline immunodeficiency virus genomes from naturally infected cougars.

    PubMed

    Poss, Mary; Ross, Howard

    2008-01-05

    FIVpco is a member of the feline immunodeficiency virus family that is endemic in wild cougar populations. Virus replication is robust in FIVpco-infected cougars but there are no consequences of infection to cougar survival, fecundity or susceptibility to other infections. Unlike pathogenic lentiviruses, there is no evidence for positive selection on FIVpco gag or env. To better understand how lentivirus genomes evolve in natural infections, we evaluated the regulatory region and accessory genes from fourteen full-length FIVpco genomes, which represent the FIVpco diversity in the Northern Rockies Ecosystem. Our data demonstrate that the two sister groups of FIVpco have each acquired binding sites for different interferon response factors (IRF). The most variable gene in the FIVpco genome encodes OrfA, although there is no indication that it, or any other accessory gene, is under positive selection. There is a single-splice acceptor site for vif expression, which is conserved among all FIVpco genomes. However, there are several putative means to express rev and orfA, which differ between the phylogenetic groups of FIVpco. Our comparative study on divergent FIVpco genomes indicates that variation in potential gene regulation mechanisms, not changes in structural proteins, characterize the evolution of FIVpco in natural infections.

  17. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  18. Feline immunodeficiency virus replicates in salivary gland ductular epithelium during the initial phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Kyaw-Tanner, M; Thomas, J; Robinson, W F

    1995-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigen was detected by immunochemistry in salivary glands of cats experimentally inoculated with West Australian isolate T91. Six cats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1.0 ml of tissue culture supernatant fluid from a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MYA-1) infected with T91. FIV antigens were detected in the interlobular ducts of the salivary gland of cats infected with FIV 2, 4 and 6 weeks previously. FIV antigen was not detected in the salivary glands of three FIV negative cats and one naturally infected cat. Further, FIV antigen was located only in interlobular duct epithelial cells. The distribution of FIV in the interlobular ducts confirms the important role of salivary glands as a major reservoir of FIV in the early phase of infection and strengthens suggestions that the salivary route is an important mode of transmission of FIV.

  19. [Investigations on the pathogenesis of changes in somatic growth of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) experimentally infected with parthenites Opisthioglyphe ranae (Digenea: Plagiorchiida). I. Relative weight of accessory sex organs and synthetic activity of neurosecretory cells].

    PubMed

    Pokora, Z

    1996-01-01

    In the paper an attempt to define pathogenesis of changes in somatic growth of juvenile individuals of the popular freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis experimentally infected with parthenites of the trematode Opisthioglyphe ranae was undertaken. Significant enlargement of relative wet weight of examined accessory sex organs (albumen gland, oothecal gland, prostate, male copulatory organ) observed in infected snails permits to explain increase of their somatic growth basing on the hypothesis of disturbances in energetistic budget of the host-as a consequence of reduction by the parasite activity of the snail's reproductive system. Pathogenesis of this phenomenon has probably a complicated character, including also effect of parthenites on activity of the neurosecretory cells that control somatic growth in examined species of the snail. An argument for this standpoint is, observed in infected snails, increase of amount of neurosecretory material and RNA in cytoplasm of these cells (the light green cells of cerebral ganglia), as well as amount of the loose fraction of chromatine in their nuclei.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keilberg, Daniela; Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R; Ottemann, Karen M

    2016-10-11

    Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che(-)) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che(-) strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori. After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che−) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che− strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization. PMID:27729513

  2. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p < 0.0001) respectively, and reached the efficacy objective of the protocol. During atorvastatin therapy and/or 3 months after its withdrawal numerous semen parameters were significantly modified, such as total number of spermatozoa (-31%, p < 0.05), vitality (-9.5%, p < 0.05), total motility (+7.5%, p < 0.05), morphology (head, neck and midpiece abnormalities, p < 0.05), and the kinetics of acrosome reaction (p < 0.05). Seminal concentrations of acid phosphatases (p < 0.01), α-glucosidase (p < 0.05) and L-carnitine (p < 0.05) were also decreased during the therapy, indicating an alteration of prostatic and epididymal functions. Moreover, we measured at least one altered semen parameter in 35% of the subjects during atorvastatin treatment, and in 65% of the subjects after withdrawal, which led us to consider that atorvastatin is unsafe in the context of our study. Conclusions Our results show for the first

  3. Naturally occurring accessory gene mutations lead to persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of CD4-positive T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, M; Zheng, Y H; Bahmani, M K; Tokunaga, K; Takahashi, H; Kakinuma, M; Lai, P K; Nonoyama, M; Luftig, R B; Ikuta, K

    1995-01-01

    Proviral DNA from cells surviving severe but transient cytopathic effects, mediated by infection with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) carrying a single gene mutation at vif, vpr, or vpu, was characterized by use of HIV-1-specific primer pairs in a two-step PCR. Deletion mutations were detected in a region that spanned the vif and vpr open reading frames. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified DNA from this region revealed frequent large deletions in a limited number of nucleotide positions. Analyses of the deletions suggested that (i) genetic recombination, (ii) template-primer slippage, and (iii) misalignment of the growing point during reverse transcription of the HIV-1 genome might be the mechanisms that generated the mutations. Apart from the large deletions, smaller deletions that gave frameshift mutations in vif and/or vpr prevailed. In addition, cells infected with a triple mutant defective in vif, vpr, and vpu did not show any cytopathic effect. Thus, mutations generating multiple accessory gene defects during HIV-1 replication correlate with viral persistence and loss of cytopathogenicity. PMID:7494257

  4. Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands.

  5. Plant-derived auxin plays an accessory role in symptom development upon Rhodococcus fascians infection.

    PubMed

    Stes, Elisabeth; Prinsen, Els; Holsters, Marcelle; Vereecke, Danny

    2012-05-01

    The biotrophic phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians has a profound impact on plant development, mainly through its principal virulence factors, a mix of synergistically acting cytokinins that induce shoot formation. Expression profiling of marker genes for several auxin biosynthesis routes and mutant analysis demonstrated that the bacterial cytokinins stimulate the auxin biosynthesis of plants via specific targeting of the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) pathway, resulting in enhanced auxin signaling in infected tissues. The double mutant tryptophan aminotransferase 1-1 tryptophan aminotransferase related 2-1 (taa1-1 tar2-1) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), in which the IPA pathway is defective, displayed a decreased responsiveness towards R. fascians infection, although bacterial colonization and virulence gene expression were not impaired. These observations implied that plant-derived auxin was employed to reinforce symptom formation. Furthermore, the increased auxin production and, possibly, the accumulating bacterial cytokinins in infected plants modified the polar auxin transport so that new auxin maxima were repetitively established and distributed, a process that is imperative for symptom onset and maintenance. Based on these findings, we extend our model of the mode of action of bacterial and plant signals during the interaction between R. fascians and Arabidopsis.

  6. COCCIDIAL INFECTION OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS OF LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sara D; Wellehan, James F X; Frasca, Salvatore; Innis, Charles J; Harris, Heather S; Miller, Melissa; Weber, E Scott; Walden, Heather Stockdale; Greiner, Ellis C; Merigo, Constance; Stacy, Brian A

    2016-10-01

    Histologic lesions incidental to the cause of death were observed in the adrenal glands of 17 subadult and adult leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) found dead or moribund on or near shore in North America. Round bodies, 250-300 μm in diameter composed of an outer capsule and large multinucleated cells surrounding a central mass of acellular material were distributed throughout the affected glands. Protozoal etiology was suspected based on some resemblance to coccidia; however, features diagnostic for coccidial infection were lacking in all but one case, which had a focal area of adrenalitis containing zoites. A novel eucoccidian partial 18S rRNA genetic sequence was consistently detected in adrenal glands with lesions. With the use of quantitative PCR, a specific area of the V4 region of the coccidian 18S gene was quantified in affected adrenal glands and correlated significantly with density of the histologic lesions. A second distinct, but closely related, 18S sequence was also amplified from the adrenal gland of one turtle and from a fecal sample containing unsporulated coccidian oocysts. The two 18S sequences identified from leatherback sea turtles form a clade within the family Eimeriidae. Further investigation is required to understand better the morphology of the life stages, life cycle, and potential effects of this coccidian parasite on adrenal function.

  7. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed

  8. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy.

  9. Immune responses to Mycoplasma bovis vaccination and experimental infection in the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Boothby, J T; Schore, C E; Jasper, D E; Osburn, B I; Thomas, C B

    1988-01-01

    This study characterized the immune responses in four vaccinated and four control cows in response to vaccination and experimental intramammary inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis. Specific antibody responses occurred in serum and milk in response to vaccination and experimental infection. Lymphocytes from peripheral blood, but not from the mammary gland of vaccinated cows had increased responsiveness to mitogens. No lymphocytes tested were responsive to M. bovis antigen. Both vaccination and experimental infection resulted in skin test reactivity. These results imply that vaccination results in immune responses which may alter the course of experimental M. bovis mastitis, but may contribute to cellular inflammation. PMID:3167718

  10. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  11. Differential expression of genes in salivary glands of male Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in response to infection with Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the rickettsial tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is vectored by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A. marginale undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks which results in infection of salivary glands from where the pathogen is transmitted to cattle. In previous studies, we reported modification of gene expression in Dermacentor variabilis and cultured Ixodes scapularis tick cells in response to infection with A. marginale. In these studies, we extended these findings by use of a functional genomics approach to identify genes differentially expressed in R. microplus male salivary glands in response to A. marginale infection. Additionally, a R. microplus-derived cell line, BME26, was used for the first time to also study tick cell gene expression in response to A. marginale infection. Results Suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected ticks and used to identify genes differentially expressed in male R. microplus salivary glands infected with A. marginale. A total of 279 ESTs were identified as candidate differentially expressed genes. Of these, five genes encoding for putative histamine-binding protein (22Hbp), von Willebrand factor (94Will), flagelliform silk protein (100Silk), Kunitz-like protease inhibitor precursor (108Kunz) and proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 3 precursor (7BstNI3) were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR to be down-regulated in tick salivary glands infected with A. marginale. The impact of selected tick genes on A. marginale infections in tick salivary glands and BME26 cells was characterized by RNA interference. Silencing of the gene encoding for putative flagelliform silk protein (100Silk) resulted in reduced A. marginale infection in both tick salivary glands and cultured BME26 cells, while silencing of the gene encoding for subolesin (4D8

  12. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  13. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in epithelial cells in vivo: rare detection of EBV replication in tongue mucosa but not in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Frangou, Phroso; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2005-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted through saliva, but the cellular source is controversial. Putative reservoirs include oral epithelium and salivary glands. Tongue mucosal samples, salivary glands, and tongue carcinomas were studied, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, for evidence of EBV infection. EBV replication was seen in 1.3% of tongue mucosal samples. No latent infection was found at this site. EBV infection was detected neither in normal salivary glands nor in tongue carcinomas. Thus, EBV replication occurs infrequently in tongue epithelial cells, and salivary glands are unlikely to harbor EBV. EBV is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of tongue cancer.

  14. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  15. Computational analysis of bovine milk exosomal miRNAs profiles derived from uninfected and Streptococcus uberis infected mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dairy cattle industry in the U.S. contributes an estimated 7 billion dollars to the agribusiness economy. Bacterial infections that cause disease like mastitis, affect health of the lactating mammary gland, and negatively impacts milk production and milk quality, costing producers an estimated 2...

  16. Proliferation-apoptosis balance in Staphylococcus aureus chronically infected bovine mammary glands during involution.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Carolina S; Pereyra, Elizabet A L; Sacco, Sofía C; Baravalle, Celina; Renna, María S; Ortega, Hugo H; Calvinho, Luis F; Dallard, Bibiana E

    2017-03-13

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Staphylococcus aureus chronic intramammary infection (IMI) influences expression of proteins related to regulation of proliferation and apoptosis processes and proliferation/apoptosis index during active involution in bovine mammary gland. Twenty-one Holstein non-pregnant cows in late lactation either uninfected or with chronic naturally acquired S. aureus IMI were included in this study. Cows were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 21 d after cessation of milking and samples for immunohistochemical analysis were taken. Protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and active caspase-3 in mammary tissue was significantly affected by chronic S. aureus IMI, all showing increased immunoexpression in S. aureus-infected quarters at all involution stages. The percentage of apoptotic cells was increased by IMI in both mammary parenchyma and stroma, and the percentage of parenchymal and stromal cell proliferation was also increased. The proliferation/apoptosis ratio was significantly increased by IMI only in stromal cells. This imbalance to favour proliferation in S. aureus-infected mammary quarters could be one of the underlying causes that induce aberrant involution with permanence of nonsecretory tissue and increase of stromal components.

  17. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.

  18. Cushing's disease due to mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytoma of the posterior pituitary gland presenting with Aspergillus sp. sinus infection.

    PubMed

    Bridenstine, Mark; Kerr, Janice M; Lillehei, Kevin O; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K

    2013-01-01

    Gangliocytic lesions of the pituitary gland producing Cushing's disease are extremely rare entities that may exist with or without a pituitary adenoma. The latter have been designated mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas, the majority of which produce growth hormone, not adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and are localized to the anterior gland. We now report an immunocompetent woman with hypercortisolism who presented with an intranasal aspergilloma eroding the bony sellar floor. The fungal ball was contiguous with, and extended into, a large neurohypophyseal-centered mass. Transsphenoidal resection revealed a gangliocytic lesion of the posterior gland with small clusters of intimately admixed ACTH-immunoreactive adenoma cells as the cause of her Cushing's disease. Rare transitional sizes and shapes of cells coupled with immunohistochemical findings supported interpretation as advanced neuronal metaplasia within an ACTH adenoma. This mixed ACTH adenoma-gangliocytoma is the first example to present clinically with an opportunistic infection.

  19. Short communication: Staphylococcus aureus infection modulates expression of drug transporters and inflammatory biomarkers in mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, A; Yagdiran, Y; Nazemi, S; Tallkvist, J; Knight, C H

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide and is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Little is known about the effect of mastitis on transporters in the mammary gland and the effect on transporter-mediated secretion of drugs into milk. We studied gene expressions of ATP-binding cassette and solute carrier transporters in S. aureus-infected mammary glands of mice. On d 7 of lactation, NMRI mice were inoculated with 1,000 cfu of S. aureus in 2 mammary glands and with a saline vehicle in 2 control glands. Gene expression of the transporters, Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1, and Oct1, and of Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, were determined in mammary glands at 72 h after treatment. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response gene, expressions of the cytokines Il6, Tnfα, and the chemokine Cxcl2 were measured. Despite a high individual variation between the 6 animals, some characteristic patterns were evident. The 3 inflammatory biomarkers were upregulated in all animals; Csn2 was downregulated compared with controls in all animals, although not statistically significantly. Both Mrp1 and Oatp1a5 were statistically significantly upregulated and Bcrp was downregulated. Gene expression of Bcrp followed the expression of Csn2 in each of the animals, indicating a possible co-regulation. The findings demonstrate that S. aureus infection has an effect on expression of drug transporters in the mammary gland, which may affect secretion of drugs into milk and efficacy of drug therapy.

  20. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  1. Accessory mental foramen

    PubMed Central

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist. PMID:22666714

  2. Core Binding Factor β Protects HIV, Type 1 Accessory Protein Viral Infectivity Factor from MDM2-mediated Degradation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yusuke; Shindo, Keisuke; Nagata, Kayoko; Yoshinaga, Noriyoshi; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-11-25

    HIV, type 1 overcomes host restriction factor apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins by organizing an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex together with viral infectivity factor (Vif) and a host transcription cofactor core binding factor β (CBFβ). CBFβ is essential for Vif to counteract APOBEC3 by enabling the recruitment of cullin 5 to the complex and increasing the steady-state level of Vif protein; however, the mechanisms by which CBFβ up-regulates Vif protein remains unclear. Because we have reported previously that mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) is an E3 ligase for Vif, we hypothesized that CBFβ might protect Vif from MDM2-mediated degradation. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that Vif mutants that do not bind to CBFβ preferentially interact with MDM2 and that overexpression of CBFβ disrupts the interaction between MDM2 and Vif. Knockdown of CBFβ reduced the steady-state level of Vif in MDM2-proficient cells but not in MDM2-null cells. Cycloheximide chase analyses revealed that Vif E88A/W89A, which does not interact with CBFβ, degraded faster than wild-type Vif in MDM2-proficient cells but not in MDM2-null cells, suggesting that Vif stabilization by CBFβ is mainly caused by impairing MDM2-mediated degradation. We identified Vif R93E as a Vif variant that does not bind to MDM2, and the virus with this substitution mutation was more resistant to APOBEC3G than the parental virus. Combinatory substitution of Vif residues required for CBFβ binding and MDM2 binding showed full recovery of Vif steady-state levels, supporting our hypothesis. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of Vif augmentation by CBFβ.

  3. Accessory Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Ectopic breast tissue usually develops along the mammary ridges, and the incidence has been reported to be 2–6% of the general population. Occurrence of primary carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue is rare. Case Report We report the case of 59-year-old woman with accessory breast carcinoma in her left axilla. Conclusion Because an accessory areola or nipple is often missing and awareness of physicians and patients about these unsuspicious masses is lacking, clinical diagnosis of accessory breast carcinoma is frequently delayed. Therefore, a mass along the ‘milk line’ should be examined carefully, and any suspicious lesions should be evaluated. PMID:20847887

  4. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  5. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Methods Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Results Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (p<0.05) in mice inoculated with strong biofilm forming S. aureus than the weak biofilm forming strain. Conclusion This finding suggests an important role of TNF-α in mammary gland pathology post-infection with strong biofilm-forming S. aureus in the acute mouse mastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of

  6. Medical Management for the Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection of the Parotid Gland: Avoiding Surgery May Be Possible

    PubMed Central

    Bouhabel, Sarah; Oughton, Matthew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is uncommon in the head and neck; therefore there is no clear consensus on treating these infections. Our objective was to report our experience with a unique case of NTM infection of the parotid in an immunocompetent patient, in order to determine appropriate management through our experience with this pathology. A 57-year-old man, known for numerous comorbid diseases, presented to our institution complaining of right parotid swelling and pain. A computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed a multiloculated collection in the inferior portion of the right parotid gland, compatible with abscess formation. This abscess was drained by interventional radiology (IR) but required repeat drainage twice due to lack of initial improvement. He was treated with several antibiotics as culture results initially indicated Gram-positive bacilli and then Mycobacterium species, with final identification by a reference laboratory as Mycobacterium abscessus. Imipenem was initiated with amikacin and clarithromycin. His infection clinically and radiologically resolved after 5 months of antibiotherapy. In our case, the patient improved following intravenous antibiotic therapy. Our experience demonstrates that appropriate antibiotherapy can lead to resolution of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in the parotid without the risks associated with surgical intervention. PMID:27340407

  7. Disease Dynamics and Persistence of Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus Infections in Laboratory House Fly (Musca domestica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Geden, Christopher J.; Doyle, Melissa A.; Boucias, Drion G.

    2012-01-01

    Past surveys of feral house fly populations have shown that Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) has a worldwide distribution, with an average prevalence varying between 0.5% and 10%. How this adult-specific virus persists in nature is unknown. In the present study, experiments were conducted to examine short-term transmission efficiency and long-term persistence of symptomatic MdSGHV infections in confined house fly populations. Average rates of disease transmission from virus-infected to healthy flies in small populations of 50 or 100 flies ranged from 3% to 24% and did not vary between three tested geographical strains that originated from different continents. Introduction of an initial proportion of 40% infected flies into fly populations did not result in epizootics. Instead, long-term observations demonstrated that MdSGHV infection levels declined over time, resulting in a 10% infection rate after passing through 10 filial generations. In all experiments, induced disease rates were significantly higher in male flies than in female flies and might be explained by male-specific behaviors that increased contact with viremic flies and/or virus-contaminated surfaces. PMID:22057863

  8. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  9. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  10. Analysis of the transfer RNA population of mouse mammary glands infected with a latent mammary tumor virus.

    PubMed

    Hentzen, D

    1976-09-01

    Mammary gland transfer RNA's (tRNA'S) of CEH mice infected with mammary tumor virus were analyzed in the preneoplastic state and compared to tRNAs of virus-free C3Hf mice and another uninfected strain, C57BL/6, which is completely resistant to cancer. This quantitative study was based on the ability of each tRNA to fix its corresponding amino acid. The amount of each of the 17 tRNA's tested was identical for the three mammary glands. In addition, tRNA populations during lactation correlated with the amino acids incorporated into the lactoproteins synthesized, which indicates adapation of the tRNA's to protein biosynthesis. Qualitative chromatographic studies on reverse phase capillary columns Type 5 of 10 aminoacyl-tRNA's did not reveal any difference in the isoacceptor elution profiles. This shows that no new isoaccepting tRNA is associated with the mammary tumor virus at that stage, and that no viral modification of a host tRNA has occurred.

  11. A novel relapsing fever Borrelia sp. infects the salivary glands of the molted hard tick, Amblyomma geoemydae.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ai; Sugimori, Chieko; Fujita, Hiromi; Kadosaka, Teruki; Taylor, Kyle R; Tsubota, Toshio; Konnai, Satoru; Tajima, Tomoko; Sato, Kozue; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    A novel relapsing fever Borrelia sp. was found in Amblyomma geoemydae in Japan. The novel Borrelia sp. was phylogenetically related to the hard (ixodid) tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Borrelia miyamotoi and B. lonestari. The novel relapsing fever Borrelia sp. was detected in 39 A. geoemydae (39/274: 14.2%), of which 14 (14/274: 5.1%) were co-infected with the novel relapsing fever Borrelia sp. and Borrelia sp. tAG, one of the reptile-associated borreliae. Transstadial transmission of the novel relapsing fever Borrelia sp. occurred in the tick midgut and the salivary glands, although Borrelia sp. tAG was only detected in the tick midgut. The difference of the borrelial niche in molted ticks might be associated with borrelial characterization.

  12. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions.

  13. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Profiling to Evaluate the Sheep Mammary Gland Transcriptome in Response to Experimental Mycoplasma agalactiae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Korb, Melanie; Brunthaler, René; Ertl, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies. PMID:28081235

  14. Transcriptome MicroRNA Profiling of Bovine Mammary Glands Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Cheng-Long; Liao, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Dan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Hui; Geng, Xiao-Han; Ji, De-Jun; Mao, Yong-Jiang; Gong, Yun-Chen; Yang, Zhang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs impact the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thus, the regulation of miRNA expression profiles associated with mastitis will be conducive for its control. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was administered to the mammary gland of Chinese Holstein cows to construct a bacteria-type mastitis model. Total RNA was isolated from bovine mammary gland tissue samples from the S. aureus-induced mastitis group and controls. miRNAs were analyzed using Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics processing for the experimental group and control group. Two miRNA libraries were constructed respectively. A total of 370 known bovine miRNAs and 341 novel mi RNAs were detected for the S. aureus and 358 known bovine miRNAs and 232 novel miRNAs for control groups. A total of 77 miRNAs in the S. aureus group showed significant differences compared to the control group. GO (Gene Ontology) analysis showed these target genes were involved in the regulation of cells, binding, etc., while KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis showed that these genes were enriched in endocytosis, and olfactory transduction pathways involved in cancer. These results provide an experimental basis to reveal the cause and regulatory mechanism of mastitis and also suggest the potential of miRNAs to serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:25749476

  15. Deciphering Transcriptome and Complex Alternative Splicing Transcripts in Mammary Gland Tissues from Cows Naturally Infected with Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiang; Yang, Chun Hong; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Yan; Li, Rong Ling; Wang, Chang Fa; Zhong, Ji Feng; Huang, Jin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the complexity of the mammalian proteome and plays an important role in diseases, including infectious diseases. The differential AS patterns of these transcript sequences between the healthy (HS3A) and mastitic (HS8A) cows naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus were compared to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis resistance and susceptibility. In this study, using the Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing method, 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with higher than twofold changes were found in the HS3A and HS8A mammary gland tissues. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction pathway is the most significantly enriched pathway. Approximately 16k annotated unigenes were respectively identified in two libraries, based on the bovine Bos taurus UMD3.1 sequence assembly and search. A total of 52.62% and 51.24% annotated unigenes were alternatively spliced in term of exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5′ splicing and alternative 3ʹ splicing. Additionally, 1,317 AS unigenes were HS3A-specific, whereas 1,093 AS unigenes were HS8A-specific. Some immune-related genes, such as ITGB6, MYD88, ADA, ACKR1, and TNFRSF1B, and their potential relationships with mastitis were highlighted. From Chromosome 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, and 20, 3.66% (HS3A) and 5.4% (HS8A) novel transcripts, which harbor known quantitative trait locus associated with clinical mastitis, were identified. Many DEGs in the healthy and mastitic mammary glands are involved in immune, defense, and inflammation responses. These DEGs, which exhibit diverse and specific splicing patterns and events, can endow dairy cattle with the potential complex genetic resistance against mastitis. PMID:27459697

  16. Selenium Deficiency Facilitates Inflammation Following S. aureus Infection by Regulating TLR2-Related Pathways in the Mouse Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Shen, Peng; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient affecting various aspects of health. Se deficiency has been associated with inflammation and immune responses. Mastitis poses a serious problem for humans and animals in the postpartum period. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common infectious bacterial pathogen associated with mastitis. The present study sought to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of dietary Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a model of mouse mastitis. ELISA and Western blotting were performed to detect protein levels. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. The histopathological changes indicated that Se deficiency resulted in increased inflammatory lesions in S. aureus mastitis, whereas Se deficiency did not induce inflammatory lesions in the mammary gland. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Analysis of cytokine mRNA and protein showed that Se deficiency leads to increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in S. aureus mastitis. In addition, Se deficiency enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which were originally upregulated by S. aureus in the mammary gland tissues and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293)-mTLR2 cells. When Se-deficient mice were infected with S. aureus, the phosphorylation of IκB, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 was greatly increased. The results indicate that Se deficiency could intensify the inflammatory reaction in S. aureus mastitis. This work contributes to the exploration of new methods of preventing or treating of S. aureus mastitis and other infectious diseases.

  17. Accessories to the crime: recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology.

    PubMed

    Gramberg, Thomas; Sunseri, Nicole; Landau, Nathaniel R

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself. HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary battle. The virus is remarkably adept at co-opting cellular degradative pathways to destroy the protective proteins. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding three of the accessory proteins-virion infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R (Vpr), and viral protein U (Vpu)-that target different restriction factors to ensure virus replication. These proteins may provide promising targets for the development of novel classes of antiretroviral drugs.

  18. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  19. Antibiotic Treatment of Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Infections of the Bovine Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Newbould, F. H. S.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental infections were produced in 78 quarters of 17 cows by the infusion of small numbers of a single strain of Staphylococcus aureus. In each single experiment three quarters in a cow were infected, with the fourth left as a control. At times varying from three to 60 days after the infusion of organisms, a standard intramammary antibiotic treatment was administered on a single occasion. A cure was arbitrarily defined as the absence of the organism in foremilk, from direct plating and replated incubated milk, together with return to normal somatic cell count levels as determined by an electronic counter. With these standardized conditions the effects of a number of cow associated factors on the outcome of the therapy were determined. Forty-three of the 78 quarters (55%) were cured by the standard treatment. Significant differences in percentages of quarters cured were found to be associated with the duration of infection before therapy, the lactation age of the cow, the length of time in lactation, somatic cell count in milk at time of treatment, the location of the quarter in the udder and individual cows. No significant effects on the outcome of the standard treatment were found associated with the number of bacteria in the secretion at the time of treatment, previous infection and cure in a quarter nor the season of the year in which treatment was given. Of the 35 quarters in which infection recurred following treatment, organisms were reisolated from 12 within four days, 18 between five and nine days, four between ten and 17 days and one after 28 days. From these data it is apparent that if, as has been suggested, models such as described are to be used for efficacy trials, standardization of some parameters is essential. PMID:4279760

  20. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Loor, Juan J

    2011-03-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed genes (DEG). Among up-regulated DEG (n = 180), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® identified lipid metabolism (8) and molecular transport (14) as some of the most enriched molecular functions. Genes down-regulated by NEB (98) were associated with cell growth and proliferation (21) and cell death (18). Results indicate that DEG due to NEB in mid-lactation were associated with numerous biological functions but we did not identify genes that could, a priori, be associated with risk of intramammary infection in non-infected mammary glands. Further studies with early postpartal cows are required.

  1. Accessory nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Olarte, M; Adams, D

    1977-11-01

    After apparently uncomplicated excision of benign lesions in the posterior cervical triangle, two patients had shoulder pain. In one, neck pain and trapezius weakness were not prominent until one month after surgery. Inability to elevate the arm above the horizontal without externally rotating it, and prominent scapular displacement on arm abduction, but not on forward pushing movements, highlighted the trapezius dysfunction and differentiated it from serratus anterior weakness. Spinal accessory nerve lesions should be considered when minor surgical procedures, lymphadenitis, minor trauma, or tumours involved the posterior triangle of the neck.

  2. Persistence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in the mammary glands of lactating cows inoculated experimentally.

    PubMed

    Byrne, W; Markey, B; McCormack, R; Egan, J; Ball, H; Sachse, K

    2005-06-11

    To study the course of clinical mycoplasma mastitis and investigate its potential for persistence, 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of an Irish isolate of Mycoplasma bovis was inoculated aseptically into the right fore teat canal of three lactating cows. M bovis rapidly colonised the infected quarters and grew exponentially to more than 10(10) cfu/ml within the first three days, and spread to other quarters of each of the three cows within five to 10 days. After periods of between 24 and 72 hours the infected quarters became distended and sensitive to touch, and their secretions changed from containing visible particles, to a seropurulent exudate, to an aqueous suspension of fine particles which formed a sediment after a sample was collected. M bovis-specific antibody levels increased to varying degrees in all three cows. Subsequently, the concentrations of mycoplasma decreased to less than 10(7) cfu/ml in two of the cows, but remained at more than 10(8) cfu/ml to the end of the lactation of the other cow. Apparently normal milk was secreted by one of the cows within a month of the challenge, and by the other two cows at the start of their next lactation. However, in two of the cows subclinical M bovis infection persisted through the dry periods and into their next lactations.

  3. Torsion of Accessory Hepatic Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Saravanan; Jayasudha; Periasamy, Manikandhan; Rangasamy, Saminathan

    2017-01-01

    An accessory hepatic lobe is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. A 5-year-old child admitted as acute abdomen, on laparotomy found to have torsion of accessory lobe of liver, is being reported. PMID:28082782

  4. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  5. Evaluation of the mitochondrial system in the gonad-digestive gland complex of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Santos, Anderson Teixeira; Garcia, Juberlan da Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-05-01

    The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated after exposure to 50 miracidia. The snails were dissected one, two, three and four weeks after infection for collection and mechanical permeabilization of the gonad-digestive gland (DGG) complex. The results obtained indicate that prepatent infection by this echinostomatid fluke significantly suppresses the phosphorylation state (respiratory state 3) and basal oxygen consumption of B. glabrata, demonstrating that the infection reduces the ability of the intermediate host to carry out aerobic oxidative reactions. Additionally, relevant variations related to the uncoupled mitochondrial (state 3u) of B. glabrata infected by E. paraensei were observed. Four weeks after exposure, a significant reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption after addition of ADP (3.68±0.26pmol O2/mg proteins) was observed in the infected snails in comparison with the respective control group (5.14±0.25). In the uncoupled state, the infected snails consumed about 62% less oxygen than the infected snails (7.87±0.84pmol O2/mg proteins) in the same period. These results demonstrate a reduction in oxidative decarboxylation rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and faster anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the infected snails. The possible mechanisms that explain this new metabolic condition in the infected organisms are discussed.

  6. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  7. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  8. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  9. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  10. Endoscopic Accessory Navicular Synchondrosis Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of accessory navicular bones are symptomatic, and most of these are type II accessory navicular bones. A separation of the synchondrosis is considered one of the main causes of pain. After an injury to the synchondrosis has resulted in a chondro-osseous disruption, the combined forces of tension and shear from the posterior tibial tendon and the foot aggravate the injury and prevent it from healing. Fusion of the synchondrosis is a logical surgical treatment option if the pain is recalcitrant to conservative measures. The purpose of this technical note is to report an endoscopic approach to achieve fusion. It has the advantages of better cosmesis, less scar pain, less risk of nonunion, and potential to examine the tibialis posterior tendon and the talonavicular joint.

  11. HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

  12. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  13. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  14. Frequency of Propionibacterium acnes Infection in Prostate Glands with Negative Biopsy Results Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer in Patients with Increased Serum PSA Titers

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takashi; Uchida, Keisuke; Sekine, Masaki; Nakajima, Yutaka; Furukawa, Asuka; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Kumagai, Jiro; Akashi, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes has recently been implicated as a cause of chronic prostatitis and this commensal bacterium may be linked to prostate carcinogenesis. The occurrence of intracellular P. acnes infection in prostate glands and the higher frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) than in those from patients without PCa led us to examine whether the P. acnes-positive gland frequency can be used to assess the risk for PCa in patients whose first prostate biopsy, performed due to an increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer, was negative. Methods We retrospectively collected the first and last prostate biopsy samples from 44 patients that were diagnosed PCa within 4 years after the first negative biopsy and from 36 control patients with no PCa found in repeated biopsy for at least 3 years after the first biopsy. We evaluated P. acnes-positive gland frequency and P. acnes-positive macrophage number using enzyme-immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody). Results The frequency of P. acnes-positive glands was higher in PCa samples than in control samples in both first biopsy samples and in combined first and last biopsy samples (P < 0.001). A frequency greater than the threshold (18.5 and 17.7, respectively) obtained by each receiver operating characteristic curve was an independent risk factor for PCa (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) with odds ratios (14.8 and 13.9, respectively) higher than those of serum PSA titers of patients just before each biopsy (4.6 and 2.3, respectively). The number of P. acnes-positive macrophages did not differ significantly between PCa and control samples. Conclusions These results suggested that the frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in the first negative prostate biopsy performed due to increased PSA titers can be supportive information for urologists in planning repeated biopsy or follow-up strategies

  15. Disease dynamics and persistence of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertropy virus infections in laboratory house fly (Musca domestica) populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past surveys of feral house fly populations have shown that Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) has a world-wide distribution with an average prevalence varying between 0.5% and 10%. How this adult-specific virus persists in nature is unknown. In the present study, experiments ...

  16. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  17. Ultrastructural study of the salivary glands of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854) (Euhemiptera: Cercopidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2006-01-01

    Spittlebugs are insects that suck sap from plants and regurgitate saliva containing toxic enzymes into the leaves. As a consequence, the conductive channels are blocked resulting in dry leaves, thus giving a burned aspect to the plantation. This work performed ultrastructural analyses of the salivary glands of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata, since these organs produce the enzymes that are injected into the plants, thus being responsible for the economic losses in the production of sugarcane. Three kinds of secretory cells are found in principal gland, forming the lobules I-IV. The main differences among these cells relate to size, morphology and electron density of the secretory vesicles. The accessory glands contain different secretory vesicles to those in the principal gland. Muscular cells are found around the entire gland. The different secretory vesicles found in both principal and accessory glands indicate that the gland produces different substances or that the secretion in the interior of cells passes through a maturation process.

  18. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  19. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  20. Intrahepatic accessory spleen: imaging features.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Luciano; Caputo, Maria; Galati, Gaspare

    2004-06-01

    The authors present a case report of a 60-year-old man with a hepatic unknown mass. For diagnosis, they used ECO, CT (with and without contrast), MR (with and without contrast) and an ultrasound-assisted percutaneous lesion biopsy. Thus the mass-lesion in the liver appeared to be an intrahepatic accessory spleen in a patient afflicted with chronic hepatitis.

  1. A fibronectin-binding protein (FbpA) of Weissella cibaria inhibits colonization and infection of Staphylococcus aureus in mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangliang; Si, Wei; Xue, Huping; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-26

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a frequent cause of infections in both humans and animals. Probiotics are known to inhibit colonization of pathogens on host tissues. However, mechanisms for the inhibition are still elusive due to complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Here, we show that reduced abilities of S. aureus to infect mammary glands in the presence of Weissella cibaria (W. cibaria) were correlated with its poor adherence to mammary epithelial cells. Such inhibition by W. cibaria isolates was at least partially attributed to a fibronectin-binding protein (FbpA) on this lactic acid bacterium. Three W. cibaria isolates containing fbpA had higher inhibitory abilities than other three LAB isolates without the gene. The fbpA-deficient mutant of W. cibaria isolate LW1, LW1ΔfbpA, lost the inhibitory activity to reduce the adhesion of S. aureus to mammary epithelial cells and was less able to reduce the colonization of S. aureus in mammary glands. Expression of FbpA to the surface of LW1ΔfbpA reversed its inhibitory activities. Furthermore, addition of purified FbpA inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Our results suggest that W. cibaria FbpA hinders S. aureus colonization and infection through interfering with the S. aureus invasion pathway mediated by fibronectin-binding proteins and inhibiting biofilm formation of S. aureus.

  2. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or...

  3. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  4. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  5. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  6. Selenium Deficiency Deteriorate the Inflammation of S. aureus Infection via Regulating NF-κB and PPAR-γ in Mammary Gland of Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Hu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Peng; Fu, Yunhe; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient contributing to a strong immune system for the prevention of infections and diseases in humans and animals. Dietary Se regulates the immune status and mediates anti-inflammatory action. Mastitis is an inflammation in the mammary gland typically induced through the major pathogen S. aureus. The aim of the present study was to determine the regulating effect of Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a mouse mastitis model. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect histopathological injury. ELISA was used to detect cytokine expression, while protein and mRNA levels were analyzed through Western blotting and qPCR analysis, respectively. The results showed that Se deficiency increased inflammatory lesions in individuals with S. aureus infection in the mammary gland. The NO levels showed a significant increase in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Se deficiency accelerated the production of pro-inflammatory factors and reduced IL-10 expression. Furthermore, the results of the present study showed that the regulating effect of Se on S. aureus-induced mastitis was associated with the NF-κB pathway. Indeed, Se deficiency suppressed PPAR-γ activity and promoted NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, Se supplementation could improve the effect on PPAR-γ and NF-κB. These results suggest that Se deficiency could aggravate the inflammatory injury resulting from S. aureus-induced mastitis. Moreover, the results of the present study contribute to the development of new prevention or treatment methods for S. aureus-induced mastitis and other infectious diseases.

  7. Mosquito salivary gland extracts induce EBV-infected NK cell oncogenesis via CD4 T cells in patients with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Asada, Hideo; Saito-Katsuragi, Mamiko; Niizeki, Hironori; Yoshioka, Akira; Suguri, Setsuo; Isonokami, Masaaki; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Ishihara, Shigehiko; Tokura, Yoshiki; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Miyagawa, Sachiko

    2005-11-01

    Severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) is characterized by intense local skin reactions and systemic symptoms such as high fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Patients with HMB often have natural killer (NK) cell lymphocytosis associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Here we investigated whether mosquito bites have any influence on the oncogenesis of EBV-infected NK cells. We examined six HMB patients with EBV-infected NK cell lymphocytosis. We first demonstrated that CD4+ T cells, but not NK cells, proliferated well in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts (SGE), especially to SGE of Aedes albopictus. When NK cells were cocultured with autologous CD4+ T cells stimulated by mosquito SGE, the expression of viral oncogene latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was remarkably enhanced. Next, we stimulated mononuclear cells of the patients with mosquito SGE, and NK cell counts were monitored for 28 d. The counts changed little from initial levels in the culture with mosquito SGE, whereas they decreased steadily in the culture without the extracts. Furthermore, we detected LMP1 mRNA in the skin lesion induced by mosquito SGE. These results suggest that mosquito bites can induce expression of the viral oncogene LMP1 in NK cells via mosquito antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, which is involved in the oncogenesis of NK cells in vivo.

  8. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    PubMed

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  9. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  10. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  11. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  12. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  13. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  14. MicroRNA content in milk exosomes as a phenotypic indicator of Staphylococcus aureus infection in the bovine mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous gene mapping research to understand the host genetic response to mammary infection based on somatic cell score has been unsuccessful due to the poor correlation of this confounding trait with mastitis, a disease costing the dairy industry an estimated $2 billion in annual costs. Recently, ...

  15. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  16. The salivary gland and salivary enzymes of the giant waterbugs (Heteroptera; Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Swart, C C; Deaton, L E; Felgenhauer, B E

    2006-09-01

    The giant waterbugs are predators that utilize extra-oral digestion and are known to capture a wide variety of prey. Herein we describe the differences in salivary enzyme composition between large and small species of giant waterbug (Lethocerus uhleri, Lethocerinae and Belostoma lutarium, Belostomatinae, respectively). The saliva of L. uhleri contains 3 proteolytic enzymes and no amylase, while the salivary gland of B. lutarium produces 2 proteolytic enzymes and amylase. This fundamental difference in salivary enzyme composition correlates with the difference in diet preference between the Lethocerinae and Belostomatinae. Furthermore, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary gland complex of B. lutarium and present data on the division of labor with respect to compartmentalization of enzyme production. Proteolytic enzymes are produced in the accessory salivary gland and amylase is produced in the main salivary gland lobe. This is the first reported evidence of protease production in the accessory salivary gland in the Heteroptera.

  17. Extracranial spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Donner, T R; Kline, D G

    1993-06-01

    Eighty-three consecutive patients with extracranial accessory nerve injury seen over a 12-year period are reviewed. The most common etiology was iatrogenic injury to the nerve at the time of previous surgery. Such operations were usually minor in nature and often related to lymph node or benign tumor removal. Examination usually distinguished winging due to trapezius weakness from that of serratus anterior palsy. Trapezius weakness was seen in all cases. Sternocleidomastoid weakness was unusual. Patients with accessory palsy were evaluated by both clinical and electromyographic studies. Patients who exhibited no clinical or electrical evidence of regeneration were operated on (44 cases). Based on intraoperative nerve action potential studies, 8 lesions in continuity had neurolysis alone. Resection with repair either by end-to-end suture or by grafts was necessary in 31 cases. One case had suture removed from nerve, two had nerve placed into target muscle, and two had more proximal neurotization. Function was usually improved in both operative and nonoperative patients. Related anatomy is discussed.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates glucocorticoid synthesis in the adrenal glands of Trypanosoma cruzi acutely-infected mice. the role of TNF-R1.

    PubMed

    Villar, Silvina R; Ronco, M Teresa; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Roggero, Eduardo; Lepletier, Ailin; Manarin, Romina; Savino, Wilson; Pérez, Ana Rosa; Bottasso, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal steroidogenesis is under a complex regulation involving extrinsic and intrinsic adrenal factors. TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine produced in response to tissue injury and several other stimuli. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-R1 knockout (TNF-R1(-/-)) mice have a dysregulated synthesis of glucocorticoids (GCs) during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Since TNF-α may influence GCs production, not only through the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, but also at the adrenal level, we now investigated the role of this cytokine on the adrenal GCs production. Wild type (WT) and TNF-R1(-/-) mice undergoing acute infection (Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/-) groups), displayed adrenal hyperplasia together with increased GCs levels. Notably, systemic ACTH remained unchanged in Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/-) compared with uninfected mice, suggesting some degree of ACTH-independence of GCs synthesis. TNF-α expression was increased within the adrenal gland from both infected mouse groups, with Tc-WT mice showing an augmented TNF-R1 expression. Tc-WT mice showed increased levels of P-p38 and P-ERK compared to uninfected WT animals, whereas Tc-TNF-R1(-/-) mice had increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation respect to Tc-WT mice. Strikingly, adrenal NF-κB and AP-1 activation during infection was blunted in Tc-TNF-R1(-/-) mice. The accumulation of mRNAs for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 were significantly increased in both Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/-) mice; being much more augmented in the latter group, which also had remarkably increased GCs levels. TNF-α emerges as a potent modulator of steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells during T. cruzi infection in which MAPK pathways, NF-κB and AP-1 seem to play a role in the adrenal synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes regulating GCs synthesis. These results suggest the existence of an intrinsic immune-adrenal interaction involved in the dysregulated synthesis of GCs during murine Chagas disease.

  19. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  20. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  1. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  2. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  3. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  4. Impact of Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus Infection on the Mating Success of Male Glossina pallidipes: Consequences for the Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mutika, Gratian N.; Marin, Carmen; Parker, Andrew G.; Boucias, Drion G.; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus (GpSGHV) that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). Female Glossina pallidipes (Austen) with SGH symptoms (SGH+) have reduced fecundity and SGH+ male G. pallidipes are unable to inseminate female flies. Consequently, G. pallidipes laboratory colonies with a high prevalence of SGH have been difficult to maintain and have collapsed on several occasions. To assess the potential impact of the release of SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes on the efficacy of an integrated control programme with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, we examined the mating efficiency and behaviour of male G. pallidipes in field cages in relation to SGH prevalence. The results showed in a field cage setting a significantly reduced mating frequency of 19% for a male G. pallidipes population with a high prevalence of SGH (83%) compared to 38% for a male population with a low prevalence of SGH (7%). Premating period and mating duration did not vary significantly with SGH status. A high percentage (>80%) of females that had mated with SGH+ males had empty spermathecae. The remating frequency of female G. pallidipes was very low irrespective of the SGH status of the males in the first mating. These results indicate that a high prevalence of SGH+ in G. pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme. PMID:22912687

  5. Cellular proliferation rate and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 and estradiol receptor alpha expression in the mammary gland of dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during development.

    PubMed

    Perri, A F; Dallard, B E; Baravalle, C; Licoff, N; Formía, N; Ortega, H H; Becú-Villalobos, D; Mejia, M E; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary ductal morphogenesis during prepuberty occurs mainly in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estradiol stimulation. Dairy heifers infected with gastrointestinal nematodes have reduced IGF-1 levels, accompanied by reduced growth rate, delayed puberty onset, and lower parenchyma-stroma relationship in their mammary glands. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine variations in cell division rate, IGF-1 system components, and estradiol receptors (ESR) during peripubertal development in the mammary glands of antiparasitic-treated and untreated Holstein heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Mammary biopsies were taken at 20, 30, 40, and 70 wk of age. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunolabeling, evident in nuclei, tended to be higher in the parenchyma of the glands from treated heifers than in those from untreated. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) type 2 and type 3 immunolabeling was cytoplasmic and was evident in stroma and parenchyma. The IGFBP2-labeled area was lower in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, a maximal expression of this protein was seen at 40 wk of age, whereas in the untreated group the labeling remained constant. No differences were observed for IGFBP3 between treatment groups or during development. Immunolabeling for α ESR (ESR1) was evident in parenchymal nuclei and was higher in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, ESR1 peaked at 30 wk of age and then decreased. These results demonstrate that the parasite burden in young heifers negatively influence mammary gland development, affecting cell division rate and parameters related to estradiol and IGF-1 signaling in the gland.

  6. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-08-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.

  7. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  8. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  9. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  10. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2015-06-30

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted.

  11. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Harvey Millar, A.; Baer, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted. PMID:26123530

  12. Normal Variants: Accessory Muscles About the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Accessory muscles around the ankle are commonly encountered as incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging. Mostly asymptomatic, accessory muscles sometimes mimic mass lesions. They have been implicated as the cause of tarsal tunnel syndrome, impingement of surrounding structures, and chronic pain. Distinguishing these muscles can be challenging, because some travel along a similar path. This article describes these accessory muscles in detail, including their relationships to the aponeurosis of the lower leg. An imaging algorithm is proposed to aid in identification of these muscles, providing a valuable tool in diagnostic accuracy and subsequent patient management.

  13. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  14. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  15. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  16. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  6. The presence or absence of the gamma-activated site determines IFN gamma-mediated transcriptional activation in CAEV promoters cloned from the mammary gland and joint synovium of a single CAEV-infected goat.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Hillman, C; Castillo, D; Vapniarsky, N; Rowe, J

    2012-02-01

    The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) long terminal repeat promoter was cloned and sequenced from mammary gland and carpal joint synovium isolated from a 15.5 year old, CAEV-infected Toggenburg doe with chronic mastitis and carpal arthritis. A deletion of the CAEV gamma activated site (GAS) was identified in the mammary gland but not the synovial isolate. Subsequent promoter-reporter gene construct experiments indicated that the GAS is necessary for interferon γ-mediated promoter activation. Utilizing a molecular clone of the classic isolate CAEV-CO, these findings were corroborated by a set of GAS mutant promoter-reporter constructs with and without the CAEV GAS. Results of experiments with U937 monocyte cell lines stably transfected with molecular clones of CAEV-CO GAS deletion mutants also indicated the GAS is necessary for IFNγ-mediated promoter activation. The mammary gland CAE viral isolate was propagated in caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and was assigned the name CAEV-MA. This is the first report describing two CAE viral isolates cloned from different anatomical locations in the same animal with and without the CAEV GAS, and is the first report detailing cytokine-induced CAEV promoter function in a naturally occurring ΔGAS promoter.

  7. Smallpox vaccination techniques. 2. Accessories and aftercare.

    PubMed

    Baxby, Derrick

    2003-03-28

    The various accessories used for smallpox vaccination are surveyed. These included modified vaccination instruments and various other items which facilitated the procedure, containers for preservation and transport of vaccine, sterilising equipment, aids to interpretation and recording, and a variety of skin preparations and dressings. Three phases can be discerned in the development and use of such items and procedures. Initially, in the pre-bacteriological era, there was little need for accessory equipment apart from the means of preserving and transporting vaccine. Later, particularly by the end of the 19th century, the importance of aseptic and antiseptic procedures was realised, use was made of more traumatic vaccination techniques and glass capillaries became the standard method for preservation and transport. All this led to the increasing availability of a wide range of accessories, particularly of skin preparations and dressings. Finally, from about 1930, it was appreciated that skin preparation and dressings were often unnecessary, and could be counter-productive. So, although accessories for this were still available their use was very much reduced. In some respects the use of accessories during this last phase, based on scientific analysis was a return to the earliest, 'pre-scientific', era.

  8. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs.

  9. Spinal Accessory Neuropathy Associated With the Tumor Located on the Jugular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Spinal accessory neuropathy is commonly caused by iatrogenic injury or secondary to trauma or infection. Nevertheless, the tumor related palsy is rare. We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient suffering from paralysis of his right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. An electrophysiologic diagnostic study confirmed the spinal accessory neuropathy of the proximal segment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed the location of tumor on the jugular foramen. However, the type of the tumor was not confirmed through biopsy because the patient refused surgical procedure. Based on the study, it is hypothesized that the tumor located on the jugular foramen should be considered as a cause of the spinal accessory nerve of the proximal segment. PMID:23526381

  10. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  11. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  12. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  14. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  15. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  16. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  17. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  18. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  19. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  10. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  11. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  12. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  2. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  3. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  3. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  7. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  14. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  15. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  3. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  4. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes.

  5. The lymph drainage pattern of the mammary glands in the cat: a lymphographic and computerized tomography lymphographic study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, P L; Patsikas, M N; Charitanti, A; Kazakos, G M; Papazoglou, L G; Karayannopoulou, M; Chrisogonidis, I; Tziris, N; Dimitriadis, A

    2009-08-01

    Seventy-three clinically normal, lactating cats were used to investigate the lymph drainage of 73 mammary glands. In 50 cats of the first group, the number of lymphatic vessels emerging from the examined mammary gland, their course and the lymph nodes into which they are drained were studied by indirect lymphography (IL) after intramammary injection of an oily contrast medium. In 23 cats of the second group, the lymph drainage of the mammary glands was studied by computerized tomography indirect lymphography (CT-IL) after intramammary injection of a water soluble contrast medium. The following day, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland examined by CT-IL was studied by IL, as it was described in the first group, for comparison purposes. The main conclusions drawn after this study were as follows: lymph drains from the first and second mammary glands with one or rarely two or three lymphatic vessels to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. Lymph drains from the third mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes or to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. In some cases, it drains to both lymph nodes simultaneously or it may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. The fourth mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually drains to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes. It may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. Mammary lymphatic vessels that cross the midline and lymphatic connection between the mammary glands were not demonstrated. No differences in the mammary lymph drainage pattern between IL and CT-IL were found.

  6. Fatty acid composition of Echinostoma trivolvis (Trematoda) rediae and adults and of the digestive gland-gonad complex of Helisoma trivolvis (Gastropoda) infected with the intramolluscan stages of this echinostome.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Rao, K S; Sherma, J; Huffman, J E

    1993-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic studies were done to determine the fatty acid composition of the digestive gland-gonad (DGG) complex of Helisoma trivolvis snails infected with the intramolluscan stages of Echinostoma trivolvis, of rediae freed from the DGG, of uninfected DGG, and of 41-day-old adult worms grown in golden hamsters. The DGG of infected snails showed significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18:0), hexatrienoic acid (16:3n-4), and docosahexanoic acid (22:6n-3) than that of uninfected snails. However, the DGG of uninfected snails showed significantly higher levels of 20:2 non-methylene-interrupted diene (NMID) and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) than that of infected snails. The profiles of other fatty acids were remarkably similar in both infected and uninfected snails. Adult worms showed significantly higher amounts of numerous saturated fatty acids and dienes as compared with the rediae. However, the rediae showed significantly higher amounts of certain monoenes and trienes as compared with the adults. Fatty acid differences between rediae and adults probably reflect differences in either the available lipid pools in the immediate host sites or the metabolic activity of each stage of this echinostome.

  7. Accessory cells for β-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Heremans, Y; Coppens, V; Van Gassen, N; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; Van Riet, I; Luttun, A; Heimberg, H; De Leu, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, insulin therapy remains a treatment, not a cure, for diabetes mellitus with persistent risk of glycaemic alterations and life-threatening complications. Restoration of the endogenous β-cell mass through regeneration or transplantation offers an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, signals that drive β-cell regeneration remain enigmatic and β-cell replacement therapy still faces major hurdles that prevent its widespread application. Co-transplantation of accessory non-islet cells with islet cells has been shown to improve the outcome of experimental islet transplantation. This review will highlight current travails in β-cell therapy and focuses on the potential benefits of accessory cells for islet transplantation in diabetes.

  8. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally.

  10. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  11. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.

  12. Identification and sequence of an accessory factor required for activation of the human interferon gamma receptor.

    PubMed

    Soh, J; Donnelly, R J; Kotenko, S; Mariano, T M; Cook, J R; Wang, N; Emanuel, S; Schwartz, B; Miki, T; Pestka, S

    1994-03-11

    Human chromosomes 6 and 21 are both necessary to confer sensitivity to human interferon gamma (Hu-IFN-gamma), as measured by induction of class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and protection against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection. Whereas human chromosome 6 encodes the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor, human chromosome 21 encodes accessory factors for generating biological activity through the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor. Probes from a genomic clone were used to identity cDNA clones expressing a species-specific accessory factor. These cDNA clones are able to substitute for human chromosome 21 to reconstitute the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor-mediated induction of class I HLA antigens. However, the factor encoded by the cDNA does not confer full antiviral protection against EMCV, confirming that an additional factor encoded on human chromosome 21 is required for reconstitution of antiviral activity against EMCV. We conclude that this accessory factor belongs to a family of such accessory factors responsible for different actions of IFN-gamma.

  13. Histological changes in male accessory reproductive organs in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of honey supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on histology of male accessory reproductive organs and the possible protective effect of honey supplementation in rats were investigated in this study. Rats received distilled water, honey, CS exposure or honey plus CS exposure. Honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) was administered by gavage and CS exposure (3 times per day) was done in a chamber for 13 weeks. CS exposure significantly increased relative weight of epididymis and ventral prostate. There were also significantly increased number of clear cells and epithelial height of cauda epididymis as well as severe interstitial oedema and decreased epithelial height of prostate gland. However, with the supplementation of honey, these histological changes were significantly reversed suggesting the protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of CS on male accessory reproductive organs in rats.

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  15. HIV-associated cystic lesions of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Noriko; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Iwao; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    We present two cases of an HIV-associated parotid gland cyst. One case was a 36-year-old HIV infected woman. She was diagnosed with HIV infection and presented with slowly enlarged parotid gland cysts together with elevation of HIV viral RNA copies/mL in her serum. She was performed parotid gland biopsy under the general anesthesia. The histopathologic analysis revealed negative HIV p24-antigen in her parotid gland tissue. The other case was a 43-year-old man found his parotid gland swelling shortly after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). He was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years previously. He had started HAART several days before. He showed exceeding elevation of IgE in his serum. We treated him with medication using anti-histamic drugs for his cyst. A computed tomography scan revealed a complete response of his parotid gland cyst 4 weeks after the medication. His serum IgE level was decreased to half of the level before the medication. These findings suggested that the parotid gland swelling associated with HIV was due to various factors including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In case such a parotid gland swelling, we could avoid invasive treatments.

  16. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  17. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  18. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  1. Accessory genes confer a high replication rate to virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Ryan M; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.

  2. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers.

  3. Optimization of diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1986-11-01

    The value of diffuse reflectance as an infrared or near-infrared spectroscopic sampling procedure has been limited by the low efficiency of accessories designed for it. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, these average 2-6% for integrating spheres and 10-12% for various ellipsoidal mirror arrangements. Much better performances, up to 37% efficiency, can be obtained by optimizing a concentric confocal ellipsoidal mirror arrangement by using a very large central opening in the amular collector mirror, and adapting the throughput of the detector to the geometry of the collected beam.

  4. An Evaluation of a Teat Dip with Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid in Preventing Bovine Mammary Gland Infection from Experimental Exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, D. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Brooks, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teat dip with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%) for the prevention of intramammary infections was determined in cows experimentally challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The infection rates with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were 62.5% and 75% in undipped quarters, 12.5% and 21.5% in dipped quarters with a reduction rate of 80% and 71% respectively. The significance of some findings in relation to mastitis control are discussed. PMID:17422110

  5. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  6. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  7. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Response by Selective Removal of the Anterior, Posterior, or Entire Pituitary Gland in Trichinella spiralis Infected Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms. PMID:23555042

  8. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  13. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  15. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  19. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  1. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  6. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....147 Flanges and flange accessories. (a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must... be subjected in service. (c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions, drilling, face and gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe,...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  9. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  11. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  12. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  13. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  14. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  15. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... In other cases, the doctor can perform a minor procedure in the office. During this procedure, the ... me?Is it safe for me to have sex? Last Updated: February 2014 Tags: bartholin, cyst, gland, ...

  16. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  17. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  18. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and lactation affects mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and reduce milk production when fed to lactating cows. However, we have shown this affect is temporal in that pre-partum consumption of inflected seed throughout the dry period does not inhibit subsequent milk productio...

  19. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of

  20. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  1. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  2. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen diagnosed on radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, Sara Melboucy; Archambaud, Frédérique; Prigent, Alain; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) is ectopic splenic tissue distinct from the main spleen. A 46-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C, presented in 2006 with low right chest pain which led to a diagnosis of tuberculosis pleurisy. CT scan and MRI showed a round, homogenous, well limited mass of 3cm in the pancreas tail. Tc-99m heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy with SPECT-CT was performed to confirm the diagnosis of IPAS. Most cases of IPAS described in the literature were diagnosed by pathologists after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy performed for a suspicion of pancreatic tumor. However, heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy remains the most commonly used diagnostic procedure for IPAS, even if superparamagnetic iron oxide MRI contrast agent may be used in the future.

  3. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  4. The bitch uterine response to semen deposition and its modification by male accessory gland secretions.

    PubMed

    England, G C W; Russo, M; Freeman, S L

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the response of the bitch's reproductive tract to semen deposition. In this study, an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterus was detected after artificial insemination, but there was normal fertility. Doppler ultrasonography showed that insemination induced an increase in uterine artery blood velocity and a decrease in the resistance index of short duration, indicating vasodilation. Semen that was extended in fluid from the sperm rich fraction of the ejaculate (seminal plasma, SP), or third fraction of the ejaculate (prostatic fluid, PF), produced a similar magnitude of effect but of longer duration. It was hypothesised that vasodilation following insemination was largely induced by SP and PF which, together with PMN influx, was part of a normal uterine response. Physiological concentrations of PMNs in vitro reduced the ability of spermatozoa to attach to uterine epithelium, most likely as a result of spermatozoa becoming attached to PMNs. However, both SP and PF increased attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium by reducing sperm attachment to PMNs, and potentially by an additional mechanism that did not involve inhibition of sperm binding to PMNs. These are the first canine studies to document an apparent physiological response by the uterus to semen, associated with uterine artery vasodilation and PMN influx. Moreover, these investigations are the first to demonstrate that canine SF and PF are part of the mechanism for increasing uterine perfusion and that both fluids have a modulatory effect on PMN-induced inhibition of spermatozoal attachment to uterine epithelium, most likely mediated by reduced sperm attachment to PMNs.

  5. Autonomic regulation of anti-inflammatory activities from salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Ronald D; Davison, Joseph S; St Laurent, Chris D; Befus, A Dean

    2012-01-01

    The cervical sympathetic nerves which innervate the medial basal hypothalamus-hypophyseal complex, primary and secondary lymph organs, and numerous glands, such as the pineal, thyroid, parathyroid and salivary glands form a relevant neuroimmunoendocrine structure that is involved in the regulation of systemic homeostasis. The superior cervical ganglia and the submandibular glands form a 'neuroendocrine axis' called the cervical sympathetic trunk submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis. The identification of this axis usurps the traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures and reinforces the view that they are important sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors whose release is intimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and in particular the sympathetic branch. An end component of the CST-SMG axis is the synthesis, processing and release of submandibular rat-1 protein (SMR1), a prohormone, that generates several different peptides, one from near its N-terminus called sialorphin and another from its C-terminus called - submandibular gland peptide-T (SGP-T). SGP-T formed the template for tripeptide fragment (FEG) and its metabolically stable D-isomeric peptide feG, which are potent inhibitors of allergy and asthma (IgE-mediated allergic reactions) and several non-IgE-mediated inflammations. The translation from rat genetics and proteomics to humans has yielded structural and functional correlates that hopefully will lead to the development of new medications and therapeutic approaches for difficult to treat disorders. Although the CST-SMG axis has barely been explored in humans recognition of the importance of this axis could facilitate an understanding and improved management of periodontal disease, and other diseases with a more systemic and nervous system basis such as asthma, autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease and even Parkinson's disease.

  6. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel

    PubMed Central

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P.

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories “response to

  7. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories "response to

  8. Milk metabolites as indicators of mammary gland functions and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed.

  9. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    PubMed

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea.

  10. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  11. Successful treatment of accessory breast cancer with endocrine therapy#

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na

    2017-01-01

    Accessory breast cancers in males are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. In this paper, an 87-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast cancer by means of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and immunohistochemistry based on needle biopsy, and has undergone successful resection and postoperative adjuvant endocrine therapy. He was the oldest male patient with an accessory breast cancer reported in the Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database and PubMed literature from 1975 to 2015. PMID:28070998

  12. Interaction of Proteus mirabilis Urease Apoenzyme and Accessory Proteins Identified with Yeast Two-Hybrid Technology

    PubMed Central

    Heimer, Susan R.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2001-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The apourease is comprised of three structural subunits, UreA, UreB, and UreC, assembled as a homotrimer of individual UreABC heterotrimers (UreABC)3. To become catalytically active, apourease acquires divalent nickel ions through a poorly understood process involving four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG. While homologues of UreD, UreF, and UreG have been copurified with apourease, it remains unclear specifically how these polypeptides associate with the apourease or each other. To identify interactions among P. mirabilis accessory proteins, in vitro immunoprecipitation and in vivo yeast two-hybrid assays were employed. A complex containing accessory protein UreD and structural protein UreC was isolated by immunoprecipitation and characterized with immunoblots. This association occurs independently of coaccessory proteins UreE, UreF, and UreG and structural protein UreA. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, UreD was found to directly interact in vivo with coaccessory protein UreF. Unique homomultimeric interactions of UreD and UreF were also detected in vivo. To substantiate the study of urease proteins with a yeast two-hybrid assay, previously described UreE dimers and homomultimeric UreA interactions among apourease trimers were confirmed in vivo. Similarly, a known structural interaction involving UreA and UreC was also verified. This report suggests that in vivo, P. mirabilis UreD may be important for recruitment of UreF to the apourease and that crucial homomultimeric associations occur among these accessory proteins. PMID:11157956

  13. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  14. Skin regeneration with all accessory organs following ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Villiger, Martin; Broelsch, G Felix; Quinn, Kyle P; Albadawi, Hassan; Khan, Saiqa; Watkins, Michael T; Georgakoudi, Irene; Austen, William G; Bei, Marianna; Bouma, Brett E; Mihm, Martin C; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-12-14

    Skin scar formation is a complex process that results in the formation of dense extracellular matrix without normal skin appendages such as hair and glands. The absence of a scarless healing model in adult mammals prevents the development of successful therapies. We show that irreversible electroporation of skin drives its regeneration with all accessory organs in normal adult rats. Pulsed electric fields at 500 V, with 70 µs pulse duration, and 1000 pulses delivered at 3 Hz, applied through two electrodes separated by 2 mm lead to massive cell death. However, the extracellular matrix architecture of the skin was preserved. Six months after the ablation, the epidermis, sebaceous glands, panniculus carnosus, hair follicles, microvasculature and arrector pili muscle were altogether re-formed in the entire ablated area. These results suggest a key role of the extracellular matrix architecture in the differentiation, migration, and signaling of cells during scarless wound healing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  16. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  17. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid of a trocar and cannula. The device is used to pass fluids to and from the urinary...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid of a trocar and cannula. The device is used to pass fluids to and from the urinary...

  19. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  20. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions, and that consists of a peritoneal access device, an administration set...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  8. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body.

  9. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  10. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  11. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  12. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  13. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    PubMed

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8.

  14. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  15. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  16. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  17. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  18. Accessory Soleus: A Case Report of Exertional Compartment and Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Associated With an Accessory Soleus Muscle.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Scott C; Stone, Paul; Kruse, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    An accessory soleus muscle is a rare anatomic variant that frequently presents as an asymptomatic soft tissue swelling in the posteromedial ankle. Less frequently, the anomalous muscle can cause pain and swelling with activity. We present the case of a 17-year-old male with exertional compartment syndrome and associated tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary to a very large accessory soleus muscle. After surgical excision, the patient was able to return to full activity with complete resolution of symptoms.

  19. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  20. HIV-1 Vpu Accessory Protein Induces Caspase-mediated Cleavage of IRF3 Transcription Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Waheed, Abdul A.; Zhang, Zai-Rong; Freed, Eric O.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    Vpu is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 that interferes with multiple host-cell functions. Herein we report that expression of Vpu by transfection into 293T cells causes partial proteolytic cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor in the innate anti-viral response. Vpu-induced IRF3 cleavage is mediated by caspases and occurs mainly at Asp-121. Cleavage produces a C-terminal fragment of ∼37 kDa that comprises the IRF dimerization and transactivation domains but lacks the DNA-binding domain. A similar cleavage is observed upon infection of the Jurkat T-cell line with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1. Two other HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif and Vpr, also contribute to the induction of IRF3 cleavage in both the transfection and the infection systems. The C-terminal IRF3 fragment interferes with the transcriptional activity of full-length IRF3. Cleavage of IRF3 under all of these conditions correlates with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an indicator of apoptosis. We conclude that Vpu contributes to the attenuation of the anti-viral response by partial inactivation of IRF3 while host cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:25352594

  1. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  2. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23(4):251-69. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) guideline. Back to Top Administration ... : Hospital Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Freedom of ...

  3. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times.

  4. Zonal organization of the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, K; von Campenhause, H; Yoshihara, Y

    2000-01-01

    Zonal organization is one of the characteristic features observed in both main and accessory olfactory systems. In the main olfactory system, most of the odorant receptors are classified into four groups according to their zonal expression patterns in the olfactory epithelium. Each group of odorant receptors is expressed by sensory neurons distributed within one of four circumscribed zones. Olfactory sensory neurons in a given zone of the epithelium project their axons to the glomeruli in a corresponding zone of the main olfactory bulb. Glomeruli in the same zone tend to represent similar odorant receptors having similar tuning specificity to odorants. Vomeronasal receptors (or pheromone receptors) are classified into two groups in the accessory olfactory system. Each group of receptors is expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons in either the apical or basal zone of the vomeronasal epithelium. Sensory neurons in the apical zone project their axons to the rostral zone of the accessory olfactory bulb and form synaptic connections with mitral tufted cells belonging to the rostral zone. Signals originated from basal zone sensory neurons are sent to mitral tufted cells in the caudal zone of the accessory olfactory bulb. We discuss functional implications of the zonal organization in both main and accessory olfactory systems. PMID:11205342

  5. Comprehensive annotation of the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish a chronic covert asymptomatic infection and an acute overt symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host (Diptera: Glossinidae). Expression of the disease symptoms, the salivary gland hypertrophy sy...

  6. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Pets and Pasteurella Infections Health Issues ...

  7. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    PubMed Central

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  8. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  9. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  10. Morphology and preliminary enzyme characterization of the salivary glands from the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A; Guedes, R N C; Soares, M J

    2006-06-01

    Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) is a common predator in agricultural and natural systems in Neotropical America. Its feeding strategy involves extra-oral digestion and to better understand this process its salivary glands were extracted and subjected to morphological and preliminary enzyme characterization. The salivary glands of P. nigrispinus are formed by a pair of main and accessory gland complexes. The main salivary glands are further divided into an anterior and a posterior lobe. The compartmentalization of the salivary gland complex is likely to be important for the production, activation and release of the digestive enzymes used in the extra-oral digestion of prey items. Proteases and lipase, important digestive enzymes involved in zoophagy, were detected in the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The prevailing trypsin-like protease activity was characterized by using the serine-protease substrate N-alpha-benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilidine (L-BApNA) and the trypsin inhibitors tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and benzamidine. The KM value obtained for trypsin-like activity was 1.57 mm and the different peaks of optimum pH and temperature activity suggest the presence of multiple forms of this enzyme in P. nigrispinus. Detection of amylase activity in the salivary glands of this predator suggests its ability to digest starch and obtain nutrients from plants, which may have adaptative value under prey scarcity.

  11. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  12. Continuous Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (C-IONM) Technique with the Automatic Periodic Stimulating (APS) Accessory for Conventional and Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hui, Sun; Wu, Chei-Wei; Xiaoli, Liu; Ferrari, Cesare Carlo; Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Frattini, Francesco; Annoni, Matteo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important trends in intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery is currently the real-time monitoring of the vagus nerve (VN) in order to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) iatrogenic damages. Notably, continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (C-IONM) seems to be superior to intermitted intraoperative neural monitoring (I-IONM) because it enhances standardization by permanent vagus nerve (VN) stimulation, and it provides entire and constant RLN function monitoring as the surgeon dissects and removes the thyroid gland. It also has to be highlighted that the surgical maneuvers for the automatic periodic stimulating (APS) placement must be accurate and standardized in order to avoid a potential iatrogenic morbidity on the VN function. We recommend the experienced surgeon be very careful in each step, with cautious dissection. With this review article we provide a comprehensive analyses of C-IONM technique with the APS accessory for conventional and endoscopic thyroid surgery.

  13. Infection,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-16

    inapparent infection. A refeeding program may thus become complicated by the sudden appearance of a life-threatening infectious illness (3). (3) The...Beisel, W. R. 23 Unusually low serum concentrations of inorganic phosphate have been reported in patients with gram-negative sepsis and in Reye’s syndrome ...infection should be corrected by a well-managed program of convalescent-period refeeding . This aspect of nutritional support is too often ignored. On the

  14. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  15. 76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  20. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  1. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  2. Rabies viral antigen in human tongues and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Feng, Z; Ye, H

    1995-10-01

    Lingual and major salivary tissue samples from three cases of rabies were stained with the immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique. All tissue blocks had been embedded in paraffin 4-10 years before. The first antibody used was monoclonal antirabies nucleocapsin (N) mouse antibody (HAM). Four out of five pieces of tongue from two cases showed a large amount of granular staining indicating rabies antigen (RVAg) inside serous glandular cells, terminal nerves, muscle cells and covering epithelial cells including taste cells. In the tissue probes from the third case only minimal granular staining was found, probably due to complete absence of the serous gland. In contrast to the tongue, only a little weakly reacting material was found in 4 out of 9 probes of salivary gland, either in acini or in nerve fibres. The amount of RVAg is evidently much greater in the human tongue than in major salivary glands, whereas major salivary glands from infected dogs, foxes and skunks reportedly contain much RVAg. As the human tongue's serous gland appears to be a preferred location for RVAg, it may be a source of oral infection.

  3. Localization of the cystogenous glands of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.

    PubMed

    Arunsan, Patpicha; Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Oopachitakul, Songpol; Tesana, Smarn

    2014-03-01

    Opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand is an important etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. To form the infectious stage, free swimming cercariae penetrate cyprinid fish, shed their tails, and then secret a cystic substance to cover their larval stage to form metacercariae in the fish body. We determined the location of the cystogenous glands in Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae. The cercariae and metacercariae were obtained from the naturally infected snail host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and from cyprinid fish, respectively. The cyst walls of the metacercariae were separated and used to immunize inbred male BALB/c mice to obtain cyst wall antibodies. The general characteristics of the O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae were studied by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of sections. The location and ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands of cercariae were studied by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The structures and organelles of cercariae and metacercariae could be identified, but the cystogenous glands could not be detected in H&E sections. The immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence sections revealed positive reactions for cystogenous glands predominanted in the lateral part of the cercariae and were clearly seen in the cyst wall of the metacercariae. The ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands contained semitranslucent electron dense oval shaped granules. If interference occurs during the formation of the cysts by fish immune response, the metacercariae may not develop to maturity. It may be easily digested or degraded by human stomach acid and pepsin. This may be an efficient method for control of O. viverrini infection which requires further detailed study.

  4. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia.

  5. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  6. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  7. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  8. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  9. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  10. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  11. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  12. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  14. Four accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prados, Jose; Archilla, Francisco; Melguizo, Consolación; Aranega, Antonia

    2013-09-01

    Accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs are a very rare congenital disorder. Here, we present the first case of multiple supernumerary intrathoracic ribs in an adult, which are present consecutively between ribs 1 and 4 and without articulation with the vertebrae. Despite this, anatomical variation is usually silent and accidentally discovered; its knowledge can prevent confusion with other structures during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic pathologies.

  15. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  18. Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

    This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

  19. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...: patient equipment, support attachments, and cabinets for warming instruments and disposing of wastes....

  20. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...: patient equipment, support attachments, and cabinets for warming instruments and disposing of wastes....

  1. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  4. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  5. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  6. A treatment accessory for CNS irradiation in children.

    PubMed

    Bukovitz, A G; Timo, J

    1975-09-01

    A treatment accessory for use in CNS radiotherapy of small children enables the head and spinal fields to be treated while the child lies supine. Children are not moved during therapy which minimizes the problem of gaps between the head and spinal fields.

  7. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  9. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  10. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and... device with any of a group of accessory devices which attach to the mediastinoscope and is intended to examine or treat tissue in the area separating the lungs. The device is inserted transthoracicly and...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and... device with any of a group of accessory devices which attach to the mediastinoscope and is intended to examine or treat tissue in the area separating the lungs. The device is inserted transthoracicly and...

  13. Schwannoma of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Ritesh; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Sahwani K.; Matreja, Prithpal S.

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting a rare case of a schwannoma which originated from the cervical portion of the spinal accessory nerve, which was located in the left posterior triangle of the neck and did not have any neurological deficit, which was diagnosed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and confirmed histopathologically after surgery. PMID:24086895

  14. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)).

  15. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  16. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  5. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  6. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section 872.4200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  7. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  8. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  9. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section 872.4200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  10. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section 872.4200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... restorations, such as fillings, and for cleaning teeth. (b) Classification. Class I....

  11. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  12. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640 Section 872.6640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to supply power to and serve as a base for other dental devices, such as a dental handpiece,...

  13. FRACTIONATION OF PLASMA GLOBULIN FOR PROTHROMBIN, THROMBOKINASE, AND ACCESSORY THROMBOPLASTIN

    PubMed Central

    Milstone, J. H.

    1951-01-01

    1. Crude globulin from more than 1,000 liters of citrated bovine plasma has been used in developing a procedure for moderately large scale separation of clotting factors. Fraction A, prothrombin, kinase, and thrombin fractions were prepared. Fraction A contained both kinase and accessory thromboplastin, the latter predominating when fraction A was diluted. 2. When prothrombin was activated by kinase, the rate of thrombin production was enhanced by the addition of platelets, or brain lipid, or dilute fraction A. These accessory thromboplastins caused this acceleration only when calcium chloride was added. Even with calcium, they were not effective unless kinase was present. 3. In contrast, the action of kinase was not entirely dependent on either ionic calcium or accessory thromboplastin. The concentrated kinase fraction activated prothrombin in the presence of excess oxalate. Although kinase often contaminates highly purified thrombins, it is probably distinct from thrombin. The ratio of kinase to thrombin was 100 times as great in the kinase fraction as in the thrombin fraction. 4. The kinase fraction, diluted 45,000-fold, to protein-nitrogen concentrations as low as 0.02 microgram per ml., accelerated the conversion of crude prokinase in three-stage tests. 5. The findings are consistent with the following concept of the basic enzymatic mechanism: See PDF for Structure It is now added that calcium and accessory thromboplastin exert their effects by impinging on the basic mechanism, in a chemically secondary or indirect manner. PMID:14873922

  14. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. 870.4200 Section 870.4200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and (ii) The guidance document entitled “Guidance on the Performance Standard for Electrode Lead...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. 870.4200 Section 870.4200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and (ii) The guidance document entitled “Guidance on the Performance Standard for Electrode Lead...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820 Section 876.5820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate...

  17. Accessory child safety harnesses: do the risks outweigh the benefits?

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Wainohu, Derek; Aquilina, Peter; Suratno, Basuki; Kelly, Paul; Bilston, Lynne E

    2010-01-01

    Accessory child safety harnesses are available in some countries as alternative restraints for young children or as an accessory restraint used with booster seats. Their use, in Australia at least, is becoming more common. There have been concerns that the risk of misuse of these restraints outweighs any potential benefit this system might have over a retractable lap-shoulder belt system used with a booster seat. However to date there is no evidence to confirm or deny this. This study used laboratory simulated frontal crash tests to examine the performance of accessory child safety harness systems compared to the lap-shoulder belt when used alone and when used with two common designs of Australian booster seat. The performance of the child safety harness system when misused was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the correctly used child safety harness system performed no better than the lap-shoulder system, and in fact allows for a greater risk of submarining. Furthermore, one common form of child safety harness misuse, where the harness is over-tightened causing the lap belt to be positioned high over the abdomen, allowed extremely undesirable dummy motion. This involved gross submarining and direct contact between the harness system and the dummy's neck. These findings suggest that the risks associated with accessory child safety harness systems most likely outweigh any potential benefits, in frontal impacts at least.

  18. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  1. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate arsenic-containing compounds. (b) Classification....

  3. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  4. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  8. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  17. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  19. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  2. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  3. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  4. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  5. The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  7. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... instrument and accessories. 876.4730 Section 876.4730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  8. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of parotid and submandibular glands in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Jambunath, Usha; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported to have parotid swellings of various types such as diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, parotitis, intraparotid lymphadenopathy, benign lymphoepithelial cyst (BLEC), as well as salivary gland neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. LECs in the parotid gland are uncommon benign entities with increased incidence associated with HIV infection. We are presenting a case of 28-year-old HIV-positive patient with BLECs in the parotid and submandibular glands. PMID:26097320

  9. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  10. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF AN INSECT EPIDERMAL GLAND

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, A. M.; Satir, P.

    1968-01-01

    The sternal gland of primitive termites of the genus Zootermopsis (Z. nevadensis or Z. angusticollus) (Hagen) seems more organized than that of higher termites, in being comprised of three cell layers. It is also studded with about 200 campaniform sensilla. Below the meshwork cuticle of the gland lies a layer of columnar epithelial cells whose apical surfaces form a brush border, and whose basal surfaces are sculptured into a basketwork into which the second layer fits. Below the brush border are small microtubule-associated pits and coated vesicles. No channels can be seen either within or, except for the sensilla, between the cells. The second cell layer probably secretes the trail-following pheromone. Numerous electron-lucent droplets and large channels containing lipid micelles are found in the cytoplasm here, but the channels cannot be traced out of the secretory layer. The third layer consists of large pyriform cells. The campaniform sensilla are composed of three cells: the sensory cell proper whose dendrite carries a modified 9 + 0 sensory process, an accessory supporting cell that secretes an electron-opaque sheath, and an enveloping cell. At the cell borders of the sensillum, regions of septate and tight junction appear. There are also septate junctions between columnar cells and possibly tight junctions between columnar and secretory cells that would open an intracellular and molecular pathway to the endocuticle. The campaniform sensilla may be part of a feedback control system that determines the amount of pheromone deposited during trail laying. PMID:5645546

  12. Pineal gland: influence on gonads of male rats treated with androgen 3 days after birth.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J; Hoffman, J C; Rubin, P H

    1968-04-26

    Either blinding or the injection of 1 milligram of testosterone propionate into male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 days old, results in testes and accessory organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) that are smaller than normal when the rats are 72 days old. The response to blinding is prevented by removal of the pineal gland, whereas the response to treatment with testosterone is unaffected by pinealectomy. Combination of the two treatments in 3-day- old rats causes testes to be less than one-third their normal size at 72 days of age; pinealectomy in these rats permits the reproductive organs to grow to the same size as those in the androgen-treated animals.

  13. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  14. Effects of feminizing microsporidia on the masculinizing function of the androgenic gland in Gammarus duebeni.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Martin; Smith, Judith E; Dubuffet, Aurore; Dunn, Alison M

    2013-02-01

    Feminizing parasites enhance their vertical transmission to the host offspring by converting genetic male hosts into phenotypic females. Crustacea are the only invertebrates where sexual differentiation is controlled by a specialised endocrine organ, the androgenic gland, rather than by the gonads. We showed that a feminizing microsporidian Microsporidium sp. inhibits androgenic gland differentiation. We investigated the effect of Microsporidium sp. and a second feminizing microsporidium, Nosema granulosis, on the masculinizing function of the androgenic gland in Gammarus duebeni. Androgenic gland implants had a masculinizing effect on the sexual characteristics and sexual behaviour of recipient female hosts, reflecting the masculinizing function of the androgenic gland. Individuals that had received androgenic glands showed changed morphology in comparison with controls; they were bigger overall, they lost their oostegite marginal setae, developed calceoli and acquired a male-like behaviour. This effect was observed in uninfected females, as well as in females infected with the Microsporidium sp. The masculinizing effect of androgenic gland implants was smaller in N. granulosis infected individuals. N. granulosis and Microsporidium sp. fall into distinct clades of the Microspora. It appears that these divergent parasites both act by inhibiting the development of the androgenic gland. However, they differ in their ability to inhibit the host's response to the hormone that controls male sexual differentiation.

  15. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor–ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  16. A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J S; Needham, M; Parker, M G

    1987-01-01

    A full length cDNA clone encoding a mouse prostatic secretory glycoprotein (p12) whose synthesis is dependent upon testicular androgens has been cloned and characterized. The predicted amino acid sequence of p12 shares extensive homology with several members of the Kazal family of secretory protease inhibitors, in particular the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors. In agreement with sequence data, prostatic secretory p12, purified from mouse ventral prostate secretion, exhibits anti-trypsin activity. Steady-state levels of protease inhibitor mRNA in ventral prostate are reduced from approximately 0.06% in normal mice to undetectable after androgen withdrawal but are inducible within 4 h by re-administration of testosterone. Androgen-dependent expression of the secretory protease inhibitor mRNA was also observed in coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. In seminal vesicle, a tissue of different embryonic origin to the prostate, the kinetics of secretory protease inhibitor mRNA loss after castration are not as rapid as in the ventral prostate and coagulating gland. Low-level androgen independent expression was also observed in the pancreas. There appears to be a single gene for this secretory protease inhibitor and yet expression is markedly stimulated by testosterone in the sex accessory tissues and unaffected by this hormone in the pancreas. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3428272

  17. The role of accessory proteins in the replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-03-23

    The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs.

  18. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  20. Asymptomatic and isolated accessory mitral valve tissue in an adult.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Kazuki; Hashizume, Koji; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Matsukuma, Seiji; Yokose, Shogo; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2016-02-01

    Accessory mitral valve (AMV) tissue is a congenital anomaly that occurs in association with other congenital anomalies, and is an uncommon cause of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. It is usually detected in early childhood when accompanied by symptoms of obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract, and is rarely diagnosed in adults. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who was referred to our institution for evaluation of a systolic heart murmur. Echocardiography disclosed a diagnosis of AMV tissue. This case was uncommon because of the lack of severe obstruction of left ventricular outflow, cardiac symptoms, or other cardiac anomalies. We were able to carry out surgical resection of AMV tissue to avert possible progression of aortic insufficiency and the risk of a cerebrovascular embolization. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative echocardiography showed no residual accessory mitral tissue.

  1. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are normal variants of bone development. In foot and ankle X-rays these bones can appear similar to, or can obscure, fractures, which makes the X-rays difficult to interpret. This article illustrates and describes some of the more common ossicles and sesamoid bones, and provides a brief description of the management of the patients with foot or ankle pain whose X-rays are inconclusive.

  2. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  3. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  4. Manual examination of accessory movements--seeking R1.

    PubMed

    Petty, N J; Maher, C; Latimer, J; Lee, M

    2002-02-01

    Movement diagrams are used by physiotherapists to depict the behaviour of resistance through the available range of accessory and physiological joint movement. It is generally accepted that for an asymptomatic joint, the resistance first felt by the therapist (R1) occurs towards the end of range. R1 is considered to be at the transition point between the toe and linear region of a load displacement curve. The aim of this study was to more accurately define R1 from force displacement curves of accessory movement to the spine and peripheral joints using a validated instrument, the Spinal Assessment Machine (SAM). Thirty archived force displacement curves obtained using the SAM, which applied a posteroanterior force of 100N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz to L3 spinous process, were examined. In addition force displacement curves were similarly obtained from the tibiofemoral joint, glenohumeral joint and radiocarpal joint of one asymptomatic individual. In all cases resistance to a PA movement commenced at the beginning of range, the curve ascending as soon as the force was applied. While in most cases there was a low stiffness 'toe' region there was no unambiguous point where it could be said that the toe region ended. It is concluded that for spinal and peripheral accessory movements both the onset of resistance and the toe occurs at the beginning of range. Therapists should therefore depict R1 at the beginning of range not toward the end of range as is current practice.

  5. Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian, Greek man with spontaneous unilateral trapezius palsy with an insidious course. To the best of our knowledge, few such cases have been documented in the literature. The unusual clinical presentation and functional performance mismatch with the imaging findings were also observed. Our patient showed a deterioration that was different from the usual course of this pathology, with an early onset of irreversible trapezius muscle dysfunction two months after the first clinical signs started to manifest. A surgical reconstruction was proposed as the most efficient treatment, but our patient declined this. Although he failed to recover fully after conservative treatment for eight months, he regained moderate function and is currently virtually pain-free. Conclusion Clinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary. PMID:20507553

  6. Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chang-Wen; Huang, Charles; Bederman, Ilya; Yang, Jianqi; Beidelschies, Michelle; Hatzoglou, Maria; Puchowicz, Michelle; Croniger, Colleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation. Reduced milk triglycerides during lactation resulted in patterning of the newborn for insulin resistance. In this study, the role of Pck1 in mammary gland epithelial cells was analyzed. The developmental expression of Pck1 decreased in isolated mouse mammary gland epithelial cells through development and during lactation. Using HC11, a clonal mammary epithelial cell line, we found that both Janus kinase 2 signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 and the AKT pathways contributed to the repression of Pck1 mRNA by prolactin. These pathways necessitate three accessory factor regions of the Pck1 promoter for repression by prolactin. Using [U-13C6]glucose, [U-13C3]pyruvate, and [U-13C3]glycerol in HC11 cells, we determined that Pck1 functions in the pathway for the conversion of gluconeogenic precursors to glucose and contributes to glycerol-3-phosphate synthesis through glyceroneogenesis. Therefore, Pck1 plays an important role in both the mammary gland adipocytes and epithelial cells during lactation. PMID:21504969

  7. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  8. Morphology of deep gland of the third eyelid in pig foetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the deep gland of the third eyelid were carried out on pig foetuses coming from the 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were conducted using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. For the histological examinations, the whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig foetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the deep gland of the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin and Azan method was performed. It was found during the examinations that the process of the formation of the deep gland of the third eyelid starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th day of gestation, the gland cells are evenly distributed in the connective tissue stroma. On the 63rd day of gestation, the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of 6-15 lobules. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible; the efferent ducts are situated in the central part of the lobe. On the 112th day of gestation, the lobes are composed of a high number of lobules composed of two kinds of excretory ducts. The first type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are situated at the base of the cell. The other type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are round and arranged less or more peripherally.

  9. Morphology of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid on pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2007-12-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid were conducted in pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out by applying the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation, only the superficial gland with the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the primordia of the glandular epithelium were not found in the examined material. The process of the third eyelid and superficial gland formation starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, the gland surrounding the cartilage of the third eyelid is composed of the high amount of loose connective tissue and gland cells which give rise to excretory segments. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible, the efferent ducts form. On the 112th day, the cartilage of the third eyelid assumes the appearance of the mature hyaline cartilage. The excretory segments are composed of simple cuboid epithelium with a large, round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. Their number increases 2- or even 3-fold at the end of gestation.

  10. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  11. Binding-induced Stabilization and Assembly of the Phage P22 Tail Accessory Factor gp4

    SciTech Connect

    Olia,A.; Al-Bassam, J.; Winn-Stapley, D.; Joss, L.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2006-01-01

    To infect and replicate, bacteriophage P22 injects its 43 kbp genome across the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The attachment of phage P22 to the host cell as well as the injection of the viral DNA into the host is mediated by the virion's tail complex. This 2.8 MDa molecular machine is formed by five proteins, which include the portal protein gp1, the adhesion tailspike protein gp9, and three tail accessory factors: gp4, gp10, gp26. We have isolated the tail accessory factor gp4 and characterized its structure and binding interactions with portal protein. Interestingly, gp4 exists in solution as a monomer, which displays an exceedingly low structural stability (T{sub m} 34 {sup o}C). Unfolded gp4 is prone to aggregation within a narrow range of temperatures both in vitro and in Salmonella extracts. In the virion the thermal unfolding of gp4 is prevented by the interaction with the dodecameric portal protein, which stabilizes the structure of gp4 and suppresses unfolded gp4 from irreversibly aggregating in the Salmonella milieu. The structural stabilization of gp4 is accompanied by the concomitant oligomerization of the protein to form a ring of 12 subunits bound to the lower end of the portal ring. The interaction of gp4 with portal protein is complex and likely involves the distinct binding of two non-equivalent sets of six gp4 proteins. Binding of the first set of six gp4 equivalents to dodecameric portal protein yields a gp(1){sub 12}:gp(4){sub 6} assembly intermediate, which is stably populated at 30 {sup o}C and can be resolved by native gel electrophoresis. The final product of the assembly reaction is a bi-dodecameric gp(1){sub 12}:gp(4){sub 12} complex, which appears hollow by electron microscopy, suggesting that gp4 does not physically plug the DNA entry/exit channel, but acts as a structural adaptor for the other tail accessory factors: gp10 and gp26.

  12. Innervation of eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1980-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown on the example of primate skin that in addition to abundant cholinergic innervation, the eccrine glands are also supplied by adrenergic fibers, containing catecholamines. The presence of an adrenergic component of the innervation is demonstrated on the plantar eccrine sweat glands of a number of rodents and the cat by the detection of monoamine oxidase in it. The myelin nerve trunks, the short unmyelinated varicose terminals in direct contact with the secretory cells, as well as the mitochondria of cells of the eccrine sweat glands are rich in monoamine oxidase. Specific and nonspecific cholinesterases are localized in the dense network of nerves in lacing the secretory portions of the glands; individual fibers accompany the excretory ducts. The acetylcholinesterase concentration is lower than the concentration of nonspecific cholinesterase. In rats with chemical sympathectomy, induced by four-week administration of 25 mg/kg guanethidine from the first day of birth, in which 99% of the neurons in the stellate ganglia die, the monoamine oxidase concentration in the myelin nerves and in the mitochondria of the secretory cells drops very sharply, and acetylcholinesterase disappears from the nerves surrounding the glands.

  13. A multi-scale mathematical modeling framework to investigate anti-viral therapeutic opportunities in targeting HIV-1 accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Gajendra W; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) employs accessory proteins to evade innate immune responses by neutralizing the anti-viral activity of host restriction factors. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) are host resistance factors that potentially inhibit HIV-1 infection. BST2 reduces viral production by tethering budding HIV-1 particles to virus producing cells, while A3G inhibits the reverse transcription (RT) process and induces viral genome hypermutation through cytidine deamination, generating fewer replication competent progeny virus. Two HIV-1 proteins counter these cellular restriction factors: Vpu, which reduces surface BST2, and Vif, which degrades cellular A3G. The contest between these host and viral proteins influences whether HIV-1 infection is established and progresses towards AIDS. In this work, we present an age-structured multi-scale viral dynamics model of in vivo HIV-1 infection. We integrated the intracellular dynamics of anti-viral activity of the host factors and their neutralization by HIV-1 accessory proteins into the virus/cell population dynamics model. We calculate the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) as a function of host-viral protein interaction coefficients, and numerically simulated the multi-scale model to understand HIV-1 dynamics following host factor-induced perturbations. We found that reducing the influence of Vpu triggers a drop in Ro, revealing the impact of BST2 on viral infection control. Reducing Vif׳s effect reveals the restrictive efficacy of A3G in blocking RT and in inducing lethal hypermutations, however, neither of these factors alone is sufficient to fully restrict HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, our model further predicts that BST2 and A3G function synergistically, and delineates their relative contribution in limiting HIV-1 infection and disease progression. We provide a robust modeling framework for devising novel combination therapies that target

  14. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response.

  15. Retroductal Submandibular Gland Instillation and Localized Fractionated Irradiation in a Rat Model of Salivary Hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Zheng, Changyu; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissues that lie within the portals of radiation are inadvertently damaged. Salivary glands are often injured during head and neck radiotherapy. Irreparable cell damage results in a chronic loss of salivary function that impairs basic oral activities, and increases the risk of oral infections and dental caries. Salivary hypofunction and its complications gravely impact a patient's comfort. Current symptomatic management of the condition is ineffective, and newer therapies to assuage the condition are needed. Salivary glands are exocrine glands, which expel their secretions into the mouth via excretory ducts. Cannulation of these ducts provides direct access to the glands. Retroductal delivery of a contrast agent to major salivary glands is a routine out-patient procedure for diagnostic imaging. Using a similar procedure, localized treatment of the glands is feasible. However, performing this technique in preclinical studies with small animals poses unique challenges. In this study we describe the technique of retroductal administration in rat submandibular glands, a procedure that was refined in Dr. Bruce Baum's laboratory (NIH)1, and lay out a procedure for local gland irradiation. PMID:27168158

  16. Enterobius vermicularis: Can it be a possible pathogen in Bartholin gland abscess formation?

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Melahat Emine; Özlü, Tülay; Yılmaz, Fahri; Ayaz, Erol

    2014-01-01

    The most frequent disorders of the Bartholin glands are cysts or abscesses. Bartholin gland abscesses occur generally as a result of polymicrobial infections or agents that cause sexually transmitted diseases. But as far as we know, no parasite has been previously reported among the infectious agents that are detected from the abscesses of the Bartholin gland. Here, we report a 45-year-old woman, in the Bartholin abscess aspirate of whom Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected in between the inflammatory infiltrate by cytological examination.

  17. Dynamic Ulnar Drift of Single Digit by an Anomalous Accessory Extensor Tendon.

    PubMed

    Smith, James R A; Amirfeyz, Rouin

    2017-03-01

    Descriptions of multiple extensor slips and accessory extensor tendons of the hand are extensively published in the contemporary literature. Despite their varied anatomy, accessory tendons seldom have a functional implication for the patient. We report a case detailing a previously undescribed accessory extensor tendon of the hand, which resulted unusually in an aberration in the mechanics of a single digit. This was explored and corrected surgically, resulting in an excellent outcome for the patient.

  18. Intravascular lymphoma and thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Darko; Valković, Toni; Lucin, Ksenija; Rudez, Josip

    2006-03-01

    Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic cells in the small blood vessels that frequently goes undiagnosed until the time of autopsy. The neoplastic cells are usually of B-cell origin. The clinical course was examined to determine factors that would facilitate antemortem diagnosis. IVL is observed with clinical, histopathological and immunohystochemical methods. This is a unique case because the thyroid gland is a rare place for IVL. Accent is given on immunohystochemical methods and tissue biopsy in the differential diagnosis of IVL when nervous system and thyroid gland dysfunction occur This report indicates that micro-ecosystem of multinodular goitrous might influence the expression of chemokines and/or adhesion moleculs on endothelial and lymphoma cells, leading to heavy infiltration of thyroid gland. Concurrently, that may guide the physician to tissue biopsy facilitating antemortem diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy.

  19. Adrenal gland disease in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal gland disease in ferrets is unique to this species, with clinical signs and pathophysiology different from those seen in the dog. Its prevalence is increasing; 70% of pet ferrets in the United States were affected in 2003. The exact causes of the adrenal gland changes that lead to the disease are not known. Early oophorohysterectomies and neutering, combined with the artificially prolonged photoperiod experienced by indoor pet ferrets, and a possible genetic component, may be contributing factors. Signs of adrenal gland disease include progressive hair loss, pruritus, lethargy, atrophy, and, in female ferrets, vulvar swelling. An understanding of the signs and physiologic changes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. A review of anatomy, physiology, and current surgical and medical options is presented.

  20. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    PubMed

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains.

  1. Observations on two cases of apparent submandibular gland cysts in HIV positive patients: MR and CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesman, R.I.; Som, P.M.; Mester, J.; Silvers, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    To present two cases of probable lymphoepithelial cysts of the submandibular glands in patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and who also had lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands. Computed tomography and MRI of two HIV positive patients with lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands and cysts in tile submandibular glands were correlated with the histories and the possible presence of other known causes of submandibular gland multiple cysts. Because of the present treatment philosophy regarding HIV positive patients with major salivary gland cysts, surgical resection of these glands was not performed. All other known causes of multiple submandibular gland cysts were excluded by either history or laboratory data. Computed tomography and MRI on two patients with known HIV infection and bilateral parotid lymphoepithelial cysts are presented. Both patients also had bilateral multiple submandibular gland cysts and no evidence of obstructive glandular diseases autoimmune disease, or other organ system cysts. These cases of presumed submandibular gland lymphoepithelial cysts are rare in the literature. They are presented in the hope that other radiologists will be stimulated to document the occurrence of this entity. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... automotive speedometers; as well as replacement parts for automobile engines, transmissions, differentials, steering mechanisms, timers, windshild-wiper motors, and other automobile parts or accessories....

  3. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... automotive speedometers; as well as replacement parts for automobile engines, transmissions, differentials, steering mechanisms, timers, windshild-wiper motors, and other automobile parts or accessories....

  4. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... automotive speedometers; as well as replacement parts for automobile engines, transmissions, differentials, steering mechanisms, timers, windshild-wiper motors, and other automobile parts or accessories....

  5. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Herrin, Sean O.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies. PMID:28210274

  6. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bale, Logan S W; Herrin, Sean O

    2017-01-01

    Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  7. The relationship of the accessory navicular to the development of the flat foot.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J A; Miller, W A

    1979-10-01

    The Kidner procedure has been the most frequently recommended form of surgical treatment for the painful accessory navicular. This formal relocation of the posterior tibial tendon is said to restore the dynamic balance to the foot which is lost when the posterior tibial tendon gives an abnormal insertion into the accessory ossicle. The literature was reviewed to ascertain what is known or what is believed about the accessory navicular and the role of the posterior tibial tendon in the support of the longitudinal arch of the foot. Eighteen patients who had simple excision of the accessory navicular were reviewed to assess the success of such a procedure. In follow-up they all had very satisfactory results. A second group of 208 patients with non-traumatic foot complaints were reviewed to determine the incidence of accessory navicular and its association with the flat foot. Twenty-nine cases of previously undetected accessory navicular were identified in this group giving us a total of 179 patients without accessory navicular and 49 patients with accessory navicular available for study. There was no significant difference between the arch in these 2 groups of patients. Based on the findings in this study, the accessory navicular plays no role in the development of a flat foot. Simple excision of the prominent ossicle seems to be the surgical procedure of choice when conservative means of management fail.

  8. An accessory skull suture mimicking a skull fracture.

    PubMed

    Wiedijk, J E F; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V; Maat, G J R; Maes, A; van Rijn, R R; de Boer, H H

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the sudden and unexpected death of a five-and-a-half-month-old boy. As in every Dutch case of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach was used. This included post-mortem radiography, showing a linear discontinuity of the parietal bone. Originally this was interpreted as a skull fracture, but autopsy indicated no signs of mechanical trauma. Instead the defect was defined as a unilateral accessory suture of the parietal bone. The initial erroneous diagnosis had severe adverse consequences and thus every health care professional or forensic specialist dealing with paediatric mechanical traumas should be cautious of this rare anomaly.

  9. Accessory spleen: differential diagnosis for lymphoma in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Aouba, Achille; Canioni, Danielle; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Fischer, Alain; Hermine, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    Mutations of Fas or, less frequently, Fas ligand genes result in a rare inherited lymphoid disorder called autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in which lymphoma frequency is increased. We report on a patient with ALPS who had been splenectomized for giant splenomegaly and progressively developed a voluminous abdominal tumor. The histology of the removed tumor revealed that it was an accessory spleen exhibiting typical features of ALPS involvement, as shown by the presence of a large excess of CD3+CD4-CD8- T cells and plasma cells without a detectable monoclonal population. This observation highlights the lymphoma's differential diagnosis in this context.

  10. Manipulation of immunometabolism by HIV-accessories to the crime?

    PubMed

    Matheson, Nicholas J; Greenwood, Edward Jd; Lehner, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary pressure has produced an 'arms race' between cellular restriction factors (limiting viral replication) and viral proteins (overcoming host restriction). The host factors SAMHD1 and SLFN1 patrol metabolic bottlenecks required for HIV replication. Conversely, the HIV accessory proteins Vpx, Vpu and Nef manipulate cellular metabolism to enable viral replication. Recent work identifying Vpu-mediated downregulation of the alanine transporter SNAT1 and Nef-mediated downregulation of the serine carriers SERINC3/5 has uncovered the importance of HIV manipulation of the amino acid supply. Interference with CD4(+) T-cell amino acid metabolism suggests a novel paradigm of viral immunomodulation, and signposts fundamental aspects of lymphocyte biology.

  11. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than

  12. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, M. Ananda; Jayanthy, C.; Nagarajan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59%) SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28%) were confirmed to be methicillin-resistant SP (MRSP) with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP). Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF) based on the putative AIP produced by each strain. The AIP of

  13. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel

    2014-04-01

    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  15. Accessory spleen in the pelvis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Mine Islimye; Baser, Banu Guleç; Adali, Ertan; Bulbul, Erdoğan; Uzgoren, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accessory Spleen (AS) is a very rare entity and usually near the spleen’s hilum and in the tail of the pancreas. Pelvis reported as an atypical and a rare localization. AS may be formed during embryonic life, they rise from the left side of the dorsal mesogastrium as a result of imperfect fusion of separate splenic masses. Presentation of case We report a case of an AS presenting as an left adnexal mass in a middle-aged woman. Transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left adnexial mass. Laparatomy was performed, and histological examination revealed that resected mass was splenic tissue. Discussion An AS is an incidental finding of no clinical significance in most patients. AS are generally determined during radiological investigations or during open or laparoscopic surgeries. When, the AS settle in the adnexal area; the differential diagnosis could include the causes of adnexal masses like enlarged lymph nodes, subserous fibroid, ovarian tumors, organized hematoma, tuboovarian abscess. Conclusion Althought pelvic accessory spleen is a rare condition, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses. PMID:25985297

  16. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  17. Congenital deficiency of meibomian glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, A J; Mengher, L S

    1987-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with contact lens intolerance. She was found to have a marked deficiency of meibomian glands in the upper lids and almost total absence in the lower lids. Evidence of tear film instability was found and attributed to deficient lid oil production. A daily wear soft contact lens was later fitted and tolerated. PMID:3580344

  18. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  19. Pheohyphomycosis in Renal Transplant Recipient Presenting as a Rare Case of Submandibular Salivary Gland Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplant patients are at high risk of developing various infections causing morbidity and mortality. Invasive fungal infection has been recognized as a significant complication of organ transplantation. The major fungal infections in these patients are due to candida, aspergillus and mucormycosis. However, infection because of infrequently encountered fungi like hyaline molds, dematiaceous filamentous fungi and zygomycetes are increasing in immunocompromised hosts. Dematiaceous fungi are recognized pathogens in organ transplant recipients with skin and soft tissue infection. We report the case of a 37-year-old man, a renal transplant recipient who developed an asymptomatic dematiaceous fungal infection in submandibular salivary gland. He recovered after excision and antifungal therapy. PMID:27656452

  20. Hepatocytes can serve as accessory cells in the response of immune T lymphocytes to heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, X; Gregory, S H; Wing, E J

    1995-01-01

    Previous findings in our laboratory indicated that the bulk of Listeria monocytogenes injected intravenously into mice and recovered in the liver is taken up and replicates within hepatocytes. Other investigators have shown that hepatocytes can display costimulatory adhesion molecules, express major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules, and secrete a number of cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-8. These data suggest that hepatocytes may serve as accessory cells in the immune response to L. monocytogenes. The accessory function and capacity of hepatocytes to present listerial antigens, however, have never been explored. We undertook a series of experiments to examine the response of Listeria-immune T lymphocytes to murine hepatocytes preincubated with heat-killed listeriae (HKL). Electron micrographs showing the organism within membrane-limiting vacuoles demonstrated the capacity of hepatocytes to internalize HKL. T cells cocultured with hepatocytes pulsed with HKL exhibited a 5- to 10-fold increase in [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation relative to T cells cultured with either hepatocytes or HKL alone. Similarly, gamma interferon production by immune T cells was elevated significantly in cultures that contained both hepatocytes and HKL. The optimal response of T cells required lysosomal processing of HKL by hepatocytes and contact between the two cell populations. Furthermore, maximum T-cell proliferation and gamma interferon production were dependent upon the presence of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the expression of Ia antigens. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hepatocytes pulsed with HKL can stimulate the antigen-specific response of immune T lymphocytes. These results suggest that hepatocytes can serve as accessory cells in host defenses to listerial infections of the liver. PMID:7868265