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Sample records for accessory gland secretions

  1. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-11-19

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets.

  2. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  3. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  4. Structure of a D-protein gene and amino-acid sequences of the highly repetitive D-proteins secreted by the accessory glands of the mealworm beetle.

    PubMed

    Paesen, G C; Feng, X; Happ, G M

    1996-04-16

    The D-group proteins form the major component of the proteinaceous secretion of the tubular accessory glands of the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. In a previous paper, we reported the sequence of two D-protein cDNAs and their inferred translation products. Both proteins contain three highly repetitive domains (A, A' and B). In this paper, we present the cDNA-inferred sequences of 8 more D-proteins, none of which contains an A' domain. We also present the structure of a D-protein gene. Southern analysis suggests that genes coding for an A' domain are relatively rare. Genes with a total of 7 or 8 (A + B domain) repeats seem most common.

  5. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  6. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  7. Chapter Eleven: The Drosophila Accessory Gland as a Model for Prostate Cancer and Other Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C.; Leiblich, A.; Goberdhan, D.C.I.; Hamdy, F.

    2017-01-01

    The human prostate is a gland of the male reproductive tract, which together with the seminal vesicles, is responsible for most seminal fluid production. It is a common site of cancer, and unlike other glands, it typically enlarges in aging men. In flies, the male accessory glands make many major seminal fluid components. Like their human equivalents, they secrete proteins from several conserved families, including proteases, lectins, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins, some of which interact with sperm and affect fertility. A key protein, sex peptide, is not conserved in vertebrates but plays a central role in mediating long-term effects on females after mating. Although postmitotic, one epithelial cell type in the accessory glands, the secondary cell, continues to grow in adults. It secretes microvesicles called exosomes from the endosomal multivesicular body, which, after mating, fuse with sperm. They also appear to affect female postmating behavior. Remarkably, the human prostate epithelium also secretes exosomes, which fuse to sperm in vitro to modulate their activity. Exosomes from prostate and other cancer cells are increasingly proposed to play fundamental roles in modulating the tumor microenvironment and in metastasis. Here we review a diverse accessory gland literature, which highlights functional analogies between the male reproductive glands of flies and humans, and a critical role for extracellular vesicles in allowing seminal fluid to promote male interests within the female. We postulate that secondary cells and prostate epithelial cells use common mechanisms to control growth, secretion, and signaling, which are relevant to prostate and other cancers, and can be genetically dissected in the uniquely tractable fly model. PMID:28057306

  8. Morphology and development of the accessory glands in various female cricket species.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The study presents new results with regard to the morphometric and ultrastructural development of the accessory glands in females of the three cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus assimilis, and Acheta domesticus. Furthermore, possible age-dependence of secretory productivity of single organs was analyzed by application of the ligature technique introduced in a previous contribution. Within the first 12 days of the adult phase, the accessory glands of all investigated cricket species exhibit a significant increase in length and width which assumes values between 50 and 100%. This gland growth is rather the result of a continuous increase in cellular volume and less that of mitotic cell propagation. In all species height and width of single gland cells increase by 60-80% within the studied time interval. These changes in morphometry are commonly accompanied by ultrastructural modifications. Total glandular secretion is subject to an increase from the 5th to the 12th day of adult age. This development corresponds well with the number of eggs contemporaneously oviposited into the substrate and thus underlines the hypothesis, according to which the main function of the secretion consists in acting as a lubricant for the facilitated transport of the oocytes through the ovipositor.

  9. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl− and HCO3− and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  10. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  11. Histological convergent evolution of the accessory submandibular glands in four species of frog-eating bats.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Phillips, C J; Nagato, T

    1996-08-01

    The accessory submandibular glands in four species of bats were examined by electron microscopy. These four species represent two independently evolved lineages. The fringe-lipped bat, Trachops cirrhosis, is a Neotropical phyllostomid species, whereas the false vampire bats of southeast Asia, Megaderma lyra and M. spasma, and the heart-nosed bat, Cardioderma cor, of East Africa are megadermatid species. These glands show extreme deviation from typical salivary gland histology: their secretory endpieces are in the form of follicles and their ducts lack the cytological details that permit identification of diverse duct segments. Despite their unusual histology, the secretory endpieces in M. lyra, M. spasma, and C. cor consist of secretory cells that conform to typical secretory cell morphology. In contrast, secretion by follicular cells in T. cirrhosis involves unusual cytoplasmic bodies, and their mitochondria frequently have intracristal crystalloids. Ducts in all four species consist of simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium without basal striations. Follicles and ducts in all four bats are surrounded by numerous myoepithelial cells and are heavily innervated by hypolemmal nerve terminals. Despite their widely separated geographical ranges, all four bat species consume frogs and other vertebrates. Frogs and toads often possess toxic cutaneous glands that provide a chemical defense against predation. It is postulated that the unusual accessory glands in the four frog-eating species secrete toxin-neutralizing salivary factors. The follicular form of the endpieces permits storage of preformed saliva and their coterie of myoepithelial cells and hypolemmal nerve terminals facilitates the sudden and rapid expulsion of saliva into the oral cavity during the consumption of noxious amphibians.

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland.

  13. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  14. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  15. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined.

  16. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    PubMed

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects.

  17. Relationship between androstenone content in fat, intensity of boar taint and size of accessory sex glands in boars.

    PubMed

    Førland, D M; Lundstrøm, K; Andresen, O

    1980-05-01

    Coefficients of correlation in the range of 0.6-0.8 were found between the size of the accessory sex glands and level of androstenone in subcutaneous fat. The length and weight of accessory sex glands combined in a multiple regression equation explained 64% of the variation in androstenone content. The correlation between boar taint intensity and size of accessory sex glands varied between 0.28 and 0.34.

  18. Steroidogenesis by testis and accessory glands of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, during reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Teresa; Freitas, Ana M M S; Canario, Adelino V M

    2015-11-01

    In teleost fish sex steroids are essential for gonadal function and have marked effects in reproductive and agonistic behavior and in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, has two male morphotypes: type I males are territorial nest-holders and have large accessory glands while type II males are smaller, have a relatively large testis and small accessory glands. In the present study, the steroidogenic activity of the testis and accessory testicular glands of the Lusitanian toadfish were examined in vitro as well as their presence in urine. The testis of type I males produced 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11β-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11βA) from tritiated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, while those of type II males produced testosterone (T) and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-andosten-3-one (11βT), but not 11KT. Additionally, the testis and accessory glands of both morphs produced mostly 5β,3α-reduced and 17,20α-hydroxylated metabolites. Type I, but not of type II, males synthesised 5β-reduced androgens in their accessory glands. The presence of 11βA exclusively in the urine of type I males during reproductive season suggests an association with maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and behavior in this morph. The urine of both types of males contained two 5α-androstane and 5β-pregnane glucuronides. Among the latter steroids, those that are 17,21-dihydroxylated are potentially metabolites from cortisol and were found only in type I males during the spawning season. The diversity of metabolites produced by the testis and accessory glands and the presence of some in urine is suggestive of a potential role in chemical communication and reproductive behavior.

  19. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology.

  20. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  1. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms

  2. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew J; Fullmer, Matthew S; Gogarten, Johann P; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development.

  3. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host

  4. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  5. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  6. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers. PMID:23071569

  7. Comparative study of the labial gland secretion in termites (Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers.

  8. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  9. Female receptivity in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is not modulated by male accessory gland products.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolás; Contreras-Navarro, Yair; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2014-11-01

    In numerous insects, accessory gland products (AGPs) transferred from males to females during mating are responsible for female sexual inhibition, but these products can be affected by male condition. Here, we investigated the effect of AGPs on female receptivity of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the effect of male and female strain, male irradiation, AGP dose and sexual activity period on the effectiveness of these AGPs in inhibiting female remating. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females did not reduce their receptivity either at 0.2 or 0.8 male equivalent. Females injected with AGPs behaved like virgin females and not as mated females. Neither male origin, female origin (wild versus mass-reared), nor male irradiation (sterile versus fertile males) had an effect in inhibiting female remating. Also, injections of glands obtained during the sexual calling period of males, or obtained during the morning when males are not sexually active had no effect on female remating behavior. Mated mass-reared females were more likely to remate than wild females. We conclude that inhibition of female sexual receptivity of A. ludens is mediated by factors other than AGPs, such as the number of sperm stored by females, the stimulus of copulation per se or more probably, mediated by a combination of factors. More research is needed to elucidate the role of AGPs in this species.

  10. Management of midcheek masses and tumors of the accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Giacomo; Meloni, Silvio M; Massarelli, Olindo; Tullio, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Tumors of the lateral wall of the mouth have different origins and behaviors. These lesions often arise from salivary tissues, such as the accessory parotid gland, but tumors can also originate from the muscles, buccal fat pad, or other structures. Surgical approaches are limited in this region by the presence of the facial nerve and the Stensen's duct. In this article, we present 9 cases of midcheek masses that were operated on via extra- or intraoral approaches. We discuss the problems related to the diagnosis of such tumors, as well as the indications and rationales for different treatment approaches.

  11. Salt-gland secretion and blood flow in the goose.

    PubMed

    Hanwell, A; Linzell, J L; Peaker, M

    1971-03-01

    1. Salt-gland blood flow in the domestic goose has been measured using a combination of Sapirstein's indicator fractionation technique for organ blood flow and Fegler's thermodilution method for cardiac output.2. Nasal salt secretion was induced by giving 0.5 M-NaCl or 0.154 M-NaCl I.V. or by giving artificial sea water by stomach tube into the proventriculus.3. During secretion, salt-gland blood flow increased from 82.7 +/- 21.9 ml./100 g tissue. min to as high as 2179 ml./100 g. min (mean 1209 +/- 140).4. The rate of secretion in response to salt loading was very variable and was not correlated with the rate of blood flow.5. From the data obtained, it could be calculated that the median values for the percentage extraction of ions from the arterial plasma were Na 15%, K 35%, Cl 21% and water 5.8%.6. Atropine abolished secretion but not the increase in blood flow produced by salt loading.7. Unilateral complete denervation abolished secretion from and the increase in blood flow through the operated but not the control gland.8. Anaesthesia, induced by pentobarbitone sodium, almost completely blocked secretion and the increase in blood flow in the salt-gland in response to salt loading.9. In geese given 0.5 or 0.154 M-NaCl I.V. a positive, significant correlation was found between the total amount of nasal secretion collected over 30 min and the concentrations of Na and Cl in the nasal fluid. However, when the time course of secretion was followed in any one bird, the rate of secretion was inversely related to the concentrations of Na and Cl.10. Harderian gland blood flow was not affected by salt loading.

  12. Lateral nasal gland secretion in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, U; Widdicombe, J G

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pharmacological and nervous stimuli on the flow of secretion from the dog lateral nasal gland following catheterization are described. Drugs were injected close-arterially into the arterial supply to the nose, or intravenously. Cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine, methacholine), given intravenously (I.V.) or intra-arterially (I.A.), and stimulation of the vidian nerve produced a copious flow of secretion which was blocked by atropine. The adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine (alpha) and salbutamol (beta 2), given I.V. or I.A., and stimulation of the vagosympathetic nerve produced a small but consistent flow of secretion. Histamine (50 micrograms), substance P (0.1 micrograms) and prostaglandin E1 (1-5 micrograms), injected I.A., produced small flows of secretion. Bradykinin (25 ng-50 micrograms), 5-hydroxytryptamine (100 ng-50 micrograms) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (10 ng-50 micrograms) did not cause secretion. The total protein content, the composition of secretions as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis, and changes in [Na] and [K] in relation to flow of secretion are described. Differences in ion and protein concentrations, and in protein composition, are described for vidian nerve-induced and vagosympathetically induced secretions. Electron microscopy revealed that the gland contains serous cells in the secretory region, and ducts morphologically similar to the intercalated, striated and excretory ducts of salivary glands. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3746694

  13. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gligorov, Dragan; Sitnik, Jessica L; Maeda, Robert K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Karch, François

    2013-03-01

    In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR.

  14. Analysis of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Won, S; Kho, H; Kim, Y; Chung, S; Lee, S

    2001-07-01

    Residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions are important for the maintenance of oral mucosal wetness. Salivary proteins and glycoproteins are the major components of the oral mucosal film, which functions as a moisture retainer and a protective barrier. Here, the correlations between the amounts of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions and their protein concentrations were investigated in 30 normal healthy individuals. The thickness of the mucosal film was measured at six mucosal surfaces and minor salivary gland secretion rate was measured at two mucosal surfaces. The thickness of residual saliva was determined by placing filter-paper strips against the mucosa at each site for 5 s and then measuring the volume electronically with a Periotron 8000 micro-moisture meter. The unstimulated rate of minor salivary gland secretion was measured for 30 s by the same method. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was measured with the spitting method. The total protein concentration of all salivary samples was measured by bicinchoninic acid assay. Before the experiment, the intra-/inter-examiner reliability of the method using the Periotron and the filter-paper strips was investigated. With a range of 0.4256-0.8846, the intraclass correlation coefficient, measured within and between examiners, was indicative of good reliability. The oral mucosal site with the thinnest coat of residual saliva was the anterior hard palate. Mucosal wetness on the hard palate and buccal mucosa showed significant positive correlations with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and significant negative correlations with the total protein concentration of residual saliva. Mucosal wetness on the upper and lower labial mucosa also showed significant negative correlations with the total protein concentration of residual saliva. Mucosal wetness on the soft palate was correlated with the minor salivary gland secretion rate (r=0.477, P<0.01). Among the minor salivary glands, the

  15. [Secret excretion from the mouse mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Tolkunov, Iu A; Balakina, G B; Markov, A G

    2000-02-01

    Histological studies revealed that the mammary gland nipple have smooth muscle fibres along the nipple channel. These fibres infiltrate the connective tissue parallel to the skin. The ring muscles are not obvious. Delays in the milk excretion in mice may be due to specifics of allocation and functioning of the nipple smooth muscles. To obtain milk, a mechanical action upon the nipple and a synchronised release of oxitocin into the blood are necessary.

  16. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Ping; Xue, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionarily conserved paired domain consists of the N-terminal PAI and the C-terminal RED domains, each containing a helix-turn-helix motif capable of binding DNA. Despite its conserved sequence, the physiological functions of the RED domain remain elusive. Here, we constructed a prd transgene expressing a truncated Paired (Prd) protein without the RED domain, and examined its rescue ability in prd mutants. We found that the RED domain is specifically required for the expression of Acp26Aa and sex peptide in male accessory glands, and the induction of female post-mating response. Our data thus identified an important physiological function for the evolutionarily conserved RED domain.

  17. Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To increase fertilization chances compared with rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The sperm, which are packaged in a spermatophore, are exchanged and received in an organ called the diverticulum. Because of its length, this organ was previously proposed to be a female anatomical adaptation that may limit the dart interference with the recipient's sperm usage. For reproductive success of the donor, an anatomically long spermatophore, relative to the partner's diverticulum, is beneficial as sperm can avoid digestion by exiting through the spermatophore's tail safely. However, the snail Eobania vermiculata possesses a diverticulum that is three times longer than the spermatophore it receives. Here, we report that the love-dart mucus of this species contains a contraction-inducing substance that shortens the diverticulum, an effect that is only properly revealed when the mucus is applied to another helicid species, Cornu aspersum. This finding suggests that E. vermiculata may have evolved a physiological resistance to the manipulative substance received via the love-dart by becoming insensitive to it. This provides useful insight into the evolution of female resistance to male manipulations, indicating that it can remain hidden if tested on a single species. PMID:28062580

  18. Galanin is a modulator of eccrine sweat gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Bovell, Douglas L; Holub, Barbara S; Odusanwo, Olutayo; Brodowicz, Bernhard; Rauch, Isabella; Kofler, Barbara; Lang, Roland

    2013-02-01

    The neuropeptide galanin has been ascribed different roles in modulating physiological functions in the skin. The present study examined the function of galanin in eccrine sweat gland physiology. We demonstrated secretion of galanin by sweat glands in vivo by radioimmunoassay of human sweat (20-192 fmol galanin/ml). Furthermore, human sweat glands expressed galanin receptors GalR2 and GalR3. Using chamber short-circuit current (Isc) measurements showed that application of galanin to human NCL-SG3 cells led to a significant increase in Isc, which was inhibited by the presence of chloride channel blockers and in chloride-free Krebs solution. Additionally, application of SNAP 37889, a non-peptidergic selective antagonist of GalR3, abolished the effect of galanin on Isc. In summary, our results show that galanin can regulate transepithelial chloride ion transport and fluid secretion by stimulating GalR3 in NCL-SG3 cells and demonstrate a possible important extraneural function of galanin in sweat gland physiology.

  19. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands.

  20. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  1. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  3. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  4. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  5. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  6. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  7. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Semen alterations and flow-citometry evaluation in patients with male accessory gland infections.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R; D'Agata, R; Vicari, E; Calogero, A E

    2012-02-01

    Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) represent a major cause of male infertility mainly through the secretory dysfunction of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and nonconventional sperm parameters in these patients, therefore 150 patients with MAGI were selected. Each of them underwent to two sperm analyses and evaluation of DNA fragmentation mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, chromatin compactness, by flow cytometry. Results showed that patients with MAGI had a lower sperm progressive motility (11.4 ± 5.0 vs 34.0 ± 7.0%), and percentage of normal forms (9.0 ± 3.7 vs 33.0 ± 13.0%) compared to controls, instead, these patients showed higher number of seminal white blood cells (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 0.4 ± 0.6 106/ml). Patients with MAGI showed a higher number of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation compared to controls (8.2 ± 3.0 vs 1.0 ± 1.0%). In addition, they have also a higher percentage of spermatozoa with low MMP (28.0 ± 4.0 vs 2.0 ± 2.0%). Patients with MAGI, showed a higher percentage of spermatozoa with PS externalization (8.0 ± 4.0 vs 3.0 ± 3.0%), an early sign of apoptosis, and lower percentage of viable spermatozoa (64.5 ± 12.0 vs 88.0 ± 10.0%). An increased percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin compactness (18.0 ± 4.0 vs 5.0 ± 3.0%) was found in patients with MAGI. In conclusion, patients with MAGI show alterations of conventional and biofunctional sperm parameters compared to controls. These results suggest to consider the flow cytometry evaluation among the diagnostic tools for male infertility.

  9. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Favilla, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE) among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) associated (MAGI-APEpos). US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg) which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool). The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis), V (vesiculitis), and E (epididymitis) in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI). Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  10. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-07-01

    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.

  11. Senescence and steroid hormone receptor reactivities in accessory sex glands of elderly rats (Sprague-Dawley) following exogenous hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Montico, Fabio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the stromal and epithelial distribution of AR, ERα and ERβ reactivities in the different accessory sex glands of elderly rats and during strong hormonal changes. Ten month old male rats were divided into six senile groups and submitted to treatment: Senile/Control group (SC); Senile/Testosterone group (ST): Senile/Estrogen group (SE); Castrated group (CA); Castrated/Testosterone group (CT); Castrated/Estrogen group (CE). After a 30-day treatment, the prostatic ventral lobe (VL), dorsal lobe (DL) and coagulating gland (CG) samples were processed for immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. The results showed that AR immunoreactivity was characterized in the epithelium of VL and DL in senile/control rats and senile rats submitted to exogenous hormonal therapy. AR reactivity in the coagulating gland was verified predominantly in the stromal cells in the different experimental groups. ERα reactivity occurred predominantly in the stromal compartment in all accessory sex glands. In the DL and CG, ERα immunoreactivities were intense in the groups which received testosterone (ST) and estrogen (SE). ERβ immunoreactivity in the CG was verified in the stromal compartment in the different experimental groups, showing a positive response to both increased testosterone and estrogen levels. ERβ reactivity, in the DL, was intensified in the stroma of senile rats with higher serum testosterone levels, and in senile rats with increased serum estrogen levels, especially in the glandular epithelium. Thus, the results revealed different distribution pattern of steroid hormone receptors in each one of the prostatic lobes in senescence, especially in the prostate dorsal lobe and coagulating gland, which is a fundamental factor due to the fact that major prostatic diseases occur in a later period of life.

  12. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W.; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in Ae. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48hr post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control. PMID:25107876

  13. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

    2014-11-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

  14. Comparison of amino acid profiles and metabolic gene expression in muskrat scented glands in secretion and non-secretion season.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Tianxiang; Fan, Mengyuan; Zhou, Juntong; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Meishan; Qi, Lei; Lin, Shaobi; Hu, Defu; Liu, Shuqiang

    2017-02-01

    The scented gland is an organ responsible for producing musk in muskrats. During musk secretion season, the metabolism of glandular cells increases in the scented glands and a large amount of musk is synthesised. In this study, we collected scented gland arterial blood from six healthy adult male muskrats during non-secretion season (November). We also obtained scented gland arterial blood, venous blood, and musk from six healthy adult males during secretion season (March). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free amino acids in blood and musk were performed with an automated amino acid analyzer. Additionally, we employed RNA sequencing technology to study the expression patterns of amino acid metabolic pathways in scented glands. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that scented glands can concentrate amino acids during secretion season, and transcriptome analysis suggests that some amino acid metabolism-related genes undergo significant seasonal changes. In summary, scented gland amino acid metabolism displays seasonal differences. Elevated amino acid metabolic activity during secretion season sustains the glands' secretory function.

  15. Proteome profiling reveals tissue-specific protein expression in male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Quanmei; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-05-01

    Male accessory gland (MAG) and female accessory gland (FAG) of the reproductive system are, respectively, responsible for producing seminal proteins and adhesive proteins during copulation and ovulation. Seminal proteins are ejaculated to female along with sperms, whereas adhesive proteins are excreted along with eggs. Proteins from the male and female reproductive organs are usually indicative of rapid adaptive evolution. Understanding the reproductive isolation and species divergence requires identifying reproduction-related proteins from many different species. Here, we present our proteomic analyses of male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Using LC/MS-MS, we identified 2133 MAG proteins and 1872 FAG proteins. In total, 652 proteins were significant more abundant in the MAG than in the FAG, including growth factors, odorant-binding proteins, enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Growth factors and odorant-binding proteins are potential signaling molecules, whereas most of proteins of unknown function were found to be Lepidoptera-specific proteins with high evolutionary rates. Microarray experiments and semi-quantitative RT-PCR validated that MAG-specific proteins were expressed exclusively in male moths. Totally, 192 proteins were considered as FAG-specific proteins, including protease inhibitors, enzymes, and other proteins. Protease inhibitors were found to be the most abundant FAG-specific proteins, which may protect eggs from infection by inhibiting pathogen-derived proteases. These results provide comprehensive insights into copulation and oviposition. Moreover, the newly identified Lepidoptera-specific MAG proteins provide useful data for future research on the evolution of reproductive proteins in insects.

  16. Human Parotid Gland Alpha-Amylase Secretion as a Function of Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    parotid ...Pullman, WA 99163 Gilman, S. C, G. J. Fischer, R. J. Biersner, R. D. Thornton, and D. A. Miller. 1979. Human parotid gland alpha-amylase secretion...as a function of chronic hyperbaric exposure. Undersea Biomed. Res. 6(3):303-307.—Secretion of a-amylase by the human parotid gland increased

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel

  18. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up.

  19. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability

  20. Chemical and behavioral studies of femoral gland secretions in iguanid lizards.

    PubMed

    Alberts, A C

    1993-01-01

    Comparative studies on the chemistry and behavioral significance of femoral gland secretions in desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) and green iguanas (Iguana iguana) are reviewed. Field and laboratory studies suggest that femoral gland secretions function in conspecific recognition and range marking. In desert iguanas, secretions are of low volatility and may be detected initially using long-range ultraviolet visual cues. In contrast, green iguana secretions contain a diversity of volatile lipids and appear to be localized by chemoreception. Interspecific differences in femoral gland chemistry may reflect adaptations to the diverse climatic conditions of arid desert and tropical forest environments.

  1. SOURCES OF LARVAL SALIVARY GLAND SECRETION IN THE DIPTERAN CHIRONOMUS TENTANS

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, D.; Laufer, H.

    1969-01-01

    The soluble proteins in the hemolymph, the salivary gland, and the salivary secretion of fourth instar Chironomus tentans were examined by disc electrophoresis in acrylamide gels. Of the 11 protein fractions detected in buffered saline extracts of the gland, 10 are present also in the hemolymph. Amino acid isotope incorporation experiments indicate that the protein fractions shared by the salivary gland and the hemolymph are not synthesized in the gland but are synthesized in other larval tissues. Immunochemical studies show that most of these proteins eventually are secreted from the gland. The salivary gland in vivo and in vitro is active in de novo protein synthesis. The protein synthesized tends to form large molecular weight aggregates. As demonstrated by radioautography, at least 80% of this protein is secreted from the 30 large cells forming most of the gland. The proteins synthesized in the salivary gland cannot be detected in the hemolymph. The results of this investigation are consistent with a mechanism of secretion formation involving both de novo synthesis of some secretion proteins and the selective uptake, transport, and secretion of hemal proteins by the salivary gland. PMID:5782452

  2. Comparison of amino acid profiles and metabolic gene expression in muskrat scented glands in secretion and non-secretion season

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Tianxiang; Fan, Mengyuan; Zhou, Juntong; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Meishan; Qi, Lei; Lin, Shaobi; Hu, Defu; Liu, Shuqiang

    2017-01-01

    The scented gland is an organ responsible for producing musk in muskrats. During musk secretion season, the metabolism of glandular cells increases in the scented glands and a large amount of musk is synthesised. In this study, we collected scented gland arterial blood from six healthy adult male muskrats during non-secretion season (November). We also obtained scented gland arterial blood, venous blood, and musk from six healthy adult males during secretion season (March). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free amino acids in blood and musk were performed with an automated amino acid analyzer. Additionally, we employed RNA sequencing technology to study the expression patterns of amino acid metabolic pathways in scented glands. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that scented glands can concentrate amino acids during secretion season, and transcriptome analysis suggests that some amino acid metabolism-related genes undergo significant seasonal changes. In summary, scented gland amino acid metabolism displays seasonal differences. Elevated amino acid metabolic activity during secretion season sustains the glands’ secretory function. PMID:28145478

  3. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis.

    PubMed

    Sole, Catherine L; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin M

    2002-12-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  4. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  5. Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix.

  6. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  7. Call and skin glands secretion induced by stimulation of midbrain in urodele (Andrias davidianus).

    PubMed

    Lan, S C; Li, D F; Jiang, J C

    1990-09-24

    Stimulation of the midbrain induced calls, gaping, tail lashing, locomotion and secretion of skin glands in the cryptobranchidae, Andrias davidianus, which is a rare precious animal in China. These responses can be considered as a complex of action related to escape. Most of the sites where calls and secretion of skin glands could be induced were found in the outside of central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. This is the first description of this cluster of functions in the midbrain of Andrias davidianus.

  8. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  10. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine... ruminants or swine, originating in any region where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists,...

  11. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  12. Effects of the juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen on German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), tergal gland development and production of tergal gland secretion proteins.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, K A; Saltzmann, K D; Neal, J J; Scharf, M E; Bennett, G W

    2006-09-01

    Male German cockroaches possess secretory glands that secrete fluid into a pair of transverse depressions on the seventh and eighth abdominal tergites. We investigated the effects of altered juvenoid titer during the first part of the last instar on tergal gland secretory tissue development and the production of tergal gland secretion proteins. Male fifth (last) instar nymphs (1-3 days post-emergent) were topically treated with the JH analog pyriproxyfen. Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that treatment with pyriproxyfen produced a visible decrease in the amount of tergal gland tissue present, a deformation of the overall shape of the gland located on tergite seven, and a less orderly arrangement of the secretory cells in the tissue. The protein fraction of tergal gland secretion was examined in pyriproxyfen-treated and control insects 1, 5, and 15 days after the insects molted to the adult stage. Amounts of all tergal secretion proteins were reduced in treated insects.

  13. Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Mediates Mucus Secretion in the Airway Submucosal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jae; Yang, Yu-Mi; Kim, Kyubo; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Choi, Jae Young

    2012-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent. PMID:22916223

  14. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  15. Composition of the secretion from the eccrine sweat glands of the cat's foot pad.

    PubMed

    Foster, K G

    1966-05-01

    1. The sweat composition from the cat's foot pad was examined at various rates of secretion. Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used.2. Cat's pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and the sodium and chloride concentrations increased with increasing sweat rate. In these respects the secretion resembles human eccrine sweat.3. The sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations are much higher than in human sweat; also the potassium level decreased with increasing rate. Consequently, whereas human sweat is hypotonic with respect to the plasma, cat's pad sweat is slightly hypertonic with respect to the plasma even at low rates of secretion. In contrast to human sweat glands, which produce a slightly acidic secretion containing ammonia, cat's pad sweat glands produce an alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. Also in contrast to human sweat, lactate levels decreased with increasing sweat rate.

  16. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  17. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarau, Stefan; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  18. Cidea control of lipid storage and secretion in mouse and human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans.

  19. Oxytocin administration before sperm collection by transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in mouflons and bucks.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Abril-Sánchez, Silvia; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Beracochea, Florencia; Castaño, Cristina; Giriboni, Julia; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2016-10-01

    Transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) is an alternative technique for sperm collection which decreases negative animal welfare concerns of electroejaculation. However, quality of collected sperm with TUMASG is less than that collected by electroejaculation. Utilisation of TUMASG may not, however, induce strong muscular contractions, so administration of oxytocin before the procedure may improve sperm quality. Therefore, two studies were designed to determine if administration of oxytocin before TUMASG improves the procedure and quality of the collected semen. The first study was performed with anaesthetised mouflons, and the second with non-anaesthetised Gabon bucks. Time length, number of electric pulses applied and numbers of vocalizations were recorded, and sperm characteristics were analysed. The number of electrical pulses and sperm characteristics did not differ with oxytocin administration in mouflons. However, oxytocin administration decreased time length (P=0.02) and tended to decrease the number of electric pulses needed for induction of ejaculation (P=0.08) in bucks. The number of vocalizations and sperm variables did not differ when the two procedures were used. In conclusion, oxytocin administration before TUMASG shortened the procedure and tended to decrease the number of electrical pulses needed to induce ejaculation in conscious bucks, thus, decreasing welfare concerns for the animals in which TUMASG is used. Therefore, its routine inclusion in this species should be considered.

  20. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  1. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

    2009-05-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

  2. Regulation and specificity of antifungal metapleural gland secretion in leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R; Jensen, Annette B; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2012-10-22

    Ants have paired metapleural glands (MGs) to produce secretions for prophylactic hygiene. These exocrine glands are particularly well developed in leaf-cutting ants, but whether the ants can actively regulate MG secretion is unknown. In a set of controlled experiments using conidia of five fungi, we show that the ants adjust the amount of MG secretion to the virulence of the fungus with which they are infected. We further applied fixed volumes of MG secretion of ants challenged with constant conidia doses to agar mats of the same fungal species. This showed that inhibition halos were significantly larger for ants challenged with virulent and mild pathogens/weeds than for controls and Escovopsis-challenged ants. We conclude that the MG defence system of leaf-cutting ants has characteristics reminiscent of an additional cuticular immune system, with specific and non-specific components, of which some are constitutive and others induced.

  3. Effect of calcium on melatonin secretion in chick pineal gland I.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M I; Agapito, M T; Gutierrez-Baraja, R; Reiter, R J; Recio, J M

    1996-10-18

    Melatonin is the neurohormone which is synthesized by the pineal gland and secreted rhythmically. The role of calcium in the activation of melatonin production remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that calcium input participates in the regulation of chick pineal gland. Pineal glands from Gallus domesticus were perifuse with Krebs medium (controls) or with Krebs medium plus drugs (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or calcium ionophore A23187). When EGTA was added to the perifusion medium, free extracellular calcium concentrations were dramatically decreased and melatonin synthesis was decreased. On the other hand, when the calcium ionophore A23187 was added to the perifusion medium, chick pineal glands exhibited a marked increase in secretion of melatonin. No effects were observed when chick pineal glands were treated with drugs during or after the time of the natural peak levels. We propose that calcium input from extracellular medium and output from intracellular calcium reserves are primary mechanisms in the activation of melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland.

  4. The bitch uterine response to semen deposition and its modification by male accessory gland secretions.

    PubMed

    England, G C W; Russo, M; Freeman, S L

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the response of the bitch's reproductive tract to semen deposition. In this study, an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterus was detected after artificial insemination, but there was normal fertility. Doppler ultrasonography showed that insemination induced an increase in uterine artery blood velocity and a decrease in the resistance index of short duration, indicating vasodilation. Semen that was extended in fluid from the sperm rich fraction of the ejaculate (seminal plasma, SP), or third fraction of the ejaculate (prostatic fluid, PF), produced a similar magnitude of effect but of longer duration. It was hypothesised that vasodilation following insemination was largely induced by SP and PF which, together with PMN influx, was part of a normal uterine response. Physiological concentrations of PMNs in vitro reduced the ability of spermatozoa to attach to uterine epithelium, most likely as a result of spermatozoa becoming attached to PMNs. However, both SP and PF increased attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium by reducing sperm attachment to PMNs, and potentially by an additional mechanism that did not involve inhibition of sperm binding to PMNs. These are the first canine studies to document an apparent physiological response by the uterus to semen, associated with uterine artery vasodilation and PMN influx. Moreover, these investigations are the first to demonstrate that canine SF and PF are part of the mechanism for increasing uterine perfusion and that both fluids have a modulatory effect on PMN-induced inhibition of spermatozoal attachment to uterine epithelium, most likely mediated by reduced sperm attachment to PMNs.

  5. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

    2007-01-01

    Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3− by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ∼50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients. PMID:17204498

  6. Chemical constituents of the femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (Family teiidae).

    PubMed

    Martín, José; Chamut, Silvia; Manes, Mario E; López, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, the chemical compounds secreted by their femoral glands, which may be used as sexual signals, are only known for a few lizard species. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 49 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (fam. Teiidae), including a very high proportion of carboxylic acids and their esters ranging between n-C8 and n-C20 (mainly octadecanoic and 9,12-octadecadienoic acids), with much less proportions of steroids, tocopherol, aldehydes, and squalene. We discuss the potential function of these compounds in secretions, and compare the compounds found here with those documented for other lizard species.

  7. Detection of antidiabetic activity by crude paratoid gland secretions from common Indian toad (bufomelano stictus)

    PubMed Central

    Neerati, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amphibians have provided a remarkable array of biological active compounds, which are secreted from socalled granular skin glands which serve to protect the amphibians from predators due to its noxious effects on buccal tissue and at least in the case of some peptides, to protect from bacterial (or) protozoan infections. Given the respiratory and antimicrobial functions of amphibian skin, it is likely that some of the novel molecules found in amphibian granular gland secretions might be of use in the treatment of skin and respiratory infections. Secretions from common Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus) a member of Bufonidae family has the history of medicinal use however the anti-diabetic activity is not reported. The present study is aimed to determine whether paratoid gland extract have any influence on the diabetes and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glimepiride (GLM) in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: An aqueous and methanolic extracts of paratoid glandular secretions were prepared, air dried and used to determine the antidiabetic activity in rats. The blood sampling was done at preset time intervals between 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h, using heparinized capillaries. The blood glucose levels are estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of GLM using glibenclamide as an internal standard. Results: Both the aqueous and methanolic extracts produced better glycemic control in diabetic rats, and methanolic extract is better than the aqueous extract. Serum concentrations of GLM increased at 2nd h, and the percentage glucose reduction is maximal at the 4th h with both aqueous and methanolic extracts of paratoid secretions of common Indian toad. Conclusions: Paratoid gland secretions of the common Indian toad is antidiabetic, in addition it has beneficial effects in combination with GLM. Further, it requires the

  8. Lacrimal gland PKC isoforms are differentially involved in agonist-induced protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Zoukhri, D; Hodges, R R; Sergheraert, C; Toker, A; Dartt, D A

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized and N-myristoylated peptides derived from the pseudosubstrate sequences of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon [Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28), Myr-PKC-delta-(142-153), and Myr-PKC-epsilon-(149-164)], three isoforms present in rat lacrimal gland, and a peptide derived from the sequence of the endogenous inhibitor of protein kinase A [Myr-PKI-(17-25)]. Lacrimal gland acini were preincubated for 60 min with the myristoylated peptides (10(-10) to 3 x 10(-7) M), then protein secretion was stimulated with a phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (10(-6) M); vasoactive intestinal peptide (10(-8) M); a cholinergic agonist, carbachol (10(-5) M); or an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10(-4) M), for 20 min. In intact lacrimal gland acini, Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28) inhibited phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced protein secretion. This effect was not reproduced by the acetylated peptide or by the myristoylated PKI, which inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced protein secretion, a response mediated by protein kinase A. Carbachol-induced protein secretion was inhibited by all three peptides. In contrast, phenylephrine-induced protein secretion was inhibited only by Myr-PKC-epsilon-(149-164), whereas Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28) and Myr-PKC-delta-(142-153) had a stimulatory effect. None of these myristoylated peptides affected the calcium increase evoked by cholinergic or alpha 1-adrenergic agonists. We concluded that phorbol ester- and receptor-induced protein secretion involve different PKC isoforms in lacrimal gland.

  9. The defensive secretion of Carabus lefebvrei Dejean 1826 pupa (Coleoptera, Carabidae): gland ultrastructure and chemical identification.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Dalpozzo, Renato; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2009-05-01

    This study documents the defensive function of flavored humor secreted by the abdominal glands of Carabus lefebvrei pupae. The morphology and the ultrastructure of these glands were described and the volatile compounds of glands secretion were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure analysis shows an acinose complex formed by about 50 clusters. Each cluster has 20 glandular units and the unit-composed of one secretory and one canal cell lying along a duct-belongs to the class 3 cell type of Quennedey (1998). In the cytoplasm, the secretory cell contains abundant rough endoplasmatic reticula, glycogen granules, numerous mitochondria, and many well-developed Golgi complexes producing electron-dense secretory granules. Mitochondria are large, elongated, and often adjoining electronlucent vesicles. The kind and the origin of secretory granules varying in size and density were discussed. The chemical analysis of the gland secretion revealed the presence of a mixture of low molecular weight terpenes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids. Monoterpenes, especially linalool, were the major products. We supposed that ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids have a deterrent function against the predators and monoterpenes provide a prophylaxis function against pathogens.

  10. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts.

  11. Topiramate reduced sweat secretion and aquaporin-5 expression in sweat glands of mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Huang, Yuan-Gui; Deng, Yan-Chun; Tian, Ji-Yu; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Che, Hong-Lei; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Gang

    2007-06-06

    Decreased sweat secretion is a primary side effect of topiramate in pediatric patients, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. This study aimed to better understand how topiramate decreases sweat secretion by examining its effect on the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) II and aquaporin-5 (AQP5), total CA activity, as well as on tissue morphology of sweat glands in mice. Both developing and mature mice were treated with a low (20 mg/kg/day) and high dose (80 mg/kg/day) of topiramate for 4 weeks. Sweat secretion was investigated by an established technique of examining mold impressions of hind paws. CA II and AQP5 expression levels were determined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting and CA activity by a colorimetric assay. In mature mice, topiramate treatment decreased the number of pilocarpine reactive sweat glands from baseline in both the low and high dose groups by 83% and 75%, respectively. A similar decrease was seen in developing mice. Mature mice with reactive sweat glands that declined more than 25% compared to baseline were defined as anhidrotic mice. These mice did not differ from controls in average secretory coil diameter, CA II expression and CA activity. In contrast, anhidrotic mice did show a reduction in membrane AQP5 expression in sweat glands after topiramate delivery. Thus, sweat secretion and membrane AQP5 expression in mouse sweat glands decreased following topiramate administration. These results suggest dysregulation of AQP5 may be involved in topiramate-induced hypohidrosis and topiramate may serve as a novel therapy for hyperhidrosis.

  12. Ca²⁺ signaling and regulation of fluid secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2014-06-01

    Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca(2+) signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) triggered by IP3-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and fluid secretion. This Ca(2+) influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca(2+) signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca(2+) signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of fluid secretion.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  14. Effect of ethanol on acid secretion by isolated gastric glands from rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Reichstein, B.J.; Okamoto, C.; Forte, J.G.

    1986-08-01

    Isolated gastric glands from rabbit, as well as basolateral and microsomal membranes derived therefrom, were used to examine the effect of ethanol on several parameters related to acid secretion. Low concentrations of ethanol, 0.2%-5% (vol/vol), had no effect on basal aminopyrine accumulation by isolated gastric glands but significantly potentiated aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine. In contrast, this dose range of ethanol inhibited aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This dose range of ethanol produced a similar effect on adenylate cyclase activity of basolateral membranes from isolated gastric glands, with potentiation of histamine stimulation and inhibition of forskolin stimulation. Low-dose ethanol was found to produce increased proton permeability of the apical membrane of the parietal cell but had no effect on hydrogen-potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. Ethanol (10%) significantly inhibited all parameters of acid secretion studied. Ethanol has a biphasic effect on acid secretion with potentiation of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity at low doses and inhibition of all parameters of acid secretion at high doses.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  16. Autophagy facilitates secretion and protects against degeneration of the Harderian gland

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Ulrich; Fobker, Manfred; Lengauer, Barbara; Brandstetter, Marlene; Resch, Guenter P; Gröger, Marion; Plenz, Gabriele; Pammer, Johannes; Barresi, Caterina; Hartmann, Christine; Rossiter, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial derived Harderian gland consists of 2 types of secretory cells. The more numerous type A cells are responsible for the secretion of lipid droplets, while type B cells produce dark granules of multilamellar bodies. The process of autophagy is constitutively active in the Harderian gland, as confirmed by our analysis of LC3 processing in GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. This process is compromised by epithelial deletion of Atg7. Morphologically, the Atg7 mutant glands are hypotrophic and degenerated, with highly vacuolated cells and pyknotic nuclei. The mutant glands accumulate lipid droplets coated with PLIN2 (perilipin 2) and contain deposits of cholesterol, ubiquitinated proteins, SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) positive aggregates and other metabolic products such as porphyrin. Immunofluorescence stainings show that distinct cells strongly aggregate both proteins and lipids. Electron microscopy of the Harderian glands reveals that its organized structure is compromised, and the presence of large intracellular lipid droplets and heterologous aggregates. We attribute the occurrence of large vacuoles to a malfunction in the formation of multilamellar bodies found in the less abundant type B Harderian gland cells. This defect causes the formation of large tertiary lysosomes of heterologous content and is accompanied by the generation of tight lamellar stacks of endoplasmic reticulum in a pseudo-crystalline form. To test the hypothesis that lipid and protein accumulation is the cause for the degeneration in autophagy-deficient Harderian glands, epithelial cells were treated with a combination of the proteasome inhibitor and free fatty acids, to induce aggregation of misfolded proteins and lipid accumulation, respectively. The results show that lipid accumulation indeed enhanced the toxicity of misfolded proteins and that this was even more pronounced in autophagy-deficient cells. Thus, we conclude autophagy controls protein and lipid catabolism and anabolism to

  17. Autophagy facilitates secretion and protects against degeneration of the Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ulrich; Fobker, Manfred; Lengauer, Barbara; Brandstetter, Marlene; Resch, Guenter P; Gröger, Marion; Plenz, Gabriele; Pammer, Johannes; Barresi, Caterina; Hartmann, Christine; Rossiter, Heidemarie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial derived Harderian gland consists of 2 types of secretory cells. The more numerous type A cells are responsible for the secretion of lipid droplets, while type B cells produce dark granules of multilamellar bodies. The process of autophagy is constitutively active in the Harderian gland, as confirmed by our analysis of LC3 processing in GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. This process is compromised by epithelial deletion of Atg7. Morphologically, the Atg7 mutant glands are hypotrophic and degenerated, with highly vacuolated cells and pyknotic nuclei. The mutant glands accumulate lipid droplets coated with PLIN2 (perilipin 2) and contain deposits of cholesterol, ubiquitinated proteins, SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) positive aggregates and other metabolic products such as porphyrin. Immunofluorescence stainings show that distinct cells strongly aggregate both proteins and lipids. Electron microscopy of the Harderian glands reveals that its organized structure is compromised, and the presence of large intracellular lipid droplets and heterologous aggregates. We attribute the occurrence of large vacuoles to a malfunction in the formation of multilamellar bodies found in the less abundant type B Harderian gland cells. This defect causes the formation of large tertiary lysosomes of heterologous content and is accompanied by the generation of tight lamellar stacks of endoplasmic reticulum in a pseudo-crystalline form. To test the hypothesis that lipid and protein accumulation is the cause for the degeneration in autophagy-deficient Harderian glands, epithelial cells were treated with a combination of the proteasome inhibitor and free fatty acids, to induce aggregation of misfolded proteins and lipid accumulation, respectively. The results show that lipid accumulation indeed enhanced the toxicity of misfolded proteins and that this was even more pronounced in autophagy-deficient cells. Thus, we conclude autophagy controls protein and lipid catabolism and anabolism to

  18. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model.

  19. The effect of mercury on chloride secretion in the shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Epstein, F H; Solomon, R J

    1992-11-01

    1. Mercuric chloride inhibited chloride secretion in a dose dependent way in isolated perfused rectal glands. The effect was readily apparent at a concentration of 10(-6) M and profound and irreversible at 10(-4) M. 2. The dithiol dithiothreitol (DTT) 10(-2) M completely prevented the effect of 10(-6) M mercuric chloride, reduced that at 10(-5) M and 10(-4) M, and made the inhibition at the latter concentration reversible. 3. Two organic mercurials, mersalyl and meralluride, that are effective diuretics in the mammalian kidney, and p-chloromercuribenzoyl sulfonic acid (PCMBS), that has no diuretic activity, had no effect on chloride secretion by the rectal gland. 4. The effect of mersalyl was not modified by lowering the pH of the solution perfusing the glands. 5. These results indicate that inorganic mercury and organic mercurials do not share the same mechanism of action. 6. The absence of an effect of organic mercurials on chloride transport in the rectal gland suggests that its effect on another chloride transporting epithelia, the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, is not mediated by inhibition of the chloride cotransporter or Na+, K(+)-ATPase, common to both epithelia.

  20. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  1. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands of the head. Studies on the physiology and pathophysiology of parotid secretion.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R

    1981-01-01

    Sialadenosis is a noninflammatory disease of the salivary glands of the head. It is observed in connection with endocrine disorders, malnutrition and neurologic diseases. The parotid glands are predominantly affected by a parenchymatous swelling. Based on morphologic and biochemical investigations it can be assumed that disorders of the gland's acinar protein secretion are responsible for sialadenosis. Changes in secretory behavior are caused by either excessive stimulation ('stimulatory proteodyschylia') or by inhibition of secretion ('inhibitory proteodyschylia'). The origin of these secretory disorders is very likely to be found in the vegetative nerve system. The pathophysiology of sialadenosis can therefore only be understood after elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms of salivary gland secretion. Research in the field of biophysical and biochemical principles underlying parotid secretion has made considerable progress in recent years. A comprehensive review of this new evidence is necessary for the understanding of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of sialadenosis.

  2. Chemical composition and function of metapleural gland secretion of the ant,Crematogaster deformis smith (hymenoptera: Myrmicinae).

    PubMed

    Attygalle, A B; Siegel, B; Vostrowsky, O; Bestmann, H J; Maschwitz, U

    1989-01-01

    The secretion of the hypertrophied metapleural gland of the antCrematogaster deformis contains a mixture of phenols, consisting mainly of 3-propylphenol, 3-pentylphenol, 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (mellein), 5-propylresorcinol, and 5-pentylresorcinol. The secretion is released, as a repellent, when the highly vulnerable petiolar-postpetiolar region of the abdomen is attacked by enemy ants. In addition, small amounts of the secretion are released regularly to serve as an antiseptic, which is considered the original function of the gland. The secretion also has some insecticidal properties.

  3. Calcium-sensing receptor expression and parathyroid hormone secretion in hyperplastic parathyroid glands from humans.

    PubMed

    Cañadillas, Sagrario; Canalejo, Antonio; Santamaría, Rafael; Rodríguez, Maria E; Estepa, Jose C; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Bravo, Juan; Ramos, Blanca; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Rodríguez, Mariano; Almadén, Yolanda

    2005-07-01

    In uremic patients, severe parathyroid hyperplasia is associated with reduced parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) expression. Thus, in these patients, a high serum Ca concentration may be required to inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. This study compares the magnitude of reduction in CaR expression and the degree of the abnormality in Ca-regulated PTH release in vitro. A total of 50 glands from 23 hemodialysis patients with refractory hyperparathyroidism were studied. Tissue slices were incubated in vitro to evaluate (1) the PTH secretory output in a normal Ca concentration (1.25 mM) and (2) the PTH secretory response to high (1.5 mM) and low (0.6 mM) Ca concentration. Tissue aliquots were processed for determination of CaRmRNA expression. The results showed that, corrected for DNA, parathyroid tissue with lowest CaR expression secreted more PTH than that with relatively high CaR expression (146 +/- 23 versus 60 +/- 2 pg/microg DNA; P < 0.01). Furthermore, glands with low CaR expression demonstrated a blunted PTH secretory response to both the inhibitory effect of high Ca and the stimulatory effect of low Ca. The study also showed that the larger the gland, the lower the CaRmRNA expression. Thus, large parathyroid glands produce a large amount of PTH not only as a result of the increased gland size but also because the parathyroid tissue secretory output is increased. These abnormalities in PTH regulation are related to low CaR expression.

  4. Evidence for multiple receptors mediating fluid secretion in salivary glands of ticks.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, W R; Wong, D L

    1983-01-28

    Using isolated salivary glands of the ixodid tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch, we tested the effectiveness of butaclamol and sulpiride in blocking fluid secretion stimulated by a number of agonists. (+)-Butaclamol was a potent inhibitor of dopamine, N-methyldopamine and noradrenaline (Ki congruent to 30-60 nM), but was less effective on ergometrine (Ki congruent to 310 nM). Tranylcypromine-stimulated fluid secretion in the absence and presence of (+)-butaclamol and (+/-)-sulpiride suggested that tranylcypromine's action is mediated through two receptors. (+/-)-Sulpiride, though a rather weak antagonist of ergometrine (Ki congruent to 6150 nM), was ineffectual as a dopamine blocker, indicating distinct receptor sites on this epithelium for dopamine and ergometrine. Both (+)-butaclamol and sulpiride reversed the autoinhibition associated with supramaximal levels of dopamine. Sulpiride also abolished spiperone's potentiation of dopamine. Butaclamol, on the other hand, had no such effect on spiperone's potentiation of dopamine. Finally, although the CNS of ticks contains both dopamine and noradrenaline in quantity (congruent to 650 and congruent to 370 ng . g-1 res respectively), the salivary glands contain far more dopamine than noradrenaline (congruent to 85 and congruent to 6 ng . g-1 respectively). The data support the hypothesis that dopamine is a natural transmitter substance in the tick salivary gland, and that there are distinct receptor sites in the epithelium mediating the actions of catecholamines, ergot alkaloids and butyrophenones. The physiological significance of the ergot alkaloid and butyrophenone sites is not clear.

  5. Characterization of BGTG-1, a tergal gland-secreted alpha-amylase, from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, K D; Saltzmann, K A; Neal, J J; Scharf, M E; Bennett, G W

    2006-08-01

    The protein fraction of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), tergal gland secretion was examined. SDS-PAGE separation of proteins present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion revealed a tergal gland-secreted protein, BGTG-1, at approximately 63 kDa. BGTG-1 first appeared in tergal gland secretion at 2 days postimaginal moult and the amount of protein observed increased through day 5. A 2051 bp cDNA sequence, bgtg-1, was obtained by RACE polymerase chain reaction and contains a 1494 bp ORF encoding a predicted protein of 498 amino acids. In a Northern hybridization experiment using total RNA from B. germanica tergal gland tissue, a (32)P-labelled bgtg-1 probe hybridized to an RNA approximately 2000 bp and confirmed the 2051 bp cDNA size obtained by RACE PCR. Using the BLASTx sequence similarity search tool, the top match to the bgtg-1 ORF was found to be an alpha-amylase from Drosophila kikkawai (e-value = 1 x 10(-178)). Alignment of the bgtg-1 deduced protein sequence with alpha-amylases from fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.) and yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.), revealed conserved residues throughout the ORF and sequence identities ranging from 58.4 to 58.2%. Using a gel-based assay, degradation of starch by native BGTG-1 was demonstrated in vitro and we propose that BGTG-1 may be involved in processing phagostimulatory sugars present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion.

  6. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  7. ESTROGEN-INDUCED CYTODIFFERENTIATION OF THE OVALBUMIN-SECRETING GLANDS OF THE CHICK OVIDUCT

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Peter O.; Grimley, Philip M.; O'malley, Bert W.

    1969-01-01

    The histological, ultrastructural, and biochemical changes occurring during hormone-induced cytodifferentiation of the ovalbumin-secreting glands in the chick oviduct have been studied. Marked perivascular edema is an initial response of the immature oviduct stroma to diethylstilbestrol administration and is accompanied by an interstitial migration of mononuclear cells. Mitotic activity in the immature mucosal epithelium increases within 24 hr, and glands begin to develop on days 2–4 as budlike invaginations into the subepithelial stroma. An immediate intracellular effect of the hormone is aggregation of previously dispersed ribosomes. Ribosomal zones in the nucleolus gain prominence, and there is a progressive development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the epithelial cells. Extensive profiles of endoplasmic reticulum are present in the gland cells by day 6. Fine apical progranules appear in the epithelial cells on day 2, and ovalbumin can be measured immunochemically by day 3 at about the same time that new species of nuclear RNA have been identified. Ovalbumin granules form within condensing vacuoles in the Golgi zone and begin to be released into the lumina of the gland acini at about day 6 of the treatment. PMID:5782453

  8. Synthesis and secretion of phosphorylated growth hormone by rat pituitary glands in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liberti, J.P.; Joshi, G.S.

    1986-06-13

    Rat anterior pituitary glands were incubated in buffered medium, pH 7.4, containing /sup 32/Pi. After incubation the tissue and medium were separated and a post-mitochondrial supernate (PMS) of the tissue homogenate was prepared. Gel filtration of the PMS and medium resulted in a radioactive peak which coincided with the elution volume of authentic rat growth hormone (rGH). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioactive peak under denaturing condition resulted in a protein-staining band having the same mobility as authentic rGH. Autoradiography of the gels revealed radioactivity precisely at the position of growth hormone as well as elsewhere. The specific radioactivity of the PMS (/sup 32/P)GH was estimated to be 5 to 10 times greater than that of tissue (/sup 32/P)GH. These results indicate that phosphorylated GH is synthesized and secreted by pituitary glands in vitro.

  9. ( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. )

    1987-12-01

    In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

  10. Secretion by the nasal salt glands of two insectivorous lizard species is initiated by an ecologically relevant dietary ion, chloride.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Lisa C; Lechuga, Claudia; Zilinskis, Stephanie

    2010-08-01

    Salt glands are used by some vertebrates to excrete hyperosmotic NaCl or KCl solutions in response to dietary salt loads. Control of secretion varies across taxa; some secrete in response to osmotic challenges while others secrete in response to specific dietary ions. We hypothesized that differences in control could be related to different diet-related selective pressures on herbivorous, marine, and insectivorous species. We studied control of secretion and flexibility of cation (sodium or potassium) and anion (chloride or bicarbonate) secretion in two insectivorous lizard species, Schneider's skinks (Eumeces schneideri, Scincidae) and green anoles (Anolis carolinensis, Polychrotidae). Lizards were injected daily for four days with combinations of cations (potassium, sodium, and histidine control) and anions (chloride and acetate control), isoosmotic saline, or sham injection. Secretions were collected daily and analyzed for sodium, potassium, and chloride. Both species secreted only in response to chloride; sodium appeared to have a slight inhibitory effect. Regardless of cation load, skinks secreted a combination of potassium and sodium, while anoles secreted solely potassium. In both species, total cation secretion was matched closely by chloride; very little bicarbonate was secreted. As predicted, secretion in insectivorous lizards was initiated by the dietary ion ecologically most important for these species, chloride, which otherwise cannot be excreted without significant water loss (unlike the cations, which may be excreted as insoluble urate salts). This gives further support to the hypothesis that ecological factors drive the evolution of control mechanisms in lizard salt glands.

  11. The transcriptome of NaCl-treated Limonium bicolor leaves reveals the genes controlling salt secretion of salt gland.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lyu, Ming-Ju Amy; Leng, Bing-Ying; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Limonium bicolor, a typical recretohalophyte that lives in saline environments, excretes excessive salt to the environment through epidermal salt glands to avoid salt stress. The aim of this study was to screen for L. bicolor genes involved in salt secretion by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We established the experimental procedure of salt secretion using detached mature leaves, in which the optimal salt concentration was determined as 200 mM NaCl. The detached salt secretion system combined with Illumina deep sequencing were applied. In total, 27,311 genes were annotated using an L. bicolor database, and 2040 of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 744 were up-regulated and 1260 were down-regulated with the NaCl versus the control treatment. A gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that genes related to ion transport, vesicles, reactive oxygen species scavenging, the abscisic acid-dependent signaling pathway and transcription factors were found to be highly expressed under NaCl treatment. We found that 102 of these genes were likely to be involved in salt secretion, which was confirmed using salt-secretion mutants. The present study identifies the candidate genes in the L. bicolor salt gland that are highly associated with salt secretion. In addition, a salt-transporting pathway is presented to explain how Na(+) is excreted by the salt gland in L. bicolor. These findings will shed light on the molecular mechanism of salt secretion from the salt glands of plants.

  12. Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Hani N.; Kalliny, Medhat I.; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L.

    2011-01-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO3− and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO3− secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO3− secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na+-K+-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl−-HCO3− exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na+-K+-2Cl− (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO3− secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO3− secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl− channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na+-K+-2Cl− blocker, decreased it. CFTRinh-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO3− secretion as well as stimulation of HCO3− secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined. PMID:21474426

  13. Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Nakhoul, Hani N; Kalliny, Medhat I; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L

    2011-07-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO(3)(-) and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO(3)(-) secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO(3)(-) secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO(3)(-) secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl(-) channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) blocker, decreased it. CFTR(inh)-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO(3)(-) secretion as well as stimulation of HCO(3)(-) secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined.

  14. Lipophilic compounds from the femoral gland secretions of male Hungarian green lizards, Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, only a few studies have examined the role of specific chemical compounds as sexual signals. The secreted chemicals vary widely between species but whether this variation reflects phylogenetic or environmental differences remains unclear. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 40 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male green lizards (Lacerta viridis), including several steroids, alpha-tocopherol, and esters of n-C16 to n-C20 carboxylic acids, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C20, squalene, three lactones and one ketone. We compared these chemicals with those previously found in other closely related green lizard species, and discussed how phylogenetical differences and/or environmental conditions could be responsible for the differential presence of chemicals in different lizard species.

  15. Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seifert, W.E.; Gotte, S.W.; Leto, T.L.; Weldon, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3?C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved.

  16. Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Farahmand, Miesha; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Frisbee, Eric; Milla, Carlos; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i–elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%), bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%), with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25%) tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%), bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of <0.2 nl/(cm2·min), or ~1/30th of the average basal transepithelial water loss (TEWL) in the test subject of 4 g/m2·hr or 6.7 nl/(cm2·min). The increased sensitivity of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators. PMID:27768743

  17. Mandibular and postpharyngeal gland secretions of Acromyrmex landolti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as chemical cues for nestmate recognition.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Leal, Bernardo; Cabrera, Aivlé; Hernández, José V

    2013-09-01

    volatiles. Possibly, the PPG secretion works as a matrix that absorbs MG volatiles. We report, for the first time, some mandibular gland compounds for the genus Acromyrmex and for the tribe Attini group.

  18. The Female Post-Mating Response Requires Genes Expressed in the Secondary Cells of the Male Accessory Gland in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Jessica L; Gligorov, Dragan; Maeda, Robert K; Karch, François; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-03-01

    Seminal proteins from the Drosophila male accessory gland induce post-mating responses (PMR) in females. The PMR comprise behavioral and physiological changes that include increased egg laying, decreased receptivity to courting males, and changes in the storage and use of sperm. Many of these changes are induced by a "sex peptide" (SP) and are maintained by SP's binding to, and slow release from, sperm. The accessory gland contains two secretory cell types with distinct morphological and developmental characteristics. Products of these "main" and "secondary" cells work interdependently to induce and maintain the PMR. To identify individual genes needed for the morphology and function of secondary cells, we studied iab-6(cocu) males, whose secondary cells have abnormal morphology and fail to provide products to maintain the PMR. By RNA-seq, we identified 77 genes that are downregulated by a factor of >5× in iab-6(cocu) males. By functional assays and microscopy, we tested 20 candidate genes and found that at least 9 are required for normal storage and release of SP in mated females. Knockdown of each of these 9 genes consequently leads to a reduction in egg laying and an increase in receptivity over time, confirming a role for the secondary cells in maintaining the long-term PMR. Interestingly, only 1 of the 9 genes, CG3349, encodes a previously reported seminal fluid protein (Sfp), suggesting that secondary cells may perform essential functions beyond the production and modification of known Sfps. At least 3 of the 9 genes also regulate the size and/or abundance of secondary cell vacuoles, suggesting that the vacuoles' contents may be important for the machinery used to maintain the PMR.

  19. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities.

  20. The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashli F; Menaker, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is important for regulating circadian rhythms in many animals. Light at night causes an acute suppression of melatonin in nearly all vertebrate species. A previous study found that light failed to suppress melatonin in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. This is a surprising result given that the Anolis pineal gland is intrinsically photosensitive, is a key pacemaker controlling locomotor activity, and can be directly entrained to a light-dark cycle. To find out if the lack of photic suppression is widespread in the Anolis genus, we investigated the acute effects of light on melatonin secretion in five different species of Anolis using flow-through tissue culture. We administered a two-hour pulse of bright light to isolated pineal glands during the night. The results show photic suppression of melatonin in all five Anolis species, but the suppression is weak relative to that seen in other vertebrates. Moreover, Anolis species differ in the magnitude of the effect. These findings are discussed in the context of vertebrate pineal evolution and the ecology of Anolis lizards. Given their extensive phylogenetic and ecological divergence, Anolis lizards provide a promising system for investigating the ecology and evolution of circadian organization.

  1. A Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from the Defense Gland Secretion of the Subterranean Termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki

    PubMed Central

    Negulescu, Horia; Guo, Youzhong; Garner, Thomas P.; Goodwin, Octavia Y.; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A.; Macnaughtan, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Coptotermes formosanus is an imported, subterranean termite species with the largest economic impact in the United States. The frontal glands of the soldier caste termites comprising one third of the body mass, contain a secretion expelled through a foramen in defense. The small molecule composition of the frontal gland secretion is well-characterized, but the proteins remain to be identified. Herein is reported the structure and function of one of several proteins found in the termite defense gland secretion. TFP4 is a 6.9 kDa, non-classical group 1 Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with activity towards chymotrypsin and elastase, but not trypsin. The 3-dimensional solution structure of TFP4 was solved with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and represents the first structure from the taxonomic family, Rhinotermitidae. Based on the structure of TFP4, the protease inhibitor active loop (Cys8 to Cys16) was identified. PMID:25978745

  2. Oviposition deterrent by female reproductive gland secretion in Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus.

    PubMed

    Anbutsu, H; Togashi, K

    2001-06-01

    Adult females of Monochamus alternatus are known to use palpation to recognize oviposition scars that contain eggs and to be deterred from oviposition. This study investigated the oviposition-deterring activity of a jellylike secretion deposited by the females immediately after oviposition and methanol extracts of female reproductive organs in the laboratory. When females searching for oviposition sites encountered artificial oviposition scars, they stopped walking and drummed the surface and inside of the oviposition scars with their maxillary and labial palpi. When the females encountered the artificial scars plugged with the jellylike secretion, most of them left the scars after palpation. In contrast, when females encountered artificial scars not plugged with the secretion, most of them deposited single eggs through the scars. In another experiment, most females left artificial scars treated with methanol extracts of the spermathecal gland or other reproductive organs after palpation, but most of them oviposited through the scars treated with methanol alone. The results showed that females' recognition of egg-containing scars and departure from such scars were mediated by the chemical(s) produced by their reproductive organs.

  3. Lipids in the femoral gland secretions of male Schreiber's green lizards, Lacerta schreiberi.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemoreception and chemical signals in social organization of lizards, only a few studies have examined the chemical composition of secretions that lizards use for intraspecific communication. The secretion of the femoral glands of male Schreiber's green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi) contains 51 lipophilic compounds, including several steroids, a-tocopherol, n-C9 to n-C22 carboxylic acids and their esteres, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C24, two lactones, two ketones, and squalene. These compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS. We compared these chemicals with those found in other lizard species, and discussed how environmental conditions could explain the differential presence of chemicals in different lizards. Particularly, the high abundance of a-tocopherol in this lizard is suggested to contribute to avoid oxidation of other lipids in secretions, increasing chemical stability of scent marks in the humid conditions of its habitat.

  4. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. ); Ludwicki, J. )

    1991-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

  5. [Sialochemical studies of isolated secretions of the major salivary glands of the head].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Werner, E

    1994-09-01

    The sialochemical parameters total protein, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium as well as flow rate were estimated in parotid saliva (PS) and submandibular saliva (SMS) in the course of differential diagnostics of salivary gland diseases. In addition to this the quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis based on 80 PS and 80 SMS normal secretions was performed. Sialochemistry was performed on parotid adenomas (29), carcinomas (9); sialadenosis (8); acute (8) and chronic (13) sialadenitis; dental caries (12 PS and 12 SMS); cystic fibrosis (21 PS and 12 SMS); diabetes mellitus (13 PS and 13 SMS); and hyperthyroilism (9 PS and 9 SMS). Our sialochemical analysis does not allow to distinguish between benign and malignant parotid neoplasms. The significant decrease of sodium in sialadenosis and increase of sodium and total protein in sialadenitis as well as interesting results in cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and dental caries, are emphasised.

  6. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  7. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant.

  8. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  9. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (≥70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected

  10. The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A

    2013-05-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen.

  11. THE SHARK RECTAL GLAND MODEL: A CHAMPION OF RECEPTOR MEDIATED CHLORIDE SECRETION THROUGH CFTR

    PubMed Central

    FORREST, JOHN N.

    2016-01-01

    The dogfish shark salt gland was predicted by Smith and discovered by Burger at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine. It is an epithelial organ in the intestine composed of tubules that serve a single function: the secretion of hypertonic NaCl. Many G protein receptors are present on the basolateral surface of these tubules, including stimulatory receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, adenosine A2, growth hormone releasing hormone, and inhibitory receptors for somatostatin and adenosine A1. An entirely different class of stimulatory receptors is present as C-type natriuretic peptide receptors. Each stimulatory receptor evokes powerful NaCl secretion. G protein receptors bind to Gαs to activate the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase to form cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A that phosphorylates the regulatory domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, opening the channel. The C-type natriuretic peptide receptor stimulates by activating guanylate cyclase and endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate which inhibits type 3 phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that breaks down cAMP, thereby elevating cAMP and activating the protein kinase A pathway. PMID:28066051

  12. THE SHARK RECTAL GLAND MODEL: A CHAMPION OF RECEPTOR MEDIATED CHLORIDE SECRETION THROUGH CFTR.

    PubMed

    Forrest, John N

    2016-01-01

    The dogfish shark salt gland was predicted by Smith and discovered by Burger at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine. It is an epithelial organ in the intestine composed of tubules that serve a single function: the secretion of hypertonic NaCl. Many G protein receptors are present on the basolateral surface of these tubules, including stimulatory receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, adenosine A2, growth hormone releasing hormone, and inhibitory receptors for somatostatin and adenosine A1. An entirely different class of stimulatory receptors is present as C-type natriuretic peptide receptors. Each stimulatory receptor evokes powerful NaCl secretion. G protein receptors bind to Gαs to activate the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase to form cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A that phosphorylates the regulatory domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, opening the channel. The C-type natriuretic peptide receptor stimulates by activating guanylate cyclase and endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate which inhibits type 3 phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that breaks down cAMP, thereby elevating cAMP and activating the protein kinase A pathway.

  13. The host-seeking inhibitory peptide, Aea-HP-1, is made in the male accessory gland and transferred to the female during copulation

    PubMed Central

    Naccarati, Chiara; Audsley, Neil; Keen, Jeffrey N.; Kim, Jung-Ha; Howell, Gareth J.; Kim, Young-Joon; Isaac, R. Elwyn

    2012-01-01

    Male accessory glands (MAGs) of insects are responsible for the production of many of the seminal fluid proteins and peptides that elicit physiological and behavioral responses in the post-mated female. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seminal fluid components are responsible for stimulating egg production, changing female behavior away from host-seeking toward egg-laying and mating refractoriness, but hitherto no behavior-modifying molecule from the MAGs has been structurally characterized. We now show using mass spectrometry and HPLC/ELISA that the MAG is a major site of synthesis of the biologically active decapeptide, Aea-HP-1 (pERPhPSLKTRFamide) that was first characterized by Matsumoto and colleagues in 1989 from mosquito head extracts and shown to have host-seeking inhibitory properties. The peptide is localized to the anterior portion of the MAG, occurs at high concentrations in the gland and is transferred to the female reproductive tract on copulation. Aea-HP-1 has a pyroglutamic acid at the N-terminus, an amidated carboxyl at the C-terminus and an unusual 4-hydroxyproline in position 4 of the peptide. The structure of the peptide with its blocked N- and C-termini confers resistance to metabolic inactivation by MAG peptidases; however the peptide persists for less than 2 h in the female reproductive tract after copulation. Aea-HP-1 is not a ligand for the mosquito sex peptide/myoinhibitory peptide receptor. A. aegypti often mate close to the host and therefore it is possible that male-derived Aea-HP-1 induces short-term changes to female host-seeking behavior to reduce potentially lethal encounters with hosts soon after insemination. PMID:22080116

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus (Dejean, 1828) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, M; Soković, M; Glamočlija, J; Ćirić, A; Perić-Mataruga, V; Tešević, V; Vujisić, L; Todosijević, M; Vesović, N; Ćurčić, S

    2016-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion released by adult individuals of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus (Dejean, 1828), applying microdilution method with the aim to detect minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration, has been investigated. In addition, morphology of the pygidial glands is observed. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens - eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples have showed antimicrobial properties against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Micrococcus flavus proved to be more resistant compared with other bacterial strains. More significant antimicrobial properties of the secretion are observed against Escherichia coli, which proved to be the most sensitive bacteria. Aspergillus fumigatus proved to be the most resistant, while Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium the most sensitive micromycetes. Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and antimycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as positive controls, showed higher antibacterial properties for all bacterial and fungal strains, except for P. ochrochloron, which proved to be more resistant on Ketoconazole compared with the pygidial gland secretion of L. (P.) punctatus. Apart from the role in ecological aspects, the antimicrobial properties of the tested secretion possibly might have medical significance in the future.

  15. Ultrastructural study of the salivary glands of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854) (Euhemiptera: Cercopidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2006-01-01

    Spittlebugs are insects that suck sap from plants and regurgitate saliva containing toxic enzymes into the leaves. As a consequence, the conductive channels are blocked resulting in dry leaves, thus giving a burned aspect to the plantation. This work performed ultrastructural analyses of the salivary glands of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata, since these organs produce the enzymes that are injected into the plants, thus being responsible for the economic losses in the production of sugarcane. Three kinds of secretory cells are found in principal gland, forming the lobules I-IV. The main differences among these cells relate to size, morphology and electron density of the secretory vesicles. The accessory glands contain different secretory vesicles to those in the principal gland. Muscular cells are found around the entire gland. The different secretory vesicles found in both principal and accessory glands indicate that the gland produces different substances or that the secretion in the interior of cells passes through a maturation process.

  16. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  17. Control of rectal gland secretion by blood acid-base status in the intact dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Munger, R Stephen; Thompson, Jill; Shuttleworth, Trevor J

    2007-05-14

    In order to address the possible role of blood acid-base status in controlling the rectal gland, dogfish were fitted with indwelling arterial catheters for blood sampling and rectal gland catheters for secretion collection. In intact, unanaesthetized animals, isosmotic volume loading with 500 mmol L-1 NaCl at a rate of 15 mL kg-1 h-1 produced a brisk, stable rectal gland secretion flow of about 4 mL kg-1 h-1. Secretion composition (500 mmol L-1 Na+ and Cl-; 5 mmol L-1 K+; <1 mmol L-1 Ca2+, Mg2+, SO(4)2-, or phosphate) was almost identical to that of the infusate with a pH of about 7.2, HCO3- mmol L-1<1 mmol L-1 and a PCO2 (1 Torr) close to PaCO2. Experimental treatments superimposed on the infusion caused the expected disturbances in systemic acid-base status: respiratory acidosis by exposure to high environmental PCO2, metabolic acidosis by infusion of HCl, and metabolic alkalosis by infusion of NaHCO3. Secretion flow decreased markedly with acidosis and increased with alkalosis, in a linear relationship with extracellular pH. Secretion composition did not change, apart from alterations in its acid-base status, and made negligible contribution to overall acid-base balance. An adaptive control of rectal gland secretion by systemic acid-base status is postulated-stimulation by the "alkaline tide" accompanying the volume load of feeding and inhibition by the metabolic acidosis accompanying the volume contraction of exercise.

  18. Cinacalcet Effectively Reduces Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Gland Volume Regardless of Pretreatment Gland Size in Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH <180 pg/ml. Ultrasonography was performed to measure the parathyroid gland size at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Findings were also compared with those of historical controls. Results: Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm3 (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm3 (group L). Treatment with cinacalcet effectively decreased intact PTH by 55% from baseline in group S and by 58% in group L. A slightly greater proportion of patients in group S versus group L achieved an intact PTH <180 pg/ml (46 versus 32%) and a >30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Conclusions: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:20798251

  19. Substance P modulates the time course of nicotinic but not muscarinic catecholamine secretion from perfused adrenal glands of rat.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X. F.; Marley, P. D.; Livett, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    1. Substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) are contained within the splanchnic nerve terminals in the adrenal gland and can be released in response to stress. In the rat, the release of aCh brings about secretion of catecholamines (CA) by acting on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors on the adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. In the present study, we have used a rat isolated adrenal gland preparation to investigate the effects of SP, perfused at different concentrations, on CA secretion evoked by 10(-5) M nicotine and 10(-4) M muscarine. 3. In the first 10 min stimulation period (S1), in the absence of SP, nicotine (10(-5) M) evoked substantial and equal secretion of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad). In a second 10 min stimulation period (S2), carried out 18 min after S1, the nicotinic response was desensitized. In contrast, the muscarinic response, which preferentially evoked Ad secretion in S1 (Ad/NA: 8.7/1), was well maintained in S2. 4. SP present in S1 had no effect on desensitization of the subsequent nicotinic response in S2. 5. At low concentrations (10(-7)-10(-10) M), SP changed the time course of nicotine-induced CA secretion during S1 by enhancing CA secretion in the first 4 min and inhibiting CA secretion thereafter. The maximal effect occurred at 10(-9) M SP. 6. At a higher concentration (10(-5) M), SP inhibited total nicotinic CA secretion throughout S1 and produced a biphasic secretion of CA (depressed in the presence of SP and enhanced after wash out of SP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1723914

  20. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (p<0.01). All above results indicated that rLj-NIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (p<0.05). These data suggest that Lampetra japonica-NIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  1. Glutamate Transporter-Mediated Glutamate Secretion in the Mammalian Pineal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the central nervous system where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative ‘glutamate-induced glutamate release’. Therefore we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently down-regulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland. PMID:18945893

  2. In vivo readout of CFTR function: ratiometric measurement of CFTR-dependent secretion by individual, identifiable human sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Wine, Jeffrey J; Char, Jessica E; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A C; Tran, Kim V; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (~50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ~0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with 'CFTR-related' conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  3. Amblyomma americanum salivary glands: double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing of synaptobrevin homologue and inhibition of PGE2 stimulated protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Karim, Shahid; Ramakrishnan, Vijay G; Tucker, James S; Essenberg, Richard C; Sauer, John R

    2004-04-01

    Protein secretion into the saliva from the tick salivary glands is due to exocytosis of vesicular membrane bound granular material regulated by SNARE complex proteins after salivary gland stimulation by PGE2 [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32 (2002) 1711]. Proteins associated with vesicles (v-SNAREs) are essential components of the exocytotic process. Synaptobrevin is a key v-SNARE in all secreting cells studied to date. A vesicle-associated synaptobrevin cDNA fragment homologue from the salivary glands of partially fed lone star tick females was cloned and sequenced. Double-stranded (ds) RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective method to silence specific gene expression. The functional role of synaptobrevin in protein secretion in partially fed tick salivary glands was studied with an in vitro RNAi method. Incubation of isolated salivary glands with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcribed from a tick salivary gland synaptobrevin cDNA fragment resulted in decreased expression of the transcript, a reduction in the level of synaptobrevin protein and inhibition of PGE2 stimulated anticoagulant protein secretion by isolated salivary glands. We demonstrate the applicability of RNAi for studying individual steps in the mechanism of PGE2 stimulated exocytosis in the salivary glands of ixodid ticks.

  4. Membrane interactions between secretion granules and plasmalemma in three exocrine glands

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Y; De Camilli, P; Meldolesi, J

    1980-01-01

    Three types of membrane interactions were studied in three exocrine systems (the acinar cells of the rat parotid, rat lacrimal gland, and guinea pig pancrease) by freeze- fracture and thin-section electron microscopy: exocytosis, induced in vivo by specific pharmacological stimulations; the mutual apposition of secretory granule membranes in the intact cell; membrane appositions induced in vitro by centrifugation of the isolated granules. In all three glandular cells, the distribution of intramembrane particles (IMP) on the fracture faces of the luminal plasmagranule membrane particles (IMP) on the fracture faces of the lumenal plasmalemma appeared random before stimulation. However, after injection of secretagogues, IMP were rapidly clearly from the areas of granule- plasmalemma apposition in the parotid cells and, especially, in lacrimocytes. In the latter, the cleared areas appeared as large bulges toward the lumen, whereas in the parotid they were less pronounced. Exocytotic openings were usually large and the fracture faces of their rims were covered with IMP. In contrast, in stimulated pancreatic acinar cells, the IMP distribution remained apparently random after stimulation. Exocytoses were established through the formation of narrown necks, and no images which might correspond to early stages of membrane fusion were revealed. Within the cytoplasm of parotid and lacrimal cells (but not in the pancreas), both at rest and after stimulation, secretion granules were often closely apposed by means of flat, circular areas, also devoid of IMP. In thin sections, the images corresponding to IMP-free areas were close granule-granule and granule-plasmalemma appositions, sometimes with focal merging of the membrane outer layers to yield pentalaminar structures. Isolated secretion granules were forced together in vitro by centrifugation. Under these conditions, increasing the centrifugal force from 1,600 to 50,000 g for 10 min resulted in a progressive, statistically

  5. Secretion of electrolytes, protein and urea by the mandibular gland of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1995-01-01

    Saliva was collected from the mandibular glands of anaesthetized common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) to ascertain maximal flow rates, salivary composition and possible adaptations, particularly PO4(3-) secretion, to assist digestion. After temporary catheterization of the main duct through its oral opening, salivary secretion was evoked at flow rates ranging from 0.02 +/- 0.002 (+/- SEM) ml.min-1 (0.7 +/- 0.07 microliter.min-1.kg body weight-1) to 0.4 +/- 0.05 ml.min-1 (14 +/- 1.9 microliters.min-1.kg body weight-1) by ipsilateral intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine. The [Na+] (15 +/- 5.1 to 58 +/- 8.6 mmol.l-1) and [HCO3-] (35 +/- 1.9 to 60 +/- 1.9 mmol.l-1) were positively correlated with salivary flow rate. The [K+] (58 +/- 5.2 to 30 +/- 2.4 mmol.l-1), [Ca2+] (10.4 +/- 1.67 to 4.1 +/- 0.44 mmol.l-1), [Mg2+] (0.94 +/- 0.137 to 0.17 +/- 0.032 mmol.l-1), [Cl-] (71 +/- 9.2 to 45 +/- 6.0 mmol.l-1), [urea] (9.3 +/- 0.79 to 5.1 +/- 0.54 mmol.l-1), H+ activity (29 +/- 1.6 to 17 +/- 1.6 nEq.l-1) and amylase activity (251 +/- 57.4 to 92 +/- 23.3 mu kat.l-1) were negatively correlated with flow. Both concentration and osmolality fell with increasing flow at the lower end of the flow range but osmolality always increased again by maximal flow whereas the relation between protein and flow was not consistent at the higher levels of flow and stimulation. Salivary [PO4(3+)] was not correlated with flow and at 3-14% of the plasma concentration was extremely low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Dopamine actions in vitro on enzyme and electrolyte secretion from normal and sympathectomized rat parotid glands.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, A; Henriksson, R; Sundström, S; Wester, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Adult rats were denervated unilaterally by removal of the left superior cervical ganglion or chemically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine or reserpine. Two weeks later the parotid glands were used for in vitro secretory studies and their catecholamines and major metabolites were measured. 2. Noradrenaline concentrations were reduced 2 weeks after surgical sympathectomy and reserpine pre-treatment 18 h previously, whereas 6-hydroxydopamine pre-treatment for 3 days reduced both noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations. 3. Dopamine caused a prominent amylase release from incubated control glands. However, a subsensitivity for dopamine-induced amylase release was recorded on the denervated side. 4. Dopamine caused a prominent potassium efflux measured as 86Rb+ efflux from control glands, but was without effect in denervated glands. This is in contrast to noradrenaline-induced 86Rb+ efflux which was equally effective in both denervated and control glands. 5. Dopamine caused [3H]noradrenaline efflux in control glands, but was without effect in surgically denervated glands and in glands pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine. 6. It is concluded that dopamine-induced potassium release is caused by a presynaptic action on noradrenergic nerves, whereas dopamine-induced amylase release has a presynaptic and a postsynaptic component. The results suggest a specific action of dopamine in salivary glands, with different effects on enzyme release and ionic fluxes. PMID:2473198

  7. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-Induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Sue, Mariko; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients, levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, the two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of GCs, however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intra-adrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced GC metabolism and activation of intra-adrenal cellular systems composed of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary cells, endothelial cells, and resident and recruited immune cells play a key role. Hence, dysregulated function of any of these cells and cellular compartments can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight recent insights into our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment and its role in coordination of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  8. Molecular characterization of the microbial communities in the subcaudal gland secretion of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Buesching, Christina D; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W

    2012-09-01

    Many mammals possess specialized scent glands, which convey information about the marking individual. As the chemical profile of scent marks is likely to be affected by bacteria metabolizing the primary gland products, the variation in bacterial communities between different individuals has been proposed to underpin olfactory communication. However, few studies have investigated the dependency of microbiota residing in the scent organs on the host's individual-specific parameters. Here, we used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction to investigate the microbial communities in the subcaudal gland secretion of the European badger (Meles meles). As the secretion has been shown to encode individual-specific information, we investigated the correlation of the microbiota with different individual-specific parameters (age, sex, body condition, reproductive status, and season). We discovered a high number of bacterial species (56 operational taxonomic units from four phyla: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), dominated by Actinobacteria (76.0%). The bacterial communities of cubs and adults differed significantly. Cubs possessed considerably more diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes, while in adults the communities were less diverse and dominated by Actinobacteria, suggesting that the acquisition of a 'mature bacterial community' is an ontogenetic process related to physiological changes during maturation.

  9. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-Induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Sue, Mariko; Bornstein, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the sympathetic–adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients, levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, the two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of GCs, however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intra-adrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced GC metabolism and activation of intra-adrenal cellular systems composed of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary cells, endothelial cells, and resident and recruited immune cells play a key role. Hence, dysregulated function of any of these cells and cellular compartments can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight recent insights into our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment and its role in coordination of stress-induced hormone secretion. PMID:28018291

  10. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders.

  11. The relationship between total mass and blood supply of parathyroid glands and their secretion of parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Aghajanzadeh, Pegah; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni; Maziar, Sima; Gatmiri, Sayad Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Characteristics of parathyroid glands usually determined by ultrasonography such as its total weight or volume might be a good indicator for the induction or suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from these glands. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the volume and blood supply grade of the parathyroid glands, and its PTH secretion. Study subjects included 52 consecutive patients with the secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing maintenance hemodialysis therapy referred to dialysis wards of the Imam Khomeini and Amiralam University Hospitals in Tehran. Serum intact PTH (i-PTH) was measured by an ELISA assay. The parathyroid glands characteristics were identified by ultrasonography that was performed simultaneously with blood collection. Parathyroid blood flows were evaluated by power-Doppler color imaging. There was no significant correlation between the total mass of the glands and serum concentration of i-PTH. No significant correlations were also observed between both total central and peripheral parathyroid glands blood flow and serum i-PTH level. Dialysis duration and serum alkaline phosphatase were significantly correlated in a positive manner with i-PTH level. Furthermore, serum level of i-PTH was not correlated with the total signals of glands blood flow in a multivariable linear regression analysis. Serum secreted i-PTH level might not be predictable by a total mass of parathyroid glands as well as their blood supply.

  12. [Sialadenosis of the parotid gland. Ultrastructural, clinical and experimental findings in disturbances of secretion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Donath, K

    1976-01-01

    Among the secretory disturbances ("Dyschylien") of salivary glands the sialadenosis of the parotid gland is a clinic and a morphologic definited entity. The typical clinical symptom is a bilateral, often recurrent, and painless swelling of the parotid gland. The characteristic pathological findings consist in an acinar cell hypertrophy without any inflammatory signs. According to this definition, sialadenosis has to be separated from those diseases of salivary glands, which are primarily altered by inflammation of the salivary tissue with secondary secretory disturbances. From flinical point of view it is possible to distinguish the following kinds of sialadenosis according to the syntropy with various diseases: Endocrine sialadenosis (in diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of gonads, pituitary gland, thyroid gland etc.); dystrophic-metabolic sialadenosis (malnutrition, avitaminosis, alcohilsm, chronic liver diseases etc.), and neurogenic sialadenosis (dysfunction of the vegetative nervous system, drug damages e.g. antihypertensive agents). The question arises, whether all forms of sialadenosis have a common etiology and a coincidental pathogenic factor. The following studies were carried out with the aim to find further details concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of sialadenosis. The study is based on the following material: a) 126 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with sialadenosis (Register of salivary gland diseases at the Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). This material was collected from 1965 to 1973. b) 80 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with other diseases (parotitis [4]; acinic cell carcinoma [4]; other parotid and oral tumors [72]; for comparison. c) Experimental studies on the parotid salivary glands of Wistar-rats. The biopsies of the parotid glands were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally. The investigations centered on the ultrastruct of sialadenosis

  13. The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.

    PubMed

    Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

    2012-09-01

    Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness.

  14. Effects of age and Reproductive Status on Tergal Gland Secretions in Queenless Honey bee Workers, Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2015-10-01

    Secretions from tergal glands are part of a queen's pheromonal control of worker reproduction in honey bees. However, in queenless honey bee colonies, workers compete to gain pheromonal, and hence reproductive dominance, over nestmates with ontogenetic changes in their glandular secretions that affect the behavioral or physiological responses of other individuals. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we investigated for the first time the age-dependent changes in tergal gland secretions of queenless workers of the clonal lineage of Apis mellifera capensis and workers of A. m. scutellata. The reproductive status of honey bee workers was determined by recording the presence of spermathecae and the level of ovarian activation. The tergal gland chemicals identified in both A. m. scutellata workers and A. m. capensis clone workers were oleic acid, n-tricosene, n-pentacosene, and n-heptacosene, with three additional compounds, palmitic acid, n-heneicosene, and n-nonacosene, in A. m. capensis clones. We report ethyl esters as new compounds from honey bee worker tergal gland profiles; these compounds increased in amount with age. All A. m. capensis clone workers dissected had spermathecae and showed ovarian activation from day 4, while ovarian activation only started on day 7 for A. m. scutellata workers that had no spermathecae. Tergal gland secretions were present in higher quantities in bees with activated, rather than inactive ovaries. This suggests that tergal gland secretions from reproductive workers could act as releaser and primer pheromones in synergy with other glandular compounds to achieve pheromonal and reproductive dominance.

  15. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p < 0.0001) respectively, and reached the efficacy objective of the protocol. During atorvastatin therapy and/or 3 months after its withdrawal numerous semen parameters were significantly modified, such as total number of spermatozoa (-31%, p < 0.05), vitality (-9.5%, p < 0.05), total motility (+7.5%, p < 0.05), morphology (head, neck and midpiece abnormalities, p < 0.05), and the kinetics of acrosome reaction (p < 0.05). Seminal concentrations of acid phosphatases (p < 0.01), α-glucosidase (p < 0.05) and L-carnitine (p < 0.05) were also decreased during the therapy, indicating an alteration of prostatic and epididymal functions. Moreover, we measured at least one altered semen parameter in 35% of the subjects during atorvastatin treatment, and in 65% of the subjects after withdrawal, which led us to consider that atorvastatin is unsafe in the context of our study. Conclusions Our results show for the first

  16. Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: transrectal ultrasound examination helps to understand the links.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; La Vignera, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) plus irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. In addition, another objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characterization of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum using transrectal ultrasonography. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: 1) infertility, 2) diagnosis of CBP, and 3) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following 2 age-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who had fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent an accurate patient history; administration of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively; physical examination; semen analysis; and transrectal ultrasound evaluation (limited to patients with CBP and IBS or CBP alone). A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leukocyte concentration compared with patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both groups of patients without MAGI. With ultrasound evaluation, a significantly higher frequency of dilatation of prostatic venous plexus was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (75%) compared with patients with CBP alone (10%). Patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of

  17. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  18. Mandibular gland secretions of meliponine worker bees: further evidence for their role in interspecific and intraspecific defence and aggression and against their role in food source signalling.

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Hrncir, Michael; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Schmidt, Veronika M; Barth, Friedrich G

    2009-04-01

    Like ants and termites some species of stingless bees (Meliponini), which are very important pollinators in the tropics, use pheromone trails to communicate the location of a food source. We present data on the communicative role of mandibular gland secretions of Meliponini that resolve a recent controversy about their importance in the laying of such trails. Volatile constituents of the mandibular glands have been erroneously thought both to elicit aggressive/defensive behaviour and to signal food source location. We studied Trigona spinipes and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis ('postica'), two sympatric species to which this hypothesis was applied. Using extracts of carefully dissected glands instead of crude cephalic extracts we analysed the substances contained in the mandibular glands of worker bees. Major components of the extracts were 2-heptanol (both species), nonanal (T. spinipes), benzaldehyde and 2-tridecanone (S. aff. depilis). The effect of mandibular gland extracts and of individual components thereof on the behaviour of worker bees near their nest and at highly profitable food sources was consistent. Independent of the amount of mandibular gland extract applied, the bees overwhelmingly reacted with defensive behaviour and were never attracted to feeders scented with mandibular gland extract or any of the synthetic chemicals tested. Both bee species are capable of using mandibular gland secretions for intra- and interspecific communication of defence and aggression and share 2-heptanol as a major pheromone compound. While confirming the role of the mandibular glands in nest defence, our experiments provide strong evidence against their role in food source signalling.

  19. An Experimental Study on Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Excessive Secretion after Submandibular Gland Transplantation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo; Wang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) could control excessive secretion after submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation in rabbits and its possible mechanisms. Methods. A new SMG transplantation model was established in rabbit. 30 successfully constructed models were randomly assigned to five groups including control group and four experimental groups. Secretion outputs were used to analyze the effect of BTXA injection on excessive secretion. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western blot, and immunofluorescence were performed to analyze its possible mechanisms. Results. After BTXA injection, a significant decrease of excessive secretion after SMG transplantation was found in 2 and 4 weeks groups, but no significant effect on 12 and 24 weeks groups. HE and TEM results showed that BTXA led to morphological and ultrastructural changes of acinar cells of transplanted SMG. Western blot results suggested that BTXA decreased the aquaporin-5 (AQP5) protein expression after BTXA injection for 2 and 4 weeks. Immunofluorescence results showed that AQP5 protein was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm after BTXA injection for 2 and 4 weeks, which might indicate that BTXA promoted AQP5 expression from the cell membrane to cytoplasm. Conclusion. BTXA could effectively control excessive secretion after SMG transplantation in rabbits. PMID:27840738

  20. [Investigations on the physiology of the glands of carnivorous plants : IV. The kinetics of chloride secretion by the gland tissue of Nepenthes].

    PubMed

    Lüttge, U

    1966-03-01

    The transport of chloride in isolated tissue from Nepenthes pitchers was investigated using (36)Cl(-), an Aminco-Cotlove chloride-titrator for the determinations of Cl(-) concentrations, and KCN and AsO 4 (-) -as metabolic inhibitors.The tissue was brought in contact with different experimental solutions (=medium). The surface corresponding to the outside of the pitchers was cut with a razor blade to remove the cutinized epidermal layer. At this surface the Cl(-) uptake from the medium is a metabolic process which depends on the Cl(-)-concentration of the medium in a manner that corresponds to the MICHAELIS-MENTEN kinetics. The Michaelis-constant of this transport step was 3×10(-2)M. The Cl(-)-efflux into the medium, however, is a passive process.The opposite surface of the tissue slices (corresponding to the inside of the pitchers) carries the glands. The chloride secretion taking place here is also dependent on metabolism. In vitro it occurs even when a high gradient of chloride concentration has been set up between the medium and the solution which is in contact with the glands. In vivo the Cl(-)-concentration of the pitcher fluid and the amount of Cl(-) per gram of tissue water are almost equal.The rôle of chloride in the physiology of Nepenthes is still under investigation, A correlation between the chloride content of the pitcher fluid and its enzymatic activity (Casein-test), however, could already be demonstrated.

  1. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  2. A stingless bee uses labial gland secretions for scent trail communication ( Trigona recursa Smith 1863).

    PubMed

    Jarau, S; Hrncir, M; Zucchi, R; Barth, F G

    2004-03-01

    The pheromones used by several species of stingless bees for scent trail communication are generally assumed to be produced by the mandibular glands. Here we present strong evidence that in Trigona recursa these pheromones originate from the labial glands, which are well developed in the heads of foragers. Analysis of the behavior involved in scent marking shows that a bee extends her proboscis and rubs it over the substrate. A single scent marking event lasts for 0.59+/-0.21 s while the bee runs a stretch of 1.04+/-0.37 cm on a leaf. According to choice experiments the bees are attracted by a feeder baited with labial gland extract (84.2+/-6% of the bees choose this feeder) but repelled from a feeder baited with mandibular gland extract (only 27.5+/-13.1% of the bees choose this feeder). They do not discriminate between two clean feeders (49.6+/-3% of the bees at a feeder). 87+/-5.1% of bees already feeding leave the feeder after the application of mandibular gland extract whereas only 6.2+/-4.9% and 2.6+/-4% do so when labial gland extract or pure solvent was applied.

  3. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae).

    PubMed

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Vučković, Ivan M; Makarov, Slobodan E; Ilić, Bojan S; Antić, Dragan Z; Jadranin, Milka B; Todorović, Nina M; Mrkić, Ivan V; Vajs, Vlatka E; Lučić, Luka R; Curčić, Božidar P M; Mitić, Bojan M

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

  4. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V.; Vučković, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ilić, Bojan S.; Antić, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorović, Nina M.; Mrkić, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lučić, Luka R.; Ćurčić, Božidar P. M.; Mitić, Bojan M.

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

  5. Isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from Dermacentor andersoni salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Bergman, D K; Palmer, M J; Caimano, M J; Radolf, J D; Wikel, S K

    2000-06-01

    A 36-kDa immunosuppressant protein (Da-p36) was isolated from salivary glands of feeding female ixodid ticks Dermacentor andersoni, using its affinity for UltraLink Biosupport Medium (Pierce, Rockford, Illinois)/protein complexes. Using a nested set of forward degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to Da-p36 N-terminal amino acids, a cDNA encoding the immunosuppressant protein was isolated by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The resulting 772-base pair cDNA encodes a novel protein with predicted molecular weight of 24.9 kDa. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 5 potential glycosylation sites and 1 myristylation site. Immunoblot analyses showed native Da-p36 is present in salivary glands and saliva from both male and female D. andersoni but not in salivary glands or saliva from Amblyomma americanum or Ixodes scapularis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed that Da-p36 expression is temporally regulated in salivary glands with maximum mRNA levels preceding maximum Da-p36 accumulation that occurred at day 6 of feeding. The levels of Da-p36 mRNA and protein were greatly reduced in salivary glands from near-replete females removed from sheep after 8 days of feeding. These data are consistent with a role of Da-p36 in immunosuppression during feeding.

  6. Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

  7. Chemosystematics in the Opiliones (Arachnida): a comment on the evolutionary history of alkylphenols and benzoquinones in the scent gland secretions of Laniatores.

    PubMed

    Raspotnig, Günther; Bodner, Michaela; Schäffer, Sylvia; Koblmüller, Stephan; Schönhofer, Axel; Karaman, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Large prosomal scent glands constitute a major synapomorphic character of the arachnid order Opiliones. These glands produce a variety of chemicals very specific to opilionid taxa of different taxonomic levels, and thus represent a model system to investigate the evolutionary traits in exocrine secretion chemistry across a phylogenetically old group of animals. The chemically best-studied opilionid group is certainly Laniatores, and currently available chemical data allow first hypotheses linking the phylogeny of this group to the evolution of major chemical classes of secretion chemistry. Such hypotheses are essential to decide upon a best-fitting explanation of the distribution of scent-gland secretion compounds across extant laniatorean taxa, and hence represent a key toward a well-founded opilionid chemosystematics.

  8. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  9. Metasternal gland secretion of the locust tree borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J W; Abraham, M; Highet, R J; Duffield, R M

    1988-01-01

    1. The volatile components of metasternal gland extracts of male and female Megacyllene robiniae have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. 2. The major component was identified as 2-(1,3-hexadien-1-yl)-5-methyltetrahydrofuran, a new natural product. 3. 1-Phenylethanol is present only in male extracts. 4. Acetates of hexadecanol and octadecanol are also present.

  10. Endoscopic approach to a collision tumor of growth hormone-secreting adenoma and gangliocytoma in the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Necmettin; Aydin, Ovgu; Kucukyuruk, Baris; Abuzayed, Bashar; Guler, Huseyin; Oz, Buge; Gazioglu, Nurperi

    2014-07-01

    The authors share their experience on a collision tumor of growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenoma and gangliocytoma in the pituitary gland, which was reported by few articles in the literature. Also, an intraoperative view of this tumor, operated via endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach, is presented for the first time. A 39-year-old female patient was admitted with clinical manifestation of acromegaly present in a 2-year period. Laboratory investigations revealed high levels of GH and insulinlike growth factor 1. Sellar computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar mass diagnosed as a pituitary adenoma. Based on clinical, biochemical, and radiologic evaluations, GH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed and operated by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach achieving total removal of the tumor. Histopathologic examination revealed a collision tumor of GH-secreting adenoma and gangliocytoma. Postoperative radiologic and biochemical investigations showed no residual tumor and total remission. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach promotes a close intraoperative view of sellar pathologies. We believe that a detailed histopathologic workup is necessary to diagnose collision tumors, because even a close intraoperative view does not facilitate to differentiate these tumors from a regular pituitary adenoma.

  11. Botulinum toxin injections into salivary glands to decrease oral secretions in CHARGE syndrome: prospective case study.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kim D; MacCuspie, Jillian; Corsten, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the CHD7 gene on chromosome 8. Major clinical diagnostic criteria for this heterogeneous disorder include ocular coloboma, choanal atresia/stenosis, characteristic external and internal ear abnormalities, and cranial nerve abnormalities. Patients with CHARGE syndrome often have dysphagia and are at high risk for aspiration of both upper and lower gastrointestinal secretions. The following case-report describes the use of Botulinum toxin A (Botox) to reduce excess salivary secretions in a ventilator dependant infant who would have required a tracheotomy. Thereafter, Botox was used regularly (4-5 months) to decrease the salivary secretions. This case-report is unique in that it describes the intermittent and prospective use of Botox to reduce excess salivary secretions and prevent the resulting aspiration-related complications in an infant with CHARGE syndrome.

  12. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes.

  13. Anoctamin 6 Contributes to Cl- Secretion in Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace)-stimulated Diarrhea: AN ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BISPHOSPHATE (PIP2) SIGNALING IN CHOLERA.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Joydeep; Hayashi, Mikio; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Rajsekhar; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2016-12-23

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae has been shown to contribute to diarrhea. However, the signaling mechanism and specific type of Cl(-) channel activated by Ace are still unknown. We have shown here that the recombinant Ace protein induced ICl of apical plasma membrane, which was inhibited by classical CaCC blockers. Surprisingly, an Ace-elicited rise of current was neither affected by ANO1 (TMEM16A)-specific inhibitor T16A(inh)-AO1(TAO1) nor by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTR inh-172. Ace stimulated whole-cell current in Caco-2 cells. However, the apical ICl was attenuated by knockdown of ANO6 (TMEM16F). This impaired phenotype was restored by re-expression of ANO6 in Caco-2 cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of ANO currents in HEK293 cells transiently expressing mouse ANO1-mCherry or ANO6-GFP confirmed that Ace induced Cl(-) secretion. Application of Ace produced ANO6 but not the ANO1 currents. Ace was not able to induce a [Ca(2+)]i rise in Caco-2 cells, but cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) increased. Identification of the PIP2-binding motif at the N-terminal sequence among human and mouse ANO6 variants along with binding of PIP2 directly to ANO6 in HEK293 cells indicate likely PIP2 regulation of ANO6. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of Ace stimulated Cl(-) current along with intestinal fluid accumulation, and binding of PIP2 to the proximal KR motif of channel proteins, whose mutagenesis correlates with altered binding of PIP2, is comparable with ANO6 stimulation. We conclude that ANO6 is predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it contributes secretory diarrhea by Ace stimulation in a calcium-independent mechanism of RhoA-ROCK-PIP2 signaling.

  14. Transcapillary exchange in the cat salivary gland during secretion, bradykinin infusion and after chronic duct ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, G E; Smaje, L H; Yudilevich, D L

    1979-01-01

    1. Capillary permeability-surface area products for 86Rb, [51Cr]EDTA (mol. wt. 357), [57Co]cyanocobalamin (mol. wt. 1353) and [125I]insulin (approximate mol. wt. 6000) have been measured using the single-circulation, multiple-tracer dilution technique in the in situ perfused submandibular salivary gland during parasympathetic nerve stimulation, close-arterial bradykinin infusion and following chronic duct ligation. 2. In glands with a natural blood supply, permeability-surface area for 86Rb and [51Cr]EDTA increased during parasympathetic stimulation, but this was shown to be related to the concomitant increase in blood flow rather than to a change in capillary permeability or in surface area. 3. In glands perfused at constant flow, parasympathetic stimulation led to a decrease in permeability-surface area for EDTA (-19.1 +/- 5.2%, mean +/- S.E., n = 5, P less than 0.05) cyanocobalamin (-12.3 +/- 6.0, n = 12, P less than 0.05), and insulin (-15.3 +/- 4.8, n = 11, P less than 0.02). It is suggested that this may be the result of a redistribution of flow from the acinar microcirculation to a less permeable ductal vasculature. 4. Bradykinin infusion had no significant effect on permeability-surface area for EDTA and cyanocobalamin in perfused glands. 5. In perfused glands, ligation of the submandibular duct for 3--12 days reduced permeability-surface area (ml.min-1.g-1) for [51Cr]EDTA from 5.26 +/- 0.60 (mean +/- S.E., n = 9) to 4.20 +/- 0.12 (n = 4, P less than 0.30), [57Co]cyanocobalamin from 3.22 +/- 0.12 (n = 48) to 2.02 +/- 0.08 (n = 15, P less than 0.001) and [125I]insulin from 1.52 +/- 0.07 (n = 39) to 0.72 +/- 0.23 (n = 11, P less than 0.001). PMID:119844

  15. Lipopolysaccharides, cytokines, and nitric oxide affect secretion of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by bovine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Siemieniuch, M J; Szóstek, A Z; Korzekwa, A J; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Galváo, A M; Okuda, K; Skarzynski, D J

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), nitric oxide donor (NONOate), or the combination of TNF + IL-1α + NONOate on the following: (i) secretion of prostaglandin (PG)-F(2α), PGE(2), leukotriene (LT)-B(4), and LTC(4) by epithelial cells of the teat cavity and lactiferous sinus of bovine mammary gland; (ii) messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription of enzymes responsible for arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [PTGS2], prostaglandin E synthase [PTGES], prostaglandin F synthase [PGFS], and arachidonate 5-lipooxygenase [ALOX5]); and (iii) proliferation of the cells. The cells were stimulated for 24 h. Prostaglandins and LT were measured by enzyme immunoassay, mRNA transcription of enzymes was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the cell viability was measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. All factors increased PG secretion, but the highest stimulation was observed after TNF and IL-1α (P < 0.001). Tumor necrosis factor, NONOate, and TNF + IL-1α + NONOate increased LTB(4) production (P < 0.01), whereas LTC(4) was increased by LPS, TNF, and IL-1α (P < 0.01). Lipopolysaccharides, TNF, IL-1α, and the reagents combination increased PTGS2, PTGES, and PGFS mRNA transcription (P < 0.01), whereas ALOX5 mRNA transcription was increased only by TNF (P < 0.001). Lipopolysaccharides, TNF, IL-1α, NONOate, and the combination of reagents increased the cell number (P < 0.001). Mediators of acute-clinical Escherichia coli mastitis locally modulate PG and LT secretion by the epithelial cells of the teat cavity and lactiferous sinus, which might be a useful first line of defense for the bovine mammary gland. Moreover, the modulation of PG and LT secretion and the changing ratio of luteotropic (PGE(2), LTB(4)) to luteolytic (PGF(2α), LTC(4)) metabolites may contribute to

  16. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG.

  17. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  18. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens.

  19. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R.; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S.; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  20. Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands.

  1. Common spectrum of polypeptides occurs in secretion granule membranes of different exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.S.; Cameron, P.L.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    A highly purified membrane preparation from rat parotid secretion granules has been used as a comparative probe to examine the extent of compositional overlap in granule membranes of three other exocrine secretory tissues - pancreatic, lacrimal, and submandibular - from several standpoints. First, indirect immunofluorescent studies using a polyclonal polyspecific anti-parotid granule membrane antiserum has indicated a selective staining of granule membrane profiles in all acinar cells of all tissues. Second, highly purified granule membrane subfractions have been isolated from each exocrine tissue; comparative two-dimensional (isoelectric focusing; SDS) PAGE of radioiodinated granule membranes has identified 10-15 polypeptides of identical pI and apparent molecular mass. These species are likely to be integral membrane components since they are not extracted by either saponin-sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) treatments, and they do not have counterparts in the granule content. Finally, the identity among selected parotid and pancreatic radioiodinated granule membrane polypeptides has been documented using two-dimensional peptide mapping of chymotryptic and tryptic digests. These findings clearly indicate that exocrine secretory granules, irrespective of the nature of stored secretion, comprise a type of vesicular carrier with a common (and probably refined) membrane composition. Conceivably, the polypeptides identified carry out general functions related to exocrine secretion.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor expression in the pituitary gland of adult dogs in healthy condition and with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Ochi, H; Harada, Y; Yogo, T; Kanno, N; Hara, Y

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor I (BMPRI) and BMPRII, in the pituitary gland of healthy adult dogs and in those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the BMP4 messenger RNA expression level in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma samples was significantly lower than that in the normal pituitary gland samples (P = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant differences between samples with respect to the messenger RNA expression levels of the receptors BMPRIA, BMPRIB, and BMPRII. Double-immunofluorescence analysis of the normal canine pituitary showed that BMP4 was localized in the thyrotroph (51.3 ± 7.3%) and not the corticotroph cells. By contrast, BMPRII was widely expressed in the thyrotroph (19.9 ± 5.2%) and somatotroph cells (94.7 ± 3.6%) but not in the corticotroph cells (P < 0.001, thyrotroph cells vs somatotroph cells). Similarly, in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, BMP4 and BMPRII were not expressed in the corticotroph cells. Moreover, the percentage of BMP4-positive cells was also significantly reduced in the thyrotroph cells of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue obtained from the resected ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (8.3 ± 7.9%) compared with that in normal canine pituitary (P < 0.001). BMP4 has been reported to be expressed in corticotroph cells in the human pituitary gland. Therefore, the results of this study reveal a difference in the cellular pattern of BMP4-positive staining in the pituitary gland between humans and dogs and further revealed the pattern of BMPRII-positive staining in the dog pituitary gland. These species-specific differences regarding BMP4 should be considered when using dogs as an animal model for Cushing's disease.

  3. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed

  4. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy.

  5. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken.

  6. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs.

  7. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  8. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of

  9. K(+) accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the salt gland cells of Limonium bicolor accompanies increased rates of salt secretion under NaCl treatment using NanoSIMS.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhong-Tao; Deng, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Shi-Chao; Liang, Xue; Yuan, Fang; Hao, Jia-Long; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Sun, Shu-Feng; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Recretohalophytes with specialized salt-secreting structures (salt glands) can secrete excess salts from plant, while discriminating between Na(+) and K(+). K(+)/Na(+) ratio plays an important role in plant salt tolerance, but the distribution and role of K(+) in the salt gland cells is poorly understood. In this article, the in situ subcellular localization of K and Na in the salt gland of the recretohalophyte Limonium bicolor Kuntze is described. Samples were prepared by high-pressure freezing (HPF), freeze substitution (FS) and analyzed using NanoSIMS. The salt gland of L. bicolor consists of sixteen cells. Higher signal strength of Na(+) was located in the apoplast of salt gland cells. Compared with control, 200 mM NaCl treatment led to higher signal strength of K(+) and Na(+) in both cytoplasm and nucleus of salt gland cells although K(+)/Na(+) ratio in both cytoplasm and nucleus were slightly reduced by NaCl. Moreover, the rate of Na(+) secretion per salt gland of L. bicolor treated with 200 mM NaCl was five times that of controls. These results suggest that K(+) accumulation both in the cytoplasm and nucleus of salt gland cells under salinity may play an important role in salt secretion, although the exact mechanism is unknown.

  10. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  11. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  12. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  13. Lipopolysaccharides, cytokines, and nitric oxide affect secretion of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by bovine mammary gland during experimentally induced mastitis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Bah, M M; Jankowska, K; Lukasik, K; Warmowski, P; Galvao, A M; Skarzynski, D J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-1-alpha (IL-1α), and nitric oxide donor (NONOate) on both in vivo and in vitro secretion of prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGF2α, leukotriene (LT)B4, and LTC4 by the bovine mammary gland. In the first experiment, tissues isolated from the teat cavity and lactiferous sinus were treated in vitro with LPS (10 ng/mL), TNF (10 ng/mL), IL-1α (10 ng/mL), NONOate (10(-4) M), and the combination of TNF + IL-1α + NONOate for 4 or 8 h. PGE2 or PGF2α secretion was stimulated by all treatments (P < 0.05) excepting NONOate alone, which did not stimulate PGF2α secretion. Moreover, all factors increased LTB4 and LTC4 secretion (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, mastitis was experimentally mimicked in vivo by repeated (12 h apart) intramammary infusions (5 mL) of (1) sterile saline; (2) 250-μg LPS; (3) 1-μg/mL TNF; (4) 1-μg/mL IL-1α; (5) 12.8-μg/mL NONOate; and (6) TNF + IL-1α + NONOate into 2 udder quarters. All infused factors changed PGE2, 13,14-dihydro,15-keto-PGF2α, and LT concentrations in blood plasma collected from the caudal vena cava, the caudal superficial epigastric (milk) vein, the jugular vein, and the abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). In summary, LPS and other inflammatory mastitis mediators modulate PG and LT secretion by bovine mammary gland in both in vivo and in vitro studies.

  14. Expression and secretion of human proinsulin-B10 from mouse salivary glands: implications for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rowzee, Anne M; Perez-Riveros, Paola J; Zheng, Changyu; Krygowski, Sarah; Baum, Bruce J; Cawley, Niamh X

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) mediated expression of therapeutic proteins from salivary glands can result in the delivery of biologically active proteins into the circulation where they impart their physiological function. In recent years, Ad vector delivery to salivary glands (SGs) has emerged as a viable option for gene therapy. Here, we engineered a variant of human proinsulin (hProinsulin-B10) into an Ad vector and demonstrated its ability to transduce cell lines, and express a bioactive protein that induces the phosphorylation of AKT, a key insulin signaling molecule. We also examined its expression in mice following delivery of the vector to the parotid gland (PTG), the submandibular gland (SMG) or to the liver via the tail vein and assessed transgenic protein expression and vector containment for each delivery method. In all cases, hProinsulin-B10 was expressed and secreted into the circulation. Lower levels of circulating hProinsulin-B10 were obtained from the PTG while higher levels were obtained from the tail vein and the SMG; however, vector particle containment was best when delivered to the SMG. Expression of hProinsulin-B10 in the SMG of chemically induced diabetic mice prevented excessive hyperglycemia observed in untreated mice. These results demonstrate that hProinsulin-B10 can be expressed and secreted into the circulation from SGs and can function physiologically in vivo. The ability to remediate a diabetic phenotype in a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the first step in an effort that may lead to a possible therapy for diabetes.

  15. A simple, yet accurate method for detecting and quantifying secretions from human minor salivary glands using the iodine-starch reaction.

    PubMed

    Shoji, N; Sasano, T; Inukai, K; Satoh-Kuriwada, S; Iikubo, M; Furuuchi, T; Sakamoto, M

    2003-11-01

    The lack of published information about the minor salivary glands is due in part to the difficulties experienced in collecting and quantifying their secretions. In fact, no method exists for measuring their secretions that is both simple and accurate. This investigation examined the accuracy of our newly developed method (which simply employs the iodine-starch reaction) in 10 healthy non-medicated adults. A strip painted with a solution of iodine in absolute alcohol then with a fine starch powder mixed with castor oil was placed at a designated location on the lower-lip mucosa for 2 min to collect saliva. Black-stained spots of various sizes corresponding to the individual glands could be accurately visualized. After removal of the strip, the total stained area (mm2) was calculated by digitizing the spot areas using a computer system. The correlation coefficient (r) between known volumes of saliva and stain size was 0.995, indicating a close correlation. The correlation coefficient (r) between area values obtained in the first trial in each subject (Y) and the second (X; 10 min later) was 0.963, and the simple regression equation was close to Y=X, indicating good reproducibility. The mean flow rate microl/cm2 per min) obtained by converting mean total area to volume and thence to flow rate was 0.49+/-0.26, in good agreement with published values obtained by others. These results suggest that our newly developed method allows both the distribution and secretion rate of the minor salivary glands to be observed, and that it should be of practical value due to its simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  16. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Telles, Connor J; Decker, Sarah E; Motley, William W; Peters, Alexander W; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A; Forrest, John N

    2016-12-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K(+) conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K(+) channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K(+) channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of -90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K(+) channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease.

  17. In vitro seasonal variations of LH, FSH and prolactin secretion of the male rat are dependent on the maternal pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Díaz, E; Vázquez, N; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2012-01-17

    The maternal pineal gland is involved in the seasonal rhythms entrainment. We evaluate the effect of maternal pinealectomy (PIN-X), also melatonin replacement (PIN-X+MEL) during pregnancy on "in vitro" gonadotropins and prolactin seasonal variations. Male offspring from control, PIN-X and PIN-X+MEL mother Wistar rats were studied at 31 and 60 days of age. In vitro LH release from controls was season-dependent during prepubertal and pubertal periods showing reduced values in winter. The mother pineal gland seems to be important in the entrainment of seasonal variations of in vitro pituitary LH release, since altered secretion showing very high values was observed in summer. Melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the LH response. The effect of pinealectomy upon LH secretion disappears at the pubertal phase. A different pattern was observed for FSH release, without seasonal variations at 31 or at 60 days of age in control offspring, but pinealectomy to mothers or melatonin treatment resulted in seasonal variations. Seasonal influence was also observed in the prolactin pituitary release of controls. PIN-X mother offspring showed delayed seasonal variations at 31 and 60 days of age. The effect of maternal melatonin treatment during pregnancy was observed up to 60 days of age.

  18. Cerebellin in the rat adrenal gland: gene expression and effects of CER and [des-Ser1]CER on the secretion and growth of cultured adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Albertin, Giovanna; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwick K

    2005-03-01

    Cerebellin (CER) is a regulatory peptide, originally isolated from rat cerebellum, which derives from the cleavage of precerebellin (Cbln), three types of which (Cbln1-3) have been identified in humans and rats. CER is also expressed in several extra-cerebellar tissues, including adrenal gland, and evidence has been provided that CER exerts a modulatory action on human and rat adrenal gland. Hence, we have investigated the expression of Cbln1-3 mRNAs and CER protein-immunoreactivity (IR) in the various zones of rat adrenal glands, and the effects of CER and its metabolite [des-Ser(1)]CER (des-CER) on the secretion and growth of cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed high and low expression of Cbln2 mRNA in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata-reticularis, respectively. Cbln1 was not expressed, and Cbln3 mRNA was detected only in ZG. No Cbln expression was found in adrenal medulla. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of CER-IR exclusively in the adrenal cortex, the reaction being more intense in ZG. As expected, ACTH (10(-8) M) markedly enhanced corticosterone secretion and lowered proliferation rate of cultured adrenocortical cells. CER was ineffective, while des-CER exerted an ACTH-like effect, but only at the lowest concentration (10(-10) M). Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that CER is expressed in rat adrenal cortex, and to suggest that CER conversion to des-CER by endopeptidases is needed for CER to exert its autocrine-paracrine regulatory functions.

  19. Odorous secretions in anurans: morphological and functional assessment of serous glands as a source of volatile compounds in the skin of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Andrés E; Hermida, Gladys N; Iurman, Mariana G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-03-01

    Serous (granular or venom) glands occur in the skin of almost all species of adult amphibians, and are thought to be the source of a great diversity of chemical compounds. Despite recent advances in their chemistry, odorous volatile substances are compounds that have received less attention, and until now no study has attempted to associate histological data with the presence of these molecules in amphibians, or in any other vertebrate. Given the recent identification of 40 different volatile compounds from the skin secretions of H. pulchellus (a treefrog species that releases a strong odour when handled), we examined the structure, ultrastructure, histochemistry, and distribution of skin glands of this species. Histological analysis from six body regions reveals the presence of two types of glands that differ in their distribution. Mucous glands are homogeneously distributed, whereas serous glands are more numerous in the scapular region. Ultrastructural results indicate that electron-translucent vesicles observed within granules of serous glands are similar to those found in volatile-producing glands from insects and also with lipid vesicles from different organisms. Association among lipids and volatiles is also evidenced from chemical results, which indicate that at least some of the volatile components in H. pulchellus probably originate within the metabolism of fatty acids or the mevalonate pathway. As odorous secretions are often considered to be secreted under stress situations, the release of glandular content was assessed after pharmacological treatments, epinephrine administrated in vivo and on skin explants, and through surface electrical stimulation. Serous glands responded to all treatments, generally through an obvious contraction of myoepithelial cells that surround their secretory portion. No response was observed in mucous glands. Considering these morpho-functional results, along with previous identification of volatiles from H. pulchellus and H

  20. Ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, PC; Trombetta, M; Passineau, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial utilizing Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system utilized in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Findings Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 hours and one week post-treatment (1.62+/−0.48ml, 1.87+/−0.45ml) to pre-injury levels (1.34+/−0.14ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32+/−0.6ml, 1.33+/−0.97ml). Conclusions UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model and is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial. PMID:25871828

  1. The effect of water quality on the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells and gonadotropin-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Hashem, Amal M; Khalil, Noha A

    2015-03-01

    The present experiments investigated the effect of water quality characteristics on the condition factor, the ovarian activity, cortisol level, and the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH- and melanin stimulating hormone; MSH- and somatolactin; SL- secreting cells) and gonadotropin (GTH)-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. After 3 months of exposure to mixtures of water from different sources (Tap and Lake Manzalah waters), with high levels of minerals and heavy metals, water quality affected the number, size, and immunostaining of stress-response-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GTH-ir cells, which showed a dramatic decrease in their size. The integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoreactivity of MSH- and GTH- cells was significantly increased; however, it was significantly decreased for ACTH- and SL- cells. Also, high levels of cortisol were observed in females exposed to waters with high concentrations of minerals and heavy metals. In parallel, low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI%) and the ovarian histology revealed a decrease of maturing follicles concomitant with an increase of atretic follicles in females exposed to Lake Manzalah polluted water. Taken together, the increased activity of stress-response-ir pituitary cells, serum cortisol level and ovarian atretic follicles in response to elevated concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, supports the possible role of ACTH, MSH, and SL in the adaptive stress response of fish. Therefore, minerals and heavy metals must be considered when discussing tilapia aquaculture status.

  2. Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the sheath proteins TssB and TssC, and the accessory protein TagJ/HsiE1 distinguishes type VI secretion classes.

    PubMed

    Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S; Freemont, Paul S; Filloux, Alain

    2014-11-21

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA(+) ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath.

  3. Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S.; Freemont, Paul S.; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA+ ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

  4. Accessory mental foramen

    PubMed Central

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist. PMID:22666714

  5. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  6. CRTAC1 homolog proteins are conserved from cyanobacteria to man and secreted by the teleost fish pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Redruello, Begoña; Louro, Bruno; Anjos, Liliana; Silva, Nádia; Greenwell, Roger S; Canario, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-05-15

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene expression is used as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation in stem cell-based tissue engineering. It is also transcribed outside the skeleton where at least two different transcripts are expressed in lung and brain. In the pituitary gland of the teleost fish sea bream Sparus auratus, we have found a transcript with a high degree of sequence identity to CRTAC1 family members but lacking the EGF-like calcium-binding domain encoding sequence of CRTAC1 and designated it as CRTAC2. Database searches revealed many previously unidentified members of the CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 in phylogenetically distant organisms, such as cyanobacteria, bryophyta, lancelets, and diverse representatives of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genes encoding CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 proteins coexist in teleost fish genomes. Structural prediction analysis identified the N-terminal region of the CRTAC1/CRTAC2 family members as a potential seven-bladed beta-propeller structure, closely related to those of integrin alpha chains and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D1 protein families. This relationship is confirmed by phylogenetic analysis with the N-terminal domain of sea bream CRTAC2 as the most divergent sequence. Because teleost fishes are the only phylogenetic group where both CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 genes are present, they occupy a pivotal position in studies of the mechanisms governing the specific expression patterns of each gene/protein subfamily. This will be essential to elucidate their respective biological roles.

  7. Accessory Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Ectopic breast tissue usually develops along the mammary ridges, and the incidence has been reported to be 2–6% of the general population. Occurrence of primary carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue is rare. Case Report We report the case of 59-year-old woman with accessory breast carcinoma in her left axilla. Conclusion Because an accessory areola or nipple is often missing and awareness of physicians and patients about these unsuspicious masses is lacking, clinical diagnosis of accessory breast carcinoma is frequently delayed. Therefore, a mass along the ‘milk line’ should be examined carefully, and any suspicious lesions should be evaluated. PMID:20847887

  8. Growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE: case report.

    PubMed

    Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Gut, Paweł; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Liebert, Włodzimierz; Gryczyńska, Maria; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Blanco-Gangoo, Al Ricardo; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Pituitary tumors causing acromegaly are usually macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, and they can grow aggressively, infiltrating surrounding tissues. Difficulty in achieving complete tumor removal at surgery can lead toward a strong tendency for recurrence, making it necessary to consider a means of treatment other than those currently used such as somatostatin analogs (SSAs), growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, surgical removal, and radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient diagnosed with an aggressive, giant GH-secreting tumor refractory to medical therapy but ultimately treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE. A 26-year-old male with an invasive macroadenoma of the pituitary gland (5.6 × 2.5 × 3.6 cm) and biochemically confirmed acromegaly underwent 2 partial tumor resections: the first used the transsphenoidal approach and the second used the transcranial method. The patient received SSAs pre- and postoperatively. Because of the progression in pituitary tumor size, he underwent classic irradiation of the tumor (50 Gy). One and a half years later, the patient presented with clinically and biochemically active disease, and the tumor size was still 52 mm in diameter (height). Two neurosurgeons disqualified him from further surgical procedures. After confirming the presence of somatostatin receptors in the pituitary tumor by using (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, we treated the patient 4 times with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE. After this treatment, the patient attained partial biochemical remission and a reduction in the tumor mass for the first time. Treatment with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE may be a promising option for some aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenomas when other methods have failed.

  9. Seasonal variation in volatile compound profiles of preen gland secretions of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Soini, Helena A; Schrock, Sara E; Bruce, Kevin E; Wiesler, Donald; Ketterson, Ellen D; Novotny, Milos V

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear alcohols (C(10)-C(18)) were the major volatile compounds found in preen oil, and in both sexes their levels were higher when birds were housed on long as opposed to short days. Methylketones were found at lower levels, but were enhanced in both sexes during long days. Levels of 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, and 2-pentadecanone were also greater on long days, but only in males. Among carboxylic acids (C(12), C(14), and C(16)), linear but not branched acids showed some differences between the breeding and nonbreeding conditions, although the individual variation for acidic compounds was large. Qualitatively, more sulfur-containing compounds were found in males than females during the breeding season. Functionally, the large increase in linear alcohols in male and female preen oil during the breeding season may be an indication of altered lipid biosynthesis, which might signal reproductive readiness. Linear alcohols might also facilitate junco odor blending with plant volatiles in the habitat to distract mammalian predators. Some of the volatile compounds from preen oil, including linear alcohols, were also found on the wing feather surface, along with additional compounds that could have been of either metabolic or environmental origin.

  10. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  11. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs.

  12. Evidence that growth hormone stimulates milk synthesis by direct action on the mammary gland and that prolactin exerts effects on milk secretion by maintenance of mammary deoxyribonucleic acid content and tight junction status.

    PubMed

    Flint, D J; Gardner, M

    1994-09-01

    Both PRL and GH play a role in maintaining lactation in the rat, although GH can only maintain pup weight gain at around 50% of the control value, whereas PRL can maintain weight gain close to 90% in the absence of GH. In this study we examined the effects of PRL and GH deficiency (using bromocriptine and an antiserum to rat GH) on milk yield and composition in lactating rats. Treatment with bromocriptine to suppress PRL secretion for 48 h led to a 57% decrease in milk yield with a concomitant decrease in milk protein and lactose yields, but no decrease in fat output. This led to the production of milk with a lower lactose concentration but increased concentrations of protein and particularly fat (increased 100%), which suggests that GH serves an auxiliary role by maintaining an energy-rich milk for the neonate when PRL secretion is reduced. This decrease in milk synthesis was accompanied by decreases in total mammary DNA content and increased milk sodium concentrations. The latter indicates the opening of tight junctions between mammary epithelial cells, which normally occurs during dedifferentiation and involution of the mammary gland. This suggests that PRL maintains milk synthesis at least in part by inhibiting epithelial cell loss and maintaining cellular differentiation. A deficiency in GH, by contrast, caused only a small decrease (24%) in milk yield and had no effect on the major constituents of milk or on milk sodium concentrations or total mammary DNA content. When animals were made deficient in both PRL and GH, however, there was a further marked decrease (88%) in milk volume along with the yields of all major milk constituents, confirming our previous findings that PRL and GH are the major regulators of milk synthesis. Recent studies have indicated that GH exerts direct effects on mammary gland growth, but its actions on milk secretion have been proposed to be mediated indirectly via insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). We, therefore, inhibited

  13. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding a secreted lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly is a destructive pest of wheat particularly in the soft-winter-wheat region of the United States. In a salivary gland transcriptomics study we identified a full-length cDNA encoding a lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructo...

  14. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  15. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions.

  16. The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and DβH. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of DβH-positive fibres as well as in a small population of DβH-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of DβH-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF AN INSECT EPIDERMAL GLAND

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, A. M.; Satir, P.

    1968-01-01

    The sternal gland of primitive termites of the genus Zootermopsis (Z. nevadensis or Z. angusticollus) (Hagen) seems more organized than that of higher termites, in being comprised of three cell layers. It is also studded with about 200 campaniform sensilla. Below the meshwork cuticle of the gland lies a layer of columnar epithelial cells whose apical surfaces form a brush border, and whose basal surfaces are sculptured into a basketwork into which the second layer fits. Below the brush border are small microtubule-associated pits and coated vesicles. No channels can be seen either within or, except for the sensilla, between the cells. The second cell layer probably secretes the trail-following pheromone. Numerous electron-lucent droplets and large channels containing lipid micelles are found in the cytoplasm here, but the channels cannot be traced out of the secretory layer. The third layer consists of large pyriform cells. The campaniform sensilla are composed of three cells: the sensory cell proper whose dendrite carries a modified 9 + 0 sensory process, an accessory supporting cell that secretes an electron-opaque sheath, and an enveloping cell. At the cell borders of the sensillum, regions of septate and tight junction appear. There are also septate junctions between columnar cells and possibly tight junctions between columnar and secretory cells that would open an intracellular and molecular pathway to the endocuticle. The campaniform sensilla may be part of a feedback control system that determines the amount of pheromone deposited during trail laying. PMID:5645546

  18. [Unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    2003-01-01

    Our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. Large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. These glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi and contain hydrophobic lipids. The available data substantiate revision of the data on the structure of many skin glandular organs with atypical sebaceous glands.

  19. Accessory nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Olarte, M; Adams, D

    1977-11-01

    After apparently uncomplicated excision of benign lesions in the posterior cervical triangle, two patients had shoulder pain. In one, neck pain and trapezius weakness were not prominent until one month after surgery. Inability to elevate the arm above the horizontal without externally rotating it, and prominent scapular displacement on arm abduction, but not on forward pushing movements, highlighted the trapezius dysfunction and differentiated it from serratus anterior weakness. Spinal accessory nerve lesions should be considered when minor surgical procedures, lymphadenitis, minor trauma, or tumours involved the posterior triangle of the neck.

  20. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  1. Effects of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, A23187 and calmodulin, calcium activated neutral proteinase antagonists on melatonin secretion in perifused chick pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Agapito, M T; Pablos, M; Reiter, R J; Recio, J M; Gutierrez-Baraja, R

    1998-04-10

    We have recently described, using perifused pineal glands, that calcium influx participates in the activation of chick pineal gland. This study shows that the loss of perifused chick pineal gland activity is a complex process which seems to involve the release of calcium from intracellular stores, calmodulin and calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP). Pineal glands were perifused with Krebs medium (controls) or with Krebs medium plus the drugs ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA; calcium chelator), A23187 (calcium ionophore), EGTA plus A23187 (extra-intra cellular calcium chelation), trifluoperazine and CGS9343B (calmodulin inhibitors), and E-64 (CANP inhibitor) at the time of the natural peak of melatonin release. When EGTA or A23187 were added to the perifusion medium, no effects were observed. On the other hand, when the calcium chelator EGTA plus A23187 (free extra and intracellular calcium levels were dramatically decreased), trifluoperazine, CGS 9343B or E-64 were added to the perifusion medium melatonin synthesis increased significantly and was sustained for 8 h. We propose a prominent role for calcium output from intracellular stores in regulating melatonin production primarily by acting on Ca-calmodulin and calcium-activated neutral protease.

  2. Torsion of Accessory Hepatic Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Saravanan; Jayasudha; Periasamy, Manikandhan; Rangasamy, Saminathan

    2017-01-01

    An accessory hepatic lobe is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. A 5-year-old child admitted as acute abdomen, on laparotomy found to have torsion of accessory lobe of liver, is being reported. PMID:28082782

  3. BMP-regulated exosomes from Drosophila male reproductive glands reprogram female behavior

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Laura; Redhai, Siamak; Leiblich, Aaron; Fan, Shih-Jung; Perera, Sumeth M.W.; Patel, Rachel; Gandy, Carina; Wainwright, S. Mark; Morris, John F.; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive glands secrete signals into seminal fluid to facilitate reproductive success. In Drosophila melanogaster, these signals are generated by a variety of seminal peptides, many produced by the accessory glands (AGs). One epithelial cell type in the adult male AGs, the secondary cell (SC), grows selectively in response to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. This signaling is involved in blocking the rapid remating of mated females, which contributes to the reproductive advantage of the first male to mate. In this paper, we show that SCs secrete exosomes, membrane-bound vesicles generated inside late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs). After mating, exosomes fuse with sperm (as also seen in vitro for human prostate-derived exosomes and sperm) and interact with female reproductive tract epithelia. Exosome release was required to inhibit female remating behavior, suggesting that exosomes are downstream effectors of BMP signaling. Indeed, when BMP signaling was reduced in SCs, vesicles were still formed in MVBs but not secreted as exosomes. These results demonstrate a new function for the MVB–exosome pathway in the reproductive tract that appears to be conserved across evolution. PMID:25154396

  4. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  5. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  6. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  7. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  8. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  9. A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J S; Needham, M; Parker, M G

    1987-01-01

    A full length cDNA clone encoding a mouse prostatic secretory glycoprotein (p12) whose synthesis is dependent upon testicular androgens has been cloned and characterized. The predicted amino acid sequence of p12 shares extensive homology with several members of the Kazal family of secretory protease inhibitors, in particular the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors. In agreement with sequence data, prostatic secretory p12, purified from mouse ventral prostate secretion, exhibits anti-trypsin activity. Steady-state levels of protease inhibitor mRNA in ventral prostate are reduced from approximately 0.06% in normal mice to undetectable after androgen withdrawal but are inducible within 4 h by re-administration of testosterone. Androgen-dependent expression of the secretory protease inhibitor mRNA was also observed in coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. In seminal vesicle, a tissue of different embryonic origin to the prostate, the kinetics of secretory protease inhibitor mRNA loss after castration are not as rapid as in the ventral prostate and coagulating gland. Low-level androgen independent expression was also observed in the pancreas. There appears to be a single gene for this secretory protease inhibitor and yet expression is markedly stimulated by testosterone in the sex accessory tissues and unaffected by this hormone in the pancreas. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3428272

  10. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  11. Endoscopic Accessory Navicular Synchondrosis Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of accessory navicular bones are symptomatic, and most of these are type II accessory navicular bones. A separation of the synchondrosis is considered one of the main causes of pain. After an injury to the synchondrosis has resulted in a chondro-osseous disruption, the combined forces of tension and shear from the posterior tibial tendon and the foot aggravate the injury and prevent it from healing. Fusion of the synchondrosis is a logical surgical treatment option if the pain is recalcitrant to conservative measures. The purpose of this technical note is to report an endoscopic approach to achieve fusion. It has the advantages of better cosmesis, less scar pain, less risk of nonunion, and potential to examine the tibialis posterior tendon and the talonavicular joint.

  12. Low-dose Bisphenol A Activates Cyp11a1 Gene Expression and Corticosterone Secretion in Adrenal Gland via the JNK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, I-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Lin, Jyun-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Certain commonly used compounds that interfere with the functions of the endocrine system are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA) is an EDC that is widely used in food containers. BPA levels in human sera are commonly observed to be approximately 1-100 nM. Compared with the effects of BPA on the gonads, its effects on the adrenal gland are poorly understood. To investigate the influence of BPA on steroidogenesis, we examined the activity of the steroidogenic gene Cyp11a1 and its regulatory pathways in mouse Y1 adrenal cortex cells. Treatment with BPA at < 100 µM did not cause cell death. However, increased promoter activity and protein expression of Cyp11a1 were induced by low doses of BPA (10-1000 nM). Moreover, BPA induced c-Jun phosphorylation, and a specific inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) significantly suppressed BPA-induced steroidogenesis. Thus, treatment of adrenal cells with low doses of BPA activated Cyp11a1 and increased corticosterone production through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway. Identical results were observed in rats after BPA injection. The abnormal induction of hormone synthesis by BPA in the adrenal gland might be linked to human metabolic defects and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared. Catheterized mice had higher levels of IL-6 than did control mice, but other cytokine levels did not differ between the groups. No significant difference in body weight was found. The histology revealed inflammatory and regenerative (healing) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models. PMID:27832170

  14. Discovery of a disused desaturase gene from the pheromone gland of the moth Ascotis selenaria, which secretes an epoxyalkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masataka G; Katsuma, Susumu; Ito, Katsuhiko; Rong, Yu; Matsumoto, Shogo; Ando, Tetsu; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-11-29

    Female Ascotis selenaria (Geometridae) moths use 3,4-epoxy-(Z,Z)-6,9-nonadecadiene, which is synthesized from linolenic acid, as the main component of their sex pheromone. While the use of dietary linolenic or linoleic fatty acid derivatives as sex pheromone components has been observed in moth species belonging to a few families including Geometridae, the majority of moths use derivatives of a common saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, as their sex pheromone components. We attempted to gain insight into the differentiation of pheromone biosynthetic pathways in geometrids by analyzing the desaturase genes expressed in the pheromone gland of A. selenaria. We demonstrated that a Δ11-desaturase-like gene (Asdesat1) was specifically expressed in the pheromone gland of A. selenaria in spite of the absence of a desaturation step in the pheromone biosynthetic pathway in this species. Further analysis revealed that the presumed transmembrane domains were degenerated in Asdesat1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Asdesat1 anciently diverged from the lineage of Δ11-desaturases, which are currently widely used in the biosynthesis of sex pheromones by moths. These results suggest that an ancestral Δ11-desaturase became dysfunctional in A. selenaria after a shift in pheromone biosynthetic pathways.

  15. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  16. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  18. GABAA receptor sites modulating catecholamine secretion in the rat adrenal gland: evidence from 3H-muscimol autoradiography and in vivo functional studies.

    PubMed

    Amenta, F; Collier, W L; Erdö, S L; Giuliani, S; Maggi, C A; Meli, A

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of specific 3H-muscimol binding sites, most probably identical with A type gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, were studied in sections of the rat adrenal gland by light microscope autoradiography. Specific binding was found primarily in the adrenal medulla, in association with chromaffin cells. A limited number of binding sites was also observed within the adrenal cortex. In urethane-anaesthetized hexamethonium-pretreated rats, intravenous GABA produced a set of 'excitatory' cardiovascular effects (increase in heart rate, force of contraction and blood pressure) which were mimicked by intravenous muscimol but not by intravenous baclofen, and were antagonized by pretreatment with bicuculline. The cardiovascular excitatory effects of intravenous GABA were unaffected by reserpine pretreatment, markedly reduced by administration of phentolamine plus propranolol, and almost completely abolished by adrenalectomy. Our findings indicate the presence of GABA receptor sites on adrenal chromaffin cells, whose excitation can produce changes in cardiovascular function.

  19. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  20. The adrenal glands and their functions.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Deepthi C; Wijesiriwardene, Bandula

    2007-09-01

    The adrenal glands secrete hormones essential for metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, and sodium and glucose homeostasis. Hypo- or hypersecretion of these hormones is life threatening. Understanding the physiological functions of adrenal hormones is a prerequisite to the management of adrenal gland disease.

  1. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide.

  2. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  3. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  4. Intrahepatic accessory spleen: imaging features.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Luciano; Caputo, Maria; Galati, Gaspare

    2004-06-01

    The authors present a case report of a 60-year-old man with a hepatic unknown mass. For diagnosis, they used ECO, CT (with and without contrast), MR (with and without contrast) and an ultrasound-assisted percutaneous lesion biopsy. Thus the mass-lesion in the liver appeared to be an intrahepatic accessory spleen in a patient afflicted with chronic hepatitis.

  5. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Kumar, S

    2009-07-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism. They typically present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and rarely can be asymptomatic. TSH secreting tumors account for 1 percent of all pituitary adenoma. They are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis in which adenomas completely or partially lose feedback regulation of thyroid hormones and lead to sustained stimulation of thyroid gland. The most definitive treatment of thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is transsphenoidal removal of tumor after restoring euthyroidism. We report a case of pituitary adenoma associated with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or...

  7. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  8. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  9. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  10. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells.

  11. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

    2012-01-01

    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  12. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  13. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    PubMed

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  14. Histological and histochemical observations on the foot glands in some byssus-bearing bivalves of the Waltair coast.

    PubMed

    Banu, A; Shyamasundari, K; Rao, K H

    1980-09-01

    The glands responsible for the formation of the byssus threads in Arca symmetrica, Barbatia obliquata and Septifer bilocularis are the white gland, phenol gland and enzyme gland. Besides these, mucous glands are also present in the sub-epithelia. The size and shape of the cells of these glands vary in one and the same species. From histochemical investigations it has been revealed that these glands contain 1,2-glycol groups in addition to disulphides and sulphhydryls. The white gland secretes a protein material and the phenol gland is rich in phenols. These two combine to form a phenolic protein which is acted upon by a polyphenol oxidase secreted by the enzyme gland and leads to the formation of a byssus thread. The mucous gland cells secrete acid mucopolysaccharides, neutral mucins and glycoproteins.

  15. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  16. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  17. [The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands in evolutionary perspective].

    PubMed

    Chernova, O F

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands is considered based on the analysis of the literature and our own original data with the focus on the issues of gland polymorphism and specific features in postnatal development (from the case study of circumanal hepatoid glands of newborn domestic dogs), including the features reflecting the evolutionary relationships of various types of cutaneous glands. The hepatoid glands are a component of the glandular complex ofthe hair follicle, which also includes sebaceous and sweat glands; have a specific structure; and produce protein secretion by a merocrine pathway. Characteristic of these glands are wide polymorphism, sex- and age-related differences in the degree of development, occurrence in only a few phylogenetically related mammalian taxa (even-toed ungulates and carnivores); and a signaling type of their secretion. The data support the "generative concept," relying on the idea of a separate and independent origination of diverse derivatives of the external integuments.

  18. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  19. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  20. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  1. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  2. Trace element transport in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity to adapt to maternal deficiency or excess of iron, copper, and zinc and to homeostatically control milk concentrations of these essential nutrients. Similarly, it can regulate changes in concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc change during lactation. For iron, this regulation is achieved by transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, whereas mammary gland copper metabolism is regulated by Ctr1, ATP7A, and ATP7B. Zinc homeostasis is complex, involving both zinc importers (Zip3) and zinc exporters (ZnT-1, ZnT-2, and ZnT-4). Both transcriptional and post-translational regulation can affect protein abundance and cellular localization of these transporters, finely orchestrating uptake, intracellular trafficking, and secretion of iron, copper, and zinc. The control of mammary gland uptake and milk secretion of iron, copper, and zinc protects both the mammary gland and the breast-fed infant against deficiency and excess of these nutrients.

  3. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland.

  4. (210)Po secretion from sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja

    2017-02-01

    The results of the research indicated that the (210)Po activity concentration in sweat samples was between 0.22 ± 0.03 to 2.10 ± 0.15 mBq·g(-1) d.w. The obtained results of the studies showed that smoking and eating fish led to higher activity concentrations of (210)Po in sweat in comparison to the control group. Statistical analysis of (210)Po activity concentrations in sweat samples showed significant differences between control, smoking, fish eating and age groups, while no significant differences was found for (210)Po between volunteers as far as gender is concerned.

  5. The salivary gland and salivary enzymes of the giant waterbugs (Heteroptera; Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Swart, C C; Deaton, L E; Felgenhauer, B E

    2006-09-01

    The giant waterbugs are predators that utilize extra-oral digestion and are known to capture a wide variety of prey. Herein we describe the differences in salivary enzyme composition between large and small species of giant waterbug (Lethocerus uhleri, Lethocerinae and Belostoma lutarium, Belostomatinae, respectively). The saliva of L. uhleri contains 3 proteolytic enzymes and no amylase, while the salivary gland of B. lutarium produces 2 proteolytic enzymes and amylase. This fundamental difference in salivary enzyme composition correlates with the difference in diet preference between the Lethocerinae and Belostomatinae. Furthermore, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary gland complex of B. lutarium and present data on the division of labor with respect to compartmentalization of enzyme production. Proteolytic enzymes are produced in the accessory salivary gland and amylase is produced in the main salivary gland lobe. This is the first reported evidence of protease production in the accessory salivary gland in the Heteroptera.

  6. Extracranial spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Donner, T R; Kline, D G

    1993-06-01

    Eighty-three consecutive patients with extracranial accessory nerve injury seen over a 12-year period are reviewed. The most common etiology was iatrogenic injury to the nerve at the time of previous surgery. Such operations were usually minor in nature and often related to lymph node or benign tumor removal. Examination usually distinguished winging due to trapezius weakness from that of serratus anterior palsy. Trapezius weakness was seen in all cases. Sternocleidomastoid weakness was unusual. Patients with accessory palsy were evaluated by both clinical and electromyographic studies. Patients who exhibited no clinical or electrical evidence of regeneration were operated on (44 cases). Based on intraoperative nerve action potential studies, 8 lesions in continuity had neurolysis alone. Resection with repair either by end-to-end suture or by grafts was necessary in 31 cases. One case had suture removed from nerve, two had nerve placed into target muscle, and two had more proximal neurotization. Function was usually improved in both operative and nonoperative patients. Related anatomy is discussed.

  7. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  8. Submaxillary gland mucocele: presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Boneu-Bonet, Fernando; Vidal-Homs, Enric; Maizcurrana-Tornil, Aránzazu; González-Lagunas, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The term mucocele is referred to two concepts: the extravasation cysts resulting from salivary glandular duct rupture, with mucin leakage into the surrounding peri-glandular soft tissue, and the retention cysts, caused by a glandular duct obstruction and resulting in a decrease or even an absence of glandular secretion. Mucocele can not be considered as a true cyst because its wall lacks an epithelial lining. These lesions are very common in the minor salivary glands (particularly in the labial glands), but are very infrequent in the major salivary glands--including the submaxillary glands. The present study describes a clinical case of a right submaxillary gland mucocele resolved by surgical treatment and reviews the differential diagnosis with other clinical entities.

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  13. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  14. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and

  15. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Guz, Nurper; Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia; Aksoy, Serap

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae that pupariate shortly after birth. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of two reproduction-associated genes and their products synthesized during the first and second gonotrophic cycles. The proteins studied include a putative yolk protein, Glossina morsitans morsitans yolk protein 1 (GmmYP1) and the major protein found in tsetse “milk” secretions (Glossina morsitans morsitans milk gland protein, GmmMGP). Developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of GmmYP1 show its presence exclusively in the reproductive tract of the fly during oogenesis, suggesting that GmmYP1 acts as a vitellogenic protein. Transcripts for GmmMGP are present only in the milk gland tissue and increase in coordination with the process of larvigenesis. Similarly, GmmMGP can be detected at the onset of larvigenesis in the milk gland, and is present during the full duration of pregnancy. Expression of GmmMGP is restricted to the adult stage and is not detected in the immature developmental stages. These phenomena indicate that the protein is transferred from mother to larvae as nourishment during its development. These results demonstrate that both GmmYP1 and GmmMGP are involved in tsetse reproductive biology, the former associated with the process of oogenesis and the latter with larvigenesis. PMID:17046784

  16. Ultrastructure of the Intramandibular Gland of Workers and Queens of the Stingless Bee, Melipona quadrifasciata

    PubMed Central

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F.; Abdalla, Fábio C.

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste. PMID:22220493

  17. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  18. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  19. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  20. Normal Variants: Accessory Muscles About the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Accessory muscles around the ankle are commonly encountered as incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging. Mostly asymptomatic, accessory muscles sometimes mimic mass lesions. They have been implicated as the cause of tarsal tunnel syndrome, impingement of surrounding structures, and chronic pain. Distinguishing these muscles can be challenging, because some travel along a similar path. This article describes these accessory muscles in detail, including their relationships to the aponeurosis of the lower leg. An imaging algorithm is proposed to aid in identification of these muscles, providing a valuable tool in diagnostic accuracy and subsequent patient management.

  1. [Lectin histochemical studies on the musk gland in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus)].

    PubMed

    Aoki-Komori, S; Saito, T R; Umeda, M; Sugiyama, M; Takahashi, K W; Taniguchi, K

    1993-07-01

    The musk gland of the adult house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes was studied lectin histochemically. The musk gland was a kind of scent gland, consisted of congregation of branched or unbranched simple tubuloalveolar gland holocrine in nature and was attached by an apocrine gland-like structure (sweat gland) in the deeper layer of its periphery. Acinar cells of the musk gland were distinguishable into three type from basal to luminal parts of the acinus; immature cells, mature cells and degenerating cells. There was no histological difference between both sexes. Lectin-binding pattern of the musk gland was examined in comparison with that of the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland by histochemical staining techniques using seven lectins: ConA, RCA I, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, DBA, WGA, WGA and PNA labelled the duct of the musk gland more intense than the acinus. Several lectins showed a tendency to label the cells situated near the luminal surface more intense than those near the basement membrane in both the acinus and duct of the musk gland. In the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland, the lectin-binding pattern was different with each other and from that in the musk gland. These findings suggest that the musk gland, sweat gland, and ordinary sebaceous gland are different to each other in nature of cells and the secretion.

  2. The aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.

  3. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  4. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  5. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  6. Minor salivary glands as a major source of secretory immunoglobin A in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J M; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1975-12-19

    Secretory immunoglobulin A is the predominant immunoglobulin in labial minor salivary gland secretions. Its mean concentration is four times higher in these secretions than in parotid gland secretion. The minor salivary glands can produce 30 to 35 percent of the immunoglobulin A that enters the oral cavity. This, together with the potential accessibility of these glands to antigenic stimulation, suggest that they may be an important source of the immune factors that are involved in the regulation of the microorganisms in the oral environment.

  7. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  8. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  9. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  19. Clasper gland morphology and development in Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Anaya-López, Paola; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Clasper gland morphology and development in Potamotrygon magdalenae and its relation with the acquisition of reproductive maturity is described in males of different developmental stages (embryos, neonates, juveniles, and reproductively active and resting adults). The glands are subcutaneous masses in the proximal base of each clasper. They are partially bilobate organs with a ventral groove that bears a row of papillae. Glands tend to be asymmetric, the left gland has a larger size, a trend that has been observed in other organs of elasmobranchs. Glands are formed by radially organized tubular secretory units lined with a simple columnar epithelium with basal nuclei and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm; vascularized loose connective tissue surrounds the gland units. The gland is covered by two layers of striated muscle tissue in circular and longitudinal arrangement. The clasper glands begin to develop in neonates and their secretory activity begins in juveniles. The active secretion of the clasper gland is observed in mature males, it includes glycoproteins and sulfated mucopolysaccharides. The size of the glands has a positive and direct relationship with body size, measured as disc width. Significant differences in clasper gland size were found between mature (active and resting) and immature (neonates and juveniles) males, suggesting that the acquisition of the sexual maturity involves the increase in the size of the gland due to a highly augmented secretory activity. Therefore, clasper glands are clearly associated with the reproductive activity of males and their secretion should have an endocrine control as other sexual secondary organs. J. Morphol. 278:369-379, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  1. Adaptive Evolution in Rodent Seminal Vesicle Secretion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nathaniel L.; Nguyen, Eric D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins involved in reproductive fitness have evolved unusually rapidly across diverse groups of organisms. These reproductive proteins show unusually high rates of amino acid substitutions, suggesting that the proteins have been subject to positive selection. We sought to identify seminal fluid proteins experiencing adaptive evolution because such proteins are often involved in sperm competition, host immunity to pathogens, and manipulation of female reproductive physiology and behavior. We performed an evolutionary screen of the mouse prostate transcriptome for genes with elevated evolutionary rates between mouse and rat. We observed that secreted rodent prostate proteins evolve approximately twice as fast as nonsecreted proteins, remarkably similar to findings in the primate prostate and in the Drosophila male accessory gland. Our screen led us to identify and characterize a group of seminal vesicle secretion (Svs) proteins and to show that the gene Svs7 is evolving very rapidly, with many amino acid sites under positive selection. Another gene in this group, Svs5, showed evidence of branch-specific selection in the rat. We also found that Svs7 is under selection in primates and, by using three-dimensional models, demonstrated that the same regions have been under selection in both groups. Svs7 has been identified as mouse caltrin, a protein involved in sperm capacitation, the process responsible for the timing of changes in sperm activity and behavior, following ejaculation. We propose that the most likely explanation of the adaptive evolution of Svs7 that we have observed in rodents and primates stems from an important function in sperm competition. PMID:18718917

  2. Smallpox vaccination techniques. 2. Accessories and aftercare.

    PubMed

    Baxby, Derrick

    2003-03-28

    The various accessories used for smallpox vaccination are surveyed. These included modified vaccination instruments and various other items which facilitated the procedure, containers for preservation and transport of vaccine, sterilising equipment, aids to interpretation and recording, and a variety of skin preparations and dressings. Three phases can be discerned in the development and use of such items and procedures. Initially, in the pre-bacteriological era, there was little need for accessory equipment apart from the means of preserving and transporting vaccine. Later, particularly by the end of the 19th century, the importance of aseptic and antiseptic procedures was realised, use was made of more traumatic vaccination techniques and glass capillaries became the standard method for preservation and transport. All this led to the increasing availability of a wide range of accessories, particularly of skin preparations and dressings. Finally, from about 1930, it was appreciated that skin preparation and dressings were often unnecessary, and could be counter-productive. So, although accessories for this were still available their use was very much reduced. In some respects the use of accessories during this last phase, based on scientific analysis was a return to the earliest, 'pre-scientific', era.

  3. Volatile compounds from anal glands of the wolverine, Gulo gulo.

    PubMed

    Wood, William F; Terwilliger, Miranda N; Copeland, Jeffrey P

    2005-09-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, and a compound tentatively identified as 2-methyldecanoic acid. The highly odoriferous thietanes and dithiolanes found in anal gland secretions of some members of the Mustelinae [ferrets, mink, stoats, and weasels (Mustela spp.) and zorillas (Ictonyx spp.)] were not observed. The composition of the wolverine's anal gland secretion is similar to that of two other members of the Mustelinae, the pine and beech marten (Martes spp.).

  4. Dufour glands in the hymenopterans (Apidae, Formicidae, Vespidae): a review.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, F C; da Cruz-Landim, C

    2001-02-01

    Associated to the sting apparatus of the aculeate hymenopterans is found the poison gland, originated from the glands associated to the ovipositor of the non-aculeate hymenopterans and the less derived Dufour gland, homologue of the coletterial gland of other insects, and found in all hymenopteran females. The Dufour gland functions is mostly uncertain in hymenopterans but in ants it is involved with communication and defense and in non social bees with the nest building and protection. In wasps possibly with kin-recognition. Differences in morphology and chemical composition of the gland secretion were observed among species, in the same species, between the castes in the social species and among individual of the same caste playing different tasks or belonging to different nest. Its original function of egg-protective substance producing, or favoring the oviposition, appear to have been replaced or complemented in hymenopterans by the production of semiochemicals with function in communication.

  5. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  6. Nonneoplastic disorders of the eccrine glands.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, F G; Horn, T D

    1998-01-01

    Eccrine glands are uniquely susceptible to a variety of pathologic processes. Alteration in the rate of sweat secretion manifests as hypohidrosis and hyperhidrosis. Obstruction of the eccrine duct leads to miliaria. The excretion of drugs into eccrine sweat may be a contributory factor in neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH), syringosquamous metaplasia (SSM), coma bulla, and erythema multiforme (EM). Alterations in the electrolyte composition of eccrine sweat can be observed in several systemic diseases, most notably cystic fibrosis. This article summarizes current knowledge of eccrine gland pathophysiology.

  7. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  8. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  9. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  10. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  11. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  12. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  13. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  14. Making Plants Break a Sweat: the Structure, Function, and Evolution of Plant Salt Glands

    PubMed Central

    Dassanayake, Maheshi; Larkin, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes. Salt secretion via salt glands is found in more than 50 species in 14 angiosperm families distributed in caryophyllales, asterids, rosids, and grasses. The salt glands of these distantly related clades can be grouped into four structural classes. Although salt glands appear to have originated independently at least 12 times, they share convergently evolved features that facilitate salt compartmentalization and excretion. We review the structural diversity and evolution of salt glands, major transporters and proteins associated with salt transport and secretion in halophytes, salt gland relevant gene expression regulation, and the prospect for using new genomic and transcriptomic tools in combination with information from model organisms to better understand how salt glands contribute to salt tolerance. Finally, we consider the prospects for using this knowledge to engineer salt glands to increase salt tolerance in model species, and ultimately in crops.

  15. Endometrial glands are required for preimplantation conceptus elongation and survival.

    PubMed

    Gray, C A; Taylor, K M; Ramsey, W S; Hill, J R; Bazer, F W; Bartol, F F; Spencer, T E

    2001-06-01

    Endometrial glands secrete molecules hypothesized to support conceptus growth and development. In sheep, endometrial gland morphogenesis occurs postnatally and can be epigenetically ablated by neonatal progestin exposure. The resulting stable adult uterine gland knockout (UGKO) phenotype was used here to test the hypothesis that endometrial glands are required for successful pregnancy. Mature UGKO ewes were bred repeatedly to fertile rams, but no pregnancies were detected by ultrasound on Day 25. Day 7 blastocysts from normal superovulated ewes were then transferred synchronously into Day 7 control or UGKO ewes. Ultrasonography on Days 25-65 postmating indicated that pregnancy was established in control, but not in UGKO ewes. To examine early uterine-embryo interactions, four control and eight UGKO ewes were bred to fertile rams. On Day 14, their uteri were flushed. The uterus of each control ewe contained two filamentous conceptuses of normal length. Uteri from four UGKO ewes contained no conceptus. Uteri of three UGKO ewes contained a single severely growth-retarded tubular conceptus, whereas the remaining ewe contained a single filamentous conceptus. Histological analyses of these uteri revealed that endometrial gland density was directly related to conceptus survival and developmental state. Day 14 UGKO uteri that were devoid of endometrial glands did not support normal conceptus development and contained either no conceptuses or growth-retarded tubular conceptuses. The Day 14 UGKO uterus with moderate gland development contained a filamentous conceptus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that endometrial glands and, by inference, their secretions are required for periimplantation conceptus survival and development.

  16. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  17. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  18. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  19. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  10. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  11. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  12. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  2. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  3. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  3. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  7. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  14. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  15. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  3. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  4. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  5. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed.

  6. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  7. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Sommer, John Lambert

    1953-01-01

    The prostate of the dog was relocated permanently in the perineum where its size could be measured and correlated with the output of prostatic secretion during many months. The secretion of a submaxillary gland obtained through a fistula was utilized as an internal biologic standard of the effects of pilocarpine, the secretory stimulus employed, because the amount and route of administration of the alkaloid are critical factors in inducing secretion. Prostatic secretion was found to be profoundly affected by androgenic and estrogenic compounds, in contrast to salivation. The curves of the secretory response of the prostate and submaxillary glands to pilocarpine proved to be similar and a mathematical formula has been constructed to represent them. When testosterone propionate was administered in increasing quantities for periods of weeks at each level, the volume of the prostate increased in a series of flattened curves. This volume, under the conditions mentioned, was found to stand in a simple arithmetic relationship to the amount of testosterone propionate administered. Moderate quantities of testosterone propionate masked the effects of small amounts of stilbestrol on the prostate. The reverse was also true and the critical amounts of these compounds were defined. The amounts of stilbestrol were determined which lowered the quantity of prostatic secretion resulting from the simultaneous administration of moderate amounts of testosterone propionate in castrate dogs, the result being a level and flat secretory curve which was maintained for many weeks. We designate this effect the plateau phenomenon. When this amount of estrogen was continued, and the dosage of testosterone propionate greatly augmented, the prostatic secretion did not increase in volume. Very slight increases above the critical amount of stilbestrol, however, caused the secretory curve to fall to new and still lower levels though the secretion was never completely suppressed. The acid phosphatase

  8. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Masina, M. H.; Eichelberger, Lillian; Wharton, James D.

    1939-01-01

    A simple isolation of the prostate enabled quantitative collection of prostatic secretion in dogs over periods of months. The secretory stimulant was pilocarpine and 2 similar amounts injected with a 6 hour interval gave smaller amounts at the second testing, suggesting a fatigue effect. The prostate was not absolutely refractory since doubling the amount of alkaloid injected at the second test increased the volume to equal or exceed the preliminary secretion. The depression effect had disappeared at 24 hours. In normal dogs the secretory curves were essentially regular, with occasional prolonged rises or depressions. The amount of secretion did not bear a direct relationship to the weight of the gland in adult dogs. The germinal epithelium of the testis underwent atrophy during the first few weeks of cage life while the prostatic secretion was maintained, showing that the atrophy was differential and did not involve the cells producing the androgenic hormone. The atrophy was reversible and all dogs kept for more than 4 months showed restoration of the germ cells. A few dogs developed atrophy of the germinal cells with cessation of prostatic secretion for many weeks but with final recovery. Removal of the suprarenal glands with suprarenal insufficiency did not produce sterility. The distribution of electrolytes in the prostatic secretion differed from that in the serum-transudate system, although the concentration of osmotically active substances was the same, being made up almost entirely of sodium and chloride. The distribution was not affected by the different physiological procedures used in this study. Protein concentrations were less than 1 per cent. The rate of prostatic atrophy following castration was determined, and cessation of secretion occurred in 7 to 23 days. The restoration of prostatic fluid in castrate dogs following daily injections of testosterone propionate followed a smooth curve to form a plateau which was interrupted occasionally by

  9. The lymph drainage pattern of the mammary glands in the cat: a lymphographic and computerized tomography lymphographic study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, P L; Patsikas, M N; Charitanti, A; Kazakos, G M; Papazoglou, L G; Karayannopoulou, M; Chrisogonidis, I; Tziris, N; Dimitriadis, A

    2009-08-01

    Seventy-three clinically normal, lactating cats were used to investigate the lymph drainage of 73 mammary glands. In 50 cats of the first group, the number of lymphatic vessels emerging from the examined mammary gland, their course and the lymph nodes into which they are drained were studied by indirect lymphography (IL) after intramammary injection of an oily contrast medium. In 23 cats of the second group, the lymph drainage of the mammary glands was studied by computerized tomography indirect lymphography (CT-IL) after intramammary injection of a water soluble contrast medium. The following day, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland examined by CT-IL was studied by IL, as it was described in the first group, for comparison purposes. The main conclusions drawn after this study were as follows: lymph drains from the first and second mammary glands with one or rarely two or three lymphatic vessels to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. Lymph drains from the third mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes or to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. In some cases, it drains to both lymph nodes simultaneously or it may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. The fourth mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually drains to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes. It may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. Mammary lymphatic vessels that cross the midline and lymphatic connection between the mammary glands were not demonstrated. No differences in the mammary lymph drainage pattern between IL and CT-IL were found.

  10. FGF23 and the parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphatonin that is secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in response to hyperphosphatemia and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). It acts on its receptor complex, Klotho-FGFR1c (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 c-splicing form), in the distal convoluted tubule to repress renal phosphorus reabsorption in the proximal tubule and suppress the renal synthesis of 1,25D. Klotho-FGFR1c is also expressed in the parathyroid glands. FGF23 acts on the receptor complex in the parathyroid glands to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression and PTH secretion through activation of the MAPK pathway. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), both FGF23 and PTH are increased, implying resistance of the parathyroid glands to FGF23. There is a decrease in the Klotho-FGFR1c complex in the parathyroid glands in both experimental CKD and in patients with end-stage renal disease. In addition, in advanced experimental CKD, FGF23 has a decreased ability to inhibit PTH expression.

  11. Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland. PMID:24084941

  12. Apocrine secretion--fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Aumüller, G; Wilhelm, B; Seitz, J

    1999-09-01

    In this review, the history of apocrine secretion and the essential categories are briefly mentioned and fused into a more generally applicable terminology. Using the coagulating gland of the male rat as a model, the mechanisms of apocrine secretion, the participation of the cytoskeleton in the formation of the apocrine blebs ("aposomes") and the structure of the secretory proteins, as well as the hormonal regulation of their biosynthesis are described. Apocrine secreted proteins share the following peculiarities: (i) Their biosynthesis and post-translational modification (including an unusual form of glycosylation) take place in the cytoplasm. (ii) Intracellular transport proceeds without participation of the endomembrane system, the Golgi apparatus and secretion granules. (iii) Blood serum derived transsudated albumin entering the secretory cells functions as a carrier of the apocrine-released proteins. Some common molecular features are specific for the apocrine-synthesized proteins studied so far by our group: (a) Their primary sequence is synthesized without a signal peptide. (b) Their N-terminus is blocked by acetylation. (c) The substituting glycanes are neither O- nor N-linked. (d) At least one of the apocrine-synthesized proteins (secretory transglutaminase) contains a glycerol-phosphoinositol (GPI-) anchor. There are a number of still open questions in apocrine secretion, pertaining to (I) the intracellular transport and targeting of the proteins, (II) the coordination of simultaneously occurring apocrine and merocrine secretion in several of the apocrine glands, (III) the biosynthesis of the apical membrane proteins surrounding the aposomes and (IV) the repair mechanisms of the apical cell pole following the release of the aposomes. In conclusion, apocrine release is not an artifact but rather an alternative extrusion mechanism of soluble and membrane-associated proteins, usually linked with sex- or reproductive-related glands, such as the prostate, the

  13. Oversized submandibular gland sialolith: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Garg, Nitin; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Sialolithiasis is a very common reason in causing obstructive salivary gland disease. Its incidence in males is more than females and children. They usually occur in submandibular ducts or gland and are 1 mm to less than 1 cm and rarely more than 1 cm. If they are more than 15 mm then, are termed as sialoliths of unusual size or giant sialoliths. The literatures have reports of up to 3.5 to 7 cm stones and are rare. The management includes removal of stone and re-channelizing the secretions in a functional gland or excision of gland in atrophied glands along with stone.

  14. Accessory cells for β-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Heremans, Y; Coppens, V; Van Gassen, N; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; Van Riet, I; Luttun, A; Heimberg, H; De Leu, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, insulin therapy remains a treatment, not a cure, for diabetes mellitus with persistent risk of glycaemic alterations and life-threatening complications. Restoration of the endogenous β-cell mass through regeneration or transplantation offers an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, signals that drive β-cell regeneration remain enigmatic and β-cell replacement therapy still faces major hurdles that prevent its widespread application. Co-transplantation of accessory non-islet cells with islet cells has been shown to improve the outcome of experimental islet transplantation. This review will highlight current travails in β-cell therapy and focuses on the potential benefits of accessory cells for islet transplantation in diabetes.

  15. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  16. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  17. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally.

  19. Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Raspotnig, Günther; Leutgeb, Verena; Krisper, Günther; Leis, Hans-Jörg

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition of secretions from opisthonotal (oil) glands in four species of the oribatid mite genus Oribotritia (Mixonomata, Euphthiracaroidea, Oribotritiidae) was compared by means of gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The secretions of all, O. banksi (from North America) and three Austrian oribotritiids (O. berlesei, O. hermanni, O. storkani), are shown to be based on certain unusual compounds, the iridoid monoterpenes chrysomelidial and epi-chrysomelidial and the diterpene β-springene. These components probably represent general chemical characteristics of oribotriid oil glands. Their relative abundance in the secretions along with further components (mainly saturated and unsaturated C(13)-, C(15)-, C(17)-hydrocarbons, and the tentatively identified octadecadienal) led to well-distinguishable, species-specific oil gland secretions profiles. In addition a reduced set of "Astigmata compounds" (sensu Sakata and Norton in Int J Acarol 27:281-291, 2001)--namely the two monoterpenes neral and geranial--could be detected in extracts of O. banksi nevertheless indicating the classification of euphthiracaroids within the (monophyletic) group of "Astigmata compounds-bearing"-Oribatida. These compounds are considered to be apomorphically reduced in all Austrian species. Our findings emphasize the potential of chemosystematics using oil gland secretion profiles in the discrimination of morphologically very similar, syntopically living or even cryptic oribatid species.

  20. [Biochemical findings in proteincomposition of secretions of human malignant parotid tumours, chronic parotitis and sialadenoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H; Bretzel, G; Hochstrasser, K

    1977-01-01

    In comparison to former investigations in pleomorphic adenoms and Wharthin tumours in the present paper secretion of IgA, lysozyme in correlation to flowrate and total secretion in glands with malignant tumours, inflammations and Sialadenosis were estimated. Thereby 12 patients with malignomas of the parotid gland, 11 patients with chronic parotitis and 12 with sialadenoses were examined. The following results were found: 1. The concentration of protein, IgA and Lysozym is significantly higher than in normal glands and in glands with pleomorphic adenomas and Wharthin tumours. 2. Differentialdiagnosis of Sialadenitis and Sialadenosis of parotid glands is possible by estimating the examined parameters. Thereby in glands with sialadenosis flowrate is higher than in normal glands, and significant lower in glands with sialadenitis. Moreover concentrations of IgA and Lysozyme and protein in glands with sialadenitis are evaluated.

  1. Accessories to the crime: recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology.

    PubMed

    Gramberg, Thomas; Sunseri, Nicole; Landau, Nathaniel R

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself. HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary battle. The virus is remarkably adept at co-opting cellular degradative pathways to destroy the protective proteins. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding three of the accessory proteins-virion infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R (Vpr), and viral protein U (Vpu)-that target different restriction factors to ensure virus replication. These proteins may provide promising targets for the development of novel classes of antiretroviral drugs.

  2. Histological changes in male accessory reproductive organs in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of honey supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on histology of male accessory reproductive organs and the possible protective effect of honey supplementation in rats were investigated in this study. Rats received distilled water, honey, CS exposure or honey plus CS exposure. Honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) was administered by gavage and CS exposure (3 times per day) was done in a chamber for 13 weeks. CS exposure significantly increased relative weight of epididymis and ventral prostate. There were also significantly increased number of clear cells and epithelial height of cauda epididymis as well as severe interstitial oedema and decreased epithelial height of prostate gland. However, with the supplementation of honey, these histological changes were significantly reversed suggesting the protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of CS on male accessory reproductive organs in rats.

  3. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians.

    PubMed

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry.

  4. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  5. [Ultrafine structure of salivary glands of the chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina, Gamasina, Dermanyssidae)].

    PubMed

    Amosova, L I; Staniukovich, M K

    2008-01-01

    Using the method of transmission electron microscopy, structure of salivary glands of the chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) is studied. Structure of the glands and of their ducts is described. The cellular composition, ultrastructural characteristics of secretion, and peculiarities of its release from cells are revealed.

  6. Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

    1997-10-01

    A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.

  7. Recovery of rat submandibular salivary gland function following removal of obstruction: a sialometrical and sialochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Osailan, Samira M; Proctor, Gordon B; Carpenter, Guy H; Paterson, Katherine L; McGurk, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Functional recovery of the rat submandibular gland following ligation of the main excretory duct was examined. Rat submandibular glands were ligated for 1, 4 and 8 weeks using a micro-clip with a plastic tube. Micro-clips were removed and glands were allowed to recover for periods of 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Submandibular glands were stimulated with autonomimetic drugs (methacholine and isoprenaline) and salivas were collected from atrophic or de-ligated and contralateral control glands. Glands recovered almost full size (92% of control gland) following 24 weeks of de-ligation. Saliva volume secreted by ligated/de-ligated (RSM) and control (LSM) glands were similar with different doses of agonists. Protein output expressed per gram of tissue wet weight was similar from both ligated/de-ligated and control glands with all doses of agonist. Sodium and chloride levels were higher from de-ligated glands than contralateral control glands. Protein electrophoresis showed similar profiles of salivary proteins in all samples with some minor differences. Acinar cells in de-ligated glands showed a normal morphology, as indicated by light microscopy, whilst granular ductal cells were fewer and contained fewer secretory granules. Sodium potassium ATPase staining of striated ducts in de-ligated glands was similar to that of control glands. It can be concluded that rat submandibular glands can regenerate following severe atrophy and secrete normal amounts of saliva containing broadly a full profile of secretory proteins. In contrast to acinar cells, ductal cells appear not to recover full function. PMID:17222209

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  9. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  10. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  11. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  12. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  13. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions.

    PubMed

    Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Arco, L; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  14. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers.

  15. Optimization of diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1986-11-01

    The value of diffuse reflectance as an infrared or near-infrared spectroscopic sampling procedure has been limited by the low efficiency of accessories designed for it. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, these average 2-6% for integrating spheres and 10-12% for various ellipsoidal mirror arrangements. Much better performances, up to 37% efficiency, can be obtained by optimizing a concentric confocal ellipsoidal mirror arrangement by using a very large central opening in the amular collector mirror, and adapting the throughput of the detector to the geometry of the collected beam.

  16. HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

  17. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

  18. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  19. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-06-25

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  20. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect.

  1. Prothoracic gland semiochemicals of green lacewings (neuroptera: chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult chrysopids have paired prothoracic glands (PG) that are thought to produce defensive secretions (allomones). We analyzed PG extracts of the following green lacewings from North and South America, Australia, and China: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Brazil); Chrysopa (= Co.) oculata, Co. nigricornis, Co....

  2. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  3. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  4. Post-metamorphic development of skin glands in a true toad: Parotoids versus dorsal skin.

    PubMed

    Regueira, Eleonora; Dávila, Camila; Sassone, Alina G; O'Donohoe, María E Ailín; Hermida, Gladys N

    2017-02-06

    Chemical defenses in amphibians are a common antipredatory and antimicrobial strategy related to the presence of dermal glands that synthesize and store toxic or unpalatable substances. Glands are either distributed throughout the skin or aggregated in multiglandular structures, being the parotoids the most ubiquitous macrogland in toads of Bufonidae. Even though dermal glands begin to develop during late-larval stages, many species, including Rhinella arenarum, have immature glands by the end of metamorphosis, and their post-metamorphic growth is unknown. Herein, we compared the post-metamorphic development of parotoids and dorsal glands by histological and allometric studies in a size series of R. arenarum. Histological and histochemical studies to detect proteins, acidic glycoconjugates, and catecholamines, showed that both, parotoids and dorsal glands, acquire characteristics of adults in individuals larger than 50 mm; that is, a moment in which the cryptic coloration disappears. Parotoid height increased allometrically as a function of body size, whereas the size of small dorsal glands decreased with body size. The number of glands in the dorsum was not linearly related to body size, appearing to be an individual characteristic. Only adult specimens had intraepithelial granular glands in the duct of the largest glands of the parotoids. Since toxic secretions accumulate in the central glands of parotoids, allometric growth of parotoids may translate into greater protection from predators in the largest animals. Conversely, large glands in the dorsum, which produce a proteinaceous secretion of unknown function, grow isometrically to body size. Some characteristics, like intraepithelial glands in the ducts and basophilic glands in the dorsum, are limited to adults.

  5. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  6. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

  7. Pineal gland hormone and idiopathic scoliosis: possible effect of melatonin on sleep-related postural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O; Manzoni, D; Miele, F

    2002-04-01

    regulation of posture during the animal states indicated above. This hypothesis is supported by the facts that: 1) the dorsal pRF may contain specific binding sites for M; 2) this structure is particularly sensitive to M in adolescents, as well as in adult subjects affected by narcoleptic disturbances leading to cataplexy; 3) M increases the release of serotonin (5-HT), a neurotransmitter which enhances the postural tone by acting on the dorsal pRF: on the other hand, deficits in M levels may lower the activity of the serotoninergic raphe system, thus leading to a decrease or suppression of postural activity similar to that occurring either during REM sleep or during the cataplectic episodes typical of narcoleptic patients; 4) IS patients may show episodes of sleep apnea, a phenomenon which has been attibuted to a reduced tonic contraction of primary and accessory respiratory muscles during REM, resulting from a reduced release of 5-HT at dorsal pontine level. It has been postulated that, if the reduced M and 5-HT levels are subliminal to produce a complete suppression of posture under the conditions reported above, the reduced postural tone, which results from this condition may lead to the development of IS, due to hypotonia which affects the axial musculature. M secretion could be regulated not only by the activity of the serotoninergic raphe neurons projecting to the pineal gland, but probably also by the activity of noradrenergic LC neurons. It is likely that the development of IS, which results from a reduced level of M and 5-HT, may occur provided that the noradrenergic LC inhibition of the pontine structures is impaired. Such impairment could depend upon genetic factors, similar to those postulated to play a role in narcolepsy. In conclusion, the possibility exists that an impaired activity of brain monoaminergic systems may lead to disfunction in the production of M, which is apparently an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of IS.

  8. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  9. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system and accessories to the blood compartment of the dialyzer, then returns through further tubing of...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  14. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  16. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  20. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  2. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  3. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  7. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....147 Flanges and flange accessories. (a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must... be subjected in service. (c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions, drilling, face and gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe,...

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  9. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  11. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  12. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  13. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  14. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  15. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  16. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... In other cases, the doctor can perform a minor procedure in the office. During this procedure, the ... me?Is it safe for me to have sex? Last Updated: February 2014 Tags: bartholin, cyst, gland, ...

  17. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  18. A Catalog of Proteins Expressed in the AG Secreted Fluid during the Mature Phase of the Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Li, Qing; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yuanli; Xie, Jing; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The accessory gland (AG) is an important component of the male reproductive system of arthropods, its secretions enhance fertility, some AG proteins bind to the spermatozoa and affect its function and properties. Here we report the first comprehensive catalog of the AG secreted fluid during the mature phase of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). AG proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Altogether, the mass spectra of 1173 peptides were detected (1067 without decoy and contaminants) which allowed for the identification of 486 different proteins annotated upon the NCBI database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and our transcritptome dataset. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000700. An extensive description of the AG proteome will help provide the basis for a better understanding of a number of reproductive mechanisms, including potentially spermatophore breakdown, dynamic functional and morphological changes in sperm cells and sperm acrosin enzyme vitality. Thus, the comprehensive catalog of proteins presented here can serve as a valuable reference for future studies of sperm maturation and regulatory mechanisms involved in crustacean reproduction. PMID:26305468

  19. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  20. The cylindrical or tubiliform glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Candelas, G C; Ortiz, A; Molina, C

    1986-02-01

    The cylindrical or tubiliform glands of the spider Nephila clavipes have been studied and compared to the large ampullates on which we have previously reported. The three pairs of cylindrical or tubiliform glands secrete the fibroin for the organism's egg case. Their solubilized luminar contents migrate as a homogeneous band in Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and turn out to be a larger protein than that produced by the large ampullates. The excised cylindrical glands remain metabolically active for several hours in a simple culture medium, where fibroin synthesis can be monitored through the incorporation of 14C alanine. The glands' response to a fibroin production stimulus does not reach the magnitude displayed by the large ampullates, but this is to be expected since their products supply different functions in this organism. This fibroin also seems to be elongated discontinuously. Translational pauses have been detected in the secretory epithelium of cylindrical and large ampullate glands of Nephila as well as in the silk glands of Bombyx mori. Since these glands produce the fibroin for the females egg case, they should prove to be an interesting model system.

  1. Defensive glands in the adult and larval stages of the darkling beetle, Luprops tristis.

    PubMed

    Abhitha, P; Vinod, K V; Sabu, T K

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by large populations of the litter-dwelling darkling beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) following the short spell of summer rains during April, and their extended state of dormancy is a regular event in rubber plantation habitats in south-western India. Strong smelling secretions of the beetle cause blisters on skin of human beings. Such secretions appear defensive because they appear to facilitate their avoidance by other predatory organisms. Defensive glands in the larvae and adults of L. tristis are described, as well as the mode of eversion of the glands. The glands in larvae consist of two pairs of noneversible glands in a conical depression on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) sternites, whereas in adults only one pair occurs between 7(th) and 8(th) sternal segments. These glands may be a major reason for avoidance of larvae and adults by their natural enemies and their very high numbers in the litter of rubber plantations.

  2. Defensive Glands in the Adult and Larval Stages of the Darkling Beetle, Luprops tristis

    PubMed Central

    Abhitha, P.; Vinod, K.V; Sabu, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by large populations of the litter-dwelling darkling beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) following the short spell of summer rains during April, and their extended state of dormancy is a regular event in rubber plantation habitats in south-western India. Strong smelling secretions of the beetle cause blisters on skin of human beings. Such secretions appear defensive because they appear to facilitate their avoidance by other predatory organisms. Defensive glands in the larvae and adults of L. tristis are described, as well as the mode of eversion of the glands. The glands in larvae consist of two pairs of noneversible glands in a conical depression on the 2nd and 3rd sternites, whereas in adults only one pair occurs between 7th and 8th sternal segments. These glands may be a major reason for avoidance of larvae and adults by their natural enemies and their very high numbers in the litter of rubber plantations. PMID:20569139

  3. Soybean and Tobacco Floral nectary Glands: their Structural and Functional Similarities and Differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect attraction and pollination of flowers are controlled by characters such as: color (visual cue); shape (accommodation); opening and pollen dehiscence (timing); volatiles production (smell); and nectar secretion from nectary glands (reward). The floral nectary and its secretion products are tw...

  4. Dissection of calcium signaling events in exocrine secretion.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2011-07-01

    The secretion of fluid and electrolytes by salivary gland acinar cells requires the coordinated regulation of multiple ion channel and transporter proteins, signaling components, and water transport. Importantly, neurotransmitter stimulated increase in the cytosolic free [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) is critical for the regulation of salivary gland secretion as it regulates several major ion fluxes that together establish the sustained osmotic gradient to drive fluid secretion. The mechanisms that act to modulate these increases in [Ca(2+)](i) are therefore central to the process of salivary fluid secretion. Such modulation involves membrane receptors for neurotransmitters, as well as mechanisms that mediate intracellular Ca(2+) release, and Ca(2+) entry, as well as those that maintain cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Together, these mechanisms determine the spatial and temporal aspects of the [Ca(2+)](i) signals that regulate fluid secretion. Molecular cloning of these transporters and channels as well as development of mice lacking these proteins has established the physiological significance of key components that are involved in regulating [Ca(2+)](i) in salivary glands. This review will discuss these important studies and the findings which have led to resolution of the Ca(2+) signaling mechanisms that determine salivary gland fluid secretion.

  5. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  6. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen diagnosed on radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, Sara Melboucy; Archambaud, Frédérique; Prigent, Alain; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) is ectopic splenic tissue distinct from the main spleen. A 46-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C, presented in 2006 with low right chest pain which led to a diagnosis of tuberculosis pleurisy. CT scan and MRI showed a round, homogenous, well limited mass of 3cm in the pancreas tail. Tc-99m heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy with SPECT-CT was performed to confirm the diagnosis of IPAS. Most cases of IPAS described in the literature were diagnosed by pathologists after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy performed for a suspicion of pancreatic tumor. However, heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy remains the most commonly used diagnostic procedure for IPAS, even if superparamagnetic iron oxide MRI contrast agent may be used in the future.

  7. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  8. Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Patients with Male Accessory Gland Infection: Usefulness of the Ultrasound Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the ultrasound (US) features of 20 patients with MAGI and concomitant papilloma virus (HPV) infection compared to 20 patients with microbial (presence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone) MAGI and 20 patients with amicrobial (inflammatory) MAGI. Patients with HPV infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher total prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymal US signs (18.0 ± 2.0) compared to the other 2 groups (12.0 ± 4.0 versus 10.0 ± 3.0, resp.). In addition, patients with MAGI and HPV had a higher prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI [prostatovesiculitis (PV) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE)] and a higher frequency of the fibrosclerotic variant compared to the other groups (70.0 ± 10.0% versus 48.0 ± 5.0% versus 15.0 ± 10.0%). Moreover, HPV infected patients had a higher number of US criteria suggestive for MAGI in the periurethral region of the prostate compared to the other groups. In particular, the patients showed a higher ratio between periurethral and lobar US criteria distribution (5.0 versus 0.5). Finally, the seminal fluid concentration of CD45pos leukocytes (2.0 ± 0.2 versus 1.3 ± 0.3 versus 1.0 ± 0.3 mil/mL) was significantly higher and sperm progressive motility was significantly lower in these patients compared to other groups. PMID:27242899

  9. Autonomic regulation of anti-inflammatory activities from salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Ronald D; Davison, Joseph S; St Laurent, Chris D; Befus, A Dean

    2012-01-01

    The cervical sympathetic nerves which innervate the medial basal hypothalamus-hypophyseal complex, primary and secondary lymph organs, and numerous glands, such as the pineal, thyroid, parathyroid and salivary glands form a relevant neuroimmunoendocrine structure that is involved in the regulation of systemic homeostasis. The superior cervical ganglia and the submandibular glands form a 'neuroendocrine axis' called the cervical sympathetic trunk submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis. The identification of this axis usurps the traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures and reinforces the view that they are important sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors whose release is intimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and in particular the sympathetic branch. An end component of the CST-SMG axis is the synthesis, processing and release of submandibular rat-1 protein (SMR1), a prohormone, that generates several different peptides, one from near its N-terminus called sialorphin and another from its C-terminus called - submandibular gland peptide-T (SGP-T). SGP-T formed the template for tripeptide fragment (FEG) and its metabolically stable D-isomeric peptide feG, which are potent inhibitors of allergy and asthma (IgE-mediated allergic reactions) and several non-IgE-mediated inflammations. The translation from rat genetics and proteomics to humans has yielded structural and functional correlates that hopefully will lead to the development of new medications and therapeutic approaches for difficult to treat disorders. Although the CST-SMG axis has barely been explored in humans recognition of the importance of this axis could facilitate an understanding and improved management of periodontal disease, and other diseases with a more systemic and nervous system basis such as asthma, autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease and even Parkinson's disease.

  10. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2012-02-05

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  11. Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peña, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

    2010-01-07

    Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use.

  12. Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peña, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use. PMID:19812087

  13. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    PubMed

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea.

  14. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct.

  15. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  16. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association.

  17. Ca²⁺-dependent K⁺ channels in exocrine salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Marcelo A; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E

    2014-06-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K(+) secretion in exocrine glands. Two K(+) channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: (1) a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene, and (2) a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology.

  18. Milk metabolites as indicators of mammary gland functions and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed.

  19. Management of oral secretions in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    McGeachan, Alexander J; Mcdermott, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Sialorrhoea is a common and problematic symptom that arises from a range of neurological conditions associated with bulbar or facial muscle dysfunction. Drooling can significantly affect quality of life due to both physical complications such as oral chapping, and psychological complications such as embarrassment and social isolation. Thicker, tenacious oral and pharyngeal secretions may result from the drying management approach to sialorrhoea. The management of sialorrhoea in neurological diseases depends on the underlying pathology and severity of symptoms. Interventions include anticholinergic drugs, salivary gland-targeted radiotherapy, salivary gland botulinum toxin and surgical approaches. The management of thick secretions involves mainly conservative measures such as pineapple juice as a lytic agent, cough assist, saline nebulisers and suctioning or mucolytic drugs like carbocisteine. Despite a current lack of evidence and variable practice, management of sialorrhoea should form a part of the multidisciplinary approach needed for long-term neurological conditions.

  20. Successful treatment of accessory breast cancer with endocrine therapy#

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na

    2017-01-01

    Accessory breast cancers in males are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. In this paper, an 87-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast cancer by means of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and immunohistochemistry based on needle biopsy, and has undergone successful resection and postoperative adjuvant endocrine therapy. He was the oldest male patient with an accessory breast cancer reported in the Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database and PubMed literature from 1975 to 2015. PMID:28070998

  1. The Pediocin PA-1 Accessory Protein Ensures Correct Disulfide Bond Formation in the Antimicrobial Peptide Pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Oppegård, Camilla; Fimland, Gunnar; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2015-05-19

    Peptides, in contrast to proteins, are generally not large enough to form stable and well-defined three-dimensional structures. However, peptides are still able to form correct disulfide bonds. Using pediocin-like bacteriocins, we have examined how this may be achieved. Some pediocin-like bacteriocins, such as pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C], have four cysteines. There are three possible ways by which the four cysteines may combine to form two disulfide bonds, and the three variants are expected to be produced in approximately equal amounts if their formation is random. Pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C] with correct disulfide bonds were the main products when they were secreted by the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and accessory protein, but when they were secreted by the corresponding secretion machinery for sakacin A, a pediocin-like bacteriocin with one disulfide bond (two cysteines), peptides with all three possible disulfide bonds were produced in approximately equal amounts. All five cysteines in the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and the two cysteines (that form a CxxC motif) in the accessory protein were individually replaced with serines to examine their involvement in disulfide bond formation in pediocin PA-1. The Cys86Ser mutation in the accessory protein caused a 2-fold decrease in the amount of pediocin PA-1 with correct disulfide bonds, while the Cys83Ser mutation nearly abolished the production of pediocin PA-1 and resulted in the production of all three disufide bond variants in equal amounts. The Cys19Ser mutation in the ABC transporter completely abolished secretion of pediocin PA-1, suggesting that Cys19 is in the proteolytic active site and involved in cleaving the prebacteriocin. Replacing the other four cysteines in the ABC transporter with serines caused a slight reduction in the overall amount of secreted pediocin PA-1, but the relative amount with the correct disulfide bonds remained large. These results indicate that the pediocin

  2. Skin regeneration with all accessory organs following ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Villiger, Martin; Broelsch, G Felix; Quinn, Kyle P; Albadawi, Hassan; Khan, Saiqa; Watkins, Michael T; Georgakoudi, Irene; Austen, William G; Bei, Marianna; Bouma, Brett E; Mihm, Martin C; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-12-14

    Skin scar formation is a complex process that results in the formation of dense extracellular matrix without normal skin appendages such as hair and glands. The absence of a scarless healing model in adult mammals prevents the development of successful therapies. We show that irreversible electroporation of skin drives its regeneration with all accessory organs in normal adult rats. Pulsed electric fields at 500 V, with 70 µs pulse duration, and 1000 pulses delivered at 3 Hz, applied through two electrodes separated by 2 mm lead to massive cell death. However, the extracellular matrix architecture of the skin was preserved. Six months after the ablation, the epidermis, sebaceous glands, panniculus carnosus, hair follicles, microvasculature and arrector pili muscle were altogether re-formed in the entire ablated area. These results suggest a key role of the extracellular matrix architecture in the differentiation, migration, and signaling of cells during scarless wound healing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon.

  4. Isolation of viable multicellular glands from tissue of the carnivorous plant, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Mithöfer, Axel; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland

    2013-12-22

    Many plants possess specialized structures that are involved in the production and secretion of specific low molecular weight compounds and proteins. These structures are almost always localized on plant surfaces. Among them are nectaries or glandular trichomes. The secreted compounds are often employed in interactions with the biotic environment, for example as attractants for pollinators or deterrents against herbivores. Glands that are unique in several aspects can be found in carnivorous plants. In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the digestive fluid, including all enzymes necessary for prey digestion, and on the other hand take-up the released nutrients. Thus, these glands represent an ideal, specialized tissue predestinated to study the underlying molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of protein secretion and nutrient uptake in plants. Moreover, generally the biosynthesis of secondary compounds produced by many plants equipped with glandular structures could be investigated directly in glands. In order to work on such specialized structures, they need to be isolated efficiently, fast, metabolically active, and without contamination with other tissues. Therefore, a mechanical micropreparation technique was developed and applied for studies on Nepenthes digestion fluid. Here, a protocol is presented that was used to successfully prepare single bifunctional glands from Nepenthes traps, based on a mechanized microsampling platform. The glands could be isolated and directly used further for gene expression analysis by PCR techniques after preparation of RNA.

  5. Differential sorting of human parathyroid hormone after transduction of mouse and rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Adriaansen, J; Perez, P; Goldsmith, C M; Zheng, C; Baum, B J

    2008-10-01

    Gene transfer to salivary glands leads to abundant secretion of transgenic protein into either saliva or the bloodstream. This indicates significant clinical potential, depending on the route of sorting. The aim of this study was to probe the sorting characteristics of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) in two animal models for salivary gland gene transfer. PTH is a key hormone regulating calcium levels in the blood. A recombinant serotype 5 adenoviral vector carrying the hPTH cDNA was administered to the submandibular glands of mice and rats. Two days after delivery, high levels of hPTH were found in the serum of mice, leading to elevated serum calcium levels. Only low amounts of hPTH were found in the saliva. Two days after vector infusion into rats, a massive secretion of hPTH was measured in saliva, with little secretion into serum. Confocal microscopy showed hPTH in the glands, localized basolaterally in mice and apically in rats. Submandibular gland transduction was effective and the produced hPTH was biologically active in vivo. Whereas hPTH sorted toward the basolateral side in mice, in rats hPTH was secreted mainly at the apical side. These results indicate that the interaction between hPTH and the cell sorting machinery is different between mouse and rat salivary glands. Detailed studies in these two species should result in a better understanding of cellular control of transgenic secretory protein sorting in this tissue.

  6. Isolation of Viable Multicellular Glands from Tissue of the Carnivorous Plant, Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Rottloff, Sandy; Mithöfer, Axel; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Many plants possess specialized structures that are involved in the production and secretion of specific low molecular weight compounds and proteins. These structures are almost always localized on plant surfaces. Among them are nectaries or glandular trichomes. The secreted compounds are often employed in interactions with the biotic environment, for example as attractants for pollinators or deterrents against herbivores. Glands that are unique in several aspects can be found in carnivorous plants. In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the digestive fluid, including all enzymes necessary for prey digestion, and on the other hand take-up the released nutrients. Thus, these glands represent an ideal, specialized tissue predestinated to study the underlying molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of protein secretion and nutrient uptake in plants. Moreover, generally the biosynthesis of secondary compounds produced by many plants equipped with glandular structures could be investigated directly in glands. In order to work on such specialized structures, they need to be isolated efficiently, fast, metabolically active, and without contamination with other tissues. Therefore, a mechanical micropreparation technique was developed and applied for studies on Nepenthes digestion fluid. Here, a protocol is presented that was used to successfully prepare single bifunctional glands from Nepenthes traps, based on a mechanized microsampling platform. The glands could be isolated and directly used further for gene expression analysis by PCR techniques after preparation of RNA. PMID:24378909

  7. Morphological Changes of Myoepithelial Cells in the Rat Submandibular Gland Following the Application of Surgical Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Yoshihiro; Mizobe, Kenich; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Taira, Fuyoko; Tomomura, Akito; Araki, Hisao; Amano, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) exist on the basal surface of acini in major exocrine glands, include myofilaments and various constructive proteins, and share characteristics with smooth muscle and epithelial cells. MECs project several ramified processes to invest acini, and possibly contract to compress acini to support the secretion by the glandular cells. However, the functional roles of MECs in salivary secretion are still unclear. We investigated morphological changes in immunostained MECs using the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) antibody in operated or non-operated contralateral (NC) submandibular glands after partial or total resection. Furthermore, we investigated and discuss other salivary glands of rats. MECs in the parotid, sublingual and submandibular gland of adult rats exhibited different shapes and localizations. After surgery, in both operated and NC glands, the number of MECs and αSMA-immunopositive areas increased significantly. Three-dimensional analysis using a confocal laser-scanning microscope revealed that substantial and significant enhancement became evident in the number, length, and thickness of MEC-processes covering acini of the operated and NC submandibular glands. The preset findings indicate that MECs alter the morphology of their processes in operated and NC glands after surgery of the partial or total resection. It is suggested that MECs promote salivary secretion using elongated, thickened, and more ramified processes. PMID:28127104

  8. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  9. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid of a trocar and cannula. The device is used to pass fluids to and from the urinary...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid of a trocar and cannula. The device is used to pass fluids to and from the urinary...

  11. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  12. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions, and that consists of a peritoneal access device, an administration set...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... excessive restorative materials, such as gold, and to smooth rough surfaces from oral restorations, such...

  20. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body.