Science.gov

Sample records for accident analysis results

  1. Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Accidents involving the ingress of air or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

  2. Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.W.

    1996-09-25

    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  3. Calculation Notes for Subsurface Leak Resulting in Pool, TWRS FSAR Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.W.

    1996-09-25

    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Subsurface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  4. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk.

  5. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion.

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of 1-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season.

  7. Resolve! Version 2.5: Flammable Gas Accident Analysis Tool Acceptance Test Plan and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    LAVENDER, J.C.

    2000-10-17

    RESOLVE! Version 2 .5 is designed to quantify the risk and uncertainty of combustion accidents in double-shell tanks (DSTs) and single-shell tanks (SSTs). The purpose of the acceptance testing is to ensure that all of the options and features of the computer code run; to verify that the calculated results are consistent with each other; and to evaluate the effects of the changes to the parameter values on the frequency and consequence trends associated with flammable gas deflagrations or detonations.

  8. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  9. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  10. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  11. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  12. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  14. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  15. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory.

  16. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory. PMID:19819367

  17. PNNL Results from 2009 Silene Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2010-06-30

    This document reports the results of testing of the Hanford Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on October 13, 14, and 15, 2009.

  18. Candu 6 severe core damage accident consequence analysis for steam generator tube rupture scenario using MAAP4-CANDU V4.0.5A: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Petoukhov, S.M.; Awadh, B.; Mathew, P.M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of the consequence analysis for a generic AECL CANDU 6 station, when it undergoes a postulated, low probability Steam Generator multiple Tube Rupture (SGTR) severe accident with assumed unavailability of several critical plant safety systems. The Modular Accident Analysis Program for CANDU (MAAP4-CANDU) code was used for this analysis. The SGTR accident is assumed to begin with the guillotine rupture of 10 steam generator tubes in one steam generator in Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) loop 1. For the reference case, the following systems were assumed unavailable: moderator and shield cooling, emergency core cooling, crash cool-down, and main and auxiliary feed water. Two additional cases were analyzed, one with the crash cool-down system available, and another with the crash cool-down and the auxiliary feed water systems available. The three scenarios considered in this study show that most of the initial fission product inventory would be retained within the containment by various fission product retention mechanisms. For the case where the crash cool-down system was credited but the auxiliary feed water systems were not credited, the total mass of volatile fission products released to the environment including stable and radioactive isotopes was about four times more than in the reference case, because fission products could be released directly from the PHTS to the environment through the Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSVs), bypassing the containment. For the case where the crash cool-down and auxiliary feed water systems were credited, the volatile fission product release to the environment was insignificant, because the fission product release was substantially mitigated by scrubbing in the water pool in the secondary side of the steam generator (SG). (authors)

  19. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  20. Reactivity Insertion Accident Analysis with Coupled RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yo-Han; Yang, Chang-Keun; Sung, Chang-Kyung; Lee, Chang-Sup

    2004-07-01

    Because of analysis field to be wider and complicated is required, it faces up hardships due to the narrow analysis scopes and limited functions of current vendor code systems. To overcome it KEPRI develop the in-house safety analysis methodology based on the available exquisite codes. For the development, the RETRAN code was modified and coupled to compensate for the lack of capabilities. To estimate the feasibility of the methodology and code system, some reactivity insertion accidents were analyzed and compared with the results mentioned in final safety analysis report of the plant. (authors)

  1. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Mitchell T.; Bunt, R.; Corradini, M.; Ellison, Paul B.; Francis, M.; Gabor, John D.; Gauntt, R.; Henry, C.; Linthicum, R.; Luangdilok, W.; Lutz, R.; Paik, C.; Plys, M.; Rabiti, Cristian; Rempe, J.; Robb, K.; Wachowiak, R.

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  2. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2131982

  3. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other...

  5. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other...

  6. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other...

  7. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other...

  8. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other...

  9. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. ); Medford, G.T. )

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  10. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  11. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents.

  12. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  13. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  14. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  15. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  16. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BOUNDING FLAMMABLE GAS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  17. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

  18. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-10-28

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  19. Corporate cost of occupational accidents: an activity-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Rikhardsson, Pall M; Impgaard, Martin

    2004-03-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents for a company with 3.600 employees was estimated to approximately US$ 682.000. The paper includes an introduction regarding accident cost analysis in companies, a presentation of the SACA project methodology and the SACA method itself, a short overview of some of the results of the SACA project and a conclusion. Further information about the project is available at http://www.asb.dk/saca. PMID:14642872

  20. Corporate cost of occupational accidents: an activity-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Rikhardsson, Pall M; Impgaard, Martin

    2004-03-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents for a company with 3.600 employees was estimated to approximately US$ 682.000. The paper includes an introduction regarding accident cost analysis in companies, a presentation of the SACA project methodology and the SACA method itself, a short overview of some of the results of the SACA project and a conclusion. Further information about the project is available at http://www.asb.dk/saca.

  1. Loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the Savannah River new production reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, K.J.; Pryor, R.J.

    1990-11-01

    This document contains the loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. Included in this document are descriptions of the primary system, reactor vessel, and loss-of-coolant accident computer input models, the results of the cold leg and hot leg loss-of-coolant accident analyses, and the results of sensitivity calculations for the cold leg loss-of-coolant accident. 5 refs., 50 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  3. Analysis of the temporal properties in car accident time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele

    2008-05-01

    In this paper we study the time-clustering behavior of sequences of car accidents, using data from a freely available database in the internet. The Allan Factor analysis, which is a well-suited method to investigate time-dynamical behaviors in point processes, has revealed that the car accident sequences are characterized by a general time-scaling behavior, with the presence of cyclic components. These results indicate that the time dynamics of the events are not Poissonian but long range correlated with periodicities ranging from 12 h to 1 year.

  4. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

  5. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  6. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  7. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  8. APR1400 Reactivity Insertion Accident Analysis Using KNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Keun, Yang; Yo-Han, Kim; Chang-Kyung, Sung

    2006-07-01

    The Korea Electric Power Research Institute had decided to develop the new safety analysis code system for the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) in Korea by the fund of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy. In this paper, some results of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400(APR1400) using the RETRAN code for some reactivity insertion accident are introduced to expand application from safety analysis experience of OPR1000. (authors)

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  10. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry. PMID:22721539

  11. An Analysis of U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents by Cost and Injury (1990-1996)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A study of rotorcraft accidents was conducted to identify safety issues and research areas that might lead to a reduction in rotorcraft accidents and fatalities. The primary source of data was summaries of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident reports. From 1990 to 1996, the NTSB documented 1396 civil rotorcraft accidents in the United States in which 491 people were killed. The rotorcraft data were compared to airline and general aviation data to determine the relative safety of rotorcraft compared to other segments of the aviation industry. In depth analysis of the rotorcraft data addressed demographics, mission, and operational factors. Rotorcraft were found to have an accident rate about ten times that of commercial airliners and about the same as that of general aviation. The likelihood that an accident would be fatal was about equal for all three classes of operation. The most dramatic division in rotorcraft accidents is between flights flown by private pilots versus professional pilots. Private pilots, flying low cost aircraft in benign environments, have accidents that are due, in large part, to their own errors. Professional pilots, in contrast, are more likely to have accidents that are a result of exacting missions or use of specialized equipment. For both groups judgement error is more likely to lead to a fatal accident than are other types of causes. Several approaches to improving the rotorcraft accident rate are recommended. These mostly address improvement in the training of new pilots and improving the safety awareness of private pilots.

  12. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding flammable gas accident

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-03-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. As will be shown, the consequences of a detonation in either an SST or a double-shell tank (DST) are approximately equal. A detonation in an SST was selected as the bounding condition because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are generally greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  13. Analysis of 139 spinal cord injuries due to accidents in water sports.

    PubMed

    Steinbrück, K; Paeslack, V

    1980-04-01

    Between 1967 and 1978, a total of 2587 patients received primary treatment in the Spinal Cord Injury Centre at the University of Heidelberg. In 212 cases the paralysis was caused by sports or diving accidents. Injuries resulting from accidents in water sports totalled 139, 131(61.7 per cent) of which could be classified as actual diving accidents. These 131 cases consisted of 129 tetraplegias and only 2 paraplegias. In 5 cases, the tetraplegia resulted from high diving and in 3 cases from scuba-diving. The subjects of the analysis are causes of accidents, segmental diagnosis of neurological deficiency symptoms and prognosis.

  14. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  15. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  16. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su’ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-16

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  17. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  18. Accident involvement among learner drivers--an analysis of the consequences of supervised practice.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Nils Petter; Nyberg, Anders; Berg, Hans-Yngve

    2003-09-01

    It is a well-known fact that experience is important for safe driving. Previously, this presented a problem since experience was mostly gained during the most dangerous period of driving-the first years with a licence. In many countries, this "experience paradox" has been addressed by providing increased opportunities to gain experience through supervised practice. One question, however, which still needs to be answered is what has been lost and what has been gained through supervised practice. Does this method lead to fewer accidents after licensing and/or has the number of accidents in driving practice increased? There were three aims in the study. The first was to calculate the size of the accident problem in terms of the number of accidents, health risk and accident risk during practising. The second aim was to evaluate the solution of the "experience paradox" that supervised practice suggests by calculating the costs in terms of accidents during driving practice and the benefits in terms of reduced accident involvement after obtaining a licence. The third aim was to analyse conflict types that occur during driving practice. National register data on licence holders and police-reported injury accidents and self-reported exposure were used. The results show that during the period 1994-2000, 444 driving practice injury accidents were registered, compared to 13657 accidents during the first 2 years with a licence. The health risk during the period after licensing was 33 times higher and the accident risk 10 times higher than the corresponding risk during practice. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the benefits in terms of accident reduction after licensing were 30 times higher than the costs in terms of driving practice accidents. It is recommended that measures to reduce such accidents should focus on better education of the lay instructor, but not on introducing measures to reduce the amount of lay-instructed practice. PMID:12850073

  19. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed. PMID:4096796

  20. Aircraft accidents.method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1937-01-01

    This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.

  1. Criticality accident dosimetry by chromosomal analysis.

    PubMed

    Voisin, P; Roy, L; Hone, P A; Edwards, A A; Lloyd, D C; Stephan, G; Romm, H; Groer, P G; Brame, R

    2004-01-01

    The technique of measuring the frequency of dicentric chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes was used to estimate doses in a simulated criticality accident. The simulation consisted of three exposures; approximately 5 Gy with a bare source and 1 and 2 Gy with a lead-shielded source. Three laboratories made separate estimates of the doses. These were made by the iterative method of apportioning the observed dicentric frequencies between the gamma and neutron components, taking account of a given gamma/neutron dose ratio, and referring the separated dicentric frequencies to dose-response calibration curves. An alternative method, based on Bayesian ideas, was employed. This was developed for interpreting dicentric frequencies in situations where the gamma/neutron ratio is uncertain. Both methods gave very similar results. One laboratory produced dose estimates close to the eventual exercise reference doses and the other laboratories estimated slightly higher values. The main reason for the higher values was the calibration relationships for fission neutrons.

  2. Accident analysis of the windowless target system

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, F.; Ferri, R.

    2006-07-01

    Transmutation systems are able to reduce the radio-toxicity and amount of High-Level Wastes (HLW), which are the main concerns related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and therefore they should make nuclear energy more easily acceptable by population. A transmutation system consists of a sub-critical fast reactor, an accelerator and a Target System, where the spallation reactions needed to sustain the chain reaction take place. Three options were proposed for the Target System within the European project PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an Experimental Accelerator Driven System): window, windowless and solid. This paper describes the constraints taken into account in the design of the windowless Target System for the large Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic cooled XADS and deals with the results of the calculations performed to assess the behaviour of the target during some accident sequences related to pump trips. (authors)

  3. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  4. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2011-12-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  5. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  6. Analysis of Convair 990 rejected-takeoff accident with emphasis on decision making, training and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batthauer, Byron E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes a NASA Convair 990 (CV-990) accident with emphasis on rejected-takeoff (RTO) decision making, training, procedures, and accident statistics. The NASA Aircraft Accident Investigation Board was somewhat perplexed that an aircraft could be destroyed as a result of blown tires during the takeoff roll. To provide a better understanding of tire failure RTO's, The Board obtained accident reports, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) studies, and other pertinent information related to the elements of this accident. This material enhanced the analysis process and convinced the Accident Board that high-speed RTO's in transport aircraft should be given more emphasis during pilot training. Pilots should be made aware of various RTO situations and statistics with emphasis on failed-tire RTO's. This background information could enhance the split-second decision-making process that is required prior to initiating an RTO.

  7. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  8. Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Kress, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study.

  9. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  10. NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Everett, Chris; Hall, Anthony; Insley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    accident precursors by evaluating anomaly occurrences for their system safety implications and, through both analytical and deliberative methods used to project to other circumstances, identifying those that portend more serious consequences to come if effective corrective action is not taken. APA builds upon existing safety analysis processes currently in practice within NASA, leveraging their results to provide an improved understanding of overall system risk. As such, APA represents an important dimension of safety evaluation; as operational experience is acquired, precursor information is generated such that it can be fed back into system safety analyses to risk-inform safety improvements. Importantly, APA utilizes anomaly data to predict risk whereas standard reliability and PRA approaches utilize failure data which often is limited and rare.

  11. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  12. INTERCOMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; JO,J.; AVVAKUMOV,A.; MALOFEEV,V.; SIDOROV,V.; FERRARESI,P.; GOUIN,C.; ANIEL,S.; ROYER,M.E.

    1999-10-01

    This study is part of an overall program to understand the uncertainty in best-estimate calculations of the local fuel enthalpy during the rod ejection accident. Local fuel enthalpy is used as the acceptance criterion for this design-basis event and can also be used to estimate fuel damage for the purpose of determining radiological consequences. The study used results from neutron kinetics models in PARCS, BARS, and CRONOS2, codes developed in the US, the Russian Federation, and France, respectively. Since BARS uses a heterogeneous representation of the fuel assembly as opposed to the homogeneous representations in PARCS and CRONOS, the effect of the intercomparison was primarily to compare different intra-assembly models. Quantitative comparisons for core power, reactivity, assembly fuel enthalpy and pin power were carried out. In general the agreement between methods was very good providing additional confidence in the codes and providing a starting point for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in calculated fuel enthalpy using best-estimate methods.

  13. An analysis of pilot error-related aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalsky, N. B.; Masters, R. L.; Stone, R. B.; Babcock, G. L.; Rypka, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach to pilot error-related U.S. air carrier jet aircraft accident investigation records successfully reclaimed hidden human error information not shown in statistical studies. New analytic techniques were developed and applied to the data to discover and identify multiple elements of commonality and shared characteristics within this group of accidents. Three techniques of analysis were used: Critical element analysis, which demonstrated the importance of a subjective qualitative approach to raw accident data and surfaced information heretofore unavailable. Cluster analysis, which was an exploratory research tool that will lead to increased understanding and improved organization of facts, the discovery of new meaning in large data sets, and the generation of explanatory hypotheses. Pattern recognition, by which accidents can be categorized by pattern conformity after critical element identification by cluster analysis.

  14. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    PubMed Central

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  15. Work-related accidents among the Iranian population: a time series analysis, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Karimlou, Masoud; Imani, Mehdi; Hosseini, Agha-Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Vahabi, Nasim; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related accidents result in human suffering and economic losses and are considered as a major health problem worldwide, especially in the economically developing world. Objectives To introduce seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) models for time series analysis of work-related accident data for workers insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) between 2000 and 2011. Methods In this retrospective study, all insured people experiencing at least one work-related accident during a 10-year period were included in the analyses. We used Box–Jenkins modeling to develop a time series model of the total number of accidents. Results There was an average of 1476 accidents per month (1476·05±458·77, mean±SD). The final ARIMA (p,d,q) (P,D,Q)s model for fitting to data was: ARIMA(1,1,1)×(0,1,1)12 consisting of the first ordering of the autoregressive, moving average and seasonal moving average parameters with 20·942 mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Conclusions The final model showed that time series analysis of ARIMA models was useful for forecasting the number of work-related accidents in Iran. In addition, the forecasted number of work-related accidents for 2011 explained the stability of occurrence of these accidents in recent years, indicating a need for preventive occupational health and safety policies such as safety inspection. PMID:26119774

  16. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously. Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10`s or 100`s of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship`s bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence.

  17. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S. ); Bender, M.A. ); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gilbert, E.S. )

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. RADIS - a regional nuclear accident consequence analysis model for Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Ching, E.M.K. )

    1993-02-01

    An atmospheric dispersion and consequence model called RADIS has been developed by the University of Hong Kong for nuclear accident consequence analysis. The model uses a two-dimensional plume trajectory derived from wind data for Hong Kong. Dose, health effects, and demographic models are also developed and implemented in RADIS so that accident consequences in 15 major population centers of Greater Hong Kong can be determined individually. In addition, benchmark testing results are give, and comparisons with the analytical solution and CRAC2 results are consistent and satisfactory. Sample calculational results for severe accident consequences are also presented to demonstrate the applicability of RADIS for dry and wet weather conditions.

  19. Analysis of tritium mission FMEF/FAA fuel handling accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-11-18

    The Fuels Material Examination Facility/Fuel Assembly Area is proposed to be used for fabrication of mixed oxide fuel to support the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) tritium/medical isotope mission. The plutonium isotope mix for the new mission is different than that analyzed in the FMEF safety analysis report. A reanalysis was performed of three representative accidents for the revised plutonium mix to determine the impact on the safety analysis. Current versions computer codes and meterology data files were used for the analysis. The revised accidents were a criticality, an explosion in a glovebox, and a tornado. The analysis concluded that risk guidelines were met with the revised plutonium mix.

  20. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results.

    PubMed

    Besco, Robert O

    2004-11-11

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: a random slip, one inadvertent oversight, a single unintended action, one mis-perceived event, simple mal-performance of a complex action, or a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many generations. The PPAS

  1. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results.

    PubMed

    Besco, Robert O

    2004-11-11

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: a random slip, one inadvertent oversight, a single unintended action, one mis-perceived event, simple mal-performance of a complex action, or a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many generations. The PPAS

  2. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Ludewig, Hans; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Serre, Frederic

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  3. The Accident Sequence Precursor program: Methods improvements and current results

    SciTech Connect

    Minarick, J.W.; Manning, F.M.; Harris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the US NRC Accident Sequence Precursor program methods since the initial program evaluations of 1969-81 operational events are described, along with insights from the review of 1984-85 events. For 1984-85, the number of significant precursors was consistent with the number observed in 1980-81, dominant sequences associated with significant events were reasonably consistent with PRA estimates for BWRs, but lacked the contribution due to small-break LOCAs previously observed and predicted in PWRs, and the frequency of initiating events and non-recoverable system failures exhibited some reduction compared to 1980-81. Operational events which provide information concerning additional PRA modeling needs are also described.

  4. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  5. Methods for the assessment of long-lived radionuclides in humans resulting from nuclear activities or accidents: Fission track analysis of trace amounts plutonium-239 and a copper hexacyanoferrate kit for monitoring radiocaesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Lena Camilla

    Fission track analysis (FTA) was developed to be applied to ultra-low levels of 239Pu in bioassay samples. An analytical protocol was established for the FTA processing. The detection limit was determined to 1.5 μBq and the calibration constant was 24 fission fragments per μBq 239Pu. Naturally occurring nuclides of thorium and uranium, present in biological and environmental samples, did not interfere in the determination of 239Pu. Self-absorption of fission fragments was shown to be insignificant. The study included the determination of 239Pu in urine samples from twenty Chernobyl clean-up workers. All urine samples contained activities below the detection limit for radioanalytical analysis using alpha spectrometry (0.5 mBq). Seven of the samples were further investigated using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer with a sensitivity of 106 atoms 239Pu. The content of 239Pu in the samples showed to be below 1μBq (106 atoms), with only one exception. It was not possible to draw any major conclusions from the 239Pu results, regarding the clean-up workers' exposure from radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident. A kit was designed for selective adsorption of radiocaesium in urine samples to be used in situ by contaminated subjects. The kit consisted of copper hexacyanoferrate impregnated cotton filters held by filter holders for sample flow-through. After use, the adsorbed fraction of caesium was >=90% in urine samples. The kit facilitates the screening of a population exposed to radiocaesium. Parameters influencing the adsorption efficiency, such as potassium, sodium and calcium concentration of the sample and the sample pH, were investigated and shown to be insignificant for urine samples.

  6. An analysis of evacuation options for nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.; Schultz, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    In this report we consider the threat posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant. The objective is to establish relationships between radiation dose and the cost of evacuation under a wide variety of conditions. The dose can almost always be reduced by evacuating the population from a larger area. However, extending the evacuation zone outward will cause evacuation costs to increase. The purpose of this analysis was to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a data base for evaluating whether implementation costs and risks averted could be used to justify evacuation at lower doses. The procedures used and results of these analyses are being made available as background information for use by others. We develop cost/dose relationships for 54 scenarios that are based upon the severity of the reactor accident, meteorological conditions during the release of radionuclides into the environment, and the angular width of the evacuation zone. The 54 scenarios are derived from combinations of three accident severity levels, six meteorological conditions and evacuation zone widths of 70{degree}, 90{degree}, and 180{degree}.

  7. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  8. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  9. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  10. MELCOR accident analysis for ARIES-ACT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Humrickhouse; Brad J. Merrill

    2012-08-01

    We model a loss of flow accident (LOFA) in the ARIES-ACT1 tokamak design. ARIES-ACT1 features an advanced SiC blanket with LiPb as coolant and breeder, a helium cooled steel structural ring and tungsten divertors, a thin-walled, helium cooled vacuum vessel, and a room temperature water-cooled shield outside the vacuum vessel. The water heat transfer system is designed to remove heat by natural circulation during a LOFA. The MELCOR model uses time-dependent decay heats for each component determined by 1-D modeling. The MELCOR model shows that, despite periodic boiling of the water coolant, that structures are kept adequately cool by the passive safety system.

  11. Accident sequence analysis for sites producing and storing explosives.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A; Aneziris, Olga; Konstandinidou, Myrto; Giakoumatos, Ieronymos

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a QRA-based approach for assessing and evaluating the safety of installations handling explosive substances. Comprehensive generic lists of immediate causes and initiating events of detonation and deflagration of explosive substances as well as safety measures preventing these explosions are developed. Initiating events and corresponding measures are grouped under the more general categories of explosion due to shock wave, explosion due to mechanical energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, and electromagnetic radiation. Generic accident sequences are developed using Event Trees. This analysis is adapted to plant-specific conditions and potentially additional protective measures are rank-ordered in terms of the induced reduction in the frequency of explosion, by including also uncertainty. This approach has been applied to 14 plants in Greece with very satisfactory results. PMID:19819362

  12. Accident sequence analysis for sites producing and storing explosives.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A; Aneziris, Olga; Konstandinidou, Myrto; Giakoumatos, Ieronymos

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a QRA-based approach for assessing and evaluating the safety of installations handling explosive substances. Comprehensive generic lists of immediate causes and initiating events of detonation and deflagration of explosive substances as well as safety measures preventing these explosions are developed. Initiating events and corresponding measures are grouped under the more general categories of explosion due to shock wave, explosion due to mechanical energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, and electromagnetic radiation. Generic accident sequences are developed using Event Trees. This analysis is adapted to plant-specific conditions and potentially additional protective measures are rank-ordered in terms of the induced reduction in the frequency of explosion, by including also uncertainty. This approach has been applied to 14 plants in Greece with very satisfactory results.

  13. Code System for Toxic Gas Accident Analysis.

    2001-09-24

    Version 00 TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate aremore » supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses.« less

  14. Approaches to accident analysis in recent US Department of Energy environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B.

    1996-12-31

    A review of accident analyses in recent US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) was conducted to evaluate the consistency among approaches and to compare these approaches with existing DOE guidance. The review considered several components of an accident analysis: the overall scope, which in turn should reflect the scope of the EIS; the spectrum of accidents considered; the methods and assumptions used to determine frequencies or frequency ranges for the accident sequences; and the assumption and technical bases for developing radiological and chemical atmospheric source terms and for calculating the consequences of airborne releases. The review also considered the range of results generated with respect to impacts on various worker and general populations. In this paper, the findings of these reviews are presented and methods recommended for improving consistency among EISs and bringing them more into line with existing DOE guidance.

  15. Severe Accident Analysis Code SAMPSON Improvement for IMPACT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Naitoh, Masanori

    SAMPSON is the integral code for severe accident analysis in detail with modular structure, developed in the IMPACT project. Each module can run independently and communication with multiple analysis modules supervised by the analysis control module makes an integral analysis possible. At the end of Phase 1 (1994-1997), demonstration simulations by combinations of up to 11 analysis modules had been performed and physical models in the code had been verified by separate-effect tests and validated by inegral tests. Multi-dimensional mechanistic models and theoretical-based conservation equations have been applied, during Phase 2 (1998-2000). New models for Accident Management evaluation have been also developed. Verificaton and validation have been performed by analysing separate-effect tests and inegral tests, while actual plant analyses are also being in progress.

  16. Structural Analysis for the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident Investigation: Global Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Moore, David F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) supported the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the American Airlines Flight 587 accident investigation due to LaRC's expertise in high-fidelity structural analysis and testing of composite structures and materials. A Global Analysis Team from LaRC reviewed the manufacturer s design and certification procedures, developed finite element models and conducted structural analyses, and participated jointly with the NTSB and Airbus in subcomponent tests conducted at Airbus in Hamburg, Germany. The Global Analysis Team identified no significant or obvious deficiencies in the Airbus certification and design methods. Analysis results from the LaRC team indicated that the most-likely failure scenario was failure initiation at the right rear main attachment fitting (lug), followed by an unstable progression of failure of all fin-to-fuselage attachments and separation of the VTP from the aircraft. Additionally, analysis results indicated that failure initiates at the final observed maximum fin loading condition in the accident, when the VTP was subjected to loads that were at minimum 1.92 times the design limit load condition for certification. For certification, the VTP is only required to support loads of 1.5 times design limit load without catastrophic failure. The maximum loading during the accident was shown to significantly exceed the certification requirement. Thus, the structure appeared to perform in a manner consistent with its design and certification, and failure is attributed to VTP loads greater than expected.

  17. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

  18. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  20. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  1. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  2. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  3. MELCOR code analysis of a severe accident LOCA at Peach Bottom Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    A design-basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) has been analyzed for the Peach Bottom atomic station unit 2 using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate best-estimate times for the important events of this accident sequence and best-estimate source terms. Calculated pressures and temperatures at the beginning of the transient have been compared to results from the Peach Bottom final safety analysis report (FSAR). MELCOR-calculated source terms have been compared to source terms reported in the NUREG-1465 draft.

  4. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    PubMed Central

    AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

  5. RELAP5 Application to Accident Analysis of the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, J.; Cuadra Gascon, A.; Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.

    2012-03-18

    Detailed safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The time-dependent analysis of the primary system is determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the reactor vessel, the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. A post-processing of the simulation results has been conducted to evaluate minimum critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) using the Sudo-Kaminaga correlation. Evaluations are performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident and (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident. In both cases the RELAP5 results indicate that there is adequate margin to CHF and no damage to the fuel will occur because of sufficient coolant flow through the fuel channels and the negative scram reactivity insertion.

  6. Application of Latin hypercube sampling to RADTRAN 4 truck accident risk sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, F.L.

    1994-12-31

    The sensitivity of calculated dose estimates to various RADTRAN 4 inputs is an available output for incident-free analysis because the defining equations are linear and sensitivity to each variable can be calculated in closed mathematical form. However, the necessary linearity is not characteristic of the equations used in calculation of accident dose risk, making a similar tabulation of sensitivity for RADTRAN 4 accident analysis impossible. Therefore, a study of sensitivity of accident risk results to variation of input parameters was performed using representative routes, isotopic inventories, and packagings. It was determined that, of the approximately two dozen RADTRAN 4 input parameters pertinent to accident analysis, only a subset of five or six has significant influence on typical analyses or is subject to random uncertainties. These five or six variables were selected as candidates for Latin Hypercube Sampling applications. To make the effect of input uncertainties on calculated accident risk more explicit, distributions and limits were determined for two variables which had approximately proportional effects on calculated doses: Pasquill Category probability (PSPROB) and link population density (LPOPD). These distributions and limits were used as input parameters to Sandia`s Latin Hypercube Sampling code to generate 50 sets of RADTRAN 4 input parameters used together with point estimates of other necessary inputs to calculate 50 observations of estimated accident dose risk.Tabulations of the RADTRAN 4 accident risk input variables and their influence on output plus illustrative examples of the LHS calculations, for truck transport situations that are typical of past experience, will be presented .

  7. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  8. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  9. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  10. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  11. Clinical analysis of thyroid cancer in adult patients exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident: 5-year comparative investigations based on the results of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Cherenko, Sergiy M; Larin, Oleksandr S; Gorobeyko, Maksim B; Sichynava, Rivaz M

    2004-11-01

    The aim of study was to compare clinical and pathologic findings of surgically removed thyroid tumors in adults with or without history of irradiation due to the Chernobyl accident. From 1990 to 2003, 2363 adults with no evidence of radiation influence in their history (group A) have undergone operation for thyroid nodules. During the same period, 311 patients (born before 1969) with strict evidence of Chernobyl irradiation also underwent operation (group B). Both groups were similar in age, sex, and preoperative examination. Group B represented three of the four official categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident: 1-recovery operation workers; 2-people evacuated from the restricted area; 3-inhabitants of contaminated areas. The rate of thyroid carcinoma among all cases of thyroid nodules was significantly higher in group B--32.8% (102 patients) versus 27.2% (644 patients) in group A (p < 0.05). But a more distinct difference was observed in 1 and 2 categories of group B patients (the rate of cancer was, correspondingly, 54.8% and 47.8%;p < 0.01). The percentage of the invasive form of cancer (T4) was significantly higher in irradiated patients-39% versus 23% (p < 0.05) as were regional metastases (N1a,1b)--41% versus 19% (p < 0.01) and frequency of multifocality (33% versus 24%; p < 0.05). The most distinguished features were found in 1 category of group B: T4--in 47%, N1a-1b--in 62%, multifocality--in 41%. Our results suggest the irradiation as a cause of thyroid cancer in adult victims of Chernobyl and confirm the increasing aggressiveness of such tumors.

  12. Civil helicopter wire strike assessment study. Volume 2: Accident analysis briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuomela, C. H.; Brennan, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    A description and analysis of each of the 208 civil helicopter wire strike accidents reported to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) for the ten year period 1970-1979 is given. The accident analysis briefs were based on pilot reports, FAA investigation reports, and such accident photographs as were made available. Briefs were grouped by year and, within year, by NTSB accident report number.

  13. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  14. Accident Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON-MAKI, B.B.

    2001-05-14

    The Polycube Stabilization Project involves low temperature oxidation, without combustion, of polystyrene cubes using the production muffle furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C located in the Remote Mechanical ''C'' (RMC) Line in Room 230A in the 234-52 Facility. Polycubes are polystyrene cubes containing various concentrations of plutonium and uranium oxides. Hundreds of these cubes were manufactured for criticality experiments, and currently exist as unstabilized storage forms at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This project is designed to stabilize and prepare the polycube material for stable storage using a process very similar to the earlier processing of sludges in these furnaces. The significant difference is the quantity of hydrogenous material present, and the need to place additional controls on the heating rate of the material. This calculation note documents the analyses of the Representative Accidents identified in Section 2.4.4 of Hazards Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process, HNF-7278 (HNF 2000). These two accidents, ''Deflagration in Glovebox HC-21C due to Loss of Power'' and ''Seismic Failure of Glovebox HC-21C'', will be further assessed in this accident analysis.

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Two Downburst-Related Aircraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, J.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Although downbursts have been identified as the major cause of a number of aircraft takeoff and landing accidents, only the 1985 Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) and the more recent (July 1994) Charlotte, North Carolina, landing accidents provided sufficient onboard recorded data to perform a comprehensive analysis of the downburst phenomenon. The first step in the present analysis was the determination of the downburst wind components. Once the wind components and their gradients were determined, the degrading effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance was calculated. This wind-shear-induced aircraft performance degradation, sometimes called the F-factor, was broken down into two components F(sub 1) and F(sub 2), representing the effect of the horizontal wind gradient and the vertical wind velocity, respectively. In both the DFW and Charlotte cases, F(sub 1) was found to be the dominant causal factor of the accident. Next, the aircraft in the two cases were mathematically modeled using the longitudinal equations of motion and the appropriate aerodynamic parameters. Based on the aircraft model and the determined winds, the aircraft response to the recorded pilot inputs showed good agreement with the onboard recordings. Finally, various landing abort strategies were studied. It was concluded that the most acceptable landing abort strategy from both an analytical and pilot's standpoint was to hold constant nose-up pitch attitude while operating at maximum engine thrust.

  16. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  17. Impact of spatial kinetics in severe accident analysis for a large HWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.E.

    1994-03-01

    The impact on spatial kinetics on the analysis of severe accidents initiated by the unprotected withdrawal of one or more control rods is investigated for a large heavy water reactor. Large inter- and intra-assembly power shifts are observed, and the importance of detailed geometrical modeling of fuel assemblies is demonstrated. Neglect of space-time effects is shown to lead to erroneous estimates of safety margins, and of accident consequences in the event safety margins are exceeded. The results and conclusions are typical of what would be expected for any large, loosely coupled core.

  18. Analysis of fission product release behavior during the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D. A.; Adams, J. P.; Anderson, J. L.; Hobbins, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of fission product release during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident has been initiated to provide an understanding of fission product behavior that is consistent with both the best estimate accident scenario and fission product results from the ongoing sample acquisition and examination efforts. ''First principles'' fission product release models are used to describe release from intact, disrupted, and molten fuel. Conclusions relating to fission product release, transport, and chemical form are drawn. 35 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

  20. An association between dietary habits and traffic accidents in patients with chronic liver disease: A data-mining analysis

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, TAKUMI; SUETSUGU, TAKURO; OGATA, SHYOU; IMANAGA, MINAMI; ISHII, KUMIKO; ESAKI, NAO; SUGIMOTO, MASAKO; OTSUYAMA, JYURI; NAGAMATSU, AYU; TANIGUCHI, EITARO; ITOU, MINORU; ORIISHI, TETSUHARU; IWASAKI, SHOKO; MIURA, HIROKO; TORIMURA, TAKUJI

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of traffic accidents in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is high in the USA. However, the characteristics of patients, including dietary habits, differ between Japan and the USA. The present study investigated the incidence of traffic accidents in CLD patients and the clinical profiles associated with traffic accidents in Japan using a data-mining analysis. A cross-sectional study was performed and 256 subjects [148 CLD patients (CLD group) and 106 patients with other digestive diseases (disease control group)] were enrolled; 2 patients were excluded. The incidence of traffic accidents was compared between the two groups. Independent factors for traffic accidents were analyzed using logistic regression and decision-tree analyses. The incidence of traffic accidents did not differ between the CLD and disease control groups (8.8 vs. 11.3%). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that yoghurt consumption was the only independent risk factor for traffic accidents (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16–0.85; P=0.0197). Similarly, the results of the decision-tree analysis showed that yoghurt consumption was the initial divergence variable. In patients who consumed yoghurt habitually, the incidence of traffic accidents was 6.6%, while that in patients who did not consume yoghurt was 16.0%. CLD was not identified as an independent factor in the logistic regression and decision-tree analyses. In conclusion, the difference in the incidence of traffic accidents in Japan between the CLD and disease control groups was insignificant. Furthermore, yoghurt consumption was an independent negative risk factor for traffic accidents in patients with digestive diseases, including CLD. PMID:27123257

  1. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    SciTech Connect

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  2. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  3. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies.

  4. SAMPSON Parallel Computation for Sensitivity Analysis of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, M.; Bautista Gomez, L.; Maruyama, N.; Naitoh, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Cappello, F.

    2014-06-01

    On March 11th 2011 a high magnitude earthquake and consequent tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, resulting in a nuclear accident unprecedented in time and extents. After scram started at all power stations affected by the earthquake, diesel generators began operation as designed until tsunami waves reached the power plants located on the east coast. This had a catastrophic impact on the availability of plant safety systems at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi, leading to the condition of station black-out from unit 1 to 3. In this article the accident scenario is studied with the SAMPSON code. SAMPSON is a severe accident computer code composed of hierarchical modules to account for the diverse physics involved in the various phases of the accident evolution. A preliminary parallelization analysis of the code was performed using state-of-the-art tools and we demonstrate how this work can be beneficial to the nuclear safety analysis. This paper shows that inter-module parallelization can reduce the time to solution by more than 20%. Furthermore, the parallel code was applied to a sensitivity study for the alternative water injection into TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi unit 3. Results show that the core melting progression is extremely sensitive to the amount and timing of water injection, resulting in a high probability of partial core melting for unit 3.

  5. Predicting System Accidents with Model Analysis During Hybrid Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land D.; Throop, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Standard discrete event simulation is commonly used to identify system bottlenecks and starving and blocking conditions in resources and services. The CONFIG hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool can simulate such conditions in combination with inputs external to the simulation. This provides a means for evaluating the vulnerability to system accidents of a system's design, operating procedures, and control software. System accidents are brought about by complex unexpected interactions among multiple system failures , faulty or misleading sensor data, and inappropriate responses of human operators or software. The flows of resource and product materials play a central role in the hazardous situations that may arise in fluid transport and processing systems. We describe the capabilities of CONFIG for simulation-time linear circuit analysis of fluid flows in the context of model-based hazard analysis. We focus on how CONFIG simulates the static stresses in systems of flow. Unlike other flow-related properties, static stresses (or static potentials) cannot be represented by a set of state equations. The distribution of static stresses is dependent on the specific history of operations performed on a system. We discuss the use of this type of information in hazard analysis of system designs.

  6. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  7. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly. PMID:16911855

  8. A general approach to critical infrastructure accident consequences analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogalecka, Magda; Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    The probabilistic general model of critical infrastructure accident consequences including the process of the models of initiating events generated by its accident, the process of environment threats and the process of environment degradation is presented.

  9. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  10. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 2: Accident Model Document (AMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this volume of the LWRHU SAR, the Accident Model Document (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; Provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; Evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and Associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.

  11. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash frequencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash Frequency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash frequency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more frequent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required.

  12. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Implementation of numerical simulation techniques in analysis of the accidents in complex technological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V.

    1997-12-31

    Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective

  14. The severe accident research programme PHEBUS F.P.: First results and future tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, M.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-03-01

    PHEBUS FP is an international programme, managed by the French Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Electricite de France and the European Commission in close collaboration with the USNRC (US), COG (Canada), NUPEC and JAERI (Japan) and KAERI (South Korea). Its objective is to investigate through a series of in-pile integral experiments, key phenomena involved in LWR severe accident such as the degradation of core materials up to molten pool, the subsequent release of fission products and of structural materials, their transport in the cooling system and their deposition in the containment with a special emphasis on the volatility of iodine. After a general programme description, the paper focuses on the status of analysis of the first test FPT-0, which involved trace irradiated fuel and which has shown some quite unexpected results regarding fuel degradation and iodine behaviour, and on the upcoming test FPT-1 which will use irradiated fuel. The status of the preparation of the remaining tests of the programme is also presented.

  15. Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyu; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Mengjia; Li, Hejun; Yin, Shijiu; Xu, Yingjun

    2016-07-01

    Mining has been historically considered as a naturally high-risk industry worldwide. Deaths caused by coal mine accidents are more than the sum of all other accidents in China. Statistics of 320 coal mine accidents in Shandong province show that all accidents contain indicators of "unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations" with a frequency of 1590, accounting for 74.3% of the total frequency of 2140. "Unsafe behaviors of the operator" is another important contributory factor, which mainly includes "operator error" and "venturing into dangerous places." A systems analysis approach was applied by using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of coal mine accidents. The analysis of results leads to three conclusions. (i) "Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations," affect the "unsafe behaviors of the operator," "unsafe conditions of the equipment," and "unsafe conditions of the environment." (ii) The three influencing factors of coal mine accidents (with the frequency of effect relation in descending order) are "lack of safety education and training," "rules and regulations of safety production responsibility," and "rules and regulations of supervision and inspection." (iii) The three influenced factors (with the frequency in descending order) of coal mine accidents are "venturing into dangerous places," "poor workplace environment," and "operator error."

  16. Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyu; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Mengjia; Li, Hejun; Yin, Shijiu; Xu, Yingjun

    2016-07-01

    Mining has been historically considered as a naturally high-risk industry worldwide. Deaths caused by coal mine accidents are more than the sum of all other accidents in China. Statistics of 320 coal mine accidents in Shandong province show that all accidents contain indicators of "unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations" with a frequency of 1590, accounting for 74.3% of the total frequency of 2140. "Unsafe behaviors of the operator" is another important contributory factor, which mainly includes "operator error" and "venturing into dangerous places." A systems analysis approach was applied by using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of coal mine accidents. The analysis of results leads to three conclusions. (i) "Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations," affect the "unsafe behaviors of the operator," "unsafe conditions of the equipment," and "unsafe conditions of the environment." (ii) The three influencing factors of coal mine accidents (with the frequency of effect relation in descending order) are "lack of safety education and training," "rules and regulations of safety production responsibility," and "rules and regulations of supervision and inspection." (iii) The three influenced factors (with the frequency in descending order) of coal mine accidents are "venturing into dangerous places," "poor workplace environment," and "operator error." PMID:27085591

  17. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume II. Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    Purposes of this volume (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.

  18. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  19. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  20. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface.

  1. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  2. [The results of cytogenetic survey in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear accident].

    PubMed

    Novitskaia, N N; Snigireva, G P; Khazins, E D; Shevchenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The article represents results of long cytogenetic survey among liquidators of Chernobyl accident. The parameters studied are frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations and frequency of symmetrical translocations. The authors show that, in spite of long term after irradiation, average frequency of cells with dicentrics and centric fusions (unstable chromosomal aberrations) remains relatively high. Discussion includes possible use of cytogenetic methods in reconstruction of absorbed radiation doses in many years after exposure.

  3. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management. PMID:22719047

  4. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management.

  5. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management. PMID:22719047

  6. Summary of the SRS Severe Accident Analysis Program, 1987--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Hyder, M.L.; Britt, T.E.; Allison, D.K.; Chow, S.; Graves, R.D.; DeWald, A.B. Jr.; Monson, P.R. Jr.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) is a program of experimental and analytical studies aimed at characterizing severe accidents that might occur in the Savannah River Site Production Reactors. The goals of the Severe Accident Analysis Program are: To develop an understanding of severe accidents in SRS reactors that is adequate to support safety documentation for these reactors, including the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and other studies evaluating the safety of reactor operation; To provide tools and bases for the evaluation of existing or proposed safety related equipment in the SRS reactors; To provide bases for the development of accident management procedures for the SRS reactors; To develop and maintain on the site a sufficient body of knowledge, including documents, computer codes, and cognizant engineers and scientists, that can be used to authoritatively resolve questions or issues related to reactor accidents. The Severe Accident Analysis Program was instituted in 1987 and has already produced a substantial amount of information, and specialized calculational tools. Products of the Severe Accident Analysis Program (listed in Section 9 of this report) have been used in the development of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and in the development of technical specifications for the SRS reactors. A staff of about seven people is currently involved directly in the program and in providing input on severe accidents to other SRS activities.

  7. A multidisciplinary approach to providing care to adolescents with spinal cord trauma resulting from all-terrain vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Leslie N; Weatherford, Blakely; Locke, Lindsey N; Chung, Hoi Sing; Tidwell, Chrisla; Paton, Elizabeth; Lee, Shirleatha

    2015-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle accidents that affect the spine can lead to complex injuries in adolescents. This requires that many subspecialties work together on a multidisciplinary team to improve patient outcomes. Our case presentation will examine the multidisciplinary approach to care required for an 11-year-old adolescent involved in an all-terrain vehicle accident that resulted in traumatic spinal cord injury.

  8. [Analysis of radiation-hygienic and medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2013-01-01

    Since the day of "the Chernobyl accident" in 1986 more than 25 years have been past. Radioactively contaminated areas 14 subjects of the Russian Federation with a total area of more than 50 thousand km2, where 1.5 million people now reside were exposed to radioactive contamination. Currently, a system of comprehensive evaluation of radiation doses of the population affected by the "Chernobyl accidents", including 11 guidance documents has been created. There are methodically provided works on the assessment of average annual, accumulated and predicted radiation doses of population and its critical groups, as well as doses to the thyroid gland The relevance of the analysis of the consequences of the "Chernobyl accident" is demonstrated by the events in Japan, at nuclear power Fukusima-1. In 2011 - 20/2 there were carried out comprehensive maritime expeditions under the auspices of the Russian Geographical Society with the participation of relevant ministries and agencies, leading academic institutions in Russia. In 2012, work was carried out on radiation protection of the population from the potential transboundary impact of the accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima-l. The results provide a basis for the favorable outlook for the radiation environment in our Far East and the Pacific coast of Russia.

  9. Linguistic methodology for the analysis of aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1983-01-01

    A linguistic method for the analysis of small group discourse, was developed and the use of this method on transcripts of commercial air transpot accidents is demonstrated. The method identifies the discourse types that occur and determine their linguistic structure; it identifies significant linguistic variables based upon these structures or other linguistic concepts such as speech act and topic; it tests hypotheses that support significance and reliability of these variables; and it indicates the implications of the validated hypotheses. These implications fall into three categories: (1) to train crews to use more nearly optimal communication patterns; (2) to use linguistic variables as indices for aspects of crew performance such as attention; and (3) to provide guidelines for the design of aviation procedures and equipment, especially those that involve speech.

  10. Radionuclide Analysis on Bamboos following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Akita, Kae; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium 134Cs and 137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW), respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms. PMID:22496858

  11. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  12. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-06

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  13. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-01

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  14. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O.

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  15. MACCS usage at Rocky Flats Plant for consequence analysis of postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Foppe, T.L.; Peterson, V.L.

    1993-10-01

    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) has been applied to the radiological consequence assessment of potential accidents from a non-reactor nuclear facility. MACCS has been used in a variety of applications to evaluate radiological dose and health effects to the public from postulated plutonium releases and from postulated criticalities. These applications were conducted to support deterministic and probabilistic accident analyses for safety analyses for safety analysis reports, radiological sabotage studies, and other regulatory requests.

  16. 300-Area accident analysis for Emergency Planning Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Pillinger, W.L.

    1983-06-27

    The Department of Energy has requested SRL assistance in developing offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Savannah River Plant, based on projected dose consequences of atmospheric releases of radioactivity from potential credible accidents in the SRP operating areas. This memorandum presents the assessment of the offsite doses via the plume exposure pathway from the 300-Area potential accidents. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. GPHS-RTG launch accident analysis for Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, C.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the safety program conducted to determine the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to potential launch accidents of the Space Shuttle for the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provided definition of the Shuttle potential accidents and characterized the environments. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program (LASEP) was developed by GE to analyze the RTG response to these accidents. RTG detailed response to Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragment impacts, as well as to other types of impact, was obtained from an extensive series of hydrocode analyses. A comprehensive test program was conducted also to determine RTG response to the accident environments. The hydrocode response analyses coupled with the test data base provided the broad range response capability which was implemented in LASEP.

  18. Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane Drowning Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, John H; Nixon, James

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is fives times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool accidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site, and outcome are presented. PMID:9493630

  19. Cervical esophageal rupture after blunt trauma resulting from a car accident

    PubMed Central

    Jabłoński, Sławomir; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic perforation of the cervical esophagus due to blunt trauma is a very rare condition which continues to be associated with significant mortality rates. The symptoms and signs of this injury are often masked by or ascribed to more common blunt thoracic injuries. This paper presents a case of cervical esophageal perforation secondary to blunt trauma resulting from a car accident. The injury was diagnosed early by computed tomography examination, and the patient underwent prompt and successful surgical repair performed to prevent the development of descending mediastinitis. PMID:27785145

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Harper, F.T.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Grupa, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

  2. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended.

  3. Analysis of construction accidents in Turkey and responsible parties.

    PubMed

    Gürcanli, G Emre; Müngen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world's biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972-2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00-12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  4. Analysis of Construction Accidents in Turkey and Responsible Parties

    PubMed Central

    GÜRCANLI, G. Emre; MÜNGEN, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world’s biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972–2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00–12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  5. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  6. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lobaugh, M. L.; Hickman, D. P.; Wong, C. W.; Wysong, A. R.; Merritt, M. J.; Heinrichs, D. P.; Topper, J. D.

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  7. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    PubMed

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community. PMID:25794921

  8. Daya Bay power station accident-consequence analysis for Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Ching, Ming Kam )

    1989-01-01

    In the past decade, nations in Southeast Asia have been turning to nuclear power to meet their electricity demand. The Daya Bay nuclear power station, a joint venture of the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, was initiated in the late 1970s and formalized in 1986. The site of the station is {approximately}50 km from downtown Hong Kong and <30 km from some part of the New Territories. Due to its proximity, the project has raised considerable concern for the consequences of potential accidents. The objective of this paper is to present some of the results of the accident-consequence analysis for Hong Kong. In general, the risk to the public near a nuclear power plant from a particular accident is controlled by three factors: (1) source terms, (2) dilution due to atmospheric dispersion, and (3) population distribution surrounding the plant. The present study uses a Gaussian-type puff dispersion/consequence model RADIS with the appropriate parameters for the transport of important radioactive isotopes. RADIS uses a two-dimensional trajectory that models plume movement in a way that is close to the real meteorological data. Modified Pasquill-Gilford diffusion parameters are used to account for vertical and transverse diffusions, and the model takes dry deposition, wet deposition, and groundshine effects into consideration. To demonstrate the applicability of the present model, some sample calculational results are shown.

  9. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Aghajanyan, Anna; Suskov, Igor

    2009-12-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n=106, p<0.01), but also in their children born after the accident (n=159, p<0.05). This is an indicative of the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. To elucidate this phenomenon, experiments were undertaken to model genomic instability by using single and fractional in vitro gamma-irradiation ((137)Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  10. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  11. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  12. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  13. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  14. Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.; Alstine, M.N. Van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two Type B drum package fire test results. The model 9973 package was fire tested after a 30 ft. top down drop and puncture, and an undamaged model 9975 package containing a heater (21W) was fire tested to determine content heat source effects. Analysis results using a refined version of a previously developed HAC fiberboard model compared well against the test data from both the 9973 and 9975 packages.

  15. Analysis on the Density Driven Air-Ingress Accident in VHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Chang Oh; Richard Schultz; David Petti

    2008-11-01

    Air-ingress following the pipe rupture is considered to be the most serious accident in the VHTRs due to its potential problems such as core heat-up, structural integrity and toxic gas release. Previously, it has been believed that the main air-ingress mechanism of this accident is the molecular diffusion process between the reactor core and the cavity. However, according to some recent studies, there is another fast air-ingress process that has not been considered before. It is called density-driven stratified flow. The potential for density-driven stratified air ingress into the VHTR following a large-break LOCA was first described in the NGNP Methods Technical Program based on stratified flow studies performed with liquid. Studies on densitygradient driven stratified flow in advanced reactor systems has been the subject of active research for well over a decade since density-gradient dominated stratified flow is an inherent characteristic of passive systems used in advanced reactors. Recently, Oh et al. performed a CFD analysis on the stratified flow in the VHTR, and showed that this effect can significantly accelerate the air-ingress process in the VHTRs. They also proposed to replace the original air-ingress scenario based on the molecular diffusion with the one based on the stratified flow. This paper is focusing on the effect of stratified flow on the results of the air-ingress accident in VHTR

  16. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  17. Waste management facility accident analysis (WASTE ACC) system: software for analysis of waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.F.; Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the Waste Management Facility Accident Analysis (WASTE{underscore}ACC) software, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to support the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). WASTE{underscore}ACC is a decision support and database system that is compatible with Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark}. It assesses potential atmospheric releases from accidents at waste management facilities. The software provides the user with an easy-to-use tool to determine the risk-dominant accident sequences for the many possible combinations of process technologies, waste and facility types, and alternative cases described in the WM PEIS. In addition, its structure will allow additional alternative cases and assumptions to be tested as part of the future DOE programmatic decision-making process. The WASTE{underscore}ACC system demonstrates one approach to performing a generic, systemwide evaluation of accident risks at waste management facilities. The advantages of WASTE{underscore}ACC are threefold. First, the software gets waste volume and radiological profile data that were used to perform other WM PEIS-related analyses directly from the WASTE{underscore}MGMT system. Second, the system allows for a consistent analysis across all sites and waste streams, which enables decision makers to understand more fully the trade-offs among various policy options and scenarios. Third, the system is easy to operate; even complex scenario runs are completed within minutes.

  18. School sports accidents: analysis of causes, modes, and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pape, D; Pitsch, W; Engel, C

    2001-01-01

    About 5% of all school children are seriously injured during physical education every year. Because of its influence on children's attitude toward sports and the economic aspects, an evaluation of causes and medical consequences is necessary. In this study, 213 school sports accidents were investigated. Besides diagnosis, the localization of injuries, as well as the duration of the sick leave were documented. Average age of injured students was 13 years. Most of the injured students blamed themselves for the accident. The most common injuries were sprains, contusions, and fractures. Main reasons for the accidents were faults in basic motion training. Playing soccer and basketball were the most frequent reasons for injuries. The upper extremity was more frequently involved than the lower extremity. Sports physicians and teachers should work out a program outlining the individual needs and capabilities of the injured students to reintegrate them into physical education.

  19. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  20. [Genetic effects of bystander factors from the blood sera of people irradiated as the result of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Morozik, P M; Mosse, I B; Mel'nov, S B; Morozik, M S; Seymour, K B; Mothersill, C E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the analysis of the effects of bystander factors from blood sera of people affected by the Chernobyl accident on human keratinocyte cell culture (HPV-G cells). A new method was developed for evaluation of the bystander factor presence in vivo in blood of the people irradiated by the Chernobyl accident. Affected population groups included liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and people living and working in areas of the Gomel region contaminated by radionuclides. The analysis has shown that bystander factors persist in Chernobyl liquidator blood samples for more than 20 years since irradiation. The data suggest that blood sera contain bystander factors, which are able to induce micronuclei and decrease the metabolic activity of HPV-G cells.

  1. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  2. Safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission. Volume 2, book 1: Accident model document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-12-01

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence.

  3. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2003-10-14

    The purpose of the calculation documented here is to support in-tank vehicle fuel fire accident frequencies in the Documented Safety Analysis. This analysis demonstrates that the frequency of the pool fire and deflagration scenarios of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident are ''extremely unlikely'' to ''unlikely.'' The chains of events that result in each scenario are presented in this document and are the same as used in previous analyses of this accident. Probabilities and frequencies are developed for each event, using wherever possible, information from RPP-13121, Tables B-1 and B-2, and from the River Protection Project ORPS. The estimated probabilities are considered reasonably conservative, but do not necessarily assume the worst possible outcomes or the most conservative possible cases. A sensitivity analysis performed in Section 4.2 shows that if the probability of either the ignition of fuel event or the fuel flows into riser event were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a pool fire could increase and shift into the ''unlikely'' category. If the probability of an increase in riser strikes, or an increase in broken risers, unignited fuel entering a riser, or a fuel ignition source being present in a tank were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a deflagration would remain in the ''unlikely'' category. When the likelihood of a broken riser is increased by an order of magnitude, a pool fire remains in the ''extremely unlikely'' category. The DSA accident analysis indicates that an unmitigated flammable gas deflagration resulting from an induced gas release event or an organic solvent fire occurring in either an SST or a DST is an anticipated event (> 10{sup -2}). Deflagration in a DST annulus is considered unlikely (> 10{sup -4} to {le}10{sup -2}). These frequencies clearly bound those of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire family of accidents.

  4. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water.

  5. A DOE-STD-3009 hazard and accident analysis methodology for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MAHN,JEFFREY A.; WALKER,SHARON ANN

    2000-03-23

    This paper demonstrates the use of appropriate consequence evaluation criteria in conjunction with generic likelihood of occurrence data to produce consistent hazard analysis results for nonreactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). An additional objective is to demonstrate the use of generic likelihood of occurrence data as a means for deriving defendable accident sequence frequencies, thereby enabling the screening of potentially incredible events (<10{sup {minus}6} per year) from the design basis accident envelope. Generic likelihood of occurrence data has been used successfully in performing SAR hazard and accident analyses for two nonreactor nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. DOE-STD-3009-94 addresses and even encourages use of a qualitative binning technique for deriving and ranking nonreactor nuclear facility risks. However, qualitative techniques invariably lead to reviewer requests for more details associated with consequence or likelihood of occurrence bin assignments in the test of the SAR. Hazard analysis data displayed in simple worksheet format generally elicits questions about not only the assumptions behind the data, but also the quantitative bases for the assumptions themselves (engineering judgment may not be considered sufficient by some reviewers). This is especially true where the criteria for qualitative binning of likelihood of occurrence involves numerical ranges. Oftentimes reviewers want to see calculations or at least a discussion of event frequencies or failure probabilities to support likelihood of occurrence bin assignments. This may become a significant point of contention for events that have been binned as incredible. This paper will show how the use of readily available generic data can avoid many of the reviewer questions that will inevitably arise from strictly qualitative analyses, while not significantly increasing the overall burden on the analyst.

  6. Development of integrated core disruptive accident analysis code for FBR - ASTERIA-FBR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizu, T.; Endo, H.; Tatewaki, I.; Yamamoto, T.; Shirakawa, N.

    2012-07-01

    The evaluation of consequence at the severe accident is the most important as a safety licensing issue for the reactor core of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), since the LMFBR core is not in an optimum condition from the viewpoint of reactivity. This characteristics might induce a super-prompt criticality due to the core geometry change during the core disruptive accident (CDA). The previous CDA analysis codes have been modeled in plural phases dependent on the mechanism driving a super-prompt criticality. Then, the following event is calculated by connecting different codes. This scheme, however, should introduce uncertainty and/or arbitrary to calculation results. To resolve the issues and obtain the consistent calculation results without arbitrary, JNES is developing the ASTERIA-FBR code for the purpose of providing the cross-check analysis code, which is another required scheme to confirm the validity of the evaluation results prepared by applicants, in the safety licensing procedure of the planned high performance core of Monju. ASTERIA-FBR consists of the three major calculation modules, CONCORD, dynamic-GMVP, and FEMAXI-FBR. CONCORD is a three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics calculation module with multi-phase, multi-component, and multi-velocity field model. Dynamic-GMVP is a space-time neutronics calculation module. FEMAXI-FBR calculates the fuel pellet deformation behavior and fuel pin failure behavior. This paper describes the needs of ASTERIA-FBR development, major module outlines, and the model validation status. (authors)

  7. Oil Spill Detection and Modelling: Preliminary Results for the Cercal Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. T.; Azevedo, A.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Oliveira, A.

    2013-03-01

    Oil spill research has significantly increased mainly as a result of the severe consequences experienced from industry accidents. Oil spill models are currently able to simulate the processes that determine the fate of oil slicks, playing an important role in disaster prevention, control and mitigation, generating valuable information for decision makers and the population in general. On the other hand, satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery has demonstrated significant potential in accidental oil spill detection, when they are accurately differentiated from look-alikes. The combination of both tools can lead to breakthroughs, particularly in the development of Early Warning Systems (EWS). This paper presents a hindcast simulation of the oil slick resulting from the Motor Tanker (MT) Cercal oil spill, listed by the Portuguese Navy as one of the major oil spills in the Portuguese Atlantic Coast. The accident took place nearby Leix˜oes Harbour, North of the Douro River, Porto (Portugal) on the 2nd of October 1994. The oil slick was segmented from available European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images, using an algorithm based on a simplified version of the K-means clustering formulation. The image-acquired information, added to the initial conditions and forcings, provided the necessary inputs for the oil spill model. Simulations were made considering the tri-dimensional hydrodynamics in a crossscale domain, from the interior of the Douro River Estuary to the open-ocean on the Iberian Atlantic shelf. Atmospheric forcings (from ECMWF - the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and NOAA - the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), river forcings (from SNIRH - the Portuguese National Information System of the Hydric Resources) and tidal forcings (from LNEC - the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering), including baroclinic gradients (NOAA), were considered. The lack of data for validation purposes only allowed the use of the

  8. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Zimmerman, G.A.

    1994-03-14

    During Phase 3 of the EPZ project, a sitewide analysis will be performed applying a spectrum-of-accidents approach to both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials release scenarios. This analysis will include the MCA but will be wider in scope and will produce options for the State of Colorado for establishing a bounding EPZ that is intended to more comprehensively update the interim, preliminary EPZ developed in Phase 2. EG&G will propose use of a hazards assessment methodology that is consistent with the DOE Emergency Management Guide for Hazards Assessments and other methods required by DOE orders. This will include hazards, accident, safety, and risk analyses. Using this methodology, EG&G will develop technical analyses for a spectrum of accidents. The analyses will show the potential effects from the spectrum of accidents on the offsite population together with identification of offsite vulnerable zones and areas of concern. These analyses will incorporate state-of-the-art technology for accident analysis, atmospheric plume dispersion modeling, consequence analysis, and the application of these evaluations to the general public population at risk. The analyses will treat both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials and mixtures of both released accidentally to the atmosphere. DOE/RFO will submit these results to the State of Colorado for the State`s use in determining offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. In addition, the results will be used for internal Rocky Flats Plant emergency planning.

  9. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.

  10. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d.

  11. Bayesian data analysis of severe fatal accident risk in the oil chain.

    PubMed

    Eckle, Petrissa; Burgherr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the risk of severe fatal accidents causing five or more fatalities and for nine different activities covering the entire oil chain. Included are exploration and extraction, transport by different modes, refining and final end use in power plants, heating or gas stations. The risks are quantified separately for OECD and non-OECD countries and trends are calculated. Risk is analyzed by employing a Bayesian hierarchical model yielding analytical functions for both frequency (Poisson) and severity distributions (Generalized Pareto) as well as frequency trends. This approach addresses a key problem in risk estimation-namely the scarcity of data resulting in high uncertainties in particular for the risk of extreme events, where the risk is extrapolated beyond the historically most severe accidents. Bayesian data analysis allows the pooling of information from different data sets covering, for example, the different stages of the energy chains or different modes of transportation. In addition, it also inherently delivers a measure of uncertainty. This approach provides a framework, which comprehensively covers risk throughout the oil chain, allowing the allocation of risk in sustainability assessments. It also permits the progressive addition of new data to refine the risk estimates. Frequency, severity, and trends show substantial differences between the activities, emphasizing the need for detailed risk analysis. PMID:22642363

  12. Bayesian data analysis of severe fatal accident risk in the oil chain.

    PubMed

    Eckle, Petrissa; Burgherr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the risk of severe fatal accidents causing five or more fatalities and for nine different activities covering the entire oil chain. Included are exploration and extraction, transport by different modes, refining and final end use in power plants, heating or gas stations. The risks are quantified separately for OECD and non-OECD countries and trends are calculated. Risk is analyzed by employing a Bayesian hierarchical model yielding analytical functions for both frequency (Poisson) and severity distributions (Generalized Pareto) as well as frequency trends. This approach addresses a key problem in risk estimation-namely the scarcity of data resulting in high uncertainties in particular for the risk of extreme events, where the risk is extrapolated beyond the historically most severe accidents. Bayesian data analysis allows the pooling of information from different data sets covering, for example, the different stages of the energy chains or different modes of transportation. In addition, it also inherently delivers a measure of uncertainty. This approach provides a framework, which comprehensively covers risk throughout the oil chain, allowing the allocation of risk in sustainability assessments. It also permits the progressive addition of new data to refine the risk estimates. Frequency, severity, and trends show substantial differences between the activities, emphasizing the need for detailed risk analysis.

  13. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harrison, J.D.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  15. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD UNIRRADIATED FUEL PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO SEQUENTIAL LATERAL LOADS IN HYPOTHETICAL ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2008-04-30

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) specified in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Testing is often limited by cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing by using simplified analytical methods. This paper presents a numerical technique for evaluating the dynamic responses of large fuel casks subjected to sequential HAC loading. A nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed for a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) [1] to evaluate the cumulative damage after the hypothetical accident Conditions of a 30-foot lateral drop followed by a 40-inch lateral puncture as specified in 10CFR71. The structural integrity of the containment vessel is justified based on the analytical results in comparison with the stress criteria, specified in the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2], for Level D service loads. The analyzed cumulative damages caused by the sequential loading of a 30-foot lateral drop and a 40-inch lateral puncture are compared with the package test data. The analytical results are in good agreement with the test results.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Boardman, J.; Jones, J.A.; Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  17. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Harper, F.T.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  19. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirov, F A; Shcheglov, A I

    1994-12-11

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, beta-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  1. What can the drivers' own description from combined sources provide in an analysis of driver distraction and low vigilance in accident situations?

    PubMed

    Tivesten, Emma; Wiberg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Accident data play an important role in vehicle safety development. Accident data sources are generally limited in terms of how much information is provided on driver states and behaviour prior to an accident. However, the precise limitations vary between databases, due to differences in analysis focus and data collection procedures between organisations. If information about a specific accident can be retrieved from more than one data source it should be possible to combine the available information sets to facilitate data from one source to compensate for limitations in the other(s). To investigate the viability of such compensation, this study identified a set of accidents recorded in two different data sources. The first data source investigated was an accident mail survey and the second data source insurance claims documents consisting predominantly of insurance claims completed by the involved road users. An analysis of survey variables was compared to a case analysis including word data derived from the same survey and filed insurance claims documents. For each accident, the added value of having access to more than one source of information was assessed. To limit the scope of this study, three particular topics were investigated: available information on low vigilance (e.g., being drowsy, ill); secondary task distraction (e.g., talking with passengers, mobile phone use); and distraction related to the driving task (e.g., looking for approaching vehicles). Results suggest that for low vigilance and secondary task distraction, a combination of the mail survey and insurance claims documents provide more reliable and detailed pre-crash information than survey variables alone. However, driving related distraction appears to be more difficult to capture. In order to gain a better understanding of the above issues and how frequently they occur in accidents, the data sources and analysis methods suggested here may be combined with other investigation methods such

  2. What can the drivers' own description from combined sources provide in an analysis of driver distraction and low vigilance in accident situations?

    PubMed

    Tivesten, Emma; Wiberg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Accident data play an important role in vehicle safety development. Accident data sources are generally limited in terms of how much information is provided on driver states and behaviour prior to an accident. However, the precise limitations vary between databases, due to differences in analysis focus and data collection procedures between organisations. If information about a specific accident can be retrieved from more than one data source it should be possible to combine the available information sets to facilitate data from one source to compensate for limitations in the other(s). To investigate the viability of such compensation, this study identified a set of accidents recorded in two different data sources. The first data source investigated was an accident mail survey and the second data source insurance claims documents consisting predominantly of insurance claims completed by the involved road users. An analysis of survey variables was compared to a case analysis including word data derived from the same survey and filed insurance claims documents. For each accident, the added value of having access to more than one source of information was assessed. To limit the scope of this study, three particular topics were investigated: available information on low vigilance (e.g., being drowsy, ill); secondary task distraction (e.g., talking with passengers, mobile phone use); and distraction related to the driving task (e.g., looking for approaching vehicles). Results suggest that for low vigilance and secondary task distraction, a combination of the mail survey and insurance claims documents provide more reliable and detailed pre-crash information than survey variables alone. However, driving related distraction appears to be more difficult to capture. In order to gain a better understanding of the above issues and how frequently they occur in accidents, the data sources and analysis methods suggested here may be combined with other investigation methods such

  3. Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Pate-Cornell, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Routes to failure: analysis of 41 civil aviation accidents from the Republic of China using the human factors analysis and classification system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Yu, Chung-San

    2008-03-01

    The human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) is based upon Reason's organizational model of human error. HFACS was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents, however, there is little empirical work formally describing the relationship between the components in the model. This research analyses 41 civil aviation accidents occurring to aircraft registered in the Republic of China (ROC) between 1999 and 2006 using the HFACS framework. The results show statistically significant relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). The pattern of the 'routes to failure' observed in the data from this analysis of civil aircraft accidents show great similarities to that observed in the analysis of military accidents. This research lends further support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Statistical relationships linking fallible decisions in upper management levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating the psychological preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots, ultimately leading to accidents.

  5. Analysis of station blackout accidents for the Bellefonte pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gasser, R D; Bieniarz, P P; Tills, J L

    1986-09-01

    An analysis has been performed for the Bellefonte PWR Unit 1 to determine the containment loading and the radiological releases into the environment from a station blackout accident. A number of issues have been addressed in this analysis which include the effects of direct heating on containment loading, and the effects of fission product heating and natural convection on releases from the primary system. The results indicate that direct heating which involves more than about 50% of the core can fail the Bellefonte containment, but natural convection in the RCS may lead to overheating and failure of the primary system piping before core slump, thus, eliminating or mitigating direct heating. Releases from the primary system are significantly increased before vessel breach due to natural circulation and after vessel breach due to reevolution of retained fission products by fission product heating of RCS structures.

  6. Traffic Analysis and Road Accidents: A Case Study of Hyderabad using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyaiah, M.; Shrinagesh, B.

    2014-06-01

    Globalization has impacted many developing countries across the world. India is one such country, which benefited the most. Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. It is estimated that since 2001 there is an increase of 202 percent of two wheeler and 286 percent of four wheeler vehicles with no road expansion. Motor vehicle crashes are a common cause of death, disability and demand for emergency medical care. Globally, more than 1 million people die each year from traffic crashes and about 20-50 million are injured or permanently disabled. There has been increasing trend in road accidents in Hyderabad over a few years. GIS helps in locating the accident hotspots and also in analyzing the trend of road accidents in Hyderabad.

  7. A Program of Education in Accident Prevention, with Methods and Results. Bulletin, 1922, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, E. George

    1922-01-01

    No movement in education in recent years has taken hold of the imagination and emotions of the American business man more effectively than education in accident prevention. This appeal to the business man is perhaps due more than anything else to the fact that when the educator begins to talk of education in terms of saving human lives he is using…

  8. Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

  9. Returning land contaminated as a result of radiation accidents to farming use.

    PubMed

    Voronina, A V; Blinova, M O; Semenishchev, V S; Gupta, D K

    2015-06-01

    An assessment is given of the possibility of sorbents based on natural aluminosilicates (glauconite and clinoptilolite) being used for remediation of radioactively contaminated land with the aim of returning it to farming use. A comparative study of selectivity and reversibility of radiocaesium and radiostrontium sorption by natural aluminosilicates as well as by modified ferrocyanide sorbents based on these aluminosilicates was made. It was found that surface modification of aluminosilicates by ferrocyanides increases the selectivity of synthesized sorbents to caesium by 100-1000 times, increases sorption capacity and makes caesium sorption almost irreversible, whereas, selectivity of these sorbents to strontium radionuclides remains approximately the same as for natural aluminosilicates. The caesium distribution coefficient for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide on glauconite is 10((5.0±0.6)) L kg(-1), the static exchange capacity (SEC) is 63 mg g(-1); for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite caesium distribution coefficients in various concentration ranges are 10((7.0±1.0)), 10((5.7±0.4)) and 10((3.2±0.7)) L kg(-1), total SEC was 500 mg g(-1). Caesium leaching by various leaching solutions from saturated mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite was lower than 2%; from saturated mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on glauconite it was 1.5-14.6%. Ferrocyanide sorbents, based on glauconite and clinoptilolite are recommended for remediation of land, contaminated by caesium as a result of the Fukushima accident in Japan. Use of these sorbents should decrease the transfer of caesium to agricultural vegetation up to a factor of 20.

  10. Returning land contaminated as a result of radiation accidents to farming use.

    PubMed

    Voronina, A V; Blinova, M O; Semenishchev, V S; Gupta, D K

    2015-06-01

    An assessment is given of the possibility of sorbents based on natural aluminosilicates (glauconite and clinoptilolite) being used for remediation of radioactively contaminated land with the aim of returning it to farming use. A comparative study of selectivity and reversibility of radiocaesium and radiostrontium sorption by natural aluminosilicates as well as by modified ferrocyanide sorbents based on these aluminosilicates was made. It was found that surface modification of aluminosilicates by ferrocyanides increases the selectivity of synthesized sorbents to caesium by 100-1000 times, increases sorption capacity and makes caesium sorption almost irreversible, whereas, selectivity of these sorbents to strontium radionuclides remains approximately the same as for natural aluminosilicates. The caesium distribution coefficient for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide on glauconite is 10((5.0±0.6)) L kg(-1), the static exchange capacity (SEC) is 63 mg g(-1); for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite caesium distribution coefficients in various concentration ranges are 10((7.0±1.0)), 10((5.7±0.4)) and 10((3.2±0.7)) L kg(-1), total SEC was 500 mg g(-1). Caesium leaching by various leaching solutions from saturated mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite was lower than 2%; from saturated mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on glauconite it was 1.5-14.6%. Ferrocyanide sorbents, based on glauconite and clinoptilolite are recommended for remediation of land, contaminated by caesium as a result of the Fukushima accident in Japan. Use of these sorbents should decrease the transfer of caesium to agricultural vegetation up to a factor of 20. PMID:25827577

  11. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Book 1, Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.

    PubMed

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents.

  13. Chiropractic treatment of patients in motor vehicle accidents: a statistical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dies, Stephen; Strapp, J Walter

    1992-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are a major cause of spinal injuries treated by chiropractors. In this study the files of one chiropractor were reviewed retrospectively to generate a data base on the MVA cases (n = 149). The effect of age, sex, vehicle damage, symptoms and concurrent physiotherapy on the dependent variables of number of treatments, improvement and requirement for ongoing treatment was computed using an analysis of variance. Overall the average number of treatments given was 14.2. Patients who complained of headache or low back pain required more treatments than average. Improvement level was lowered by delay in seeking treatment, the presence of uncomplicated nausea and advancing age. Ongoing treatment to relieve persistent pain was required in 40.2 percent of the cases. None of the factors studied had a significant effect on this variable. The results of this study are comparable to those reported in the medical literature.

  14. Surgical videos for accident analysis, performance improvement, and complication prevention: time for a surgical black box?

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Magos, Adam

    2012-03-01

    Conventional audit of surgical records through review of surgical results provides useful knowledge but hardly helps identify the technical reasons lying behind specific outcomes or complications. Surgical teams not only need to know that a complication might happen but also how and when it is most likely to happen. Functional awareness is therefore needed to prevent complications, know how to deal with them, and improve overall surgical performance. The authors wish to argue that the systematic recording and reviewing of surgical videos, a "surgical black box," might improve surgical care, help prevent complications, and allow accident analysis. A possible strategy to test this hypothesis is presented and discussed. Recording and reviewing surgical interventions, apart from helping us achieve functional awareness and increasing the safety profile of our performance, allows us also to effectively share our experience with colleagues. The authors believe that those potential implications make this hypothesis worth testing.

  15. Accident and emergency attendances by children under the age of 1 year as a result of injury

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine all accident and emergency (A&E) department attendances by children under the age of 1 year over a period of 12 months. Also to try to identify the prevalence and severity of accident types in small children and to suggest ways to reduce such accidents. Methods: The A&E department of the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital (RACH) serves a population of over half a million. All children under 1 year of age attending this department in the year 2000 had their case notes reviewed by the author and the cause, type, and severity of the illness or injury noted. Results: During the 12 month audit period 1416 new cases under the age of 1 year presented to RACH, 790 of which presented directly to A&E. Six hundred and eighteen (78%) were self referred and 116 children attended A&E on more than one occasion during the year. Four hundred and thirty four (55%) of the A&E attendances were classed as "accidents", the remainder were mainly for medical conditions such as respiratory distress. Two hundred and sixty four (61%) were caused by falls and 38% were admitted for inpatient management. Two hundred and twenty nine (29%) required radiographs, which revealed 30 fractures. Thirty seven children sustained scalds/burns and there were 33 accidental ingestions. Six cases were judged to be non-accidental. Conclusions: There is a surprisingly high rate of "accidental" injury in this age group, bringing into question the effectiveness of current accident prevention strategies. Perhaps specific prevention advice should be targeted at parents and carers of young children. There should always be a high index of suspicion for non-accidental injury. PMID:12533361

  16. Modeling and analysis of the unprotected loss-of-flow accident in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Simms, R.; Gruber, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of fission-gas-driven fuel compaction on the energetics resulting from a loss-of-flow accident was estimated with the aid of the SAS3D accident analysis code. The analysis was carried out as part of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor licensing process. The TREAT tests L6, L7, and R8 were analyzed to assist in the modeling of fuel motion and the effects of plenum fission-gas release on coolant and clad dynamics. Special, conservative modeling was introduced to evaluate the effect of fission-gas pressure on the motion of the upper fuel pin segment following disruption. For the nominal sodium-void worth, fission-gas-driven fuel compaction did not adversely affect the outcome of the transient. When uncertainties in the sodium-void worth were considered, however, it was found that if fuel compaction occurs, loss-of-flow driven transient overpower phenomenology could not be precluded.

  17. TRAC-BF1/MOD1: An advanced best-estimate computer program for BWR accident analysis: User's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rettig, W.H.; Wade, N.L. )

    1992-06-01

    The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed versions of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the public. The TRAC-BF1/MODI version of the computer code provides a best-estimate analysis capability for analyzing the full range of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) systems and related facilities. This version provides a consistent and unified analysis capability for analyzing all areas of a large- or small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), beginning with the blowdown phase and continuing through heatup, reflood with quenching, and, finally, the refill phase of the accident. Also provided is a basic capability for the analysis of operational transients up to and including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The TRAC-BF1/MOD1 version produces results consistent with previous versions. Assessment calculations using the two TRAC-BFI versions show overall improvements in agreement with data and computation times as compared to earlier versions of the TRAC-BWR series of computer codes.

  18. TRAC-BF1/MOD1: An advanced best-estimate computer program for BWR accident analysis, Model description

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, J.A.; Wade, N.L.; Giles, M.M.; Rouhani, S.Z.; Shumway, R.W.; Singer, G.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Weaver, W.L. )

    1992-08-01

    The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed versions of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the public. The TRAC-BF1/MODl version of the computer code provides a best-estimate analysis capability for analyzing the full range of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) systems and related facilities. This version provides a consistent and unified analysis capability for analyzing all areas of a large- or small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), beginning with the blowdown phase and continuing through heatup, reflood with quenching, and, finally, the refill phase of the accident. Also provided is a basic capability for the analysis of operational transients up to and including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The TRAC-BF1/MODI version produces results consistent with previous versions. Assessment calculations using the two TRAC-BF1 versions show overall improvements in agreement with data and computation times as compared to earlier versions of the TRAC-BWR series of computer codes.

  19. Central collecting and evaluating of major accidents and near-miss-events in the Federal Republic of Germany--results, experiences, perspectives.

    PubMed

    Uth, Hans-Joachim; Wiese, Norbert

    2004-07-26

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state of the art requirements in process safety. To improve this input by a systematic way in the FRG, a central body for collecting and evaluating major accident (ZEMA) was established in 1993. ZEMA is part of the Federal Environmental Agency. All events which are to be notified due to the German Regulation on Major Accidents (Störfall-Verordnung) are centrally collected, analysed (deducing lessons learnt) and documented by ZEMA. The bureau is also responsible for the dissemination of the lessons learnt to all stake holders. This work is done in co-operation with the German Major-Accident Hazard Commission (Störfallkommission) and other international bodies like European MAHB. At the time being, over 375 events from 1980 to 2002 are registered in Germany. For each event, a separate data sheet is published in annual reports, first started in 1993. All information is also available at. A summary evaluation on the events from 1993 to 1999 is presented and some basic lessons learnt are shown. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of maintenance, detailed knowledge of chemical properties, human factor issues and the role of safety organisation especially connected with subcontractors. The German notification system is described in detail and some experience with the system is reported. Keeping in mind that collecting reports from notified major accidents is only a small amount compared with all the events which might be interesting to learn from, the German Major-Accident Hazard Commission has established a separate body, the subcommittee "Incident Evaluation", which is in charge with collecting and evaluating of minor and near-miss events. Since 1994, a concept for the registration and evaluation of those non-notifiable events was developed. From 2000 on, the concept has been put into operation. Its main elements are; 1. reporting of the incident by the plant operator to an

  20. Testing and analysis of structural integrity of electrosleeved tubes under severe accident transients

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1999-12-10

    The structural integrity of flawed steam generator tubing with Electrosleeves{trademark} under simulated severe accident transients was analyzed by analytical models that used available material properties data and results from high-temperature tests conducted on Electrosleeved tubes. The Electrosleeve material is almost pure Ni and derives its strength and other useful properties from its nanocrystalline microstructure, which is stable at reactor operating temperatures. However, it undergoes rapid grain growth, at the high temperatures expected during severe accidents, resulting in a loss of strength and a corresponding decrease in flow stress. The magnitude of this decrease depends on the time-temperature history during the accident. Failure tests were conducted at ANL and FTI on internally pressurized Electrosleeved tubes with 80% and 100% throughwall machined axial notches in tie parent tubes that were subjected to simulated severe accident temperature transients. The test results, together with the analytical model, were used to estimate the unaged flow stress curve of the Electrosleeved material at high temperatures. Failure temperatures for Electrosleeved tubes with throughwall and part-throughwall axial cracks of various lengths in the parent tubes were calculated for a postulated severe accident transient.

  1. The accident evolution and barrier function (AEB) model applied to incident analysis in the processing industries.

    PubMed

    Svenson, O

    1991-09-01

    This study develops a theoretical model for accident evolutions and how they can be arrested. The model describes the interaction between technical and human-organizational systems which may lead to an accident. The analytic tool provided by the model gives equal weight to both these types of systems and necessitates simultaneous and interactive accident analysis by engineers and human factors specialists. It can be used in predictive safety analyses as well as in post hoc incident analyses. To illustrate this, the AEB model is applied to an incident reported by the nuclear industry in Sweden. In general, application of the model will indicate where and how safety can be improved, and it also raises questions about issues such as the cost, feasibility, and effectiveness of different ways of increasing safety.

  2. Three Dimensional Analysis of 3-Loop PWR RCCA Ejection Accident for High Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Marciulescu, Cristian; Sung, Yixing; Beard, Charles L.

    2006-07-01

    The Rod Control Cluster Assembly (RCCA) ejection accident is a Condition IV design basis reactivity insertion event for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The event is historically analyzed using a one-dimensional (1D) neutron kinetic code to meet the current licensing criteria for fuel rod burnup to 62,000 MWD/MTU. The Westinghouse USNRC-approved three-dimensional (3D) analysis methodology is based on the neutron kinetics version of the ANC code (SPNOVA) coupled with Westinghouse's version of the EPRI core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-01. The 3D methodology provides a more realistic yet conservative analysis approach to meet anticipated reduction in the licensing fuel enthalpy rise limit for high burnup fuel. A rod ejection analysis using the 3D methodology was recently performed for a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR at an up-rated core power of 3151 MWt with reload cores that allow large flexibility in assembly shuffling and a fuel hot rod burnup to 75,000 MWD/MTU. The analysis considered high enrichment fuel assemblies at the control rod locations as well as bounding rodded depletions in the end of life, zero power and full power conditions. The analysis results demonstrated that the peak fuel enthalpy rise is less than 100 cal/g for the transient initiated at the hot zero power condition. The maximum fuel enthalpy is less than 200 cal/g for the transient initiated from the full power condition. (authors)

  3. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

  5. The epidemiology and cost analysis of patients presented to Emergency Department following traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Karadana, Gökçe Akgül; Aksu, Nalan Metin; Akkaş, Meltem; Akman, Canan; Üzümcügil, Akın; Özmen, M. Mahir

    2013-01-01

    Background Traffic accidents are ranked first as the cause of personal injury throughout the world. The high number of traffic accidents yielding injuries and fatalities makes them of great importance to Emergency Departments. Material/Methods Patients admitted to Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Adult Emergency Department due to traffic accidents were investigated epidemiologically. Differences between groups were evaluated by Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. A value of p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results We included 2003 patients over 16 years of age. The mean age was 39.6±16.1 and 55% were males. Admissions by ambulance and due to motor vehicle accidents were the most common. In 2004 the rate of traffic accidents (15.3%) was higher than the other years, the most common month was May (10.8%), and the most common time period was 6 pm to 12 am (midnight). About half of the patients (51.5%) were admitted in the first 30 minutes. Life-threatening condition was present in 9.6% of the patients. Head trauma was the most common type of trauma, with the rate of 18.3%. Mortality rate was 81.8%. The average length of hospital stay was 403 minutes (6.7 hours) and the average cost per patient was 983±4364 TL. Conclusions Further studies are needed to compare the cost found in this study with the mean cost for Turkey. However, the most important step to reduce the direct and indirect costs due to traffic accidents is the prevention of these accidents. PMID:24316815

  6. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented.

  7. Measurements of radiocesium transfer to milk and calculation of resulting dose in Brescia, Italy, following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Albini, E; Mascaro, L; Belletti, S

    1990-10-01

    Results are presented of several measurements on components of the cows' milk chain performed at our Medical Physics Service after the Chernobyl accident. Values were obtained for Cs isotope transfer coefficients, namely, for cows' diet-milk and diet-feces transfers. Other measured parameters were the effective half-life of Cs in milk and the 134Cs:137Cs ratio. In addition, an evaluation of Cs contribution to the absorbed dose to population from milk is performed.

  8. A Statistical Description of the Types and Severities of Accidents Involving Tractor Semi-Trailers, Updated Results for 1992-1996

    SciTech Connect

    BLOWER,DANIEL F.; CLAUSS,DAVID B.

    1999-10-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. A previous study (SAND93-2580) reviewed the availability of accident data, identified the TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) as the best source of accident data for accidents involving heavy trucks, and provided statistics on accident data collected between 1980 and 1990. The current study is an extension of the previous work and describes data collected for heavy truck accidents occurring between 1992 and 1996. The TIFA database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports and interviewing responders and witnesses for selected TEA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, effective fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  9. Analysis of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Yang, Guangyu; Che, Xingping; Xie, Jingru; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhengguo

    2014-10-01

    To study the characteristics of fatal vehicle-pedestrian accidents in China,a team was established and passenger car-pedestrian crash cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing and Chongqing, China were collected. A total of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian collisions were sampled and analyzed. The pedestrian injuries were scored according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The demographical distributions of fatal pedestrian accidents differed from other pedestrian accidents. Among the victims, no significant discrepancy in the distribution of ISS and AIS in head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities by pedestrian age was found, while pedestrian behaviors prior to the crashes may affect the ISS. The distributions of AIS in head, thorax, and abdomen among the fatalities did not show any association with impact speeds or vehicle types, whereas there was a strong relationship between the ISS and impact speeds. Whether pedestrians died in the accident field or not was not associated with the ISS or AIS. The present results may be useful for not only forensic experts but also vehicle safety researchers. More investigations regarding fatal pedestrian accidents need be conducted in great detail.

  10. Thermal analysis of the 10-gallon and the 55-gallon DOT-6M containers with thermal boundary conditions corresponding to 10CFR71 normal transport and accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L.C.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Moss, M.; Haseman, G.M.; Fowler, W.E.; Roth, E.P.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the heat transfer analysis of the 10-gallon and 55-gallon 6M containers. The analysis was performed with boundary conditions corresponding to a normal transport condition and a hypothetical accident condition. Computational results indicated that the insulation material in the 6M containers will adequately protect the payload region of the 6M containers. 26 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  12. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments. PMID:20823633

  13. Retrospection of Chernobyl nuclear accident for decision analysis concerning remedial actions in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Georgievskiy, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from 'Krasnoyarsk-26' into Enisey River, releases of radioactive materials from 'Chelabinsk-65' (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial actions are usually developed on the base of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous. For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. Their of-site radiological monitoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made. All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of {sup 137}Cs in body (40 measurements in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Chernobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farmland model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine. By means of this model dynamics of 20 radionuclides in pathways and dynamics of doses have been estimated for the early, intermediate and late phases of the Chernobyl accident. The main results are following

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Boardman, J.; Jones, J.A.; Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models.

  15. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  16. Analysis of hospitalization occurred due to motorcycles accidents in São Paulo city

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; Armond, Jane de Eston; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Pernambuco, Henrique; Iporre, Ramiro Ortiz; Colombo-Souza, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motorcycle accidents occurred in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil in the year 2013, with emphasis on information about hospital admissions from SIH/SUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study covered 5,597 motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accident during the year 2013 occurred in the city of São Paulo. A survey was conducted using secondary data from the Information System of Hospitalization Health System (SIH/SUS). RESULTS: In 2013, in the city of São Paulo there were 5,597 admissions of motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accidents, of which 89.8% were male. The admission diagnosis were: leg fracture, femur fracture, and intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: This study confirms other preliminary studies on several points, among which stands out the highest prevalence of male young adults. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:26327804

  17. Review of accident analysis calculations, 232-Z seismic scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1993-05-01

    The 232-Z Building houses what was previously the incinerator facility, which is no longer in service. It is constructed out of concrete blocks and is approximately 37 ft wide by 57 ft long. The building has a single story over the process areas and two stories over the service areas at the north end of the building. The respective roofs are 15 ft and 19 ft above grade and consist of concrete over a metal decking, with insulation and a built-up asphalt gravel covering. This facility is assumed to collapse in the seismic event evaluated in the safety analyses, resulting in the release of a portion of the residual plutonium inventory remaining in the building. The seismic scenario for 232-Z assumes that the block concrete walls collapse, allowing the roof to fall, crushing the contaminated duct and gloveboxes within. This paper is a review of the scenario and methods used to calculate the source term from the seismic event as presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (WHC 1991) also referred to as the PFP FSAR. Alternate methods of estimating the source term are presented. The calculation of source terms based on the mechanisms of release expected in worst-case scenario is recommended.

  18. Formal Analysis of an Airplane Accident in N{Σ}-Labeled Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yasuwo; Shio, Masayuki

    N{Σ}-labeled calculus is a formal system for representation, verification and analysis of time-concerned recognition, knowledge, belief and decision of humans or computer programs together with related external physical or logical phenomena.In this paper, a formal verification and analysis of the JAL near miss accident is presented as an example of cooperating systems controlling continuously changing objects including human factor with misunderstanding or incorrect recognition.

  19. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  20. Comparative analysis of social, demographic, and flight-related attributes between accident and nonaccident general aviation pilots.

    PubMed

    Urban, R F

    1984-04-01

    This investigation represents an exploratory examination of several differentiating social and demographic characteristics for a sample of calendar year 1978 Colorado-resident nonfatal accident-involved pilots and a random sample of nonaccident general aviation (i.e., nonairline) pilots. During 1979-1980 80 currently active pilots were interviewed by the author, and information concerning the standard demographic variables, in addition to several social, psychological, and flying-related items, was obtained. The sample was generated from commercially available data files derived from U.S. Government records and consisted of 46 accident and 34 nonaccident pilots who resided within a 100-mi radius of Denver, east of the Rocky Mountains. Descriptively, the respondents represented a broad spectrum of general aviation, including: corporate pilots, "crop dusters," builders of amateur experimental aircraft, and recreational fliers. Application of stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the pilots' education, political orientation, birth order, percent of flying for business purposes, participation in nonflying aviation activities, number of years of flying experience, and an index of aviation procedural noncompliance yielded statistically significant results. Furthermore, utilization of the classification capability of discriminant analysis produced a mathematical function which correctly allocated 78.5% of the cases into the appropriate groups, thus contributing to a 56.5% proportionate reduction in error over a random effects model. No relationship was found between accident involvement and several indicators of social attachments, socioeconomic status, and a number of measures of flying exposure. PMID:6732683

  1. TRACE/PARCS Core Modeling of a BWR/5 for Accident Analysis of ATWS Events

    SciTech Connect

    Cuadra A.; Baek J.; Cheng, L.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    The TRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] isdesigned to be applicable to the analysis of light water reactor operational transients and accidents where the coupling between the neutron kinetics (PARCS) and the thermal-hydraulics and thermal-mechanics (TRACE) is important. TRACE/PARCS has been assessed for itsapplicability to anticipated transients without scram(ATWS) [3]. The challenge, addressed in this study, is to develop a sufficiently rigorous input model that would be acceptable for use in ATWS analysis. Two types of ATWS events were of interest, a turbine trip and a closure of main steam isolation valves (MSIVs). In the first type, initiated by turbine trip, the concern is that the core will become unstable and large power oscillations will occur. In the second type,initiated by MSIV closure,, the concern is the amount of energy being placed into containment and the resulting emergency depressurization. Two separate TRACE/PARCS models of a BWR/5 were developed to analyze these ATWS events at MELLLA+ (maximum extended load line limit plus)operating conditions. One model [4] was used for analysis of ATWS events leading to instability (ATWS-I);the other [5] for ATWS events leading to emergency depressurization (ATWS-ED). Both models included a large portion of the nuclear steam supply system and controls, and a detailed core model, presented henceforth.

  2. Analysis of fission product revaporization in a BWR Reactor Coolant System during a station blackout accident

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.W.; Schmidt, E.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of fission product revaporization from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) following the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) failure. The station blackout accident in a BWR Mark I Power Plant was considered. The TRAPMELT3 models for vaporization, chemisorption, and the decay heating of RCS structures and gases were used and extended beyond the RPV failure in the analysis. The RCS flow models based on the density-difference or pressure-difference between the RCS and containment pedestal region were developed to estimate the RCS outflow which carries the revaporized fission product to the containment. A computer code called REVAP was developed for the analysis. The REVAP code was incorporated with the MARCH, TRAPMELT3 and NAUA codes from the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to estimate the impact of revaporization on environmental release. The results show that the thermal-hydraulic conditions between the RCS and the pedestal region are important factors in determining the magnitude of revaporization and subsequent release of the volatile fission product into the environment. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Consequence analysis of a hypothetical contained criticality accident in the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Strenge, D.L.; Mishima, J.

    1984-12-01

    The original hazards summary report (i.e., SAR) for the CML addressed the consequences of a hypothetical accidential critical excursion occurring with the experimental assembly room open. That report indicated that the public would receive insignificant radiation exposure regardless of the type of atmospheric condition, while plant personnel could possibly receive exposures greater than the annual exposure limits for radiation workers, when a strong inversion existed. This analysis investigates the consequencs of a hypothetical accident criticality occurring with the experimental assembly room sealed. Due to the containment capabilities designed and built into the critical assembly room, the consequences are greatly reduced below those presented in HW-66266. Despite the incorporation of many extremely conservative assumptions to simplify the analysis, the radiation doses predicted for personnel 100 meters or more distant from the CML are found to be smaller than the annual radiation dose limit for members of the public in uncontrolled areas during routine, nonaccident operations. Therefore, the results of this analysis demonstrate that the occurrence of a hypothetical critical excursion within the sealed experimental assembly room at the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory presents only a small, acceptable risk to personnel and facilities in the area and no additional safety systems or controls are needed for the continued safe operation of the CML. 11 references, 4 tables. (ACR)

  4. Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

  5. Limitations of risk analysis in the determination of medical factors in road vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Michael B; Carter, Tim; Nicholson, Anthony N

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of risk analysis in the determination of medical factors in road vehicle accidents is to evaluate the risks that are associated with different strategies for accident reduction, so that the subsequent decision making process can be based on a best assessment of the likely benefits. However, it is vital to appreciate the limitations of such an approach, especially where the conclusions depend heavily on the accuracy of the assumptions made. In this paper the assumptions used in some recent analyses concerned with incapacitation, epilepsy, hypoglycaemia and psycho-active medication are explored, and the additional information required to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of risk indicated. The conclusions from this analysis do not invalidate the use of risk assessment, but draw attention to its limitations and show how a sensitivity analysis can help to identify those areas where more precise information is needed before such an approach can be used confidently in a policy setting. PMID:14998267

  6. Overview of Sandia National Laboratories and Khlopin Radium Institute collaborative radiological accident consequence analysis efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Carlson, D.D.; Lazarev, L.N.; Petrov, B.F.; Romanovskiy, V.N.

    1997-05-01

    In January, 1995 a collaborative effort to improve radiological consequence analysis methods and tools was initiated between the V.G. Khlopin Institute (KRI) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of the collaborative effort was to transfer SNL`s consequence analysis methods to KRI and identify opportunities for collaborative efforts to solve mutual problems relating to the safety of radiochemical facilities. A second purpose was to improve SNL`s consequence analysis methods by incorporating the radiological accident field experience of KRI scientists (e.g. the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents). The initial collaborative effort focused on the identification of: safety criteria that radiochemical facilities in Russia must meet; analyses/measures required to demonstrate that safety criteria have been met; and data required to complete the analyses/measures identified to demonstrate the safety basis of a facility.

  7. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  8. Advanced neutron source reactor conceptual safety analysis report, three-element-core design: Chapter 15, accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.; Harrington, R.M.

    1996-02-01

    In order to utilize reduced enrichment fuel, the three-element-core design for the Advanced Neutron Source has been proposed. The proposed core configuration consists of inner, middle, and outer elements, with the middle element offset axially beneath the inner and outer elements, which are axially aligned. The three-element-core RELAP5 model assumes that the reactor hardware is changed only within the core region, so that the loop piping, heat exchangers, and pumps remain as assumed for the two-element-core configuration. To assess the impact of changes in the core region configuration and the thermal-hydraulic steady-state conditions, the safety analysis has been updated. This report gives the safety margins for the loss-of-off-site power and pressure-boundary fault accidents based on the RELAP5 results. AU margins are greater for the three-element-core simulations than those calculated for the two-element core.

  9. Pressure vessels and piping design, analysis, and severe accidents. PVP-Volume 331

    SciTech Connect

    Dermenjian, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    The primary objective of the Design and Analysis Committee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division is to provide a forum for the dissemination of information and the advancement of current theories and practices in the design and analysis of pressure vessels, piping systems, and components. This volume is divided into the following six sections: power plant piping and supports 1--3; applied dynamic response analysis; severe accident analysis; and student papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for 22 papers in this volume.

  10. Coupled thermal analysis applied to the study of the rod ejection accident

    SciTech Connect

    Gonnet, M.

    2012-07-01

    An advanced methodology for the assessment of fuel-rod thermal margins under RIA conditions has been developed by AREVA NP SAS. With the emergence of RIA analytical criteria, the study of the Rod Ejection Accident (REA) would normally require the analysis of each fuel rod, slice by slice, over the whole core. Up to now the strategy used to overcome this difficulty has been to perform separate analyses of sampled fuel pins with conservative hypotheses for thermal properties and boundary conditions. In the advanced methodology, the evaluation model for the Rod Ejection Accident (REA) integrates the node average fuel and coolant properties calculation for neutron feedback purpose as well as the peak fuel and coolant time-dependent properties for criteria checking. The calculation grid for peak fuel and coolant properties can be specified from the assembly pitch down to the cell pitch. The comparative analysis of methodologies shows that coupled methodology allows reducing excessive conservatism of the uncoupled approach. (authors)

  11. A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis. [Advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M. )

    1988-01-01

    A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions

  13. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  14. How a nuclear power plant accident influences acceptance of nuclear power: results of a longitudinal study before and after the Fukushima disaster.

    PubMed

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Major nuclear accidents, such as the recent accident in Fukushima, Japan, have been shown to decrease the public's acceptance of nuclear power. However, little is known about how a serious accident affects people's acceptance of nuclear power and the determinants of acceptance. We conducted a longitudinal study (N= 790) in Switzerland: one survey was done five months before and one directly after the accident in Fukushima. We assessed acceptance, perceived risks, perceived benefits, and trust related to nuclear power stations. In our model, we assumed that both benefit and risk perceptions determine acceptance of nuclear power. We further hypothesized that trust influences benefit and risk perceptions and that trust before a disaster relates to trust after a disaster. Results showed that the acceptance and perceptions of nuclear power as well as its trust were more negative after the accident. In our model, perceived benefits and risks determined the acceptance of nuclear power stations both before and after Fukushima. Trust had strong effects on perceived benefits and risks, at both times. People's trust before Fukushima strongly influenced their trust after the accident. In addition, perceived benefits before Fukushima correlated with perceived benefits after the accident. Thus, the nuclear accident did not seem to have changed the relations between the determinants of acceptance. Even after a severe accident, the public may still consider the benefits as relevant, and trust remains important for determining their risk and benefit perceptions. A discussion of the benefits of nuclear power seems most likely to affect the public's acceptance of nuclear power, even after a nuclear accident.

  15. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  16. Validation and verification of RELAP5 for Advanced Neutron Source accident analysis: Part I, comparisons to ANSDM and PRSDYN codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Ibn-Khayat, M.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-12-01

    As part of verification and validation, the Advanced Neutron Source reactor RELAP5 system model was benchmarked by the Advanced Neutron Source dynamic model (ANSDM) and PRSDYN models. RELAP5 is a one-dimensional, two-phase transient code, developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for reactor safety analysis. Both the ANSDM and PRSDYN models use a simplified single-phase equation set to predict transient thermal-hydraulic performance. Brief descriptions of each of the codes, models, and model limitations were included. Even though comparisons were limited to single-phase conditions, a broad spectrum of accidents was benchmarked: a small loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), a large LOCA, a station blackout, and a reactivity insertion accident. The overall conclusion is that the three models yield similar results if the input parameters are the same. However, ANSDM does not capture pressure wave propagation through the coolant system. This difference is significant in very rapid pipe break events. Recommendations are provided for further model improvements.

  17. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2003-06-01

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

  18. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

    2003-05-13

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

  19. The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

  20. Drinking locations of drink-drivers: a comparative analysis of accident and nonaccident cases.

    PubMed

    Lang, E; Stockwell, T

    1991-12-01

    This study utilizes data collected by the Perth (Australia) Traffic Police on the last drinking location of persons arrested for drink-driving either as a consequence of their being involved in a road traffic accident or as a result of failing a roadside breath test. A comparison of these data has found that significantly more persons involved in traffic accidents had been drinking at unlicensed locations, that is at private residences or in public places such as parks, than at licensed premises. It was also found that accident cases were more likely to involve males under 25 years; for those involved to have, on average, significantly higher blood alcohol levels than was the case for nonaccident drink-driving cases; and for most accidents to occur late at night and early morning. The significance of these findings were confirmed by logistic regression. A surprise incidental finding was that considerably more women had been arrested for drink-driving than had been previously reported in other studies, both in Australia and overseas.

  1. Methods for Detector Placement and Analysis of Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Wetzel, Larry

    2012-01-01

    -to-detect accident sites, which may not have included every possible accident location. Analog calculations (no biasing) simply follow particles naturally. For sparse buildings and line-of-sight calculations, analog Monte Carlo (MC) may be adequate. For buildings with internal walls or large amounts of heavy equipment (dense geometry), variance reduction may be required. Calculations employing the CADIS method use a deterministic calculation to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that optimize the final MC to quickly calculate one specific tally. Calculations employing the FW-CADIS method use two deterministic calculations (one forward and one adjoint) to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that are designed to make the MC calculate a mesh tally with more uniform uncertainties in both high-dose and low-dose areas. Depending on the geometry of the problem, the number of detectors, and the number of accident sites, different approaches to CAAS placement studies can be taken. These are summarized in Table I. SCALE 6.1 contains the MAVRIC sequence, which can be used to perform any of the forward-based approaches outlined in Table I. For analog calculations, MAVRIC simply calls the Monaco MC code. For CADIS and FW-CADIS, MAVRIC uses the Denovo discrete ordinates (SN) deterministic code to generate the importance map and biased source used by Monaco. An adjoint capability is currently being added to Monaco and should be available in the next release of SCALE. An adjoint-based approach could be performed with Denovo alone - although fine meshes, large amounts of memory, and long computation times may be required to obtain accurate solutions. Coarse-mesh SN simulations could be employed for adjoint-based scoping studies until the adjoint capability in Monaco is complete. CAAS placement studies, especially those dealing with mesh tallies, require some extra utilities to aid in the analysis. Detectors must receive a minimum dose

  2. Transient analysis for thermal margin with COASISO during a severe accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan S.; Chu, Ho S.; Suh, Kune Y.; Park, Goon C.; Lee, Un C.; Yoon, Ho J.

    2002-07-01

    As an IVR-EVC (in-vessel retention through external vessel cooling) design concept, external cooling of the reactor vessel was suggested to protect the lower head from being overheated due to relocated material from the core during a severe accident. The COASISO (Corium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structure Outside the vessel) adopts an external vessel cooling strategy of flooding the reactor vessel inside the thermal insulator. Its advantage is the quick response time so that the initial heat removal mechanism of the EVC is nucleate boiling from the downward-facing lower head. The efficiency of the COASISO may be estimated by the thermal margin defined as the ratio of the actual heat flux from the reactor vessel to the critical heat flux (CHF). In this study the thermal margin for the large power reactor as the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) was determined by means of transient analysis for the local condition of the coolant and temperature distributions within the reactor vessel. The heat split fraction in the oxide pool and the metal layer focusing effect were considered during calculation of the angular thermal load at the inner wall of the lower head. The temperature distributions in the reactor vessel resulted in the actual heat flux on the outer wall. The local quality was obtained by solving the simplified transient energy equation. The unheated section of the reactor vessel decreases the thermal margin by mean of the two-dimensional conduction heat transfer. The peak temperature of the reactor vessel was estimated in the film boiling region as the thermal margin was equal to unity. Sensitivity analyses were performed for the time of corium relocation after the reactor trip, the coolant flow rate, and the initial subcooled condition of the coolant. There is no vessel failure predicted at the worst EVC condition when the stratification is not taken into account between the metal layer and the oxidic pool. The present predictive tool may be

  3. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  4. Analysis of containment performance and radiological consequences under severe accident conditions for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A severe accident study was conducted to evaluate conservatively scoped source terms and radiological consequences to support the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Safety Analysis Report (CSAR). Three different types of severe accident scenarios were postulated with a view of evaluating conservatively scoped source terms. The first scenario evaluates maximum possible steaming loads and associated radionuclide transport, whereas the next scenario is geared towards evaluating conservative containment loads from releases of radionuclide vapors and aerosols with associated generation of combustible gases. The third scenario follows the prescriptions given by the 10 CFR 100 guidelines. It was included in the CSAR for demonstrating site-suitability characteristics of the ANS. Various containment configurations are considered for the study of thermal-hydraulic and radiological behaviors of the ANS containment. Severe accident mitigative design features such as the use of rupture disks were accounted for. This report describes the postulated severe accident scenarios, methodology for analysis, modeling assumptions, modeling of several severe accident phenomena, and evaluation of the resulting source term and radiological consequences.

  5. Preliminary analysis of graphite dust releasing behavior in accident for HTR

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, W.; Yang, X. Y.; Yu, S. Y.; Wang, J.

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the graphite dust is important to the safety of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors. This study investigated the flow of graphite dust in helium mainstream. The analysis of the stresses acting on the graphite dust indicated that gas drag played the absolute leading role. Based on the understanding of the importance of gas drag, an experimental system is set up for the research of dust releasing behavior in accident. Air driven by centrifugal fan is used as the working fluid instead of helium because helium is expensive, easy to leak which make it difficult to seal. The graphite particles, with the size distribution same as in HTR, are added to the experiment loop. The graphite dust releasing behavior at the loss-of-coolant accident will be investigated by a sonic nozzle. (authors)

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of cesium and iodine behavior in severe light water reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Kazuo

    1991-11-01

    In order to understand the release and transport behavior of cesium (Cs) and iodine (I) in severe light water reactor accidents, chemical forms of Cs and I in steam-hydrogen mixtures were analyzed thermodynamically. In the calculations reactions of boron (B) with Cs were taken into consideration. The analysis showed that B plays an important role in determining chemical forms of Cs. The main Cs-containing species are CsBO 2(g) and CsBO 2(l), depending on temperature. The contribution of CsOH(g) is minor. The main I-containing species are HI(g) and CsI(g) over the wide ranges of the parameters considered. Calculations were also carried out under the conditions of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident.

  7. Speech analysis as an index of alcohol intoxication--the Exxon Valdez accident.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Cash, J R

    1991-09-01

    As part of its investigation of the EXXON VALDEZ tankship accident and oil spill, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examined the master's speech for alcohol-related effects. Recorded speech samples were obtained from marine radio communications tapes. The samples were tested for four effects associated with alcohol consumption is available scientific literature: slowed speech, speech errors, misarticulation of difficult sounds ("slurring"), and audible changes in speech quality. It was found that speech immediately before and after the accident displayed large changes of the sort associated with alcohol consumption. These changes were not readily explained by fatigue, psychological stress, drug effects, or medical problems. Speech analysis appears to be a useful technique to provide secondary evidence of alcohol impairment. PMID:1930083

  8. Speech analysis as an index of alcohol intoxication--the Exxon Valdez accident.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Cash, J R

    1991-09-01

    As part of its investigation of the EXXON VALDEZ tankship accident and oil spill, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examined the master's speech for alcohol-related effects. Recorded speech samples were obtained from marine radio communications tapes. The samples were tested for four effects associated with alcohol consumption is available scientific literature: slowed speech, speech errors, misarticulation of difficult sounds ("slurring"), and audible changes in speech quality. It was found that speech immediately before and after the accident displayed large changes of the sort associated with alcohol consumption. These changes were not readily explained by fatigue, psychological stress, drug effects, or medical problems. Speech analysis appears to be a useful technique to provide secondary evidence of alcohol impairment.

  9. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: I. Effect of disassembling radial reflector, following a reactivity initiated accident

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Paramonov, D. )

    1993-01-10

    An analysis is performed to determine the effect of disassembling the radial reflector of the TOPAZ-II reactor, following a hypothetical severe Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the drums to rotate the full 180[degree] outward at their maximum speed of 1.4[degree]/s. Results indicate that disassembling only three of twelve radial reflector panels would successfully shutdown the reactor, with little overheating of the fuel and the moderator.

  10. [Accidents between motorcycles: analysis of cases that occurred in the state of Paraná between July 2010 and June 2011].

    PubMed

    Golias, Andrey Rogério Campos; Caetano, Rosângela

    2013-05-01

    Statistics for accidents between two motorcycles have been overlooked in the vast number of traffic accidents in Brazil, though they deserve closer analysis. This study sought to conduct an epidemiological analysis into accidents between two motorcycles compared with other accidents based on data in the state of Paraná. Information from the Fire Department site was collected for a period of one year (July 2010 to June 2011), reporting the number and type of accident, day of the week, time, number of victims, gender, age and severity of injuries. Accidents involving two motorcycles represented 3.4% of traffic accidents and 6.2% of accidents involving motorcycles; and the victims of these accidents accounted respectively for 4.4% of victims of traffic accidents and 8.5% victims of motorcycle accidents. Accidents occurring on Saturdays involving males aged between 20 and 29 were more common. Among the ten most populated cities in the state, some revealed high accident rate between two motorcycles, which appears to be related to the total number of motorcycles in the cities concerned. Thus, constant analysis of these indices is essential together with the implementation of measures to ensure safer highway traffic. PMID:23670451

  11. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of a ship accident at a deep-ocean site in the northwest Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report presents the results of a sensitivity analysis for an HLW ship accident occurring in the Nares Abyssal Plain in the northwestern Atlantic. Waste form release rate, canister lifetime and sorption in the water column (partition coefficients) were varied. Also investigated were the relative importance of the dose from the food chain and from seaweed in the diet. Peak individual doses and integrated collective doses for populations were the units of comparison. In accordance with international guidelines on radiological protection, the comparisons of different options were carried out over ''all time''; the study uses a million-year time frame. Partition coefficients have the most pronounced effect on collective dose of the parameters studied. Variations in partition coefficients affect the shape of the collective dose curve over the entire time frame. Peak individual doses decrease markedly when the value for the sorption of americium is increased, but show no increase when less sorption is assumed. Waste form release rates and canister lifetimes affect collective doses only in periods prior to 20,000 years. Hence, comparisons of these options need not be carried out beyond 20,000 years. Waste from release rates below 10/sup -3//yr (nominal value) affect individual doses in a linear manner, i.e., an order-of-magnitude reduction in release rate leads to an order-of-magnitude reduction in peak individual dose. Little reduction in peak individual doses is seen with canister lifetimes extended beyond the nominal 100 years. 32 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A 9975 PACKAGE IN A FACILITY FIRE ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2011-02-14

    Surplus plutonium bearing materials in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are stored in the 3013 containers that are designed to meet the requirements of the DOE standard DOE-STD-3013. The 3013 containers are in turn packaged inside 9975 packages that are designed to meet the NRC 10 CFR Part 71 regulatory requirements for transporting the Type B fissile materials across the DOE complex. The design requirements for the hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) involving a fire are given in 10 CFR 71.73. The 9975 packages are stored at the DOE Savannah River Site in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility for long term of up to 50 years. The design requirements for safe storage in KAMS facility containing multiple sources of combustible materials are far more challenging than the HAC requirements in 10 CFR 71.73. While the 10 CFR 71.73 postulates an HAC fire of 1475 F and 30 minutes duration, the facility fire calls for a fire of 1500 F and 86 duration. This paper describes a methodology and the analysis results that meet the design limits of the 9975 component and demonstrate the robustness of the 9975 package.

  14. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Among various radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Iodine-131 displayed high radioactivity just after the accident. Moreover if taken into human body, Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and may cause the thyroid cancer. The recognition about the risk of Iodine-131 dose originated from the experience of the Chernobyl accident based on the epidemiological study [1]. It is thus important to investigate the detailed deposition distribution of I-131 to evaluate the radiation dose due to I-131 and watch the influence on the human health. However I-131 decays so rapidly (half life = 8.02 d) that it cannot be detected several months after the accident. At the recognition of the risk of I-131 on the Chernobyl occasion, it had gone several years after the accident. The reconstruction of I-131 distribution from Cs-137 distribution was not successful because the behavior of iodine and cesium was different because they have different chemical properties. Long lived radioactive isotope I-129 (half life = 1.57E+7 yr,), which is also a fission product as well as I-131, is ideal proxy for I-131 because they are chemically identical. Several studies had tried to quantify I-129 in 1990's but the analytical technique, especially AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), had not been developed well and available AMS facility was limited. Moreover because of the lack of enough data on I-131 just after the accident, the isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 of the Chernobyl derived iodine could not been estimated precisely [2]. Calculated estimation of the isotopic ratio showed scattered results. On the other hand, at the FDNPP accident detailed I-131 distribution is going to be successfully reconstructed by the systematical I-129 measurements by our group. We measured soil samples selected from a series of soil collection taken from every 2 km (or 5km, in the distant area) meshed region around FDNPP conducted by the Japanese Ministry of

  15. Results of the intercalibration study of laboratories involved in assessing the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E L; Valkovic, V; Strachnov, V; Dekner, R; Danesi, P R

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Chernobyl Project, the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories organized an intercalibration exercise among some of the laboratories which were involved in assessing the environmental contamination in the USSR due to the accident. The objective was to assess the reliability of the radioanalytical data for food and environmental samples, which were used to assess the doses. In the initial study reference materials from the stocks of the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) were re-labelled and submitted to 71 laboratories as blind samples. These natural matrix materials included samples of milk (containing 2 different levels of radioactivity), soil, air filters and clover. The concentrations of radionuclides in these samples were known from previous intercalibration exercises. The overall range in performance was broad, which is similar to what has been observed in previous international intercomparisons. The results obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry tended to be somewhat underestimated, on average. On the other hand, the laboratories showed an overall tendency to overestimate 90Sr and possibly 239Pu, which were analysed radiochemically. The intercalibration exercise is continuing with nine materials, including: soil, grass, hay and milk powder contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl accident. These materials, which were prepared by laboratories in the USSR, are now being tested by AQCS prior to future intercomparison exercises. Work with these materials is expected to continue for several years.

  16. Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Nabelssi, B.; Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Tompkins, M.; Jackson, R.

    1995-03-01

    Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences.

  17. Independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident thermal-hydraulic/source term analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.; Eltawila, F.

    1994-01-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated computer code that models all phases of the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants, and is being developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a program with the NRC called ``MELCOR Verification, Benchmarking, and Applications,`` whose aim is to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident thermal-hydraulic/source term analysis tool. The scope of this program is to perform quality control verification on all released versions of MELCOR, to benchmark MELCOR against more mechanistic codes and experimental data from severe fuel damage tests, and to evaluate the ability of MELCOR to simulate long-term severe accident transients in commercial LWRs, by applying the code to model both BWRs and PWRs. Under this program, BNL provided input to the NRC-sponsored MELCOR Peer Review, and is currently contributing to the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP). This paper presents a summary of MELCOR assessment efforts at BNL and their contribution to NRC goals with respect to MELCOR.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  19. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  20. Analysis of potential for jet-impingement erosion from leaking steam generator tubes during severe accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Diercks, D. R.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes analytical evaluation of crack-opening areas and leak rates of superheated steam through flaws in steam generator tubes and erosion of neighboring tubes due to jet impingement of superheated steam with entrained particles from core debris created during severe accidents. An analytical model for calculating crack-opening area as a function of time and temperature was validated with tests on tubes with machined flaws. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to calculate the jet velocity impinging on neighboring tubes as a function of tube spacing and crack-opening area. Erosion tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-velocity erosion rig at the University of Cincinnati, using micrometer-sized nickel particles mixed in with high-temperature gas from a burner. The erosion results, together with analytical models, were used to estimate the erosive effects of superheated steam with entrained aerosols from the core during severe accidents.

  1. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  2. A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

  3. [Cytogenetic effects in Scots pine populations from the Briansk region contaminated by radioactive pollutants as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Dikareva, N S; Udalova, A A; Spiridonov, S I; Dikarev, V G

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant cell frequency in root meristem of germinated seeds collected from four populations of Scots pine in the Bryansk Region that was radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 significantly exceeded the control level durring all three years of study (2003-2005). An analysis of cytogenetic disturbances occurrence in dependence on radiation situation characteristics such as 137Cs and 90Sr content in pine cones, 137Cs specific activity in soil, and calculated doses absorbed by pine tree generative organs shows an increase in biological effect with dose burden increasing. Findings obtained are in agreement with the results of our previous studies on cytogenetic effects induction in Scots pine populations experiencing chronic radiation (the 30-km zone of the ChNPP) and technogenic (a radioactive waste reprocessing facility) impact.

  4. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  5. SiC MODIFICATIONS TO MELCOR FOR SEVERE ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Brad J. Merrill; Shannon M Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. The Fuels Pathway within this program focuses on fuel system components outside of the fuel pellet, allowing for alteration of the existing zirconium-based clad system through coatings, addition of ceramic sleeves, or complete replacement (e.g. fully ceramic cladding). The DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is also conducting research on materials for advanced, accident tolerant fuels and cladding for application in operating LWRs. To aide in this assessment, a silicon carbide (SiC) version of the MELCOR code was developed by substituting SiC in place of Zircaloy in MELCOR’s reactor core oxidation and material property routines. The purpose of this development effort is to provide a numerical capability for estimating the safety advantages of replacing Zr-alloy components in LWRs with SiC components. This modified version of the MELCOR code was applied to the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) plant accident. While the results are considered preliminary, SiC cladding showed a dramatic safety advantage over Zircaloy cladding during this accident.

  6. [Genetic variability in Scots pine populations from the Bryansk region contaminated by radioactive pollutants as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Vanina, Iu S; Dikarev, V G; Novikova, T A; Udalova, A A; Spiridonov, S I

    2009-01-01

    The method of isozymic analysis of megagametophytes is used for an estimation of genetic variability in populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), inhabiting contrast on the level of radioactive contamination (60-17800 Bq/kg on 137Cs) sites in the Bryansk region, undergone to radioactive pollution as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Values of all investigated parameters of genetic variability (heterozygosity, frequency of polymorphic loci, Jivotovski index) and frequencies of the mutations for loss of enzymatic activity increase with a doze absorbed by critical organs of pine trees. Presented data show that a high level of mutation occurrence is intrinsic for descendants (seeds) of pine trees in the investigated populations, and genetic diversity in the populations is essentially conditioned by radiation exposure. PMID:19507681

  7. SACO-1: a fast-running LMFBR accident-analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    SACO is a fast-running computer code that simulates hypothetical accidents in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to the point of permanent subcriticality or to the initiation of a prompt-critical excursion. In the tradition of the SAS codes, each subassembly is modeled by a representative fuel pin with three distinct axial regions to simulate the blanket and core regions. However, analytic and integral models are used wherever possible to cut down the computing time and storage requirements. The physical models and basic equations are described in detail. Comparisons of SACO results to analogous SAS3D results comprise the qualifications of SACO and are illustrated and discussed.

  8. NASA Structural Analysis Report on the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident - Local Analysis of the Right Rear Lug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Mason, Brian H; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan; Davila, Carlos G

    2005-01-01

    A detailed finite element analysis of the right rear lug of the American Airlines Flight 587 - Airbus A300-600R was performed as part of the National Transportation Safety Board s failure investigation of the accident that occurred on November 12, 2001. The loads experienced by the right rear lug are evaluated using global models of the vertical tail, local models near the right rear lug, and a global-local analysis procedure. The right rear lug was analyzed using two modeling approaches. In the first approach, solid-shell type modeling is used, and in the second approach, layered-shell type modeling is used. The solid-shell and the layered-shell modeling approaches were used in progressive failure analyses (PFA) to determine the load, mode, and location of failure in the right rear lug under loading representative of an Airbus certification test conducted in 1985 (the 1985-certification test). Both analyses were in excellent agreement with each other on the predicted failure loads, failure mode, and location of failure. The solid-shell type modeling was then used to analyze both a subcomponent test conducted by Airbus in 2003 (the 2003-subcomponent test) and the accident condition. Excellent agreement was observed between the analyses and the observed failures in both cases. From the analyses conducted and presented in this paper, the following conclusions were drawn. The moment, Mx (moment about the fuselage longitudinal axis), has significant effect on the failure load of the lugs. Higher absolute values of Mx give lower failure loads. The predicted load, mode, and location of the failure of the 1985-certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident condition are in very good agreement. This agreement suggests that the 1985-certification and 2003- subcomponent tests represent the accident condition accurately. The failure mode of the right rear lug for the 1985-certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident load case is identified as a

  9. A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

    A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

  10. Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. PMID:21094332

  11. On the occurrence of radioactive fallout over Norway as a result of the Windscale accident, October 1957.

    PubMed

    Bergan, T; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, O G

    2008-01-01

    A fire at the Windscale plant at Cumbria in the UK between the 10th and the 11th of October 1957 resulted in the first publicised release of radioactivity to the wider environment. The cloud of contamination passed to the southeast of England before travelling northwards on the 14th of October as a result of weather fronts in Europe. Monitoring of radioactive fallout in Norway was at the time conducted by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) using a network of air and precipitation monitoring stations. This article presents results from these monitoring activities which were originally contained in laboratory journals and a series of internal reports produced by FFI. Although mainly classified during the 1950s and 1960s, recent years have seen the incremental declassification of these reports and as the 50th anniversary of the accident approaches, a distillation and reanalysis of this information has been conducted. Results indicate that radioactivity from Windscale was first detected at Bergen and Sola in the south west of Norway and a little later at Vaernes, significant amounts of radioactivity being deposited at these locations during the second and third weeks of that month. Results relating to concentrations of activity in air and precipitation and fallout levels are presented for the relevant period and discussed in relation to fallout levels in Norway during the period 1957-1960.

  12. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J. A.; McKernan, S. A.; Vigil, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker

  13. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  14. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Falahi, A.; Haennine, M.; Porkholm, K.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  15. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  16. Questionnaire- and measurement-based individual thyroid doses in Ukraine resulting from the Chornobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Likhtarev, I; Bouville, A; Kovgan, L; Luckyanov, N; Voillequé, P; Chepurny, M

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the Ministries of Health of Belarus and of Ukraine, is involved in epidemiological studies of thyroid diseases presumably related to the Chornobyl accident, which occurred in Ukraine on 26 April 1986. Within the framework of these studies, individual thyroid absorbed doses, as well as uncertainties, have been estimated for all members of the cohorts (13,215 Ukrainians and 11,918 Belarusians), who were selected from the large group of children aged 0 to 18 whose thyroids were monitored for gamma radiation within a few weeks after the accident. Information on the residence history and dietary habits of each cohort member was obtained during personal interviews. The methodology used to estimate the thyroid absorbed doses resulting from intakes of (131)I by the Ukrainian cohort subjects is described. The model of thyroid dose estimation is run in two modes: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic mode, the model is run 1,000 times for each subject using a Monte Carlo procedure. The geometric means of the individual thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode range from 0.0006 to 42 Gy. The arithmetic and geometric means of these individual thyroid absorbed doses over the entire cohort are 0.68 and 0.23 Gy, respectively. On average, the individual thyroid dose estimates obtained in the deterministic mode are about the same as the geometric mean doses obtained in the stochastic mode, while the arithmetic mean thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode are about 20% higher than those obtained in the deterministic mode. The distributions of the 1000 values of the individual thyroid absorbed dose estimates are found to be approximately lognormal, with geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 5.0 for most cohort subjects. For the time being, only the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of (131)I have been estimated for all subjects. Future work will include the estimation

  17. Characteristic variation and original analysis of emergent water source pollution accidents in China between 1985 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Ye, Xiuqing; You, Hong

    2016-10-01

    China has suffered various water source pollution incidents in the past decades, which have resulted in severe threats to the safety of the water supply for millions of residents. From the aspects of quantity fluctuation, temporal volatility, regional inequality, pollutant category variation, and accident type differences, this study first characterizes the current status of water source contaminations in China by analyzing 340 pollution events for the period spanning from 1985 to 2013. The results show a general increase in the number of accidents during the period 1985-2006 and then a rapid decline starting in 2007. Spring and summer are high-incidence seasons for pollution, and the accident rate in developed southeastern coastal areas is far higher than that in the northwestern regions. Hazardous chemicals and petroleum are the most frequently occurring pollutants, whereas heavy metals and tailings are becoming emerging contaminants during occasional pollutions. Most of the accidents that occurred before 2005 were blamed on illegal emissions or traffic accidents; however, leakage in production has gradually become a major accident type in the past decade. Then, in combination with government actions and policy constraints, this paper explores the deep inducements and offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to ensure future prevention and mitigation of emergent source water pollution.

  18. Analysis of Japanese Radionuclide Monitoring Data of Food Before and After the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In an unprecedented food monitoring campaign for radionuclides, the Japanese government took action to secure food safety after the Fukushima nuclear accident (Mar. 11, 2011). In this work we analyze a part of the immense data set, in particular radiocesium contaminations in food from the first year after the accident. Activity concentrations in vegetables peaked immediately after the campaign had commenced, but they decreased quickly, so that by early summer 2011 only a few samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Later, accumulating mushrooms and dried produce led to several exceedances of the limits again. Monitoring of meat started with significant delay, especially outside Fukushima prefecture. After a buildup period, contamination levels of meat peaked by July 2011 (beef). Levels then decreased quickly, but peaked again in September 2011, which was primarily due to boar meat (a known accumulator of radiocesium). Tap water was less contaminated; any restrictions for tap water were canceled by April 1, 2011. Pre-Fukushima 137Cs and 90Sr levels (resulting from atmospheric nuclear explosions) in food were typically lower than 0.5 Bq/kg, whereby meat was typically higher in 137Cs and vegetarian produce was usually higher in 90Sr. The correlation of background radiostrontium and radiocesium indicated that the regulatory assumption after the Fukushima accident of a maximum activity of 90Sr being 10% of the respective 137Cs concentrations may soon be at risk, as the 90Sr/137Cs ratio increases with time. This should be taken into account for the current Japanese food policy as the current regulation will soon underestimate the 90Sr content of Japanese foods. PMID:25621976

  19. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  20. LeRoy Meisinger, Part II: Analysis of the Scientific Ballooning Accident of 2 June 1924.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John M.; Moore, Charles B.

    1995-02-01

    During the spring of 1924, U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist LeRoy Meisinger conducted a series of experiments with a free balloon to determine the trajectories of air around extratropical cyclones. The 10th flight in the series ended with a crash of the balloon over central Illinois. Both Meisinger and the pilot, Army Air Services Lt. James Neely, were killed.An effort has been made to reconstruct this accident using information from a review article by early twentieth-century meteorologist Vincent Jakl and newspaper accounts of the accident. The principal results of the study follow.1) Meisinger's balloon was caught in the downdraft of a newly developed thunderstorm over the Bement, Illinois, area on the evening of 2 June;2) a hard landing took place in a cornfield just north of Bement, and loss of ballast at the hard-landing site was sufficient to cause the balloon to rise again; and3) after rebounding from the ground, the balloon with the two aeronauts aboard was struck by lightning. A fire resulted that burned through the netting and led to a crash four miles northeast of the hard-landing site.

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.W.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  4. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  5. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  6. Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations preformed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  7. Accident safety analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the accident safety analysis is to identify and analyze a range of credible events, their cause and consequences, and to provide technical justification for the conclusion that uranium billets, fuel assemblies, uranium scrap, and chips and fines drums can be safely stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, the contaminated equipment, High-Efficiency Air Particulate filters, ductwork, stacks, sewers and sumps can be cleaned (decontaminated) and/or removed, the new concretion process in the 304 Building will be able to operate, without undue risk to the public, employees, or the environment, and limited fuel handling and packaging associated with removal of stored uranium is acceptable.

  8. PTSD symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in recent motor vehicle accident victims: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Bryce; Irish, Leah A; Pacella, Maria L; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on 249 recent motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims to examine subgroups that differed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current major depressive disorder and alcohol/other drug use disorders (MDD/AoDs), gender, and interpersonal trauma history 6-weeks post-MVA. A 4-class model best fit the data with a resilient class displaying asymptomatic PTSD symptom levels/low levels of comorbid disorders; a mild psychopathology class displaying mild PTSD symptom severity and current MDD; a moderate psychopathology class displaying severe PTSD symptom severity and current MDD/AoDs; and a severe psychopathology class displaying extreme PTSD symptom severity and current MDD. Classes also differed with respect to gender composition and history of interpersonal trauma experience. These findings may aid in the development of targeted interventions for recent MVA victims through the identification of subgroups distinguished by different patterns of psychiatric problems experienced 6-weeks post-MVA. PMID:25124501

  9. System analysis with improved thermo-mechanical fuel rod models for modeling current and advanced LWR materials in accident scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Ian Edward

    A nuclear reactor systems code has the ability to model the system response in an accident scenario based on known initial conditions at the onset of the transient. However, there has been a tendency for these codes to lack the detailed thermo-mechanical fuel rod response models needed for accurate prediction of fuel rod failure. This proposed work will couple today's most widely used steady-state (FRAPCON) and transient (FRAPTRAN) fuel rod models with a systems code TRACE for best-estimate modeling of system response in accident scenarios such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In doing so, code modifications will be made to model gamma heating in LWRs during steady-state and accident conditions and to improve fuel rod thermal/mechanical analysis by allowing axial nodalization of burnup-dependent phenomena such as swelling, cladding creep and oxidation. With the ability to model both burnup-dependent parameters and transient fuel rod response, a fuel dispersal study will be conducted using a hypothetical accident scenario under both PWR and BWR conditions to determine the amount of fuel dispersed under varying conditions. Due to the fuel fragmentation size and internal rod pressure both being dependent on burnup, this analysis will be conducted at beginning, middle and end of cycle to examine the effects that cycle time can play on fuel rod failure and dispersal. Current fuel rod and system codes used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are compilations of legacy codes with only commonly used light water reactor materials, Uranium Dioxide (UO2), Mixed Oxide (U/PuO 2) and zirconium alloys. However, the events at Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island accident have shown the need for exploration into advanced materials possessing improved accident tolerance. This work looks to further modify the NRC codes to include silicon carbide (SiC), an advanced cladding material proposed by current DOE funded research on accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Several

  10. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  11. TRAC-BF1/MOD1: An advanced best-estimate computer program for BWR accident analysis, Model description. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, J.A.; Wade, N.L.; Giles, M.M.; Rouhani, S.Z.; Shumway, R.W.; Singer, G.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Weaver, W.L.

    1992-08-01

    The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed versions of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the public. The TRAC-BF1/MODl version of the computer code provides a best-estimate analysis capability for analyzing the full range of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) systems and related facilities. This version provides a consistent and unified analysis capability for analyzing all areas of a large- or small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), beginning with the blowdown phase and continuing through heatup, reflood with quenching, and, finally, the refill phase of the accident. Also provided is a basic capability for the analysis of operational transients up to and including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The TRAC-BF1/MODI version produces results consistent with previous versions. Assessment calculations using the two TRAC-BF1 versions show overall improvements in agreement with data and computation times as compared to earlier versions of the TRAC-BWR series of computer codes.

  12. TRAC-BF1/MOD1: An advanced best-estimate computer program for BWR accident analysis: User`s guide. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rettig, W.H.; Wade, N.L.

    1992-06-01

    The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed versions of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the public. The TRAC-BF1/MODI version of the computer code provides a best-estimate analysis capability for analyzing the full range of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) systems and related facilities. This version provides a consistent and unified analysis capability for analyzing all areas of a large- or small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), beginning with the blowdown phase and continuing through heatup, reflood with quenching, and, finally, the refill phase of the accident. Also provided is a basic capability for the analysis of operational transients up to and including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The TRAC-BF1/MOD1 version produces results consistent with previous versions. Assessment calculations using the two TRAC-BFI versions show overall improvements in agreement with data and computation times as compared to earlier versions of the TRAC-BWR series of computer codes.

  13. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes.

  15. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-05-10

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  16. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  17. Early results from an experimental program to determine the behavior of containment piping penetration bellows subjected to severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Containment piping penetration bellows are an integral part of the pressure boundary in steel containments in the United States (US). Their purpose is to minimize loading on the containment shell caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment. This differential movement is typically caused by thermal gradients generated during startup and shutdown of the reactor, but can be caused by earthquake, a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or ``severe`` accidents. In the event of a severe accident, the bellows would be subjected to pressure, temperature, and deflection well beyond the design basis. Most bellows are installed such that they would be subjected to elevated internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression, and lateral deflection during a severe accident. A few bellows would be subjected to external pressure and axial elongation, as well as elevated temperature and lateral deflection. The purpose of this experimental program is to examine the potential for leakage of containment bellows during a severe accident. The test series subjects bellows to various levels and combinations of internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression or elongation, and lateral deformation. The experiments are being conducted in two parts. For Part 1, all bellows specimens are tested in ``like-new`` condition, without regard for the possible degrading effect of corrosion that has been observed in some containment piping bellows in the US Part I testing, which included 13 bellows tests, has been completed. The second part of the experimental program, in which bellows are subjected to simulated corrosive environments prior to testing, has just just begun. The Part I experiments have shown that bellows in ``like-new`` condition can withstand elevated temperatures and pressures along with large deformations before leaking. In most cases, the like-new bellows were fully compressed without developing any leakage.

  18. APREF Project: Results and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J.; Hu, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Asia-Pacific Reference Frame (APREF) Project is a regional initiative that seeks to improve the geodetic infrastructure of the Asia-Pacific region. As a joint effort of the Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), APREF is developing a start-of-the-art regional geodetic reference frame. In the Asia-Pacific region there are a substantial number of state-of-the-art GNSS networks, which are commonly operated by national mapping agencies or private sector organisations. These networks represent an important and significant investment by the respective governments and industry in their own spatial infrastructure. In the APREF initiative these networks are combined to realize a high-standard regional reference frame. The GNSS data of the network is processed by different Analysis Centres (ACs). The contributions of the different ACs are combined into a weekly solution by the APREF Central Bureau. This weekly solution is the core product of the APREF; it contains weekly estimates of the coordinates of the participating Asia-Pacific GNSS tracking stations and their covariance information. The APREF product, which is available since the first quarter of 2010, gives a reliable time-series of a regional reference frame in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and a quality assessment of the performance of the GNSS CORS stations included in the network. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the APREF network and an analysis of the first APREF products

  19. TRANSIENT ACCIDENT ANALYSIS OF THE GLOVEBOX SYSTEM IN A LARGE PROCESS ROOM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-01-11

    Local transient hydrogen concentrations were evaluated inside a large process room when the hydrogen gas was released by three postulated accident scenarios associated with the process tank leakage and fire leading to a loss of gas confinement. The three cases considered in this work were fire in a room, loss of confinement from a process tank, and loss of confinement coupled with fire event. Based on these accident scenarios in a large and unventilated process room, the modeling calculations of the hydrogen migration were performed to estimate local transient concentrations of hydrogen due to the sudden leakage and release from a glovebox system associated with the process tank. The modeling domain represented the major features of the process room including the principal release or leakage source of gas storage system. The model was benchmarked against the literature results for key phenomena such as natural convection, turbulent behavior, gas mixing due to jet entrainment, and radiation cooling because these phenomena are closely related to the gas driving mechanisms within a large air space of the process room. The modeling results showed that at the corner of the process room, the gas concentrations migrated by the Case 2 and Case 3 scenarios reached the set-point value of high activity alarm in about 13 seconds, while the Case 1 scenario takes about 90 seconds to reach the concentration. The modeling results were used to estimate transient radioactive gas migrations in an enclosed process room installed with high activity alarm monitor when the postulated leakage scenarios are initiated without room ventilation.

  20. [Analysis of accidents for magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material in magnetic resonance systems].

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Yuya; Doi, Tsukasa; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    To improve magnetic resonance (MR) safety, we surveyed the accidents caused by large ferromagnetic materials brought into MR systems accidentally. We sent a questionnaire to 700 Japanese medical institutions and received 405 valid responses (58%). A total of 97 accidents in 77 institutions were observed and we analyzed them regarding incidental rate, the detail situation and environmental factors. The mean accident rate of each institute was 0.7/100,000 examinations, which was widely distributed (0-25.6/100,000) depending on the institute. In this survey, relatively small institutes with less than 500 beds tend to have these accidents more frequently (p<0.01). The institutes in which daily MR examination counts are more than 10 patients have fewer accidents than those with less than 10 daily examinations. The institutes with 6-10 MR examinations daily have significantly more accidents than that with more than 10 daily MR examinations (p<0.01). The main mental factors of the accidents were considered to be "prejudice" and "carelessness" but some advocate "ignorance." Though we could not find significant reduction in the institutes that have lectures and training for MR safety, we should continue lectures and training for MR safety to reduce accidents due to "ignorance."

  1. A working man`s analysis of incidents and accidents with explosives at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1946--1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, J.B.; Goldie, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    At the inception of the Laboratory hectic and intense work was the norm during the development of the atomic bombs. After the war the development of other weapons for the Cold War again contributed to an intense work environment. Formal Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were not required at that time. However, the occurrence of six fatalities in 1959 during the development of a new high-energy plastic bonded explosive (94% HMX) forced the introduction SOPs. After an accident at the Department of Energy (DOE) plant at Amarillo, TX in 1977, the DOE promulgated the Department wide DOE Explosives Safety Manual. Table 1 outlines the history of the introduction of SOPs and the DOE Explosives Safety Manual. Many of the rules and guidelines presented in these documents were developed and introduced as the result of an incident or accident. However, many of the current staff are not familiar with the background of the development. To preserve as much of this knowledge as possible, they are collecting documentation on incidents and accidents involving energetic materials at Los Alamos. Formal investigations of serious accidents elucidate the multiple causes that contributed to accidents. These reports are generally buried in a file and, and are not read by more recent workers. Reports involving fatalities at Los Alamos before 1974 were withheld from the general employee. Also, these documents contain much detail and analysis that is not of interest to the field worker. The authors have collected the documents describing 116 incidents and have analyzed the contributing factors as viewed from the standpoint of the individual operator. All the incidents occurred at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and involved energetic materials in some manner, though not all occurred within the explosive handling groups. Most accidents are caused by multiple contributing factors. They have attempted to select the one or two factors that they consider as the most important relative to the

  2. Spatiotemporal Analysis for Wildlife-Vehicle Based on Accident Statistics of the County Straubing-Bogen in Lower Bavaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagany, R.; Dorner, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last years the numbers of wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) in Bavaria increased considerably. Despite the statistical registration of WVC and preventive measures at areas of risk along the roads, the number of such accidents could not be contained. Using geospatial analysis on WVC data of the last five years for county Straubing-Bogen, Bavaria, a small-scale methodology was found to analyse the risk of WVC along the roads in the investigated area. Various indicators were examined, which may be related to WVC. The risk depends on the time of the day and year which shows correlations in turn to the traffic density and wildlife population. Additionally the location of the collision depends on the species and on different environmental parameters. Accidents seem to correlate with the land use left and right of the street. Land use data and current vegetation were derived from remote sensing data, providing information of the general land use, also considering the vegetation period. For this a number of hot spots was selected to identify potential dependencies between land use, vegetation and season. First results from these hotspots show, that WVCs do not only depend on land use, but may show a correlation with the vegetation period. With regard to agriculture and seasonal as well as annual changes this indicates that warnings will fail due to their static character in contrast to the dynamic situation of land use and resulting risk for WVCs. This shows that there is a demand for remote sensing data with a high spatial and temporal resolution as well as a methodology to derive WVC warnings considering land use and vegetation. With remote sensing data, it could become possible to classify land use and calculate risk levels for WVC. Additional parameters, derived from remote sensed data that could be considered are relief and crops as well as other parameters such as ponds, natural and infrastructural barriers that could be related to animal behaviour and

  3. Differences in rural and urban driver-injury severities in accidents involving large-trucks: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Khorashadi, Ahmad; Niemeier, Debbie; Shankar, Venky; Mannering, Fred

    2005-09-01

    This study explores the differences between urban and rural driver injuries (both passenger-vehicle and large-truck driver injuries) in accidents that involve large trucks (in excess of 10,000 pounds). Using 4 years of California accident data, and considering four driver-injury severity categories (no injury, complaint of pain, visible injury, and severe/fatal injury), a multinomial logit analysis of the data was conducted. Significant differences with respect to various risk factors including driver, vehicle, environmental, road geometry and traffic characteristics were found to exist between urban and rural models. For example, in rural accidents involving tractor-trailer combinations, the probability of drivers' injuries being severe/fatal increased about 26% relative to accidents involving single-unit trucks. In urban areas, this same probability increased nearly 700%. In accidents where alcohol or drug use was identified as being the primary cause of the accident, the probability of severe/fatal injury increased roughly 250% percent in rural areas and nearly 800% in urban areas. While many of the same variables were found to be significant in both rural and urban models (although often with quite different impact), there were 13 variables that significantly influenced driver-injury severity in rural but not urban areas, and 17 variables that significantly influenced driver-injury severity in urban but not rural areas. We speculate that the significant differences between rural and urban injury severities may be at least partially attributable to the different perceptual, cognitive and response demands placed on drivers in rural versus urban areas.

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  5. Panasonic dosimetry system performance testing and results at nuclear accident dose levels 500 rad to 10,000 rad

    SciTech Connect

    Klueber, M.R.

    1998-04-06

    Panasonic thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are used as the photon dose assessment part of the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and may be used for the same purpose with the fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD). To demonstrate compliance with 10CFR835.1304 (and, its predecessor, DOE Order 5480.11), several sets of dosimeters were irradiated to photon doses above the upper limit of the DOELAP testing standard, DOE/EH-0026 and DOE/EH-0027. The upper range of the test was 10,000 rads, using both low energy (70 keV) and high energy (662 keV and 1,332 keV) sources. The testing indicated that the Panasonic TLD system is capable of meeting the requirements of 10CFR835.1304 and DOE Order 5480.11.

  6. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  7. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  8. The role of mitochondrial proteomic analysis in radiological accidents and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David; Zhang, Bingrong; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent Level 7 nuclear event at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, there has been heightened awareness of the possibility of radiological terrorism and accidents and the need for techniques to estimate radiation levels after such events. A number of approaches to monitoring radiation using biological markers have been published, including physical techniques, cytogenetic approaches, and direct, DNA-analysis approaches. Each approach has the potential to provide information that may be applied to the triage of an exposed population, but problems with development and application of devices or lengthy analyses limit their potential for widespread application. We present a post-irradiation observation with the potential for development into a rapid point-of-care device. Using simple mitochondrial proteomic analysis, we investigated irradiated and nonirradiated murine mitochondria and identified a protein mobility shift occurring at 2-3 Gy. We discuss the implications of this finding both in terms of possible mechanisms and potential applications in bio-radiation monitoring. PMID:22879026

  9. Overview of the Aerothermodynamics Analysis Conducted in Support of the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    A graphic presentation of the aerothermodynamics analysis conducted in support of the STS-107 accident investigation. Investigation efforts were conducted as part of an integrated AATS team (Aero, Aerothermal, Thermal, Stress) directed by OVEWG. Graphics presented are: STS-107 Entry trajectory and timeline (1st off-nominal event to Post-LOS); Indications from OI telemetry data; Aero/aerothermo/thermal analysis process; Selected STS-107 side fuselage/OMS pod off-nominal temperatures; Leading edge structural subsystem; Relevant forensics evidence; External aerothermal environments; STS-107 Pre-entry EOM3 heating profile; Surface heating and temperatures; Orbiter wing leading edge damage survey; Internal aerothermal environments; Orbiter wing CAD model; Aerodynamic flight reconstruction; Chronology of aerodynamic/aerothermoydynamic contributions; Acreage TPS tile damage; Larger OML perturbations; Missing RCC panel(s); Localized damage to RCC panel/missing T-seal; RCC breach with flow ingestion; and Aero-aerothermal closure. NAIT served as the interface between the CAIB and NASA investigation teams; and CAIB requests for study were addressed.

  10. Homicide or accident off the coast of Florida: trauma analysis of mutilated human remains.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, P R

    1999-07-01

    In the many years Dr. William R. Maples served as a forensic anthropologist, he saw diverse sources of trauma presented in the victims of violent crime, accident and suicide in the state of Florida. In 1996 the District 18 Medical Examiner's Office of Florida requested the assistance of Dr. Maples in the analysis of human remains recovered by the U.S. Coast Guard. The deceased was in an advanced state of decomposition characterized by skin slippage and discoloration. The torso bore multiple lacerations, including nearly parallel lacerations in the skin of the back. Specimens were carefully macerated and the fractures reconstructed. The skeletal trauma was caused by a device capable of delivering robust cuts and blunt trauma in linear paths, as is consistent with propeller trauma. Unusual in this case were blows to the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the body. Based on the anthropological analysis and interviews with the family of the deceased, the F.B.I. proceeded with the case as a homicide investigation.

  11. Development of NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process Through Application on the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank; Hamlin, Teri; Youngblood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system. APA docs more than simply track experience: it systematically evaluates experience, looking for under-appreciated risks that may warrant changes to design or operational practice. This paper presents the pilot application of the NASA APA process to Space Shuttle Orbiter systems. In this effort, the working sessions conducted at Johnson Space Center (JSC) piloted the APA process developed by Information Systems Laboratories (ISL) over the last two years under the auspices of NASA's Office of Safety & Mission Assurance, with the assistance of the Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Shuttle & Exploration Analysis Branch. This process is built around facilitated working sessions involving diverse system experts. One important aspect of this particular APA process is its focus on understanding the physical mechanism responsible for an operational anomaly, followed by evaluation of the risk significance of the observed anomaly as well as consideration of generalizations of the underlying mechanism to other contexts. Model completeness will probably always be an issue, but this process tries to leverage operating experience to the extent possible in order to address completeness issues before a catastrophe occurs.

  12. The role of mitochondrial proteomic analysis in radiological accidents and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David; Zhang, Bingrong; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent Level 7 nuclear event at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, there has been heightened awareness of the possibility of radiological terrorism and accidents and the need for techniques to estimate radiation levels after such events. A number of approaches to monitoring radiation using biological markers have been published, including physical techniques, cytogenetic approaches, and direct, DNA-analysis approaches. Each approach has the potential to provide information that may be applied to the triage of an exposed population, but problems with development and application of devices or lengthy analyses limit their potential for widespread application. We present a post-irradiation observation with the potential for development into a rapid point-of-care device. Using simple mitochondrial proteomic analysis, we investigated irradiated and nonirradiated murine mitochondria and identified a protein mobility shift occurring at 2-3 Gy. We discuss the implications of this finding both in terms of possible mechanisms and potential applications in bio-radiation monitoring.

  13. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  14. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.

    2000-05-01

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed.

  15. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F

    1999-11-01

    About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately

  16. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  17. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  18. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  19. Lower head creep rupture failure analysis associated with alternative accident sequences of the Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sang Lung, Chan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this lower head creep rupture analysis is to assess the current version of MELCOR 1.8.5-RG against SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD 3.3kz. The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the current MELCOR in-vessel core damage progression phenomena including the model for the formation of a molten pool. The model for stratified molten pool natural heat transfer will be included in the next MELCOR release. Presently, MELCOR excludes the gap heat-transfer model for the cooling associated with the narrow gap between the debris and the lower head vessel wall. All these phenomenological models are already treated in SCDAP/RELAP5 using the COUPLE code to model the heat transfer of the relocated debris with the lower head based on a two-dimensional finite-element-method. The assessment should determine if current MELCOR capabilities adequately cover core degradation phenomena appropriate for the consolidated MELCOR code. Inclusion of these features should bring MELCOR much closer to a state of parity with SCDAP/RELAP5 and is a currently underway element in the MELCOR code consolidation effort. This assessment deals with the following analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) alternative accident sequences. The TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-1 includes the continuation of the base case of the TMI-2 accident with the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) tripped, and the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) throttled after approximately 6000 s accident time, while in the TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-2, the reactor coolant pumps is tripped after 6000 s and the HPIS is activated after 12,012 s. The lower head temperature distributions calculated with SCDAP/RELAP5 are visualized and animated with open source visualization freeware 'OpenDX'. (author)

  20. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-20

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in WE-STK-3009, Appendix A. The bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident is a single-shell tank failure due to excessive concentrated load. The calculated offsite dose of 0.045 rem, based on reasonably conservative input, does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  1. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention.

  2. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention. PMID:10487350

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  4. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192

  5. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  6. Episode analysis of deposition of radiocesium from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Watanabe, Mirai; Hayashi, Seiji; Nishizawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    Chemical transport models played key roles in understanding the atmospheric behaviors and deposition patterns of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. However, model results could not be sufficiently evaluated because of limited observational data. We assess the model performance to simulate the deposition patterns of radiocesium ((137)Cs) by making use of airborne monitoring survey data for the first time. We conducted ten sensitivity simulations to evaluate the atmospheric model uncertainties associated with key model settings including emission data and wet deposition modules. We found that simulation using emissions estimated with a regional-scale (∼ 500 km) model better reproduced the observed (137)Cs deposition pattern in eastern Japan than simulation using emissions estimated with local-scale (∼ 50 km) or global-scale models. In addition, simulation using a process-based wet deposition module reproduced the observations well, whereas simulation using scavenging coefficients showed large uncertainties associated with empirical parameters. The best-available simulation reproduced the observed (137)Cs deposition rates in high-deposition areas (≥ 10 kBq m(-2)) within 1 order of magnitude and showed that deposition of radiocesium over land occurred predominantly during 15-16, 20-23, and 30-31 March 2011. PMID:23391028

  7. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results. PMID:24930438

  8. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  9. Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.

    PubMed

    Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J

    1992-02-01

    The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents. PMID:1544192

  10. WASTE-ACC: A computer model for analysis of waste management accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Nabelssi, B.K.; Folga, S.; Kohout, E.J.; Mueller, C.J.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1996-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory has developed WASTE-ACC, a computational framework and integrated PC-based database system, to assess atmospheric releases from facility accidents. WASTE-ACC facilitates the many calculations for the accident analyses necessitated by the numerous combinations of waste types, waste management process technologies, facility locations, and site consolidation strategies in the waste management alternatives across the DOE complex. WASTE-ACC is a comprehensive tool that can effectively test future DOE waste management alternatives and assumptions. The computational framework can access several relational databases to calculate atmospheric releases. The databases contain throughput volumes, waste profiles, treatment process parameters, and accident data such as frequencies of initiators, conditional probabilities of subsequent events, and source term release parameters of the various waste forms under accident stresses. This report describes the computational framework and supporting databases used to conduct accident analyses and to develop source terms to assess potential health impacts that may affect on-site workers and off-site members of the public under various DOE waste management alternatives.

  11. Kinetics Parameters of VVER-1000 Core with 3 MOX Lead Test Assemblies To Be Used for Accident Analysis Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-08

    The present work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactor and presents the neutronics calculations of kinetics parameters of VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs. MOX LTA design has been studied in [1] for two options of MOX LTA: 100% plutonium and of ''island'' type. As a result, zoning i.e. fissile plutonium enrichments in different plutonium zones, has been defined. VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs of chosen design has been calculated in [2]. In present work, the neutronics data for transient analysis codes (RELAP [3]) has been obtained using the codes chain of RRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' [5] that is to be used for exploitation neutronics calculations of VVER. Nowadays the 3D assembly-by-assembly code BIPR-7A and 2D pin-by-pin code PERMAK-A, both with the neutronics constants prepared by the cell code TVS-M, are the base elements of this chain. It should be reminded that in [6] TVS-M was used only for the constants calculations of MOX FAs. In current calculations the code TVS-M has been used both for UOX and MOX fuel constants. Besides, the volume of presented information has been increased and additional explications have been included. The results for the reference uranium core [4] are presented in Chapter 2. The results for the core with 3 MOX LTAs are presented in Chapter 3. The conservatism that is connected with neutronics parameters and that must be taken into account during transient analysis calculations, is discussed in Chapter 4. The conservative parameters values are considered to be used in 1-point core kinetics models of accident analysis codes.

  12. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 3: External HR Break at Pump Outlet without Pump Trip

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal (HR) system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  13. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: with Beam Shutdown and Active RHR

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

  14. A Comprehensive Analysis of the X-15 Flight 3-65 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Orr, Jeb S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.

    2014-01-01

    The November 15, 1967, loss of X-15 Flight 3-65-97 (hereafter referred to as Flight 3-65) was a unique incident in that it was the first and only aerospace flight accident involving loss of crew on a vehicle with an adaptive flight control system (AFCS). In addition, Flight 3-65 remains the only incidence of a single-pilot departure from controlled flight of a manned entry vehicle in a hypersonic flight regime. To mitigate risk to emerging aerospace systems, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) proposed a comprehensive review of this accident. The goal of the assessment was to resolve lingering questions regarding the failure modes of the aircraft systems (including the AFCS) and thoroughly analyze the interactions among the human agents and autonomous systems that contributed to the loss of the pilot and aircraft. This document contains the outcome of the accident review.

  15. Environmental risk management for radiological accidents: integrating risk assessment and decision analysis for remediation at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Yatsalo, Boris; Sullivan, Terrence; Didenko, Vladimir; Linkov, Igor

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the Tohuku earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, and led to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. Although the full extent of the contamination is not currently known, the highly complex nature of the environmental contamination (radionuclides in water, soil, and agricultural produce) typical of nuclear accidents requires a detailed geospatial analysis of information with the ability to extrapolate across different scales with applications to risk assessment models and decision making support. This article briefly summarizes the approach used to inform risk-based land management and remediation decision making after the Chernobyl, Soviet Ukraine, accident in 1986. PMID:21608109

  16. Structure of comorbid diseases in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Gasanova, O V; Sarkisova, E O; Ovsyannikova, L M; Chumak, A A; Nosach, O V; Nezgovorova, G A; Gromadska, V M

    2014-09-01

    Objective - to study of the structure of comorbid diseases in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl accident, and in the groups of comparison. Materials and methods. Array of surveyed males was divided into 4 groups: the main group - 136 patients with NAFLD affected by the Chornobyl NPP accident, the first comparison group (І CG) - 28 affected by Chornobyl NPP accident without liver disease, the second comparison group (II CG) - 50 patients with NAFLD not exposed to factors of the Chornobyl disaster, and the third comparison group (III CG) - 16 unexposed persons without liver disease. Results. A significant amount of co-morbid pathology was found in all studied groups but III CG: at the average from 4.1 ± 0.4 diseases in II CG to 5.2 ± 0.2 in the main group of patients (p < 0.05), among which in 6.6-7.1 % of cases more than 10 diseases were established. The most common disorders were cardiovascular and cerebrovascular and endocrine diseases. Structure of comorbid pathology in NAFLD in the main study group differed from this in II CG by a significantly greater frequency of detection of cerebrovascular diseases (73.5 and 56 %, p < 0.05). As for features of the metabolic syndrome in Chornobyl accident sufferers essential hypertension (71.3 % ), discirculatory encephalopathy (48.5 %) and thyroid diseases (47.1 %) were more frequent than in II GC: correspondingly 58 % (p < 0.001), 28 %, (p < 0.01), and 30 %, (p < 0.05). Essential hypertension in only 35.7 % patients without NAFLD (I CG) was detected (71.3 % in the study group, p < 0.01), and chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency in 71.4 % (39.7 % in the study group, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Structure of comorbid pathology in NAFLD patients sufferers of the Chornobyl NPP accident was different both in a large number of identified diseases and nosological structure. The most common disorders were cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and endocrine diseases

  17. Radiotherapy Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckenzie, Alan

    A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

  18. Risk Analysis for Public Consumption: Media Coverage of the Ginna Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwoody, Sharon; And Others

    Researchers have determined that the lay public makes risk judgments in ways that are very different from those advocated by scientists. Noting that these differences have caused considerable concern among those who promote and regulate health and safety, a study examined media coverage of the accident at the Robert E. Ginna nuclear power plant…

  19. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  20. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  1. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  2. Bullet identification: a case of a fatal hunting accident resolved by comparison of lead shot using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Capannesi, G; Sedda, A F

    1992-03-01

    Bullet identification by chemical analysis often provides a powerful clue in forensic science. A case is reported in which a hunting accident was resolved by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for direct comparison of the trace element content in lead shot. Different preparation batches of lead shot appear to have a high within-group composition homogeneity, and good differentiation is achieved between different batches. Determination of the nickel and antimony content on a bush branch demonstrated that the branch had been perforated by one of the shot pellets, and this helped the detectives in reconstruction of the crime scene. PMID:1500906

  3. ADAPT (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) Beta Version 0.9

    2010-01-07

    The purpose of the ADAPT code is to generate Dynamic Event Trees (DET) using a user specified simulator. ADAPT can utilize any simulation tool which meets a minimal set of requirements. ADAPT is based on the concept of DET which use explicit modeling of the deterministic dynamic processes that take place during a nuclear reactor plant system evolution along with stochastic modeling. When DET are used to model different aspects of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA),more » all accident progression scenarios starting from an initiating event are considered simultaneously. The DET branching occurs at user specified times and/or when an action is required by the system and/or the operator. These outcomes then decide how the dynamic system variables will evolve in time for each DET branch. Since two different outcomes at a DET branching may lead to completely different paths for system evolution, the next branching for these paths may occur not only at different times, but can be based on different branching criteria. The computational infrastructure allows for flexibility in ADAPT to link with different system simulation codes, parallel processing of the scenarios under consideration, on-line scenario management (initiation as well as termination) and user friendly graphical capabilities. The ADAPT system is designed for a distributed computing environment; the scheduler can track multiple concurrent branches simultaneously. The scheduler is modularized so that the DET branching strategy can be modified (e.g. biasing towards the worse case scenario/event). Independent database systems store data from the simulation tasks and the DET structure so that the event tree can be constructed and analyzed later. ADAPT is provided with a user-friendly client which can easily sort through and display the results of an experiment, precluding the need for the user to manually inspect individual simulator runs.« less

  4. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  5. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  6. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Accident Progression Uncertainty Analysis and Implications for Decommissioning of Fukushima Reactors - Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysis (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression with the MELCOR code. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). That study focused on reconstructing the accident progressions, as postulated by the limited plant data. This work was focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, reactor damage state, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure). The primary intent of this study was to characterize the range of predicted damage states in the 1F1 reactor considering state of knowledge uncertainties associated with MELCOR modeling of core damage progression and to generate information that may be useful in informing the decommissioning activities that will be employed to defuel the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, core damage progression variability inherent in MELCOR modeling numerics is investigated.

  7. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  8. Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a corrigendum to a previously published paper where errors were detected. The errors have been corrected in this paper. The paper is otherwise identical to the previously published paper. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have assessed the risk of accident associated with the use of drugs when driving is presented. The meta-analysis included 66 studies containing a total of 264 estimates of the effects on accident risk of using illicit or prescribed drugs when driving. Summary estimates of the odds ratio of accident involvement are presented for amphetamines, analgesics, anti-asthmatics, anti-depressives, anti-histamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, opiates, penicillin and zopiclone (a sleeping pill). For most of the drugs, small or moderate increases in accident risk associated with the use of the drugs were found. Information about whether the drugs were actually used while driving and about the doses used was often imprecise. Most studies that have evaluated the presence of a dose-response relationship between the dose of drugs taken and the effects on accident risk confirm the existence of a dose-response relationship. Use of drugs while driving tends to have a larger effect on the risk of fatal and serious injury accidents than on the risk of less serious accidents (usually property-damage-only accidents). The quality of the studies that have assessed risk varied greatly. There was a tendency for the estimated effects of drug use on accident risk to be smaller in well-controlled studies than in poorly controlled studies. Evidence of publication bias was found for some drugs. The associations found cannot be interpreted as causal relationships, principally because most studies do not control very well for potentially confounding factors. PMID:22785089

  9. Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a corrigendum to a previously published paper where errors were detected. The errors have been corrected in this paper. The paper is otherwise identical to the previously published paper. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have assessed the risk of accident associated with the use of drugs when driving is presented. The meta-analysis included 66 studies containing a total of 264 estimates of the effects on accident risk of using illicit or prescribed drugs when driving. Summary estimates of the odds ratio of accident involvement are presented for amphetamines, analgesics, anti-asthmatics, anti-depressives, anti-histamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, opiates, penicillin and zopiclone (a sleeping pill). For most of the drugs, small or moderate increases in accident risk associated with the use of the drugs were found. Information about whether the drugs were actually used while driving and about the doses used was often imprecise. Most studies that have evaluated the presence of a dose-response relationship between the dose of drugs taken and the effects on accident risk confirm the existence of a dose-response relationship. Use of drugs while driving tends to have a larger effect on the risk of fatal and serious injury accidents than on the risk of less serious accidents (usually property-damage-only accidents). The quality of the studies that have assessed risk varied greatly. There was a tendency for the estimated effects of drug use on accident risk to be smaller in well-controlled studies than in poorly controlled studies. Evidence of publication bias was found for some drugs. The associations found cannot be interpreted as causal relationships, principally because most studies do not control very well for potentially confounding factors.

  10. Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

  11. Accident simulation and consequence analysis in support of MHTGR safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Wichner, R.P.; Smith, O.L.; Conklin, J.C. ); Barthold, W.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes research performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in preliminary determinations of licensability of the US Department of Energy (DOE) reference design of a standard modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The work described includes independent analyses of core heatup and steam ingress accidents, and the reviews and analyses of fuel performance and fission product transport technology.

  12. Review of Cytogenetic analysis of restoration workers for Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident.

    PubMed

    Suto, Yumiko

    2016-09-01

    Japan faced with the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) caused by the combined disaster of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunamis on 11 March 2011. National Institute of Radiological Sciences received all nuclear workers who were engaged in emergency response tasks at the NPS and suspected of being overexposed to acute radiation. Biological dosimetry by dicentric chromosome assay was helpful for medical triage and management of the workers. PMID:27473701

  13. Review of Cytogenetic analysis of restoration workers for Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident.

    PubMed

    Suto, Yumiko

    2016-09-01

    Japan faced with the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) caused by the combined disaster of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunamis on 11 March 2011. National Institute of Radiological Sciences received all nuclear workers who were engaged in emergency response tasks at the NPS and suspected of being overexposed to acute radiation. Biological dosimetry by dicentric chromosome assay was helpful for medical triage and management of the workers.

  14. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in `like-new` conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the `like-new` condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed.

  15. Prevalence of Hyperthyroidism Following Exposure During Childhood or Adolescence to Radioiodines from the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Dose-Response Results from the Ukrainian-American Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M.; Furukawa, K.; Brenner, A.; Olinjyk, V.; Ron, E.; Zablotska, L.; Terekhova, G.; McConnell, R.; Markov, V.; Shpak, V.; Ostroumova, E.; Bouville, A.; Tronko, M.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively few data are available on the prevalence of hyperthyroidism (TSH concentrations of < 0.3 mIU/L, with normal or elevated concentrations of free T4) in individuals exposed to radioiodines at low levels. The accident at the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear plant in Ukraine on April 26, 1986 exposed large numbers of residents to radioactive fallout, principally to iodine-131 (I-131) (mean and median doses = 0.6 Gray (Gy) and 0.2 Gy). We investigated the relationship of I-131 and prevalent hyperthyroidism among 11,853 individuals exposed as children or adolescents in Ukraine who underwent an in-depth, standardized thyroid gland screening examination 12–14 years later. Radioactivity measurements taken shortly after the accident were available for all subjects and were used to estimate individual thyroid doses. We identified 76 cases of hyperthyroidism (11 overt, 65 subclinical). Using logistic regression, we tested a variety of continuous risk models and conducted categorical analyses for all subjects combined and for females (53 cases, n=5,767) and males (23 cases, n=6,086) separately, but found no convincing evidence of a dose response relationship between I-131 and hyperthyroidism. There was some suggestion of elevated risk among females in an analysis based on a dichotomous dose model with a threshold of 0.5 Gy chosen empirically (OR=1.86, P=0.06), but the statistical significance level was reduced (P=0.13) in a formal analysis with an estimated threshold. In summary, after a thorough exploration of the data, we found no statistically significant dose response relationship between individual I-131 thyroid doses and prevalent hyperthyroidism. PMID:21128800

  16. Prevalence of hyperthyroidism after exposure during childhood or adolescence to radioiodines from the chornobyl nuclear accident: dose-response results from the Ukrainian-American Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M; Furukawa, K; Brenner, A; Olinjyk, V; Ron, E; Zablotska, L; Terekhova, G; McConnell, R; Markov, V; Shpak, V; Ostroumova, E; Bouville, A; Tronko, M

    2010-12-01

    Relatively few data are available on the prevalence of hyperthyroidism (TSH concentrations of <0.3 mIU/liter, with normal or elevated concentrations of free T4) in individuals exposed to radioiodines at low levels. The accident at the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear plant in Ukraine on April 26, 1986 exposed large numbers of residents to radioactive fallout, principally to iodine-131 ((131)I) (mean and median doses  =  0.6 Gy and 0.2 Gy). We investigated the relationship between (131)I and prevalent hyperthyroidism among 11,853 individuals exposed as children or adolescents in Ukraine who underwent an in-depth, standardized thyroid gland screening examination 12-14 years later. Radioactivity measurements taken shortly after the accident were available for all subjects and were used to estimate individual thyroid doses. We identified 76 cases of hyperthyroidism (11 overt, 65 subclinical). Using logistic regression, we tested a variety of continuous risk models and conducted categorical analyses for all subjects combined and for females (53 cases, n  =  5,767) and males (23 cases, n  =  6,086) separately but found no convincing evidence of a dose-response relationship between (131)I and hyperthyroidism. There was some suggestion of elevated risk among females in an analysis based on a dichotomous dose model with a threshold of 0.5 Gy chosen empirically (OR  =  1.86, P  =  0.06), but the statistical significance level was reduced (P  =  0.13) in a formal analysis with an estimated threshold. In summary, after a thorough exploration of the data, we found no statistically significant dose-response relationship between individual (131)I thyroid doses and prevalent hyperthyroidism. PMID:21128800

  17. Analysis of a postulated radiological accident from mixed waste operations at existing hazardous waste management facilities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, R.J.; Mecozzi, J.M.; Taie, M.N.

    1990-02-01

    The existing Hazardous Waste Management Facilities (HWMF) which are located at the southeast corner of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) store, treat and prepare for disposal hazardous, mixed and radioactive wastes generated by the programmatic activities at the Laboratory. Accidents during the facility operations can be postulated that potentially could affect individuals and populations outside the HWMF. This report evaluates impacts from the maximum credible accident that might result from mixed waste operations at the HWMF units requiring a RCRA and California Hazardous Waste Control Act Part B permit. This postulated accident was considered for the purpose of evaluating maximum potential consequences and to determine if an accidental release of radionuclides would result in unacceptable doses to on-site workers and the public. In determining a maximum credible accident, primary consideration was given to the postulated situations potentially having the greatest health impacts to the public. The health risk assessment evaluates releases during normal operations. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Recursive modeling of loss of control in human and organizational processes: a systemic model for accident analysis.

    PubMed

    Kontogiannis, Tom; Malakis, Stathis

    2012-09-01

    A recursive model of accident investigation is proposed by exploiting earlier work in systems thinking. Safety analysts can understand better the underlying causes of decision or action flaws by probing into the patterns of breakdown in the organization of safety. For this deeper analysis, a cybernetic model of organizational factors and a control model of human processes have been integrated in this article (i.e., the viable system model and the extended control model). The joint VSM-ECOM framework has been applied to a case study to help safety practitioners with the analysis of patterns of breakdown with regard to how operators and organizations manage goal conflicts, monitor work progress, recognize weak signals, align goals across teams, and adapt plans on the fly. The recursive accident representation brings together several organizational issues (e.g., the dilemma of autonomy versus compliance, or the interaction between structure and strategy) and addresses how operators adapt to challenges in their environment by adjusting their modes of functioning and recovery. Finally, it facilitates the transfer of knowledge from diverse incidents and near misses within similar domains of practice.

  19. Analysis of a complex recreational scuba diving accident: French Pass, New Zealand, 2000.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Graham; Davis, F Michael

    2009-03-01

    In March 2000, six students and an instructor dived using open-circuit scuba in a narrow pass and were swept by a strong current to a depth of 90 metres' sea water. Three died and four were injured, which makes the incident the worst diving accident in New Zealand history. The group was on an officially-sanctioned course with many factors contributing to the final tragic events. The dive is described and the medical response examined. The legal consequences are reported and their implications for diver training and employment are discussed.

  20. Exploratory visual analysis of pharmacogenomic results.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Dudek, Scott M; Shaffer, Christian M; Wang, Janey; Moore, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of expansive pharmacogenomic datasets is a daunting challenge. A thorough exploration of experimental results requires both statistical and annotative information. Therefore, appropriate analysis tools must bring a readily-accessible, flexible combination of statistics and biological annotation to the user's desktop. We present the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA) software and database as such a tool and demonstrate its utility in replicating the findings of an earlier pharmacogenomic study as well as elucidating novel biologically plausible hypotheses. EVA brings all of the often disparate pieces of analysis together in an infinitely flexible visual display that is amenable to any type of statistical result and biological question. Here, we describe the motivations for developing EVA, detail the database and custom graphical user interface (GUI), provide an example of its application to a publicly available pharmacogenomic dataset, and discuss the broad utility of the EVA tool for the pharmacogenomics community. PMID:15759635

  1. Accident analysis for the low-level mixed waste ``No-Flame`` option in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S.; Kohout, E.; Mueller, C.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Wilkins, B.; Mishima, J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper outlines the various steps pursued in performing a generic safety assessment of the various technologies considered for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) ``No-Flame`` option in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The treatment technologies for the ``No-Flame`` option differ from previous LLMW technologies analyzed in the WM PEIS in that the incineration and thermal desorption technologies are replaced by sludge washing, soil washing, debris washing, and organic destruction. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios were selected for analysis by means of a screening process. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented.

  2. Distinguishing neglect from abuse and accident: analysis of the case files of a hospital child protection team in Israel.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Zur, Shmuel; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2010-11-01

    The study compares the characteristics of children assessed as neglected, physically abused, or accident victims by a hospital child protection team (CPT) and identifies the information on which the CPT based its assessments. The comparison is based on content analysis of records of 414 children examined by the CPT in a major hospital in Israel between 1991 and 2006, of whom 130 (31.4%) were neglected, 54 (13.0%) were physically abused, and 230 (55.6%) were accident victims. Findings of three hierarchical logistic regressions show that the children classified as neglected had the most early development problems, but were the least likely to have received psychological treatment, and that that their families were the most likely to be receiving state financial support and to have had prior contact with the social services. They also show that the CPT had received the least information indicative of maltreatment about these children from the community and that their medical and physical examinations aroused the least suspicion. Finally, they show that the impressions the hospital staff and CPT had of the parents during the hospital visit had greater power to distinguish between the groups than the children's characteristics or the parents' socio-demographic background. The findings attest to the ability of the CPT to differentiate between neglect victims and physical abuse or accident victims. With this, they also point to ambiguities in the classification process that should be addressed by further research and training and to the need for detailed and thorough documentation of the information and observations on which the CPT's assessments are based.

  3. Analysis of injuries among pilots involved in fatal general aviation airplane accidents.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Taneja, Narinder

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of injuries sustained by pilots involved in fatal general aviation (GA) airplane accidents. Detailed information on the pattern and nature of injuries was retrieved from the Federal Aviation Administration's autopsy database for pilots involved in fatal GA airplane accidents from 1996 to 1999. A review of 559 autopsies revealed that blunt trauma was the primary cause of death in 86.0% (N=481) of the autopsies. The most commonly occurring bony injuries were fracture of the ribs (72.3%), skull (55.1%), facial bones (49.4%), tibia (37.9%) and pelvis (36.0%). Common organ injuries included laceration of the liver (48.1%), lung (37.6%) heart (35.6%), and spleen (30.1%), and hemorrhage of the brain (33.3%) and lung (32.9%). A fractured larynx was observed in 14.7% of the cases, a finding that has not been reported in literature until now. It was observed that individuals who sustained brain hemorrhage were also more likely to have fractures of the facial bones rather than skull fractures. PMID:12729820

  4. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  5. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  6. Behavior of an heterogeneous annular FBR core during an unprotected loss of flow accident: Analysis of the primary phase with SAS-SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, S.; Schmitt, D.; Bretault, A.; Lemasson, D.; Darmet, G.; Verwaerde, D.; Struwe, D.; Pfrang, W.; Ponomarev, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of a substantial improvement on FBR core safety connected to the development of a new Gen IV reactor type, heterogeneous core with innovative features are being carefully analyzed in France since 2009. At EDF R and D, the main goal is to understand whether a strong reduction of the Na-void worth - possibly attempting a negative value - allows a significant improvement of the core behavior during an unprotected loss of flow accident. Also, the physical behavior of such a core is of interest, before and beyond the (possible) onset of Na boiling. Hence, a cutting-edge heterogeneous design, featuring an annular shape, a Na-plena with a B{sub 4}C plate and a stepwise modulation of fissile core heights, was developed at EDF by means of the SDDS methodology, with a total Na-void worth of -1 $. The behavior of such a core during the primary phase of a severe accident, initiated by an unprotected loss of flow, is analyzed by means of the SAS-SFR code. This study is carried-out at KIT and EDF, in the framework of a scientific collaboration on innovative FBR severe accident analyses. The results show that the reduction of the Na-void worth is very effective, but is not sufficient alone to avoid Na-boiling and, hence, to prevent the core from entering into the primary phase of a severe accident. Nevertheless, the grace time up to boiling onset is greatly enhanced in comparison to a more traditional homogeneous core design, and only an extremely low fraction of the fuel (<0.1%) enters into melting at the end of this phase. A sensitivity analysis shows that, due to the inherent neutronic characteristics of such a core, the gagging scheme plays a major role on the core behavior: indeed, an improved 4-zones gagging scheme, associated with an enhanced control rod drive line expansion feed-back effect, finally prevents the core from entering into sodium boiling. This major conclusion highlights both the progress already accomplished and the need for more detailed

  7. Comparison of perceived and modelled geographical access to accident and emergency departments: a cross-sectional analysis from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David L; Christie, Stephen; Lester, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Assessment of the spatial accessibility of hospital accident and emergency departments as perceived by local residents has not previously been investigated. Perceived accessibility may affect where, when, and whether potential patients attend for treatment. Using data on 11,853 respondents to a population survey in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK, we present an analysis comparing the accessibility of accident and emergency departments as reported by local residents and drive-time to the nearest accident and emergency department modelled using a geographical information system (GIS). Results Median drive-times were significantly shorter in the lowest perceived access category and longer in the best perceived access category (p < 0.001). The perceived access and GIS modelled drive-time variables were positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.38, p < 0.01). The strongest correlation was found for respondents living in areas in which nearly all households had a car or van (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Correlations were stronger among respondents reporting good access to public transport and among those reporting a recent accident and emergency attendance for injury treatment compared to other respondents. Correlation coefficients did not vary substantially by levels of household income. Drive-time, road distance and straight-line distance were highly inter-correlated and substituting road distance or straight-line distance as the GIS modelled spatial accessibility measure only marginally decreased the magnitude of the correlations between perceived and GIS modelled access. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the accessibility of hospital-based health care services as perceived by local residents is related to measures of spatial accessibility modelled using GIS. For studies that aim to model geographical separation in a way that correlates well with the perception of local residents, there may be minimal advantage in using

  8. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  9. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  10. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  11. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector

  12. Uncertainty analysis of preclosure accident doses for the Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Zavoshy, S.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1990-12-31

    This study presents a generic methodology that can be used to evaluate the uncertainty in the calculated accidental offsite doses at the Yucca Mountain repository during the preclosure period. For demonstration purposes, this methodology is applied to two specific accident scenarios: the first involves a crane dropping an open container with consolidated fuel rods, the second involves container failure during emplacement or removal operations. The uncertainties of thirteen parameters are quantified by various types of probability distributions. The Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to evaluate the uncertainty of the offsite dose. For the crane-drop scenario with concurrent filter failure, the doses due to the release of airborne fuel particles are calculated to be 0.019, 0.32, and 2.8 rem at confidence levels of 10%, 50%, and 90%, respectively. For the container failure scenario with concurrent filter failure, the 90% confidence-level dose is 0.21 rem. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN DISASTER RESTORATION WORK FOLLOWING THE NIIGATA CHUETSU EARTHQUAKE (2004) AND THE NIIGATA CHUETSU-OKI EARTHQUAKE (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuya; Noda, Masashi; Kikkawa, Naotaka; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Suemasa, Naoaki

    Labour accidents in disaster-relief and disaster restoration work following the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004) and the Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) were analysed and characterised in order to raise awareness of the risks and hazards in such work. The Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake affected houses and buildings rather than roads and railways, which are generally disrupted due to landslides or slope failures caused by earthquakes. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall to lower level," which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides and slope failures were much more prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring in geotechnical works rather than in construction works. Therefore, care should be taken in preventing "fall to lower level" accidents associated with repair work on the roofs of low-rise houses, "cut or abrasion" accidents due to the demolition of damaged houses and "caught in or compressed by equipment" accidents in road works and water and sewage works.

  14. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  15. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    PubMed

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD. PMID:26687539

  16. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    PubMed

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD.

  17. An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: the crash of Comair Flight 5191.

    PubMed

    Pruchnicki, Shawn A; Wu, Lora J; Belenky, Gregory

    2011-05-01

    On 27 August 2006 at 0606 eastern daylight time (EDT) at Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY (LEX), the flight crew of Comair Flight 5191 inadvertently attempted to take off from a general aviation runway too short for their aircraft. The aircraft crashed killing 49 of the 50 people on board. To better understand this accident and to aid in preventing similar accidents, we applied mathematical modeling predicting fatigue-related degradation in performance for the Air Traffic Controller on-duty at the time of the crash. To provide the necessary input to the model, we attempted to estimate circadian phase and sleep/wake histories for the Captain, First Officer, and Air Traffic Controller. We were able to estimate with confidence the circadian phase for each. We were able to estimate with confidence the sleep/wake history for the Air Traffic Controller, but unable to do this for the Captain and First Officer. Using the sleep/wake history estimates for the Air Traffic Controller as input, the mathematical modeling predicted moderate fatigue-related performance degradation at the time of the crash. This prediction was supported by the presence of what appeared to be fatigue-related behaviors in the Air Traffic Controller during the 30 min prior to and in the minutes after the crash. Our modeling results do not definitively establish fatigue in the Air Traffic Controller as a cause of the accident, rather they suggest that had he been less fatigued he might have detected Comair Flight 5191's lining up on the wrong runway. We were not able to perform a similar analysis for the Captain and First Officer because we were not able to estimate with confidence their sleep/wake histories. Our estimates of sleep/wake history and circadian rhythm phase for the Air Traffic Controller might generalize to other air traffic controllers and to flight crew operating in the early morning hours at LEX. Relative to other times of day, the modeling results suggest an elevated risk of fatigue

  18. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  19. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  20. U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents, 1963 through 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.; Kasper, Eugene F.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has recorded 8,436 rotorcraft accidents during the period mid - 1963 through the end of 1997. Review and analysis of the NTSB summary narrative for each accident has been completed. In addition, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) counts of the growing registered rotorcraft fleet over this period has obtained. Taken together, a large and informative data base is now available, which indicates that the accident rate (on a per airframe basis) has changed very little since the mid 1970s. The data base, even in the summary form provided by this paper, offers suggestions for safer designs and improved flight operations. For analysis purposes, each accident has been placed in one of 21 top level categories as defined by the NTSB. Analysis of this grouping shows that 70 percent of rotorcraft accidents are associated with four categories. The accident count in these top four categories are: (1) 2,408 Loss of engine power (2) 1,322 In flight collision with object (3) 1,114 Loss of control (4) 1,083 Airframe/component/system failure or malfunction. Single engine rotorcraft dominate these accident statistics because of their sheer numbers over the study period. One-third of the loss of engine power accidents with these aircraft is fuel/air mixture related and fuel exhaustion is a common event. This appears to be the case whether a piston or turbine engine is installed. This paper provides similar study results in the other major mishap categories. It shows that both minor and major design and flight operations changes can -- and should -- be made to reduce rotorcraft accidents in the future. The paper outlines these changes and suggests how they may be made.

  1. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam locomotive boiler or any part or appurtenance thereof, resulting in serious injury or death to one or...

  2. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  3. Reentry response of the light weight radioisotope heater unit resulting from a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist maneuver accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    Reentry analyses consisting of ablation response, thermal response and thermal stress response have been conducted on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit for Galileo/VEEGA reentry conditions. Sequential ablation analyses of the LWRHU aeroshell, the fuel clad, and the fuel pellet have been conducted in reentry regimes where the aeroshell has been deemed to fail. The failure criterion for ablation is assumed to be recession corresponding to 50% of the wall thickness (the design criterion recommended in the DOE Overall Safety Manual). Although the analyses have been carried far beyond this limit (as presented and discussed herein), JHU/APL endorses the position that failure may occur at the time that this recession is achieved or at lower altitudes within the heat pulse considering the uncertainties in the aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and thermo-structural analyses and modeling. These uncertainties result mainly because of the high energies involved in the VEEGA reentries compared to orbital decay reentries. Risk evaluations should consider the fact that for shallow flight paths the unit may disassemble at high-altitude as a result of ablation or may remain intact until it impacts with a clad that had been molten. 80 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

  5. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  6. Analysing factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling accidents at work: Application of data mining methods to Finnish occupational accidents and diseases statistics database.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Noora

    2013-03-01

    The utilisation of data mining methods has become common in many fields. In occupational accident analysis, however, these methods are still rarely exploited. This study applies methods of data mining (decision tree and association rules) to the Finnish national occupational accidents and diseases statistics database to analyse factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling (SSF) accidents at work from 2006 to 2007. SSF accidents at work constitute a large proportion (22%) of all accidents at work in Finland. In addition, they are more likely to result in longer periods of incapacity for work than other workplace accidents. The most important factor influencing whether or not an accident at work is related to SSF is the specific physical activity of movement. In addition, the risk of SSF accidents at work seems to depend on the occupation and the age of the worker. The results were in line with previous research. Hence the application of data mining methods was considered successful. The results did not reveal anything unexpected though. Nevertheless, because of the capability to illustrate a large dataset and relationships between variables easily, data mining methods were seen as a useful supplementary method in analysing occupational accident data.

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance radiation dose assessment in fingernails of the victim exposed to high dose as result of an accident.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; Trompier, François; Reyes, Ricardo A; Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report results of radiation dose measurements in fingernails of a worker who sustained a radiation injury to his right thumb while using 130 kVp X-ray for nondestructive testing. Clinically estimated absorbed dose was about 20-25 Gy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dose assessment was independently carried out by two laboratories, the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) and French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN). The laboratories used different equipments and protocols to estimate doses in the same fingernail samples. NDC used an X-band transportable EPR spectrometer, e-scan produced by Bruker BioSpin, and a universal dose calibration curve. In contrast, IRSN used a more sensitive Q-band stationary spectrometer (EMXplus) with a new approach for the dose assessment (dose saturation method), derived by additional dose irradiation to known doses. The protocol used by NDC is significantly faster than that used by IRSN, nondestructive, and could be done in field conditions, but it is probably less accurate and requires more sample for the measurements. The IRSN protocol, on the other hand, potentially is more accurate and requires very small amount of sample but requires more time and labor. In both EPR laboratories, the intense radiation-induced signal was measured in the accidentally irradiated fingernails and the resulting dose assessments were different. The dose on the fingernails from the right thumb was estimated as 14 ± 3 Gy at NDC and as 19 ± 6 Gy at IRSN. Both EPR dose assessments are given in terms of tissue kerma. This paper discusses the experience gained by using EPR for dose assessment in fingernails with a stationary spectrometer versus a portable one, the reasons for the observed discrepancies in dose, and potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach for EPR measurements in fingernails.

  8. Steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analyses of the Savannah River new production reactor representative design

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Analysis of fission product revaporization in a BWR reactor cooling system during a station blackout accident

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.W.; Schmidt, E.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of fission product revaporization in the Reactor Cooling System (RCS) after the vessel failure. The station blackout transient for BWR Mark I Power Plant is considered. The TRAPMELT3 models of evaporization, chemisorption, and the decay heating of RCS structures and gases are adopted in the analysis. The RCS flow models based on the density-difference between the RCS and containment pedestal region are developed to estimate the RCS outflow which carries the revaporized fission product to the containment. A computer code called REVAP is developed for the analysis. The REVAP is incorporated with the MARCH, TRAPMELT3 and NAUA codes of the Source Term Code Pack Package (STCP). The NAUA code is used to estimate the impact of revaporization on environmental release. The results show that the thermal-hydraulic conditions between the RCS and the pedestal region are important factors determining the magnitude of revaporization and subsequent release of the volatile fission product. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. "Murder-suicide" or "murder-accident"? Difficulties with the analysis of cases.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Veldhoen, David; Kobus, Hilton; Heath, Karen

    2010-09-01

    Homicide where a perpetrator is found dead adjacent to the victim usually represents murder-suicide. Two incidents are reported to demonstrate characteristic features in one, and alternative features in the other, that indicate differences in the manner of death. (i) A 37-year-old mother was found dead in a burnt out house with her two young sons in an adjacent bedroom. Deaths were due to incineration and inhalation of products of combustion. (ii) A 39-year-old woman was found stabbed to death in a burnt out house with her 39-year-old de facto partner deceased from the combined effects of incineration and inhalation of products of combustion. The first incident represented a typical murder-suicide, however, in the second incident, the perpetrator had tried to escape through a window and had then sought refuge in a bathroom under a running shower. Murder-accident rather than murder-suicide may therefore be a more accurate designation for such cases.

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S. . School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. [Diagnostic analysis of the rehabilitation services that attend victims of accidents and violence in Recife].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Lima, Maria Luiza Lopes Timóteo; Barreira, Alice Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the rehabilitation services in Recife, Brazil, confronting it with what the National Policy for Decreasing Morbimortality from Accidents and Violence (NPDMAV) professes. Six units of rehabilitation services were analyzed; five were from municipal administration and the other was an ONG on an agreement with SUS. A partial structured interview was conducted with the person in charge for the Attention to the Disable Person's Health aiming to map the network. Also a questionnaire was applied to the managers of the six services aiming to identify the unit and its activities, structure and organization. The Rehabilitation Assistance network in Recife do not meet the NPDMAV guidelines as it presents: decreased number of services/programs; lack of a multidisciplinary team; lack of technological support; deficient joint intra and inter sectors; little interaction between the victim and his family to reinsertion into family and social life; and still incipient prevention and promotion actions. In conclusion, there is an effort to adequate the actions to this population group; however there are relevant covering deficits of people, equipments, information and articulation registers among the various levels of this health network. PMID:19851594

  13. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  14. Consideration on the Long Ecological Half-Life Component of (137)Cs in Demersal Fish Based on Field Observation Results Obtained after the Fukushima Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-02-16

    Radiocesium concentrations in most marine fish collected off the coast of Fukushima and surrounding prefectures have decreased with time, and four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred, radiocesium concentrations have generally fallen below the detectable level (ca. < 10 Bq kg(-1)-raw). Only in some demersal fish species have detectable concentration levels still been found, and even these species have showed slow radiocesium decreases. The food web was considered as the major factor causing this phenomenon; however, slow elimination rates of radiocesium from these fish species also could be the cause. The latter effect was examined by considering that the (137)Cs concentration decreasing trend in fish could be fit with a set of three exponentially decreasing components; that is, having short, intermediate, and long biological half-lives. The long ecological half-life component was calculated using a 400-1500 d period of monitoring results for Japanese rockfish (Sebastes cheni) and compared with previous reported laboratory results for biological half-life. The obtained ecological half-lives ranged from 274-365 d, and these values agreed with the biological half-life of this fish species. This result implied that the long biological half-lives of radiocesium in some demersal fish species made their radiocesium contamination periods longer.

  15. Consideration on the Long Ecological Half-Life Component of (137)Cs in Demersal Fish Based on Field Observation Results Obtained after the Fukushima Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-02-16

    Radiocesium concentrations in most marine fish collected off the coast of Fukushima and surrounding prefectures have decreased with time, and four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred, radiocesium concentrations have generally fallen below the detectable level (ca. < 10 Bq kg(-1)-raw). Only in some demersal fish species have detectable concentration levels still been found, and even these species have showed slow radiocesium decreases. The food web was considered as the major factor causing this phenomenon; however, slow elimination rates of radiocesium from these fish species also could be the cause. The latter effect was examined by considering that the (137)Cs concentration decreasing trend in fish could be fit with a set of three exponentially decreasing components; that is, having short, intermediate, and long biological half-lives. The long ecological half-life component was calculated using a 400-1500 d period of monitoring results for Japanese rockfish (Sebastes cheni) and compared with previous reported laboratory results for biological half-life. The obtained ecological half-lives ranged from 274-365 d, and these values agreed with the biological half-life of this fish species. This result implied that the long biological half-lives of radiocesium in some demersal fish species made their radiocesium contamination periods longer. PMID:26828695

  16. FIFE: Analysis and results - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.; Markham, B.; Wang, J.; Strebel, D. E.; Macpherson, I.; Kelly, R. D.; Verma, S.; Blad, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the first results of the data analysis carried out for the First International Satellite Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) conducted over a 15 x 15 km grasslands study area in the central United States. Preliminary results show that the energy and mass flux data collected at several diurnal cycles during different parts of the growing season are of high quality. It was found that the canopy radiometric brightness temperature measured in the 10.4-12.3 microns is linearly related to seasonal variations in canopy aerodynamic temperature, and, thus, may provide a useful measure of sensible heat flux from the surface. Airborne monitoring of the mass and heat flux in the atmospheric boundary layer were found to be adequate for studies of the energy and mass budgets above the test site.

  17. CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Colombo, O. L.; Ray, Richard D.; Thompson, B.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, Teresa A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) to be launched in the later part of '01) that combine a new generation of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a high precision three axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and SLR tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the surface forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies. Gravity field modeling status and plans will be discussed.

  18. Generalized results of individualized exposure doses reconstruction for the subjects of Ukrainian State Register of persons, affected due to Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B; Tereshchenko, S A; Kravchenko, I G; Kortushin, G I; Marcenjyk, O D; Gubina, I G

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the department of dosimetry of NRCRM has been working for to supply the Ukrainian State Register (SRU) of persons affected due to Chernobyl accident by exposure doses estimations. As of now, the individualization of doses has been performed for nine raions located in Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Rivne and Chernihiv oblasts. The structure of raion-specific models used for the reconstruction of individualized doses was described in detail in the previous 19-th issue of this journal (2014). The choice conditions for persons from the SRU using which for each raion there was formed a contingent of persons for whom the dose could be reconstructed. During the period of 2007-2015, the individualized dose was reconstructed for 244226 persons in 9 raions, representing ~ 58% of all registered in the SRU inhabitants of the raions. The calculation results were transferred to the SRU in formats adapted to the common database structure of the SRU. For each person who satisfied the conditions of selection there were estimated: (1) possible absorbed internal exposure dose of the thyroid by radioiodine in 1986 (assuming that the person in 1986 lived in the same village and was enlisted in the SRU); (2) annual doses of external, internal and total exposure of the whole body for a period of observation in the SRU; (3) total exposure dose of whole body accumulated during the period of observation in the SRU; (4) the total cumulative dose of feasible exposure during the period since 1986 till the decision to be registered in the SRU. There are presented the generalized results of the SRU subjects distribution for different raions in dependence on intervals of doses accumulated at different periods after the accident. The raion matrix tables show the dynamics of accumulation of doses by the SRU subjects both for their stay on the account and for the period of their possible residence registration in the settlement since 1986. The directions for further research to be implemented for

  19. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  20. [Comparative analysis of the combined treatment efficacy of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Habulavichene, Zh M

    2012-12-01

    It was shown the results of comparative evaluation of combined treatment in 111 clean-up workers of Chernobyl accident with essential hypertension (EH). This treatment consist of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers in combination with calcium channel blockers and diuretics. The follow-up period lasted 12 months. It was found that combined therapy provides comparable and reliable blood pressure (BP) control during 24-hour, significant reduction of average daily BP, daytime and nighttime BP, an index of time of the BP, BP variability. Despite on achieved target blood pressure level, 4 weeks treatment is not enough for regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Significant regress of LVH was found if treatment lasted during a year under the condition that BP remained at the target level. It was revealed the advantage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers intake combined with a diuretic on regress of left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction.

  1. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  2. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  3. Gap analysis: Concepts, methods, and recent results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units - from general categories such as 'Forests' or 'Cold-Deciduous Shrubland Formation' to more categories such as 'Picea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliance' - in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The GAP experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  4. Recent ADI iteration analysis and results

    SciTech Connect

    Wachspress, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    Some recent ADI iteration analysis and results are discussed. Discovery that the Lyapunov and Sylvester matrix equations are model ADI problems stimulated much research on ADI iteration with complex spectra. The ADI rational Chebyshev analysis parallels the classical linear Chebyshev theory. Two distinct approaches have been applied to these problems. First, parameters which were optimal for real spectra were shown to be nearly optimal for certain families of complex spectra. In the linear case these were spectra bounded by ellipses in the complex plane. In the ADI rational case these were spectra bounded by {open_quotes}elliptic-function regions{close_quotes}. The logarithms of the latter appear like ellipses, and the logarithms of the optimal ADI parameters for these regions are similar to the optimal parameters for linear Chebyshev approximation over superimposed ellipses. W.B. Jordan`s bilinear transformation of real variables to reduce the two-variable problem to one variable was generalized into the complex plane. This was needed for ADI iterative solution of the Sylvester equation.

  5. Geothermal industry employment: Survey results & analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is ofteh asked about the socioeconomic and employment impact of the industry. Since available literature dealing with employment involved in the geothermal sector appeared relatively outdated, unduly focused on certain activities of the industry (e.g. operation and maintenance of geothermal power plants) or poorly reliable, GEA, in consultation with the DOE, decided to conduct a new employment survey to provide better answers to these questions. The main objective of this survey is to assess and characterize the current workforce involved in geothermal activities in the US. Several initiatives have therefore been undertaken to reach as many organizations involved in geothermal activities as possible and assess their current workforce. The first section of this document describes the methodology used to contact the companies involved in the geothermal sector. The second section presents the survey results and analyzes them. This analysis includes two major parts. The first part analyzes the survey responses, presents employment numbers that were captured and describes the major characteristics of the industry that have been identified. The second part of the analysis estimates the number of workers involved in companies that are active in the geothermal business but did not respond to the survey or could not be reached. Preliminary conclusions and the study limits and restrictions are then presented. The third section addresses the potential employment impact related to manufacturing and construction of new geothermal power facilities. Indirect and induced economic impacts related with such investment are also investigated.

  6. Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

    1996-01-01

    Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where users…

  7. Accident profile of older people in Antalya City Center, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Levent; Gokkoca, Zuhal

    2003-01-01

    Accidents are major health problems leading to deaths and injuries among older people. The present study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the accidents experienced within the last 1 year in people aged 60 years and older living in Antalya City Center. The study was planned as a cross-sectional research. A total of 840 individuals selected from the study population with cluster-sampling method were used in questionnaires. A number of 163 (19.4%) individuals had at least one accident in the last year. A total of 178 accidents were reported within the last 1-year; 124 (69.7%) falls, 22 (12.4%) traffic accidents and 12 (6.7%) dropping of objects to head. The accidents occurred mostly at home (40.4%), at avenue-street etc. (31.5%), and in garden (8.4%). The result of logistic regression analysis revealed that accident frequency was positively related with female gender (odds=1.79, P<0.05), disability of lower extremities (odds=1.63, P<0.05) and hearing impairment (odds=2.01, P<0.05) whereas it was negatively related with living in detached house (odds=0.41, P<0.05). It was found that accidents caused health (82.0%) and financial (38.2%) problems in elderly and also the disabilities in daily activities (66.3%). Average numbers of days with disability in daily activities were 21.1 in 1 year per accident and 5.7 in 1 year per individual. Occurrence of health problems and disability in daily activities were more frequent among women compared to men (P<0.05). Methods like environmental measures or educational programs to prevent accidents and accident-related injuries must be focused on defined risk groups and places where the accidents occur more frequently. Future researches about the effectiveness of prevention in elderly on accident frequency, mortality and morbidity are needed to deal with this current problem. PMID:12888223

  8. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  9. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  10. Epidemiology of Accidents in Tile Factories of Mangalore City in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Rathnakar, UP; Harsha Kumar, HN

    2010-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents are a major point of concern in industries. The academic community should take the first step to address the long-neglected concerns of occupational safety. Objective: To assess the prevalence and pattern of occupational accidents. Materials and Methods: A record-based, cross-sectional study was done in three tile factories of Mangalore city, in Karnataka. A total of 416 workers were analyzed for the year 2004, and data regarding age, sex, job duration, type and nature of injury, body parts involved, and time of injury were collected in a prestructured proforma. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, Univariate and Multivariate analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of accidents was found to be 18.5%. It was found that almost around 86% of the accidents had affected the limbs (upper limb 24.7%, lower limb 61%), around half (52%) of the injuries were contributed by superficial injuries, 40% of accidents were due to stepping/striking against objects and while handling. Hand tools and machinery in motion contributed to around 20% of the accidents. Accidents were more common among the younger age group and less-experienced workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the age group of 30-39 years had an independent significant association with accidents (OR = 0.21, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Accidents in tile industries are an important occupational health problem in this area of the country. There is a need for proper safety training of the workers. PMID:20606926

  11. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  12. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  13. Airway accidents in critical care unit: A 3-year retrospective study in a Public Teaching Hospital of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sugata; Singh, Shipti Shradha; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Bhattacharya, Dipasri; Choudhury, Sourav Das

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although tracheal tubes are essential devices to control and protect airway in a critical care unit (CCU), they are not free from complications. Aims: To document the incidence and nature of airway accidents in the CCU of a government teaching hospital in Eastern India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all airway accidents in a 5-bedded (medical and surgical) CCU. The number, types, timing, and severity of airway accidents were analyzed. Results: The total accident rate was 19 in 233 intubated and/or tracheostomized patients over 1657 tube days (TDs) during 3 years. Fourteen occurred in 232 endotracheally intubated patients over 1075 endotracheal tube (ETT) days, and five occurred in 44 tracheostomized patients over 580 tracheostomy TDs. Fifteen accidents were due to blocked tubes. Rest four were unplanned extubations (UEs), all being accidental extubations. All blockages occurred during night shifts and all UEs during day shifts. Five accidents were mild, the rest moderate. No major accident led to cardiorespiratory arrest or death. All blockages occurred after 7th day of intubation. The outcome of accidents were more favorable in tracheostomy group compared to ETT group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of airway accidents was 8.2 accidents per 100 patients. Blockages were the most common accidents followed by UEs. Ten out of the 15 blockages and all 4 UEs were in endotracheally intubated patients. Tracheostomized patients had 5 blockages and no UEs. PMID:27076709

  14. Safety and Response-Time Analysis of an Automotive Accident Assistance Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argent-Katwala, Ashok; Clark, Allan; Foster, Howard; Gilmore, Stephen; Mayer, Philip; Tribastone, Mirco

    In the present paper we assess both the safety properties and the response-time profile of a subscription service which provides medical assistance to drivers who are injured in vehicular collisions. We use both timed and untimed process calculi cooperatively to perform the required analysis. The formal analysis tools used are hosted on a high-level modelling platform with support for scripting and orchestration which enables users to build custom analysis processes from the general-purpose analysers which are hosted as services on the platform.

  15. USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

  16. [Accidents and their health effects in firemen of rescue and firefighting teams].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Sobala, W

    2000-01-01

    Accidents, traumas and poisoning are the most frequent causes of health impairments among firemen, determined by the nature of their occupation. Their work is directly related with the exposure to various harmful chemical and physical factors, involving at the same time mental stress during rescue and firefighting actions. The aim of the analysis performed was to determine the accident rate, range and causes of accident-related absenteeism among firemen of the rescue and firefighting brigades, as well as to indicate major traumas resulting from accidents at work. The study was carried out in a group of 1503 firemen (7% of the total number of firemen in Poland) employed in the rescue and firefighting brigades, selected at random throughout the country. Workers' personal data, as well as the data on the number of accidents and the number of days of work disability during the years 1994-97 were analysed. Accidents and accident-related absenteeism by age, certified causes and sites (body parts) of traumas were also analysed using the following parameters: the accident rate (the number of accidents per 1000 workers), accident severity rate (the number of work disability days per one accident), and absenteeism rate (the number of accident-related work disability days per 100 employed). In the period under study (1994-97) 352 accidents, involving 301 persons were registered. Thus, the accident rate was 70.3. These accidents were responsible for the period of work disability three times higher (293.5 days/100 workers) than that observed in the male population employed in the national economy, and eight times higher (770.2 days/100 workers) in the 50-59 age group. Dislocations and distortions were the most frequent causes of accident-related absenteeism--48, whereas fractures occupied the second place--25%. Burns were classified among the most severe injuries, resulting in more than 90 days of absenteeism annually, but they made only 7% of absenteeism with frequency rate of

  17. Analysis of Sodium Fire in the Containment Building of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Under the Scenario of Core Disruptive Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.M.; Kasinathan, N.; Kannan, S.E.

    2006-07-01

    The potential for sodium release to reactor containment building from reactor assembly during Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) is an important safety issue with reference to the structural integrity of Reactor Containment Building (RCB). For Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), the estimated sodium release under a CDA of 100 MJ energy release is 350 kg. The ejected sodium reacts easily with air in RCB and causes temperature and pressure rise in the RCB. For estimating the severe thermal consequences in RCB, different modes of sodium fires like pool and spray fires were analyzed by using SOFIRE -- II and NACOM sodium fire computer codes. Effects of important parameters like amount of sodium, area of pool, containment air volume and oxygen concentration have been investigated. A peak pressure rise of 7.32 kPa is predicted by SOFIRE II code for 350 kg sodium pool fire in 86,000 m{sup 3} RCB volume. Under sodium release as spray followed by unburnt sodium as pool fire mode analysis, the estimated pressure rise is 5.85 kPa in the RCB. In the mode of instantaneous combustion of sodium, the estimated peak pressure rise is 13 kPa. (authors)

  18. Temporal uncertainty analysis of human errors based on interrelationships among multiple factors: a case of Minuteman III missile accident.

    PubMed

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin; Zhao, Tingdi

    2016-01-01

    In traditional approaches of human reliability assessment (HRA), the definition of the error producing conditions (EPCs) and the supporting guidance are such that some of the conditions (especially organizational or managerial conditions) can hardly be included, and thus the analysis is burdened with incomprehensiveness without reflecting the temporal trend of human reliability. A method based on system dynamics (SD), which highlights interrelationships among technical and organizational aspects that may contribute to human errors, is presented to facilitate quantitatively estimating the human error probability (HEP) and its related variables changing over time in a long period. Taking the Minuteman III missile accident in 2008 as a case, the proposed HRA method is applied to assess HEP during missile operations over 50 years by analyzing the interactions among the variables involved in human-related risks; also the critical factors are determined in terms of impact that the variables have on risks in different time periods. It is indicated that both technical and organizational aspects should be focused on to minimize human errors in a long run. PMID:26360211

  19. Temporal uncertainty analysis of human errors based on interrelationships among multiple factors: a case of Minuteman III missile accident.

    PubMed

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin; Zhao, Tingdi

    2016-01-01

    In traditional approaches of human reliability assessment (HRA), the definition of the error producing conditions (EPCs) and the supporting guidance are such that some of the conditions (especially organizational or managerial conditions) can hardly be included, and thus the analysis is burdened with incomprehensiveness without reflecting the temporal trend of human reliability. A method based on system dynamics (SD), which highlights interrelationships among technical and organizational aspects that may contribute to human errors, is presented to facilitate quantitatively estimating the human error probability (HEP) and its related variables changing over time in a long period. Taking the Minuteman III missile accident in 2008 as a case, the proposed HRA method is applied to assess HEP during missile operations over 50 years by analyzing the interactions among the variables involved in human-related risks; also the critical factors are determined in terms of impact that the variables have on risks in different time periods. It is indicated that both technical and organizational aspects should be focused on to minimize human errors in a long run.

  20. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  1. [All traffic related deaths are not "fatalities"--analysis of the official Swedish statistics of traffic accident fatalities in 1999].

    PubMed

    Ahlm, K; Eriksson, A; Lekander, T; Björnstig, U

    2001-04-25

    In 1997 the Swedish Parliament decided, in accordance with the so-called Vision Zero, that one official goal for the national traffic safety effort is that the number of traffic fatalities in the year 2007 must not exceed 270. In order to monitor efforts toward this hard-won goal, it is of course of utmost importance that official statistics on traffic deaths are reliable. In a meticulous analysis of all 580 officially registered traffic deaths in Sweden in 1999, we found that 490 were true accidental deaths, while 18 were suicides, 12 were deaths due to indeterminate causes, 59 were natural deaths and 1 case was not possible to evaluate due to missing data. Thus, only 84% of the officially registered "accidental traffic deaths" were bona fide accidents. In order to enhance the reliability of the official statistics, we suggest that regulations concerning police investigation and medicolegal autopsy of all unnatural deaths be adhered to all deaths reported to the Swedish National Road Administration should be checked in the database of autopsied cases in the National Board of Forensic Medicine in order to exclude natural deaths the time delay (1.5 years) to complete the official Cause-of-Death Register be shortened criteria for the classification of manner of death in "borderline" cases be suggested for international acceptance.

  2. Preliminary Accident Analysis for Construction and Operation of the Chornobyl New Safety Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Rubezhansky, Yruiy; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.; Timmins, Douglas C.

    2005-08-08

    Analysis of potential exposure of personal and population during construction and exploitation of the New Safe Confinement was made. Scenarios of hazard event development were ranked. It is shown, that as a whole construction and exploitation of the NSC are in accordance with actual radiation safety norms of Ukraine.

  3. Shipboard determination of radiocesium in seawater after the Fukushima accident: results from the 2011-2012 Russian expeditions to the Sea of Japan and western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Nikitin, A; Sevastyanov, A; Artemiev, G; Bruk, G; Ivanov, S

    2014-09-01

    waters had decreased for all seven stations repeatedly sampled in the study. A detailed observation of radiocesium distribution within the water column down to the depth of 200 m at nine stations from the Kuroshio-Oyashio Interfrontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension in 2012 revealed maximal activity concentrations of both cesium radionuclides in the 100-200 m depth layer. The average inventory of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in the top 200 m of the water column for the nine stations was estimated as 1.19 kBq m(-2) (decay corrected to 15 March 2011) which is 4.6 times higher than the background value of 0.26 kBq m(-2) expected for this depth. The monitoring results obtained in the study and relevant data published by others show that following the Fukushima accident, the Oyashio current acts as a provider of low-contaminated subarctic waters to the heavily contaminated Kuroshio-Oyashio mixed water region.

  4. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  5. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  6. Needs and fears of young people presenting at accident and emergency department following an act of self-harm: secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christabel; Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Presentation at an accident and emergency (A&E) department is a key opportunity to engage with a young person who self-harms. The needs of this vulnerable group and their fears about presenting to healthcare services, including A&E, are poorly understood. Aims To examine young people's perceptions of A&E treatment following self-harm and their views on what constitutes a positive clinical encounter. Method Secondary analysis of qualitative data from an experimental online discussion forum. Threads selected for secondary analysis represent the views of 31 young people aged 16–25 with experience of self-harm. Results Participants reported avoiding A&E whenever possible, based on their own and others' previous poor experiences. When forced to seek emergency care, they did so with feelings of shame and unworthiness. These feelings were reinforced when they received what they perceived as punitive treatment from A&E staff, perpetuating a cycle of shame, avoidance and further self-harm. Positive encounters were those in which they received ‘treatment as usual’, i.e. non-discriminatory care, delivered with kindness, which had the potential to challenge negative self-evaluation and break the cycle. Conclusions The clinical needs of young people who self-harm continue to demand urgent attention. Further hypothesis testing and trials of different models of care delivery for this vulnerable group are warranted. PMID:26450583

  7. A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

  8. [Some features of immunological status in young peoples irradiated in utero or in age up to 4 years as result of Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Pal'okha, E A; Saenko, A S; Lekakh, I V; Leonova, O

    2010-01-01

    Some characteristics of immune system, namely quantities of serum immunoglobulins A, G, M and activity of free and hidden autoantibodies to DNA, cardiolipin and microsomal thyroid antigen were studied in young people irradiated in utero or in age up to 4 years through Chernobyl accident. The hallmarker of observed immunological changes is low content of immunoglobulin A. Degree of reduction was in back proportion with level 137Cs contamination inhabit territory. A lowering of the content of IgA in persons irradiated in utero depends on period of pregnancy at a moment of the accident: the most reduction was observed in young people irradiated in the first trimester of gestation. It was shown elevation of activity autoantibodies to cardiolipin. Both deficit of IgA and elevation activity the autoantibodies were observed only in proportion of young people irradiated in utero or in early period of life.

  9. A probabilistic analysis of a catastrophic transuranic waste hoist accident at the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M.A. |; Sargent, T.J. |

    1993-06-01

    This report builds upon the extensive and careful analyses made by the DOE of the probability of failure of the waste hoist, and more particularly on the probability of failure of a major component, the hydraulic brake system. The extensive fault tree analysis prepared by the DOE was the starting point of the present report. A key element of this work is the use of probability distributions rather than so-called point estimates to describe the probability of failure of an element. One of the authors (MAG) developed the expressions for the probability of failure of the brake system. The second author (TJS) executed the calculations of the final expressions for failure probabilities. The authors hope that this work will be of use to the DOE in its evaluation of the safety of the waste hoist, a key element at the WIPP.

  10. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544

  11. [Skateboard and rollerskate accidents].

    PubMed

    Lohmann, M; Petersen, A O; Pedersen, O D

    1990-05-28

    The increasing popularity of skateboards and rollerskates has resulted in an increased number of contacts with the casualty department in Denmark after accidents. As part of the Danish share in the EHLASS project (European Home and Leisure Surveillance System), 120,000 consecutive contacts with the casualty departments were reviewed. Out of these 516 were due to accidents with skateboards and rollerskates (181/335). A total of 194 of these injuries (38%) were fractures and 80% of these were in the upper limbs. Twenty fractures required reposition under general anaesthesia and two required osteosynthesis. Nine patients were admitted for observation for concussion. One patient had sustained rupture of the spleen and splenectomy was necessary. A total of 44 patients were admitted. None of the 516 patients had employed protective equipment on the injured region. Considerable reduction in the number of injuries could probably be produced by employment of suitable protective equipment.

  12. Fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report: construction worker dies as a result of spraying coating material in confined space in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    A fatal accident circumstances and epidemiology (FACE) report describing a confined space accident in California was presented. The report was part of the NIOSH FACE project to collect data on electricity or confined space/related accidents involving fatalities. The victim and a coworker were exposed to 2-nitropropane and coal-tar-pitch vapors while painting the valves and steel flanges in a 72-inch underground water line with an epoxy coating on July 1, 1985. They were admitted to a hospital after complaining of nausea, headache, and vomiting. They were discharged on July 2. The victim was readmitted on July 6. He lapsed into a coma and died on July 12 of acute liver failure. The coworker was advised by the attending physician not to return to work because of fluctuations in his liver enzyme counts. Despite warnings on the cans not to use the resin in confined, unventilated spaces, a blower provided for ventilation was not used. Since both workers did not speak English well, it is possible they did not understand the warning labels. Recommendations include ensuring that employees are aware of the hazards associated with the materials they are using and enforcing existing safety policies.

  13. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  14. Emulation and Sobol' sensitivity analysis of an atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Mallet, Vivien; Korsakissok, Irène; Mathieu, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Simulations of the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides involve large uncertainties originating from the limited knowledge of meteorological input data, composition, amount and timing of emissions, and some model parameters. The estimation of these uncertainties is an essential complement to modeling for decision making in case of an accidental release. We have studied the relative influence of a set of uncertain inputs on several outputs from the Eulerian model Polyphemus/Polair3D on the Fukushima case. We chose to use the variance-based sensitivity analysis method of Sobol'. This method requires a large number of model evaluations which was not achievable directly due to the high computational cost of Polyphemus/Polair3D. To circumvent this issue, we built a mathematical approximation of the model using Gaussian process emulation. We observed that aggregated outputs are mainly driven by the amount of emitted radionuclides, while local outputs are mostly sensitive to wind perturbations. The release height is notably influential, but only in the vicinity of the source. Finally, averaging either spatially or temporally tends to cancel out interactions between uncertain inputs.

  15. PF-4 simulated fire accident analysis: Filter-spray cool-down system reevaluation implications

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory PF-4 facility was designed with spray cool down systems within the building's ventilation systems. The Engineering and Safety Analysis Group was asked, in cooperation with ENG-8 and MST-8, to evaluate whether the spray cool-down system still need to be classified as safety class'' systems. The study was performed using the FIRAC computer code. Given the fire source terms (hypothetical fire energy or time-temperature history), FIRAC can predict the pertinent transient flow parameters (pressures, flows, and temperatures) throughout a previously defined and selected fire zone. A computer model for the study that had all of the main ventilation systems in the south half of the PF-4 facility was used. Because the most hazardous room is located in the 400 Section, all ventilation systems but the 400 Section's one were simplified. The impetus for simplification was to keep the computer model tractable, and this was possible with the following assumptions: the fire cannot spread from one room to another, all corridor connecting doors are closed and will not fail under the pressures generated by the fire, and the principal pathway for potential release is the ventilation system. All of the blowers continue to operate, and all fire retardant systems fail to operate during the fire. The ASTM time-temperature curve was the source for the burn-room temperature, and smoke injection was used as input as well. Five different computer runs were made using different combinations of source terms and heat transfer. A connection from the burn room to the glovebox ventilation system was created by burning the glovebox plastic shielding; it was modeled by a branch having an initial flow 75 ft{sup 3}/min. 7 refs., 35 refs., 15 tabs.

  16. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  17. Two-dimensional dynamic analysis of a BWR rod-drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.; Carew, J.

    1982-09-01

    BNL-TWIGL has enabled us to determine the dependence of the CRDA peak power and fuel enthalpy on the core inlet subcooling and rod drop speed. The results show that the peak power and fuel enthalpy increases rapidly with inlet subcooling up to a subcooling of approx. 20/sup 0/F and become relatively insensitive at higher subcoolings. Furthermore, as the rod drop speed is increased, the calculations show that the peak fuel enthalpy increases by less than or equal to 30%. It must be pointed out that in all cases studied the peak fuel enthalpy was found to be well below the 280 cal/gm criterion.

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.; Darby, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  19. Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Maria

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type. PMID:19664441

  20. Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Maria

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type.

  1. Code portability and data management considerations in the SAS3D LMFBR accident-analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SAS3D code was produced from a predecessor in order to reduce or eliminate interrelated problems in the areas of code portability, the large size of the code, inflexibility in the use of memory and the size of cases that can be run, code maintenance, and running speed. Many conventional solutions, such as variable dimensioning, disk storage, virtual memory, and existing code-maintenance utilities were not feasible or did not help in this case. A new data management scheme was developed, coding standards and procedures were adopted, special machine-dependent routines were written, and a portable source code processing code was written. The resulting code is quite portable, quite flexible in the use of memory and the size of cases that can be run, much easier to maintain, and faster running. SAS3D is still a large, long running code that only runs well if sufficient main memory is available.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events during mid-loop operations

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1) and the other at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf). Both the Brookhaven and Sandia projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults--so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Surry Unit 1. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human error rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Surry have been adopted here, so that the results of the two studies can be as comparable as possible. Both the Brookhaven study and this study examine only two shutdown plant operating states (POSs) during refueling outages at Surry, called POS 6 and POS 10, which represent mid-loop operation before and after refueling, respectively. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POSs 6 and 10. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency of earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 6 and POS 10 is found to be low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}6}/year.

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  4. Accident data study of concrete construction companies' similarities and differences between qualified and non-qualified workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss findings from an analysis of accidents in concrete construction companies in Spain and to compare the accident rates of qualified and non-qualified workers. A total of 125,021 accidents between 2003 and 2008 involving both blue-collar and white-collar workers were analysed, comparing the variables of occupation, age, company staff, length of service, location of the accident, together with the severity of the accidents. Results showed that lack of experience in the first month is more significant in non-qualified workers and experienced supervisors and that head injuries are more likely to lead to fatalities. The most remarkable similarity was that fatal accidents to and from the worksite are a problem common to both groups of workers.

  5. RTPP Analysis Results: Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrotis, Loukis; Alfaro Sanz, Pedro; Svehla, Drazen; Dow, John; Zandbergen, Rene

    2010-05-01

    One of the key objectives of the IGS Real Time Pilot Project is the establishment of an experimental IGS Real Time Clock Service comprising individual Analysis Centre (AC) solutions and the investigation of strategies for generating a Real Time combination product. The latter is intended to provide a stable, reliable and high quality GNSS product. Currently there are 4 ACs (BKG, DLR, ESA and NRCan) generating individual real time products, and a fifth (GMV) that is producing a product based on one-hour predictions. This paper will cover the evolution in the accuracies of the individual solutions and will show the impact that the participation in the RTPP has had on the ACs, serving not only as an external benchmark, but also as a discussion forum that has prompted their continued evolution and improvement. In its role as RTPP AC coordinator, ESOC has been computing and disseminating a daily combination clock product since July 2008, based on daily submissions of clock RINEX and SP3 orbit files by the individual ACs. This exercise has helped to develop and validate the combination techniques and the RTPP products are stored at the CDDIS, IGN and KASI data centres with the designation "igt". The current satellite clock quality, of better than 0.2 ns RMS compared to the IGS rapids, comfortably exceeds the initial RTPP goal of 0.5 ns and gives a high confidence on the implemented method. ESOC is currently working on the implementation of a Real Time combination product, from RTCM orbit and clock streams received in real time via BKG's NTRIP system. This service is expected to be ready in the March-April timeframe and be operational by mid 2010. As well as discussing the status and evolution of the Real Time products, this paper will also focus on specific problems and challenges in the Real Time processing. For example, it has been found that GPS Block IIA satellites exhibit occasional glitches, where most receivers loose lock simultaneously. These events cause clock

  6. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  7. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    PubMed

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector.

  8. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    PubMed

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector. PMID:26200368

  9. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  10. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  11. Computer-assisted comparison of analysis and test results in transportation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.D.; Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    As a part of its ongoing research efforts, Sandia National Laboratories` Transportation Surety Center investigates the integrity of various containment methods for hazardous materials transport, subject to anomalous structural and thermal events such as free-fall impacts, collisions, and fires in both open and confined areas. Since it is not possible to conduct field experiments for every set of possible conditions under which an actual transportation accident might occur, accurate modeling methods must be developed which will yield reliable simulations of the effects of accident events under various scenarios. This requires computer software which is capable of assimilating and processing data from experiments performed as benchmarks, as well as data obtained from numerical models that simulate the experiment. Software tools which can present all of these results in a meaningful and useful way to the analyst are a critical aspect of this process. The purpose of this work is to provide software resources on a long term basis, and to ensure that the data visualization capabilities of the Center keep pace with advancing technology. This will provide leverage for its modeling and analysis abilities in a rapidly evolving hardware/software environment.

  12. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  13. Distribution of Causes in Selected US Aviation Accident Reports Between 1996 and 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an independent analysis of the probable and contributory causes of selected aviation accidents in the United States between 1996 and 2003. The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a variety of causal factors in the reporting of these adverse events. Although our results show that more of these high consequence accidents were attributed to human error than to any other single factor, a large number of reports also mentioned wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of aviation operations. These wider issues are more likely to appear as contributory rather than primary causes in this set of accident reports.

  14. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  15. Risk Estimation Methodology for Launch Accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.

    2014-02-01

    As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.

  16. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  17. Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Horacio, III

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

  18. Identification of severe accident uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, J.B.; Behr, V.L.; Easterling, R.G.; Griesmeyer, J.M.; Haskin, F.E.; Hatch, S.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lipinski, R.J.; Sherman, M.P.; Taig, A.R.

    1984-09-01

    Understanding of severe accidents in light-water reactors is currently beset with uncertainty. Because the uncertainties that are present limit the capability to analyze the progression and possible consequences of such accidents, they restrict the technical basis for regulatory actions by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is thus necessary to attempt to identify the sources and quantify the influence of these uncertainties. As a part of ongoing NRC severe-accident programs at Sandia National Laboratories, a working group was formed to pool relevant knowledge and experience in assessing the uncertainties attending present (1983) knowledge of severe accidents. This initial report of the Severe Accident Uncertainty Analysis (SAUNA) working group has as its main goal the identification of a consolidated list of uncertainties that affect in-plant processes and systems. Many uncertainties have been identified. A set of key uncertainties summarizes many of the identified uncertainties. Quantification of the influence of these uncertainties, a necessary second step, is not attempted in the present report, although attempts are made qualitatively to demonstrate the relevance of the identified uncertainties.

  19. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  20. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  1. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking.

  2. Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

  3. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  4. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and the risk of injury or death as a result of a road-traffic accident: A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A; Shiferaw, Brook; Stough, Con

    2016-06-01

    Amphetamine-type substances are frequently detected among drivers injured or killed due to road-trauma. However, the role of this substance in crash causation remains equivocal. We performed a systematic review to evaluate existing evidence regarding the association between amphetamine use and the risk of injury or death due to road traffic accidents. A bibliographical search of PubMed, SafetyLit, Scopus, and Science Direct literature databases from 01 January 1980 until May 2015 was performed. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottowa Scale (NOS) (cut-off of ≥7 indicated high quality). Inter-rater reliability between three independent reviewers for the NOS was calculated using Cohens kappa (κ) statistic, and best-evidence synthesis was performed. A total of 182 articles were found. Nine studies met eligibility criteria for inclusion for review, and seven studies were included for best-evidence synthesis. Best-evidence synthesis demonstrated a conflicting level of evidence for associations between the use of-amphetamine-type substances and the risk of sustaining an injury, and a moderate level of evidence between amphetamine use and the risk of death due to road trauma. This is the first review to synthesise evidence regarding the association between amphetamine-type substance use and the risk of injury or death due to a road traffic accident. More conclusive evidence of death due to road trauma among amphetamine users may reflect significant and global deficits in functioning associated with effective vehicular control under the influence of this substance. Additional high quality, sufficiently powered studies are required to elucidate the magnitude of these associations. PMID:27006144

  5. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Convergence of the Uncertainty Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Mattie, Patrick D.; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the convergence of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) probabilistic results of offsite consequences for the uncertainty analysis of the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The consequence metrics evaluated are individual latent-cancer fatality (LCF) risk and individual early fatality risk. Consequence results are presented as conditional risk (i.e., assuming the accident occurs, risk per event) to individuals of the public as a result of the accident. In order to verify convergence for this uncertainty analysis, as recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a ‘high’ source term from the original population of Monte Carlo runs has been selected to be used for: (1) a study of the distribution of consequence results stemming solely from epistemic uncertainty in the MACCS2 parameters (i.e., separating the effect from the source term uncertainty), and (2) a comparison between Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) in order to validate the original results obtained with LHS. Three replicates (each using a different random seed) of size 1,000 each using LHS and another set of three replicates of size 1,000 using SRS are analyzed. The results show that the LCF risk results are well converged with either LHS or SRS sampling. The early fatality risk results are less well converged at radial distances beyond 2 miles, and this is expected due to the sparse data (predominance of “zero” results).

  6. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  7. Scalable analysis tools for sensitivity analysis and UQ (3160) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Fabian, Nathan; Scott, W. Alan; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2009-09-01

    The 9/30/2009 ASC Level 2 Scalable Analysis Tools for Sensitivity Analysis and UQ (Milestone 3160) contains feature recognition capability required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks focused around sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ). These feature recognition capabilities include crater detection, characterization, and analysis from CTH simulation data; the ability to call fragment and crater identification code from within a CTH simulation; and the ability to output fragments in a geometric format that includes data values over the fragments. The feature recognition capabilities were tested extensively on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including the ability to visualize CTH tracer particles and the ability to visualize output from within an S3D simulation.

  8. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  9. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  10. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  11. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  12. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  13. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences...

  14. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences...

  15. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences...

  16. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences...

  17. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences...

  18. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, R.; Snell, V.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the source term and to evaluate the maximum hypothetical individual doses in European countries (including the Soviet Union) from the Chernobyl accident through the analyses of measurements of meteorological data, radiation fields, and airborne and deposited activity in these countries. Applying this information to deduce the source term involves a reversal of the techniques of nuclear accident analysis, which estimate the off-site consequences of postulated accidents. In this study the authors predict the quantities of radionuclides that, if released at Chernobyl and following the calculated trajectories, would explain and unify the observed radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations as measured by European countries and the Soviet Union. The simulation uses the PEAR microcomputer program following the methodology described in Canadian Standards Association standard N288.2. The study was performed before the Soviets published their estimate of the source term and the two results are compared.

  19. Review the number of accidents in Tehran over a two-year period and prediction of the number of events based on a time-series model

    PubMed Central

    Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P < 0.05). Most of the accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405

  20. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.