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Sample records for accident emergency response

  1. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-02-10

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises.

  2. Updated tool for nuclear criticality accident emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Some 20 yr ago a hand-held slide rule was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to aid in the response to several postulated nuclear criticality accidents. These assumed accidents involved highly enriched uranium in either a bare metal or a uranyl nitrate system. The slide rule consisted of a sliding scale based on the total fission yield and four corresponding dose indicators: (1) a prompt radiation dose relationship as a function of distance; (2) a delayed fission product gamma dose rate relationship as a function of time and distance; (3) the total dose relationship with time and distance; and (4) the I-min integrated dose relationship with time and distance. The original slide rule was generated assuming very simplistic numerical procedures such as the inverse-square relationship of dose with distance and the Way-Wigner relationship to express the time dependence of the dose. The simple prescriptions were tied to actual dose measurements from similar systems to yield a meaningful, yet simple approach to emergency planning and response needs. This paper describes the application of an advanced procedure to the updating of the original slide rule for five critical systems. These five systems include (a) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranium metal, (b) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranyl nitrate solution with a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 500, (c) an unreflected sphere of damp 93.2 wt% enriched uranium oxide with a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 10, (d) an unreflected sphere of 4.95 wt% enriched uranyl fluoride solution having a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 410, and (e) an unreflected sphere of damp 5 wt% enriched uranium dioxide having a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 200.

  3. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses ``lessons learned`` from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  4. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  5. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  6. DOE Response to the Fukushima Accident: Advancing the Science of Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The US Department of Energy maintains specialized technical teams to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies. They apply well-established laboratory nuclear measurement techniques in field environments, conduct rapid analysis, and deliver data products to government leaders in support of real-time public safety decisions. Meeting these requirements, often in the face of incomplete and imperfect information, takes a great deal of training and practice to effectively translate science into operations. Since large-scale emergencies are rare, the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 provided an opportunity to employ these teams. Their timely support to both US and Japanese decision makers provides an excellent case study in the application of instrumentation, analysis methods, data presentation, and training to emergency response.

  7. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  8. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  9. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  10. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response. PMID:26897572

  11. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. PMID:26876459

  12. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  13. INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

  14. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  15. The Maurice Ellis lecture for 1986. The responsibility of emergency medicine towards the prevention of road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, W H

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that doctors who work in accident and emergency departments should play their part in road accident prevention. It is suggested that this might be done in the field of research, by direct action, through education of the public and by influencing legislation. Examples are given of both small and simple, and major national research projects based in accident and emergency departments. The type of direct action envisaged is modelled on the work of Dr Hayle Hadeson in preventing accidents to children. Examples of the education of the public are drawn from publicity work in the seat-belt campaign, and experiences of lobbying members of parliament in relation to seat-belt legislation are described. The relative under-funding of trauma research compared with cancer of heart disease research is seen as a measure of society's lack of interest in accident prevention, and colleagues unchallenged to do more to alter this situation. PMID:3768120

  16. 250 mSv: temporary increase in the emergency exposure dose limit in response to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident and its decision making process.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). In response to this accident, on March 14, 2011, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan enforced an ordinance that temporarily increased the radiation exposure dose limit allowed to 250 mSv during the emergency. This article explains the processes of a) temporarily increasing emergency dose limits, b) controlling for the combined emergency and normal exposure doses, and c) reducing the limit back to 100 mSv. Major issues addressed when deliberating the reduction of the emergency limits includes the following: a) political initiative, b) a phased reduction of dose limits, and c) transitional measures for workers who were exposed to more than 100 mSv. This article also identifies key challenges that need further deliberation to be resolved. These include: a) establishing a pre-defined protocol for applying pre-accident emergency dose limits and/or amending post-accident limits; b) designating the conditions in which to apply or amend emergency dose limits; c) selecting methods of radiation control for individuals who are exposed to more than the normal exposure dose limit during emergency work; and d) designating the conditions under which to terminate or reduce emergency dose limits after the accident. PMID:25436995

  17. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. S.; Cashwell, J. W.; Apple, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials.

  18. An analysis of the effectiveness of emergency locator transmitters to reduce response time and locate wreckage in U.S. general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesudoss, Ajit

    Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) help search crews to locate aircraft in distress and to rescue survivors. This study analyzed ELT data from U.S. General Aviation accidents during the period 2006 to 2010. This study examined the effectiveness of ELTs in terms of ELT Success Rate (ESR) and False Negative Rate (FNR) based on ELT-Aided. This study found a significant difference between ELT-Operated and ELT-Aided. The ESR was found to be 38.58% whereas the FNR was found to be 61.42 %. The Missing Data Ratio (MDR), where accident reports had no ELT information, was found to be above 95%. Recommendations were made to include ELT information in all accident reports and to stress the importance of including response time in the accident report. Also the significant differences between ELT-Operated and ELT-Aided were explained.

  19. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  20. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    PubMed

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial. PMID:15565421

  1. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field. PMID:19181661

  2. Staffing of accident and emergency departments.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, I P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine present staffing levels, to find out problems, and to request solutions. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent on two separate occasions to all major accident and emergency (A&E) departments in the United Kingdom. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There are marked variations in recruiting ability across the country. Presently teaching hospitals are having no major difficulty, but others are only able to obtain junior doctors from outside the United Kingdom. Public expectations and charter standards are difficult to maintain. There is evidence of increasing stress among career and senior A&E medical staff. There is an inexorable but slow increase in year on year workload. PMID:8947802

  3. [Emergency treatment in decompression accidents in shipyards].

    PubMed

    Comet, M

    1989-08-01

    The Comex company has underwater workplaces scattered over the whole world, which are therefore very often far away from a medical center equipped for the treatment of decompression sickness. However, the subsequent evolution of such an event depends mainly on how fast the first aid is given to the patient. Therefore, the scientific and medical departments of our company developed a medical handbook to be used by chiefs of working platforms. The text which has to be easily understandable, mentions: a cursory description of the clinical signs of the different decompression accidents the measures which have to be taken in each case, depending on: the moment of the emergency: after or during decompression, the presence of an insufficient decompression, or a "blow-up". The handbook contains several recompression tables, first aid treatment recommendations and drugs. It has to be stressed that these procedures are only emergency steps. They should be performed before the patient can be transferred to a medical center with expertise in the treatment of decompression accidents. PMID:2799360

  4. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY).

  5. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  6. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  7. Protective clothing for accident and emergency personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Steedman, D J

    1994-01-01

    There is a significant risk of clothing soilure and skin contamination from patients' blood or other body fluids whilst working in an accident and emergency (A&E) department. It is therefore unhygienic to wear personal clothing and traditional uniforms do not provide adequate protection. Contamination occurs despite operating 'universal precautions' and emergency presentations often preclude adopting such precautions despite the anticipation of possible contact with blood or other body fluids. The protection afforded to medical staff working in an A&E department by a suit made from a liquid repellent polyester fabric was assessed during the period 2 November 1992-1 January 1993. Ninety-one splash incidents were recorded. A total of 85.7% of splashes (78) were with patients' blood, 13.1% with vomitus (12) and 1.1% with pus (1). There were no instances of splashes to the suit that resulted in strike through to the inner surface or visible contamination of underlying skin. However, some 15.4% of splashes (14) resulted in contamination of exposed skin and 78.6% of these (11) occurred between glove and sleeve. Clothing of appropriated design and fabric can afford skin protection from blood and body fluid contamination. Such clothing alone does not provide overall protection and other precautions currently recommended should be taken. PMID:7921544

  8. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  9. Reducing inappropriate accident and emergency department attendances:

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Sharif A; Gibbons, Daniel C; Gnani, Shamini

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriate attendances may account for up to 40% of presentations at accident and emergency (A&E) departments. There is considerable interest from health practitioners and policymakers in interventions to reduce this burden. Aim To review the evidence on primary care service interventions to reduce inappropriate A&E attendances. Design and setting Systematic review of UK and international primary care interventions. Method Studies published in English between 1 January 1986 and 23 August 2011 were identified from PubMed, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, the Cochrane Collaboration, and Health Technology Assessment databases. The outcome measures were A&E attendances, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and intervention cost. Two authors reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved results, with adjudication of disagreements conducted by the third. Studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklist system where applicable. Results In total, 9916 manuscripts were identified, of which 34 were reviewed. Telephone triage was the single best-evaluated intervention. This resulted in negligible impact on A&E attendance, but exhibited acceptable patient satisfaction and clinical safety; cost effectiveness was uncertain. The limited available evidence suggests that emergency nurse practitioners in community settings and community health centres may reduce A&E attendance. For all other interventions considered in this review (walk-in centres, minor injuries units, and out-of-hours general practice), the effects on A&E attendance, patient outcomes, and cost were inconclusive. Conclusion Studies showed a negligible effect on A&E attendance for all interventions; data on patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness are limited. There is an urgent need to examine all aspects of primary care service interventions that aim to reduce inappropriate A&E attendance. PMID:24351497

  10. Violence in the Accident and Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Cembrowicz, S P; Shepherd, J P

    1992-04-01

    Crimes of violence are recorded increasingly frequently, including those involving health professionals. We reviewed records of violent incidents kept for a major Accident and Emergency Department over a ten-year period. Details were recorded in a Violent Incident Book by all grades of A/E staff, and separate records were kept by hospital security officers. A total of 407 incidents were recorded. Numbers, rank and sex of staff assaulted, types of assault, injuries received, weapons used and characteristics and disposal of perpetrators were recorded. Many were young males who had been drinking: others were regular attenders, of whom three subsequently died and one convicted of murder. Nurses and male doctors appeared to be at the greatest risk of assault and receptionists at the least risk. Recording of violent incidents and subsequent prosecution seemed inconsistent, and may have reflected the lack of a code of practice in this area. Suggestions are made about preventing, predicting and dealing with violence, and its aftermath, in the A and E department, including the use of security officers and closed circuit television, waiting room design, the recognition of body language and signs of alcohol or substance intoxication. The importance of staff support after an assault is emphasized, including immediate and long-term counselling, provision of legal advice, criminal or civil court action, victim support schemes and the workings of the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board. Free legal advice for staff assaulted at work should be included in the terms of service of NHS staff. PMID:1614297

  11. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 12. Water Accidents, Electrical Emergencies, Hazardous Materials and Radiation Accidents. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers water accidents, electrical emergencies, and hazardous materials and radiation accidents. Objectives stated for the three chapters are for the students to be able to describe: emergency care for specified water…

  12. Modular telerobot control system for accident response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard J. M.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-08-01

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera-frame teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements seven different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  13. Tracking shame and humiliation in Accident and Emergency.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Karen; Pattison, Stephen; Hurwitz, Brian

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we reflect upon shame and humiliation as threats to personal and professional integrity and moral agency within contemporary health care. A personal narrative, written by a nurse about a particular shift in a British National Health Service Accident and Emergency Department, is provided as a case study. This is critically reflected and commented upon in dialogue with insights into the nature of shame and humiliation. It is suggested that Accident and Emergency is a locus that is latently prone to dynamics of shame and humiliation, a potential exacerbated within a culture subject to externally-determined time targets that are enforced by a top-down system of surveillance and management. The result is that nurses may lose their sense of professional competence and responsibility, moral agency, and integrity, to their own personal detriment, as well as to the detriment of patients with whom they work. Insofar as examining a small part of a whole may suggest insights into the operation and ethos of a very large system, this very particular case study narrative/reflection has some important implications and lessons for the wider organization and provision of health care in Britain and beyond. PMID:21371246

  14. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  15. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  16. Recommended Procedures for Handling Emergency Illnesses and Accidents at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Health, Bismarck.

    Recommended procedures for handling emergency illnesses and accidents are provided in this guide for school personnel prepared by the North Dakota State Department of Health. Following five general recommendations for steps to take in emergency situations, advice and techniques are given for handling: nose bleeds; abdominal pain; toothaches and…

  17. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  18. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  19. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  20. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  1. Survey of Bicycle Accidents Presenting in an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N. A.; Yeats, I. F.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of bicycle accidents presenting in an emergency department was carried out over a 15 week period. Most accidents were the result of loss of control by the cyclist. Although soft tissue injuries predominated, followed by fractures, head injury was the single most common cause for admission to hospital (41.6%). These findings suggest that serious consideration be given to the use of protective headgear.

  2. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  3. Hand injury in the accident and emergency service.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, D J; Smith, M E; Angarita, G

    1985-01-01

    The management of hand injuries forms an important part of the hospital accident and emergency service, and early recognition and informed management are essential for a favourable outcome (Frazier et al., 1978). In Edinburgh a routine system of hand management is well established and includes the training of casualty officers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the hand service in the Accident and Emergency Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, a prospective study was undertaken to compare the outcome of treatment of hand injury by a routine system with treatment over a similar period by more experienced registrars in hand surgery training posts (Hand Fellows). PMID:4052212

  4. EMERGENCY RESPONSE SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergency response program provides trained personnel and mobile and fixed laboratory resources to address radiological incidents or events that result in potential or actual radiation exposure of the public or environment. The primary product of the program is high quality,...

  5. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  6. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  7. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  8. Evaluation of the Response to the Fukushima Accident.

    PubMed

    Miska, Horst

    2016-08-01

    The cause for the severity of the Fukushima nuclear accident is explained, and the radiological consequences are assessed. Moreover, the non-radiological effects are critically evaluated and failures in onsite and offsite emergency response highlighted. In conclusion, disregarding the principle of justification, the evacuation of residents and hospital patients was implemented too rigorously, resulting in unnecessary fatalities due to the protective action. PMID:27356068

  9. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident: additional lessons from a radiological emergency assistance mission.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    In response to the March 2011 earthquake-tsunami disaster and the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a special nongovernmental Radiological Emergency Assistance Mission flew to Japan from the United States. Invited by one of Japan's largest hospital and healthcare groups and facilitated by a New York-based international disaster relief organization, the mission included an emergency physician, a health physicist, and a disaster management specialist. During the 10 d mission, team members conducted fieldwork in areas affected by the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident; went to cities and towns in the 20-30 km Emergency Evacuation Preparation Zone around the damaged nuclear plant; visited other communities affected by the nuclear accident; went to evacuation shelters; met with mayors and other local officials; met with central government officials; exchanged observations, experiences, and information with Japanese medical, emergency response, and disaster management colleagues; and provided radiological information and training to more than 1,100 Japanese hospital and healthcare personnel and first responders. The mission produced many insights with potential relevance for radiological/nuclear emergency preparedness and response. The first "lessons learned" were published in December 2011. Since that time, additional broad insights from the mission and mission followup have been identified. Five of these new lessons, which focus primarily on community impacts and responses and public communication issues, are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:24077046

  10. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident. PMID:25915551

  11. Validation of the Hong Kong accident and emergency triage guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mandy M W; Leung, L P

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To validate the Hong Kong Accident and Emergency Triage guidelines. DESIGN. Retrospective chart review. SETTING. The Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Patients who attended the Accident and Emergency Department on one day in February 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The inter-rater reliability in two pairs of nurses grouped according to experience and validity as compared with an expert panel. RESULTS. Of the 100 patients recruited and triaged into levels 1 to 5, the weighted kappa coefficient (inter-rater reliability) for the two pairs of nurses was 0.699 and 0.717, respectively. The weighted kappa coefficient for validity was 0.766. When only patients in triage levels 3 and 4 were included, the weighted kappa coefficient for reliability dropped to 0.632 and 0.585, respectively. The weighted kappa coefficient for validity also decreased to 0.558. CONCLUSIONS. The overall inter-rater reliability and validity of the Guidelines appeared acceptable. Further revision of the Guidelines on triaging patients to levels 3 or 4 is probably necessary. PMID:23568939

  12. Audit of ankle injuries in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Packer, G J; Goring, C C; Gayner, A D; Craxford, A D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the treatment of ankle injuries in an accident and emergency department could be improved by an audit of existing treatment and the creation and use of a protocol. DESIGN--The study consisted of three parts: a review of the current treatment and published reports on treatment, the formation of a protocol, and a study of treatment after introducing the protocol. SETTING--Accident and emergency department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS--550 patients attending the department with ankle injuries over four months. RESULTS--The review of treatment showed that patients with fractures were detected and treated adequately, but most had radiography. Patients with ligamentous injuries may have been undertreated. After introducing the protocol the number of patients undergoing radiography was reduced from 205 (80%) to 186 (70%) (0.0027 less than p less than 0.01). In 87% of the notes reviewed the protocol had been completed. Sixty six patients with ligamentous injuries were reviewed in the department or soft tissue clinic compared with 20 before the protocol was introduced. There was a 53% reduction in inappropriate referrals to the fracture clinic (13 before v nine after). CONCLUSIONS--Using a protocol can, at little expense, improve the treatment of ankle injuries and reduce the cost of radiology in an accident and emergency department. IMPLICATION--Treatment of other conditions may be improved by introducing a protocol. PMID:1902753

  13. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  14. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  15. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  16. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  17. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  18. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  19. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  20. Simulation of Accident Sequences Including Emergency Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Queral, Cesar; Exposito, Antonio; Hortal, Javier

    2004-07-01

    Operator actions play an important role in accident sequences. However, design analysis (Safety Analysis Report, SAR) seldom includes consideration of operator actions, although they are required by compulsory Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) to perform some checks and actions from the very beginning of the accident. The basic aim of the project is to develop a procedure validation system which consists of the combination of three elements: a plant transient simulation code TRETA (a C based modular program) developed by the CSN, a computerized procedure system COPMA-III (Java technology based program) developed by the OECD-Halden Reactor Project and adapted for simulation with the contribution of our group and a software interface that provides the communication between COPMA-III and TRETA. The new combined system is going to be applied in a pilot study in order to analyze sequences initiated by secondary side breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plant. (authors)

  1. Accident and emergency medicine--making waves on the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J M; Baldock, C; Lawson-Smith, R

    1997-01-01

    The internet is a communications and information tool which has recently entered the world of accident and emergency (A&E) medicine. It is a worldwide instrument facilitating the dissemination of ideas and clinical information in the specialty. It is being embraced by all disciplines involved in A&E medicine. Part I introduces the internet to those in A&E medicine unfamiliar with this technology. It describes the varied resources of the internet in A&E medicine and speculates on its future role. Part II supplies the reader with the necessary information to get on-line and explains some of the more technical aspects of the internet. PMID:9413781

  2. Incident reporting in one UK accident and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Catherine M; Woloshynowych, Maria; Brown, Ruth; Wears, Bob; Vincent, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Greater focus is needed on improving patient safety in modern healthcare systems and the first step to achieving this is to reliably identify the safety issues arising in healthcare. Research has shown the accident and emergency (A&E) department to be a particularly problematic environment where safety is a concern due to various factors, such as the range, nature and urgency of presenting conditions and the high turnover of patients. As in all healthcare environments clinical incident reporting in A&E is an important tool for detecting safety issues which can result in identifying solutions, learning from error and enhancing patient safety. This tool must be responsive and flexible to the local circumstances and work for the department to support the clinical governance agenda. In this paper, we describe the local processes for reporting and reviewing clinical incidents in one A&E department in a London teaching hospital and report recent changes to the system within the department. We used the historical data recorded on the Trust incident database as a representation of the information that would be available to the department in order to identify the high risk areas. In this paper, we evaluate the internal processes, the information available on the database and make recommendations to assist the emergency department in their internal processes. These will strengthen the internal review and staff feedback system so that the department can learn from incidents in a consistent manner. The process was reviewed by detailed examination of the centrally held electronic record (Datix database) of all incidents reported in a one year period. The nature of the incident and the level and accuracy of information provided in the incident reports was evaluated. There were positive aspects to the established system including evidence of positive changes made as a result of the reporting process, new initiatives to feedback to staff, and evolution of the programme for

  3. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  4. Emergency response health physics.

    PubMed

    Mena, Rajah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. This paper aims to illustrate the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. PMID:22469932

  5. Ski accidents and legal responsibility: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Carus Ribalaygua, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This study classifies and analyzes Spanish court rulings on responsibility for ski accidents(1) occurring within ski resort boundaries, and refers to court cases to propose guidelines aimed at assisting skiers and ski resort managers. Six main trends emerged from the study: (a) Spanish courts resolved lawsuits arising from four clearly identifiable categories of ski accidents. (b) Although lawsuits involving ski accidents were heard in both civil and criminal procedures, civil actions were more extensively brought than criminal ones. (c) The majority of the sentences ending legal proceedings resulted in acquittals, although the cost to defendants in the minority of cases where convictions were made exceeded one million euros in total. (d) No single lawsuit, either civil or criminal, was settled in a Court of First Instance; the vast majority were heard in Provincial Courts and only a small proportion reached the High Court. (e) The defendant was the ski resort operator in the great majority of cases. (f) Court decisions were consistently grounded only on the presence or otherwise of the factors necessary to prove either damages as a result of negligence, according to civil law, or misdemeanor or criminal injuries, in criminal lawsuits. PMID:20159068

  6. EMERGENCY RESPONSE HEALTH PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-01-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators.

  8. A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-07-20

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  9. EMERGENCY RESPONSE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM (ERNS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a database used to store information on notifications of oil discharges and hazardous substances releases. The ERNS program is a cooperative data sharing effort among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters, the ...

  10. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  11. Major accidents and disaster response: The Swiss perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, R.

    1995-12-31

    The coordination of the emergency preparedness towards disasters and major accidents takes place into the context of a global security policy. The purpose of this policy is to guarantee the survival of the population and to protect vital installations within a given area (state, region, canton, district, prefecture). According to the Swiss law--except in the case of a nuclear accident--the authorities of the cantons and communes are in charge of disaster relief in their jurisdiction. In addition, various instruments subordinated to Federal Departments (i.e., ministries) can be required either to function as experts or--on request and while respecting the principle of subsidiarity--to contribute to disaster response. Also in peace-time, parts of the army (rescue troops, engineers, medical units, ...) or parts of the means of the civil defense may be involved. In accordance with Switzerland`s federal state organization, each canton has worked out its own structure for disaster response (examples are provided in the paper). Although each of them has its own peculiarities and the available means can vary, several local events in the past few years have allowed them to give proof of their efficiency.

  12. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding or hurricanes have recently and dramatically hit several countries worldwide. Both direct and indirect consequences involved the population, causing on the one hand a high number of fatalities and on the other hand so relevant economical losses that the national gross product may be affected for many years. Loss of critical industrial infrastructures (electricity generation and distribution, gas pipelines, oil refineries, etc.) also occurred, causing further indirect damage to the population. In several cases, accident scenarios with large releases of hazardous materials were triggered by these natural events, causing so-called "Natech events", in which the overall damage resulted from the simultaneous consequences of the natural event and of the release of hazardous substances. Toxic releases, large fires and explosions, as well as possible long-term environmental pollution, economical losses, and overloading of emergency systems were recognised by post-event studies as the main issues of these Natech scenarios. In recent years the increasing frequency and severity of some natural hazards due to climate change has slowly increased the awareness of Natech risk as an emerging risk among the stakeholders. Indeed, the iNTeg-Risk project, co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program specifically addresses these scenarios among new technological issues on public safety. The present study, in part carried out within the iNTeg-Risk project, was aimed at the analysis and further development of methods and tools for the assessment and mitigation of Natech accidents. Available tools and knowledge gaps in the assessment of Natech scenarios were highlighted. The analysis mainly addressed the potential impact of flood, lightning and earthquake events on industrial installations where hazardous substances are present. Preliminary screening methodologies and more detailed methods based on

  13. Being Prepared: The School Emergency Response Plan Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Efrain Garza; Rose, Raymond M.

    This handbook was designed to help educators develop a proactive school-preparedness plan for dealing with a variety of crises, ranging from natural disasters to accidents to acts of violence. The School Emergency Response Plan (SERP) is not a violence-prevention program; rather, it is part of an overall effort to ensure a safe learning…

  14. Review of police inquiries to an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R; Rainer, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the workload generated by police inquiries to an accident and emergency (A&E) department and the adherence of medical staff to departmental guidelines relating to these inquiries. DESIGN: Prospective analysis of the number, nature, and timing of police inquiries and the information released by medical staff. SETTING: A&E department of an inner city teaching hospital. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of personal and telephone requests for information from police; completion of a form of inquiry; record of patient consent for release of information. RESULTS: A daily average of 8.7 police inquiries were made, but in only 10% of cases was a form of inquiry completed. The patient's consent for release of information to the police was recorded in 4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Police inquiries generate a significant workload for an A&E department, often at clinically busy times. Medical staff need further education to ensure that patient confidentiality is respected while assisting the police with their investigations. Images Figure 2 PMID:8947799

  15. Domestic violence: a challenge to accident and emergency nurses.

    PubMed

    Davies, K; Edwards, L

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of victims of assault are admitted to our Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments. Their injuries vary from minor to severe trauma and multiple injuries. Lloyd (1991) recognized that the victims of domestic violence are usually female and that the aggressor is almost always known to them. Indeed, the person who administers the assault is often the spouse or partner in a relationship in which there is a regular cycle of abuse. While it is sometimes difficult for A&E nurses to remain impartial it is vital that they do so. It is also essential that the A&E nurse is aware of the support networks that are available and how to access them. Patients arriving at the A&E department following an incident of domestic violence often need protection as well as physical and psychological care. This article aims to explore issues of domestic violence that involve the admission of abused females to A&E departments. PMID:10232110

  16. Interpreter use in an inner city accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Leman, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of communication problems that arose from patients whose primary language was non-English presenting to an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: A prospective survey over seven consecutive days during September 1995. All adult patients other than those directly referred by their general practitioner to an inpatient team had a questionnaire completed by the A&E doctor first seeing the patient. The doctor recorded language ability and form of interpreter used, and estimated any prolongation of the consultation and ability to improve communication by the use of additional services. RESULTS: 103 patients (17%) did not speak English as their primary language; 55 patients (9.1% of the study population) had an English language ability rated as other than good, and 16 (29%) of these consultations could have been improved by the use of additional interpreter services; 28 patients overall (4.6% of the study population) required the use of an interpreter, who was usually a relative. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of patients presenting to A&E have difficulty in communicating in English. These consultations could often have been improved by the use of additional interpreter services. Telephone interpreter services may provide the answer for use in A&E departments because of their instant and 24 hour availability. Images p99-a PMID:9132201

  17. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  18. Epileptological emergencies in accident and emergency: a survey at St James's university hospital, Leeds.

    PubMed

    Reuber, M; Hattingh, L; Goulding, P J

    2000-04-01

    Many patients attending an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department with seizures never come into contact with a neurological service. This survey was designed to find out how many patients with epileptological emergencies come to A&E and how they are managed. Cases were identified using the computerized A&E database. The A&E records of all adult patients attending the casualty department at St James's University Hospital with emergencies related to epilepsy between 1 April and 30 September 1998 were reviewed retrospectively. Out of a total of 36 024 adults attending A&E, 190 were related to epileptological emergencies. A problem relating to a previously recognized seizure disorder was the commonest reason for attendance. Patient management was highly variable and often suboptimal. Descriptions of seizure semiology and examination findings were frequently deficient. Up to 37.5 mg of diazepam, in up to five boluses, was given. Twenty per cent of patients with a diagnosis of status epilepticus were discharged home after diazepam treatment. Neurologists only became involved in 24.2% of cases. Epileptological emergencies only make up a small proportion of cases seen in adult A&E departments. Treatment and referral guidelines should be agreed between A&E staff and neurologists. The communication between general, specialist and acute services needs to be improved. PMID:10775519

  19. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  20. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

  1. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-08-01

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

  2. ARGX-87: Accident Response Group Exercise, 1987: A Broken Arrow mini exercise. [Training

    SciTech Connect

    Schuld, E.P.; Cruff, D.F.

    1987-07-01

    A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program.

  3. Weever fish stings: a report of two cases presenting to an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R S; Evans, R J

    1996-01-01

    Two patients are described who suffered weever fish stings and presented to an accident and emergency department. The characteristic symptoms and treatment are described. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8653243

  4. Analysis of construction accidents in Turkey and responsible parties.

    PubMed

    Gürcanli, G Emre; Müngen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world's biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972-2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00-12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  5. Analysis of Construction Accidents in Turkey and Responsible Parties

    PubMed Central

    GÜRCANLI, G. Emre; MÜNGEN, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world’s biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972–2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00–12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  6. Review of emergency thoracotomy for chest injuries in patients attending a UK Accident and Emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bleetman, A; Kasem, H; Crawford, R

    1996-03-01

    Over a two and a half year period, 25 patients presenting to the Glasgow Royal Infirmary underwent emergency thoracotomy for suspected severe chest injuries. Eighteen (72 per cent) were performed in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) department and seven (28 per cent) in a fully equipped operating theatre after resuscitation. There were 23 men and 2 women. Twenty-three (92 per cent) had been stabbed, one (4 per cent) had been shot and one (4 per cent) had sustained a blunt injury in a road traffic accident. Eight (32 per cent) patients survived. All survivors had been stabbed and seven were well enough to undergo thoracotomy in theatre. Only one (5.6 per cent) of the patients operated upon in the A&E department survived to discharge, although three (16.8 per cent) survived the initial procedure. Three of four patients survived, in whom the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was initially missed. Thirteen (76.5 per cent) of the 17 who did not survive had no vital signs on admission. Outcomes may be improved if appropriately trained hospital staff are immediately available and prehospital delays are minimized so that patients arrive sooner with signs of life still present. Ambulance paramedic interventions have little to offer these patients and may worsen the prognosis if they result in delayed transport to hospital. The emphasis placed on diagnosis and treatment of cardiac tamponade in Advanced Trauma Life Support programmes is appropriate and all staff involved in these cases should undergo this type of training. PMID:8730388

  7. The TOPAZ II space reactor response under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, S.S.

    1993-12-31

    The TOPAZ II is a single-cell thermionic space reactor power system developed by the Russians during the period of time from {approximately}1969 to 1989. The TOPAZ II has never been flight demonstrated, but the system was extensively tested on the ground. As part of the development and test program, the response of the TOPAZ II under accident conditions was analyzed and characterized. The US TOPAZ II team has been working closely with the Russian specialists to understand the TOPAZ II system, its operational characteristics, and its response under potential accident conditions. The purpose of the technical exchange is to enable a potential launch of a TOPAZ II by the US. The information is required to integrate the system with a US spacecraft and to support the safety review process. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the system and its response under actual and postulated accident conditions.

  8. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  9. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  10. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  11. Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study. PMID:23878423

  12. ARAC: a centralized computer assisted emergency planning, response, and assessment system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Knox, J.B.

    1986-10-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an emergency planning, response, and assessment service, developed by the US Departments of Energy and Defense, and focused, thus far, on atmospheric releases of nuclear material. For the past 14 years ARAC has responded to over 150 accidents, potential accidents, and major exercises. The most notable accident responses are the COSMOS 954 reentry, the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident and subsequent purge of /sup 85/Kr from the containment vessel, the recent UF/sub 6/ accident at the Kerr-McGee Plant, Gore, Oklahoma, and the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union. Based on experience in the area of emergency response, developed during the past 14 years, this paper describes the cost effectiveness and other advantages of a centralized emergency planning, response, and assessment service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material.

  13. A computerized prospective audit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Wardrope, J; Crosby, A C; Ferguson, D G; Edbrooke, D L

    1986-01-01

    A prospective survey of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is in progress in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital. During the 12 months from January 1985 to January 1986, 123 cardiac arrests were treated in the accident department. Ninety of these arrests occurred outside the hospital; nine of these patients survived to leave hospital. Of the 33 people arresting in the department, 10 survived to leave hospital. The causes of death are presented. PMID:3768122

  14. 48 CFR 436.577 - Emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response. 436... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.577 Emergency response. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 452.236-77, Emergency Response, in...

  15. 48 CFR 436.577 - Emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency response. 436... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.577 Emergency response. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 452.236-77, Emergency Response, in...

  16. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs.

  17. The atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC): A federal emergency response capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1988-03-01

    The Atmospheric Release Capability (ARAC) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored emergency-response service set up to provide real-time prediction of the dose levels and the extent of surface contamination resulting from a broad range of possible occurrences (accidents, spills, extortion threats involving nuclear material, reentry of nuclear-powered satellites, and atmospheric nuclear tests) that could involve the release of airborne radioactive material. During the past decade, ARAC has responded to more than 150 real-time situations, including exercises. The most notable responses include the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania, the Titan II missile accident in Arkansas, the reentry of the USSR's COSMOS-954 into the atmosphere over Canada, the accidental release of uranium hexafluoride from the Sequoyah Facility accident in Oklahoma, and, most recently, the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union. ARAC currently supports the emergency-preparedness plans at 50 Department of Defense (DOD) and DOE sites within the US and also responds to accidents that happen elsewhere. Our ARAC center serves as the focal point for data acquisition, data analysis and assessments during a response, using a computer-based communication network to acquire real-time weather data from the accident site and the surrounding region, as well as pertinent accident information. Its three-dimensional computer models for atmospheric dispersion, MATHEW and ADPIC, digest all this information and produce the predictions used in accident assessment. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Response of HEPA filters to simulated-accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; Smith, P.R.; Fenton, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have been subjected to simulated accident conditions to determine their response to abnormal operating events. Both domestic and European standard and high-capacity filters have been evaluated to determine their response to simulated fire, explosion, and tornado conditions. The HEPA filter structural limitations for tornado and explosive loadings are discussed. In addition, filtration efficiencies during these accident conditions are reported for the first time. Our data indicate efficiencies between 80% and 90% for shock loadings below the structural limit level. We describe two types of testing for ineffective filtration - clean filters exposed to pulse-entrained aerosol and dirty filters exposed to tornado and shock pulses. Efficiency and material loss data are described. Also, the resonse of standard HEPA filters to simulated fire conditions is presented. We describe a unique method of measuring accumulated combustion products on the filter. Additionally, data relating to pressure drop vs accumulated mass during plugging are reported for simulated combustion aerosols. The effects of concentration and moisture levels on filter plugging were evaluated. We are obtaining all of the above data so that mathematical models can be developed for fire, explosion, and tornado accident analysis computer codes. These computer codes can be used to assess the response of nuclear air cleaning systems to accident conditions.

  19. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the ‘Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident’ and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation. PMID:23184925

  20. Mobile Emergency Response Water Treatment Technology Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    When natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes occur, safe drinking water can be compromised, limited or unavailable. Under such situations, communities have emergency response plans. One of many options for providing safe drinking water during emergency situati...

  1. [Accidents with caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855). An emerging problem].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Matías N; Mignone Chagas, Mariana A; Casertano, Sergio A; Cavagnaro, Luis E; Peichoto, María E

    2015-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855) is a moth from the family Saturniidae, widely distributed in tropical rainforests of South America. In its larval stage (caterpillar) it is characterized by bristles that cover the animal's body. These structures are hard and branched spiny evaginations of the cuticle, underneath which a complex mixture of toxic molecules is stored. When spicules are brought into contact with the skin of people, toxins enter passively through the injury, causing not only local but also systemic poisoning (primarily hemorrhagic manifestations). When the whole animal is accidentally crushed, the insect's chitinous bristles are broken and the venomous secretions penetrate the human skin, reaching the blood circulation. Due to the numerous registered cases of erucism in Southern Brazil, the Butantan Institute has produced an antivenom able to neutralize the deleterious effects produced by contact with L. obliqua caterpillar bristles. In Argentina, these kinds of accidents are rare and restricted to the province of Misiones. Taking into account that to date there is no report in this country about clinical cases submitted to a specific treatment (antivenom), our aim is to communicate here six cases of Lonomia caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome that were treated in the Hospital SAMIC of Puerto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina) during 2014 with the antilonomic serum produced in Brazil. It is worthy to note that all patients evolved favorably within the first few hours, and for this reason, the use of this antivenom is recommended to treat the cases of Lonomia erucism in Argentina. PMID:26502471

  2. Fact-finding Survey in Response to the Manipulation of Personal Alarm Dosimeter Collection Efficiency: Lessons Learned About Post-Emergency Radiation Protection from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP Accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    During emergency work at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant on December 1, 2011 a subcontractor demanded that its contracted workers cover their personal alarm dosimeters (PAD) with 3-cm-thick lead plates to lower dosimeter readings. As a response, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) conducted a fact-finding survey to identify similar cases and devise measures to prevent a recurrence of this incident. To screen the suspected cases, the MHLW extracted: a) cases in which a PAD reading was at least 15% higher than the reading obtained from a radio-photolumine-scence dosimeter (RPD), where the dose was greater than 5 mSv in a month (1813 data points), and b) dose data in which PAD readings were less than 50% of the expected dose, where exposure dose may exceed 1 mSv in a day (56 workers, 17,148 data points). From these screenings, the MHLW identified 50 instances from TEPCO and nine primary contractors, including four general contractors, two plant manufacturers, and three plant maintenance companies as the subjects of the due diligence study of exposure data, including interviews. The results of the survey provide lessons that can also be applied to transition from emergency radiation protection to normal operation, as the application of emergency dose limits had ceased on December 16, 2011, in the affected plant. Based on the results of the survey, the MHLW provided administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and 37 primary contractors. The major points of these documents include: a) identification of recorded dose values by comparison of PAD readings to RPD readings, b) storage and management of RPDs and control badges, c) circulation management of PADs and access control to the affected plant, d) estimation of planned doses and setting of alarm values of PADs, e) actions to be taken by contractors if worker dose limits are reached, and f) physical measures to prevent recurrence of the incident. PMID:25617063

  3. Dermatobia hominis in the accident and emergency department: "I've got you under my skin".

    PubMed

    MacNamara, A; Durham, S

    1997-05-01

    An unusual form of larval infestation from South America is presented which, in view of increasing tourism to South america's tropical areas, may present to any accident and emergency department. Infestation with Dermatobia hominis is reviewed in terms of clinical recognition and life cycle. Techniques of removal are described. PMID:9193989

  4. SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Denham, Douglas; Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.; Del Mundo, Rommel

    2006-01-01

    The SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool (wherein SSRL signifies Smart Systems Research Laboratory ) is a computer program within a system of communication and mobile-computing software and hardware being developed to increase the situational awareness of first responders at building collapses. This program is intended for use mainly in planning and constructing shores to stabilize partially collapsed structures. The program consists of client and server components, runs in the Windows operating system on commercial off-the-shelf portable computers, and can utilize such additional hardware as digital cameras and Global Positioning System devices. A first responder can enter directly, into a portable computer running this program, the dimensions of a required shore. The shore dimensions, plus an optional digital photograph of the shore site, can then be uploaded via a wireless network to a server. Once on the server, the shore report is time-stamped and made available on similarly equipped portable computers carried by other first responders, including shore wood cutters and an incident commander. The staff in a command center can use the shore reports and photographs to monitor progress and to consult with structural engineers to assess whether a building is in imminent danger of further collapse.

  5. Recurrent accident and emergency department attendance for acute asthma in children.

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, S M; Heaf, D P

    1989-01-01

    Asthmatic children aged over 5 years making repeated visits to the accident and emergency department of a children's hospital were compared prospectively, on the basis of a clinical questionnaire and pulmonary function tests, with a control group of outpatients with asthma to find the reasons for their repeated attendance. Recurrent attenders (n = 145) had more severe asthma than control subjects (n = 118), with greater airway obstruction at rest (FEV1 79% v 85% predicted) and bronchial lability (47% v 38%). Significantly more of the "emergency" group used pressurised aerosols and fewer dry powder inhalers to administer bronchodilators. There were no differences in prophylactic treatment. Seventy one per cent of parents in the emergency group had feared that their child would die during an attack, compared with 56% of control subjects. Eighty one per cent of children were self referred to the accident and emergency department. Most parents had found hospital to be the quickest means of obtaining treatment in an emergency. There were no differences between the two groups in parents' knowledge about asthma, home conditions, or social disadvantage. Although children who repeatedly attend hospital accident and emergency departments for treatment of acute attacks have more severe asthma than controls and show some deficiencies in treatment, the major determinant of attendance appeared to be the parents' conviction that appropriate treatment could not be obtained elsewhere. PMID:2799741

  6. Development of Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs).

    PubMed

    Cavender, Finis; Phillips, Scott; Holland, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) are airborne concentrations of chemicals that have been evaluated for three levels of emergency response. These are a nuisance level, and level that would affect egress from an exposure or a level that is near, but below a life threatening concentration. The ERPG is a volunteer committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association that is comprised of industrial hygienists and toxicologists. This paper describes the history of emergency response guidelines and process of the evaluation. PMID:18570174

  7. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  8. Lessons learned: medical and health care management for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident.

    PubMed

    Koerner, John; Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    During the emergency work at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant (APP), the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the Japanese government experienced various problems in medical and health care management issues, including special medical examinations, on-site triage and initial treatment, patient transportation, lodging and food, and long-term health care for emergency workers. To resolve these problems, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) issued a series of compulsory directives and provided administrative guidance to TEPCO. Based on the experiences and lessons learned, the MHLW recognized that the proper management and implementation of medical and health care management in response to a similar accident would require sufficient measures and systematic preparation, including the following: 1. In case of large-scale nuclear accidents, the government needs to assist in dispatching medical staff to the affected plants. 2. Nuclear facility operators, medical facilities and fire departments should make an agreement to clarify the division of the roles played prior to the accident and should conduct emergency drills periodically with the full attendance of related personnel to identify and resolve the problems. 3. Operators need to develop a support base at a safe distance from the plant and to prepare to develop makeshift lodgings in case of emergency. 4. Operators need to come to an agreement to share food stocks among closely located nuclear plants and prepare cooking equipment that can be used in case of blackout to provide warm foods and drinks to as many workers as possible. 5. It is necessary to conduct long-term follow-up for emergency workers, including health care system, medical examinations and mental health consultations. PMID:24467339

  9. Aircraft Emergencies: Challenge and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency and abnormal situations in aviation present flight crews with a number of challenges. Checklists are essential tools that have been developed to assist them to meet these challenges. However, in order for checklists to be most effective in these situations they must be designed with the operational and situational demands of emergencies and abnormal conditions in mind as well as human performance capabilities and limitations under high stress and workload.

  10. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. PMID:21729940

  11. Uses of the internet in emergency response.

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C. L.; Newsom, D. E.; Swietlik, C. E.; Bertram, K. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    1999-01-01

    Past and potential future uses of the Internet in emergency preparedness and emergency response are examined. Discussion of past experience in use of the Internet in crises includes some examples from the Kobe earthquake in 1995, the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989, and the ice storm in the northeastern United States in 1998. Various advantages and drawbacks of use of the Internet in emergency response are examined. Both some promising applications and issues that may arise in use of the Internet for emergency response are discussed.

  12. Wife battering in Hong Kong: accident and emergency nurses' attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Chung, M Y; Wong, T W; Yiu, J J

    1996-07-01

    A questionnaire was sent to all nurses working in Accident and Emergency departments in Hong Kong, to survey their attitudes, beliefs and practice in the handling of wife battering cases presenting to the Emergency department. Questions about incidence, epidemiology, rationale for intervention and effects on children of abused women were included. Traditional cultural beliefs were found to be an important factor influencing nurses' attitude in this issue. Nurses on the whole were not well prepared to handle victims of domestic violence. The importance of training and nurse protocol for the handling of these patients was discussed. PMID:8920400

  13. Emergency preparedness: one community's response.

    PubMed

    Glick, Doris F; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Nolan, Mary Anne; Burke, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, our nations' leaders, the press, and the general public have looked to the health sector for leadership in addressing acts of terrorism. It has become urgent for health agencies and related public services to collaborate and for all health professionals to become knowledgeable about disaster preparedness. This article describes collaboration between the public health department, local hospitals and the school of nursing in one community, Charlottesville, Virginia, to address disaster preparedness. In this story about our community's emergency preparedness, the focus is both on preparation and the hope we will never need to utilize this knowledge. PMID:15596974

  14. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  15. An emergency response team for membrane repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On demand, rapid Ca(2+)-triggered homotypic and exocytic membrane-fusion events are required to repair a torn plasma membrane, and we propose that this emergency-based fusion differs fundamentally from other rapid, triggered fusion reactions. Emergency fusion might use a specialized protein and organelle emergency response team that can simultaneously promote impromptu homotypic fusion events between organelles and exocytic fusion events along the vertices between these fusion products and the plasma membrane.

  16. Underwater medicine: a neglected area in Accident and Emergency specialist training.

    PubMed Central

    Braatvedt, G D; Mathew, B G; Corrall, R J

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated the available medical care to sports divers by a postal questionnaire sent to consultants and senior registrars in Accident and Emergency medicine in the UK, assessing their training in underwater medicine. Replies were received from 60 of 96 consultants (63%) and 32 of 58 (55%) senior registrars. Thirty-two per cent of consultants and 50% of senior registrars had previous personal experience in managing an underwater diving accident. Thirty per cent of consultants and only 19% of senior registrars had prior formal postgraduate training in underwater medicine. Twenty-seven per cent of consultants and 13% of senior registrars replying did not know the pattern of referral for specialist advice nor where the nearest recompression chamber was to be found. We believe that more formal postgraduate training in underwater medicine is needed by A and E medical staff. Furthermore, clear guidelines about emergency management and patterns of referral for diving accidents should be displayed prominently in all A and E departments. PMID:1751890

  17. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Bowman

    2002-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability.

  18. Nurse initiated thrombolysis in the accident and emergency department: safe, accurate, and faster than fast track

    PubMed Central

    Heath, S; Bain, R; Andrews, A; Chida, S; Kitchen, S; Walters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the time between arrival at hospital of a patient with acute myocardial infarction and administration of thrombolytic therapy (door to needle time) by the introduction of nurse initiated thrombolysis in the accident and emergency department. Methods: Two acute chest pain nurse specialists (ACPNS) based in A&E for 62.5 hours of the week were responsible for initiating thrombolysis in the A&E department. The service reverts to a "fast track" system outside of these hours, with the on call medical team prescribing thrombolysis on the coronary care unit. Prospectively gathered data were analysed for a nine month period and a head to head comparison made between the mean and median door to needle times for both systems of thrombolysis delivery. Results: Data from 91 patients were analysed; 43 (47%) were thrombolysed in A&E by the ACPNS and 48 (53%) were thrombolysed in the coronary care unit by the on call medical team. The ACPNS achieved a median door to needle time of 23 minutes (IQR=17 to 32) compared with 56 minutes (IQR=34 to 79.5) for the fast track. The proportion of patients thrombolysed in 30 minutes by the ACPNS and fast track system was 72% (31 of 43) and 21% (10 of 48) respectively (difference=51%, 95% confidence intervals 34% to 69%, p<0.05). Conclusion: Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and administration of thrombolysis by experienced cardiology nurses in A&E is a safe and effective strategy for reducing door to needle times, even when compared with a conventional fast track system. PMID:12954678

  19. [What response in the face of health emergencies?].

    PubMed

    Bergeran, Pierick

    2015-01-01

    Heat wave, extreme cold, air pollution, epidemics, nuclear plant accidents, production incidents in the pharmaceutical or agro-food sectors, bioterrorism, social movements: over the last thirty years, health emergencies have multiplied. What is the strategy to adopt? PMID:26145995

  20. Cabin safety and emergency evacuation: passenger experience of flight CI-120 accident.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Aircraft evacuation effectiveness is a critical but challenging issue in the civil aviation industry. This paper explores the cabin safety perceptions of passengers from their emergency evacuation experiences in an actual aviation accident. A questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews were conducted with China Airlines flight CI-120 passengers. The qualitative and quantitative results provide insights into passengers' views of cabin safety. The in-depth interview results show that passenger safety education requires more instructions about the use of emergency equipment. The data from the passenger perception questionnaire were analyzed using the factor analysis method; the findings indicate that crew assistance and emergency procedures are the most important factors. The results are likely to be of value to the aviation industry when taking into account passenger perceptions in implementing safety programs. PMID:21376900

  1. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    PubMed Central

    P, Gokulakrishnan; P, Ganeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU’s coverage area or outside RSU’s coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  2. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    PubMed

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  3. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the Responsible Official shall consult with the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance about... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency..., the Responsible Official shall take into account the probable environmental consequences of...

  4. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., the Responsible Official shall consult with the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance about... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency..., the Responsible Official shall take into account the probable environmental consequences of...

  5. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the Responsible Official shall consult with the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance about... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency..., the Responsible Official shall take into account the probable environmental consequences of...

  6. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  7. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  8. Emergence, reductionism and landscape response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephan; Mighall, Tim

    2010-05-01

    Predicting landscape response to external forcing is hampered by the non-linear, stochastic and contingent (ie dominated by historical accidents) forcings inherent in landscape evolution. Using examples from research carried out in southwest Ireland we suggest that non-linearity in landform evolution is likely to be a strong control making regional predictions of landscape response to climate change very difficult. While uncertainties in GCM projections have been widely explored in climate science much less attention has been directed by geomorphologists to the uncertainties in landform evolution under conditions of climate change and this problem may be viewed within the context of philosophical approaches to reductionsim and emergence. Understanding the present and future trajectory of landform change may also guide us to provide an enhanced appreciation of how landforms evolved in the past.

  9. Accident response -- X-ray to virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hefele, J.; Stupin, D.; Kelley, T.; Sheats, M.; Tsai, C.

    1999-03-01

    The Engineering Sciences and Applications (ESA) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been working to develop a process to extract topographical information from digital x-ray data for modeling in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment and translation into a virtual environment. The application for this process is the evolution of a field deployable tool for use by the Accident Response Group (ARG) at the Laboratory. The authors have used both CT Scan and radiography data in their process development. The data is translated into a format recognizable by Pro/ENGINEER{trademark} and then into a virtual environment that can be operated on by dVISE{trademark}. They have successfully taken both CT Scan and radiograph data of single components and created solid and virtual environment models for interrogation.

  10. [Radiation emergency medical preparedness in Japan--lessons learned from the Fukushima accident].

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Tominaga, Takako; Takabatake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Hachiya, Misao

    2012-03-01

    Although radiation exposure accidents fortunately occur only rarely, potential sources for exposure accidents can be found anywhere. When persons are accidentally exposed to radiation, physicians may be involved in their assessment and care; of course, their early diagnosis and dose assessment are crucial. After the criticality accident at Tokaimura in 1999, the system of radiation emergency medical preparedness has been further strengthened for nuclear facilities in Japan. In the revised system, hospitals involved were classified into three levels, depending on their locations and capabilities. The Great East Japan Earthquake attacked the Pacific coast area of eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. This earthquake and tsunami caused serious damage to the nuclear power plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co.(TEPCO) in Fukushima Prefecture; a large amount of radionuclides such as iodine and cesium were released into the environment. Since the revised system was focused on treatment of heavily exposed patients and knowledge on radiation was not enough for medical staff, many problems were raised at hospitals and fire departments in this disaster. PMID:22514928

  11. Standardized emergency management system and response to a smallpox emergency.

    PubMed

    Kim-Farley, Robert J; Celentano, John T; Gunter, Carol; Jones, Jessica W; Stone, Rogelio A; Aller, Raymond D; Mascola, Laurene; Grigsby, Sharon F; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox. A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring

  12. Surveillance and response to disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Merianos, Angela

    2007-01-01

    New and emerging infectious diseases affect humans, domestic animals, livestock and wildlife and can have a significant impact on health, trade and biodiversity. Of the emerging infectious diseases of humans, 75% are zoonotic, with wildlife being an increasingly important source of inter-species transmission. Recent animal health emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability of the livestock sector to the impact of infectious diseases and the associated risks to human health. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have resulted in enormous economic losses globally. On a global level, the human health sector lags behind the animal health sector in the assessment of potential threats, although substantive differences exist among countries in the state of national preparedness planning for emerging diseases. The lack of surveillance data on emerging zoonoses from many developing countries means that the burden of human, livestock and wildlife disease is underestimated and opportunities for control interventions thereby limited. In the context of emerging zoonoses, comprehensive risk assessments are needed to identify the animal-human and animal-animal interfaces where transmission of infectious agents occurs and the feasibility of risk reduction interventions. The impact of emerging diseases can be minimised through a well-prepared and strong public health system and similar systems developed by the livestock, wildlife and food safety sectors. National animal disease emergencies, especially those that spill over to affect human health, require a whole-of-government approach for effective disease containment. As it is highly likely that zoonoses and animal diseases with the potential to affect human health will continue to emerge, surveillance and response systems for emerging zoonotic diseases will need to be strengthened and maintained at national and international levels. Applied research, linked across the human, livestock and wildlife sectors, is needed to

  13. Emergency Response Planning for Radiological Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Allison, T.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.Y.

    2006-07-01

    The emergency management planning tool RISK-RDD was developed to aid emergency response planners and decision makers at all levels of government to better understand and prepare for potential problems related to a radiological release, especially those in urban areas. Radioactive release scenarios were studied by using the RISK-RDD radiological emergency management program. The scenarios were selected to investigate the key aspects of radiological risk management not always considered in emergency planning as a whole. These aspects include the evaluation of both aerosolized and non-aerosolized components of an atmospheric release, methods of release, acute and chronic human health risks, and the concomitant economic impacts as a function of the risk-based cleanup level. (authors)

  14. Emergency Response: Elearning for Paramedics and Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on an innovative research project with academics, software developers, and organizational pilot sites to design and develop elearning software for an emergency response simulation with supporting collaborative tools. In particular, this article focuses on the research that the author has conducted to provide the theoretical…

  15. 14 CFR 1216.311 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compliance with 40 CFR 1506.11 as soon as is reasonable. (c) If the Responsible Official proposes emergency... significant environmental impacts, the SEO will consult with the CEQ to ensure compliance with 40 CFR 1506.11... Sample Return)—A subcategory of missions that would collect extraterrestrial materials from solar...

  16. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  17. Emergency Response Systems for Outdoor Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kurt; Satz, Jay A.

    The Student Conservation Association (SCA) runs backcountry programs in wilderness settings, providing both an educational experience for participants and badly needed conservation work on public lands. As part of its risk management efforts, SCA has developed an emergency response system that ties resources in the field to all the resources of…

  18. 78 FR 1154 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a draft regulatory basis document to support the potential amendment of its regulations concerning nuclear power plant licensees' onsite emergency response capabilities. The NRC is seeking public comments on this document. The issuance of this draft regulatory basis document is one of the actions stemming from the NRC's......

  19. Opperational Systems for Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Baskett, R

    2003-11-10

    Operational systems predict the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials for real-time emergency response, pre-event planning, and post-incident assessment. Such systems provide federal, state, and local agencies, emergency planners and responders, public health officials, military personnel, and other users with critical information on which to base life-and-death decisions on safe zones for siting of incident command posts, sheltering-in-place or evacuation advisories, the need for protective equipment, and the utilization of hospital and health care resources. A range of operational modeling capabilities is required to support different types of release events, distance scales, and response times. Fast-response deployable models are used to perform hazard assessments and initial response functions, and can serve as a backup when connections to a reach-back center are not available. Higher-fidelity three-dimensional dispersion models, coupled to real-time observational data and numerical weather prediction model output, are used for real-time response and support expert quality-assured predictions and refined assessments. Computational fluid dynamics models, which explicitly resolve urban structures, are used for high fidelity applications including vulnerability analyses and planning studies. This paper will briefly discuss the types and capabilities of models used or under development for emergency response systems, customer products, supporting data, and a few representative examples of operational systems. Some selected research priorities are summarized in the final sections.

  20. International experience with a multidisciplinary table top exercise for response to a PWR accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Table Top Exercises are used for the training of emergency response personnel from a wide range of disciplines whose duties range from strategic to tactical, from managerial to operational. The exercise reported in this paper simulates the first two or three hours of an imaginary accident on a generic PWR site (named Seaside or Lakeside depending on its location). It is designed to exercise the early response of staff of the utility, government, local authority and the media and some players represent the public. The relatively few scenarios used for this exercise are based on actual events scaled to give off-site consequences which demand early assessment and therefore stress the communication procedures. The exercise is applicable in different cultures and has been used in over 20 short courses held in the USA, UK, Sweden, Prague, and Hong Kong. There are two styles of support for players: a linear program which ensures that all players follow the desired path through the event and an open program which is triggered by umpires (who play the reactor crew from a script) and by requests from other players. In both cases the exercise ends with a Press Conference. Players have an initial briefing and are assigned to roles; those who must speak at interviews and at the Press Conference arc given separate briefing by an expert in Public Affairs. The exercise runs with up to six groups and the communication rate reaches about 30 to 40 messages per hour for each group. The exercise can be applied to test management and communication systems and to study human response to emergencies because the merits of individual players are highlighted in the relatively stressful conditions of the initial stage of an accident. For some players the exercise is the first time that they have been required to carry out their task in front of other people.

  1. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Strachan, D P; Bland, J M; Bremner, S A; Ponce de Leon, A

    1999-02-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints. PMID:10065665

  2. Can more efficient use be made of x ray examinations in the accident and emergency department?

    PubMed Central

    Gleadhill, D N; Thomson, J Y; Simms, P

    1987-01-01

    Increasing workloads in our radiology department prompted a study of casualty officers' use of x ray examinations, of which there were 5463 in the period. While casualty officers were in post referrals for x ray examination did not become more selective, but skills in interpreting films improved. Overall, 4.9% of trauma radiographs were misinterpreted, but this fell from 7.1% to 2.9% during tenure of post. One in four errors was clinically important. Clinical guidelines for selective radiography produced a significant and sustained reduction in the number of x ray examinations requested by the department. Analysis of one common injury indicated that the quality of patient care was not adversely affected. The number of x ray examinations carried out in the accident and emergency department can be reduced by using guidelines, and this does not compromise the quality of patient care. Appreciable savings may be made in patients' waiting times and radiodiagnostic expenditure. PMID:3107669

  3. Telephone advice in the accident and emergency department: a survey of current practice.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R J; McCabe, M; Allen, H; Rainer, T; Richmond, P W

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the standard of advice given by telephone by accident and emergency (A&E) departments following patients' enquiries. In order to do this patient enquiries were simulated and a telephone questionnaire was carried out. The study was carried out in 18 major and 16 minor A&E departments in Wales. Results achieved were that overall, correct telephone advice was given to 72 of 97 simulated patients (74%). Sixty calls were dealt with by the nursing staff (62%) who gave correct advice on 41 (68%) occasions. No A&E department had a formal policy nor provided staff training for handling patients' enquiries by telephone. It is concluded that A&E departments should train designated members of staff, preferably the triage nurse, who would formally deal with telephone enquiries requiring medical advice. There should be formal documentation of the enquiry and advice proffered as part of a departmental policy. PMID:8216598

  4. Value of the internet in emergency response.

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C. L.; Newsom, D. E.; Swietlik, C. E.

    1999-05-26

    Can the Internet be of value in emergency response? The answer is yes, judging by its use in the Kobe earthquake in Japan in 1995, ice storms in the US and Canada in 1998, and other disasters. Current and future areas of application are numerous, including exchanging messages, documents, and data files via e-mail; accessing operational data on-line; visualizing events via photos and maps; providing backup communications in lieu of broadcast media, exchanging information between crisis managers and responders; and providing information to media and the public. However, the Internet has some drawbacks, such as hardware/software requirements, computer literacy requirements, traffic jams, dependence on power and communication networks, and risks to information integrity and security. This paper examines some of the advantages, drawbacks, concerns, and potential uses of the Internet for emergency response.

  5. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.

  6. PHMC post-NPH emergency response training

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-04-08

    This document describes post-Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) emergency response training that was provided to two teams of Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) staff that will be used to assess potential structural damage that may occur as a result of a significant natural phenomena event. This training supports recent plans and procedures to use trained staff to inspect structures following an NPH event on the Hanford Site.

  7. Training and exercises of the Emergency Response Team at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yearwood, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has an active Emergency Response Team. The Emergency Response Team is composed of members of the operating and support groups within the Plutonium Facility. In addition to their initial indoctrination, the members are trained and certified in first-aid, CPR, fire and rescue, and the use of self-contained-breathing-apparatus. Training exercises, drills, are conducted once a month. The drills consist of scenarios which require the Emergency Response Team to apply CPR and/or first aid. The drills are performed in the Plutonium Facility, they are video taped, then reviewed and critiqued by site personnel. Through training and effective drills and the Emergency Response Team can efficiently respond to any credible accident which may occur at the Plutonium Facility. 3 tabs.

  8. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion. PMID:25760111

  9. 75 FR 43232 - Revisions of the Emergency Response Guidebook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... (ERG2012), particularly from those who have experience using the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). The ERG is for use by emergency services personnel to provide guidance for initial response to.... PHMSA developed the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) for use by emergency services personnel...

  10. Optimal network solution for proactive risk assessment and emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tianxing

    communities on facing unexpected events such as natural disasters, serious accidents, environmental hazards, breakdown of manufacturing network. to set up comprehensive emergency management system including early warning and rescue security system. The optimization model and simulation will also help to validate the feasibility of integrated and coordinated response and full preparedness with the mutual support within the operation network.

  11. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  12. Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response - IPLER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodacek, A.; Boyd, D. L.; van Aardt, J.; Renschler, C. S.; McKeown, D. M.; Collins, H.; Duvvuri, S.; Pillai, A. H.

    2009-12-01

    The three-tiered disaster management approach, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery, is ripe for innovation through integrated knowledge and technology transfer efforts between university researchers, technology companies, and public sector responders. We have formed a partnership, the Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response or IPLER, dedicated to innovation in disaster management by the appropriate application of remote sensing and geospatial technologies. The mission of the IPLER is to create a technology, policy, and business development incubator to facilitate interaction and innovation among university researchers, private sector service and product providers, and public sector emergency response decision makers. Our initial demonstration projects involve flood and wildland fire mapping. The initial results highlight the utility of integrated multispectral imaging and lidar sensing with terrain and hydrologic modeling for managing areas affected by the 2009 flooding of Cattaraugus Creek, NY, USA. Additionally, our processing flow for multispectral (mid- and longwave IR) remote sensing data of wildfire is an example of near realtime transformation of imaging data into simplified information products for use in wildland fire response.

  13. Achieving reliable communication in dynamic emergency responses.

    PubMed

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  14. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  15. Use of a questionnaire to obtain an alcohol history from those attending an inner city accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, T G; Vaughan Williams, C H

    1989-01-01

    A screening questionnaire designed to take an alcohol history was used on 996 patients attending the London Hospital Accident and Emergency Department. Questions concerned with 'binge' drinking detected many problem drinkers who were not identified by questions on weekly alcohol intake or 'CAGE' questions. The relative increase in detection was particularly marked in women. PMID:2712986

  16. Non-urgent accident and emergency department use as a socially shared custom: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Keizer Beache, Simone; Guell, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Objective We explored attitudes of non-urgent accident and emergency department (AED) patients in the middle-income healthcare setting Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) in the Caribbean to understand how and why they decide to seek emergency care and resist using primary care facilities. Methods In 2013, we conducted 12 semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of non-urgent AED users from a variety of social backgrounds. Verbatim transcripts were analysed with a grounded theory approach. Results In this study, we found, first, that participants automatically chose to visit the AED and described this as a locally shared custom. Second, the healthcare system in SVG reinforced this habitual use of the AED, for example, by health professionals routinely referring non-urgent cases to the AED. Third, there was also some deliberate use; patients took convenience and the systemic encouragement into account to determine that the AED was the most appropriate choice for healthcare. Conclusions We conclude that the attitudes and habits of the Vincentian non-urgent patient are major determinants of their AED use and are intricately linked to local, socially shared practices of AED use. Findings show that health services research should reconsider rational choice behaviour models and further explore customs of health-seeking. PMID:25841166

  17. The Savannah River National Laboratory's Response to the Graniteville, SC Train Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C. H.; Parker, M. J.; Buckley, R. L.; Weber, A. H.; Addis, R. P.

    2005-10-21

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities and injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), DOE Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS.

  18. USGS standard quadrangle maps for emergency response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    The 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangle was the primary product of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Program from 1947-1992. This map series includes about 54,000 map sheets for the conterminous United States, and is the only uniform map series ever produced that covers this area at such a large scale. This map series partially was revised under several programs, starting as early as 1968, but these programs were not adequate to keep the series current. Through the 1990s the emphasis of the USGS mapping program shifted away from topographic maps and toward more specialized digital data products. Topographic map revision dropped off rapidly after 1999, and stopped completely by 2004. Since 2001, emergency-response and homeland security requirement have revived the question of whether a standard national topographic series is needed. Emergencies such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and California wildfires in 2007-08 demonstrated that familiar maps are important to first responders. Maps that have a standard scale, extent, and grids help reduce confusion and save time in emergencies. Traditional maps are designed to allow the human brain to quickly process large amounts of information, and depend on artistic layout and design that cannot be fully automated. In spite of technical advances, creating a traditional, general-purpose topographic map is still expensive. Although the content and layout of traditional topographic maps probably is still desirable, the preferred packaging and delivery of maps has changed. Digital image files are now desired by most users, but to be useful to the emergency-response community, these files must be easy to view and easy to print without specialized geographic information system expertise or software.

  19. National Labs and Nuclear Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budil, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    The DOE national laboratories, and in particular the three NNSA national security laboratories, have long supported a broad suite of national nuclear security missions for the U.S. government. The capabilities, infrastructure and base of expertise developed to support the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile have been applied to such challenges as stemming nuclear proliferation, understanding the nuclear capabilities of adversaries, and assessing and countering nuclear threats including essential support to nuclear emergency response. This talk will discuss the programs that are underway at the laboratories and the essential role that science and technology plays therein. Nuclear scientists provide expertise, fundamental understanding of nuclear materials, processes and signatures, and tools and technologies to aid in the identification and mitigation of nuclear threats as well as consequence management. This talk will also discuss the importance of direct engagement with the response community, which helps to shape research priorities and to enable development of useful tools and techniques for responders working in the field. National Labs and Nuclear Emergency Response.

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  5. Readiness Issues for Emergency Response Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Riland; D.R. Bowman; R.J. Tighe

    1999-03-01

    Issues in maintaining readiness of instruments for deployment and use in emergency response situation often differ from those in maintaining instruments for normal operations. Confunding circumstances include use of non-availability of check sources, ensuring instruments are always in calibration and operable, possible use of instruments in different climates, packaging of instrumentation for deployment, transport of instrumentation and check sources, and ensuring users are familiar with instruments. Methods and procedures for addressing these issues are presented. Instrumentation used for survey, in situ measurements, electronic dosimetry, and air conditioning are discussed.

  6. Rapid response team for behavioral emergencies.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeannine; Rutledge, Dana N; Hatch, Beverly; Morrison, Victoria

    2010-03-01

    Behaviors of patients with psychiatric illness who are hospitalized on nonbehavioral health units can be difficult to address by staff members. Instituting a rapid response team to proactively de-escalate potential volatile situations on nonpsychiatric units in a hospital allows earlier treatment of behavioral issues with these patients. The behavioral emergency response team (BERT) consists of staff members (registered nurses, social workers) from behavioral health services who have experience in caring for patients with acute psychiatric disorders as well as competence in management of assaultive behavior. BERT services were trialed on a medical pulmonary unit; gradual housewide implementation occurred over 2 years. Tools developed for BERT include an activation algorithm, educational cue cards for staff, and a staff survey. Results of a performance improvement survey reveal that staff nurses have had positive experiences with BERT but that many nurses are still not comfortable caring for psychiatric patients on their units. PMID:21659266

  7. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry. PMID:17680126

  9. METALert - an emergency response system for China for heavy metals in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Dams, Jef; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Raymaekers, Jens; Decorte, Lieve; Raben, Ingrid; Thijssen, Chris; Zhang, Hongzhen; Dong, Jingqi; Zhang, Qianwen

    2016-04-01

    The rapid industrialisation and economic growth of China has resulted in a mirrored increase of environmental issues and threats, which make the updating of the current environmental emergency response protocols very important. Heavy metal pollution accidents with high environmental risks are happening more frequently than ever in recent years. Despite efforts made by the authorites in respect to the formulation of sound policy, efficient technical methods and regulations for dealing with appropriate responses to emergency environmental incidents related to heavy metal pollution are still lacking. METALert is a generic Emergency Response System (ERS) for accidental pollution incidents caused by key heavy metal related industries in China and developed to support China in achieving its environmental targets. The METALert tool is based on environmental models for forecasting, simulation and visualisation of dispersion of heavy metal pollution in water, air and soil. The tool contains a generic database with scenarios for accidental release of metals in typical accidents related to the five key heavy metal industries in China. The tool can calculate the impact of an accident in water, air and soil and is evaluated and demonstrated for a river basin in the Chenzhou area, an important heavy metal mining area in China. The setup of the tool, the background models and the application in Chenzhou will be presented.

  10. Portable Neutron Sensors for Emergency Response Operations

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-06-24

    This article presents the experimental work performed in the area of neutron detector development at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews Operations (RSL-AO) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the last four years. During the 1950s neutron detectors were developed mostly to characterize nuclear reactors where the neutron flux is high. Due to the indirect nature of neutron detection via interaction with other particles, neutron counting and neutron energy measurements have never been as precise as gamma-ray counting measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. This indirect nature is intrinsic to all neutron measurement endeavors (except perhaps for neutron spin-related experiments, viz. neutron spin-echo measurements where one obtains μeV energy resolution). In emergency response situations generally the count rates are low, and neutrons may be scattered around in inhomogeneous intervening materials. It is also true that neutron sensors are most efficient for the lowest energy neutrons, so it is not as easy to detect and count energetic neutrons. Most of the emergency response neutron detectors are offshoots of nuclear device diagnostics tools and special nuclear materials characterization equipment, because that is what is available commercially. These instruments mostly are laboratory equipment, and not field-deployable gear suited for mobile teams. Our goal is to design and prototype field-deployable, ruggedized, lightweight, efficient neutron detectors.

  11. ICRP Publication 111 - Application of the Commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency.

    PubMed

    Lochard, J; Bogdevitch, I; Gallego, E; Hedemann-Jensen, P; McEwan, A; Nisbet, A; Oudiz, A; Oudiz, T; Strand, P; Janssens, A; Lazo, T; Carr, Z; Sugier, A; Burns, P; Carboneras, P; Cool, D; Cooper, J; Kai, M; Lecomte, J-F; Liu, H; Massera, G; McGarry, A; Mrabit, K; Mrabit, M; Sjöblom, K-L; Tsela, A; Weiss, W

    2009-06-01

    In this report, the Commission provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas resulting from either a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency. The report considers the effects of such events on the affected population. This includes the pathways of human exposure, the types of exposed populations, and the characteristics of exposures. Although the focus is on radiation protection considerations, the report also recognises the complexity of post-accident situations, which cannot be managed without addressing all the affected domains of daily life, i.e. environmental, health, economic, social, psychological, cultural, ethical, political, etc. The report explains how the 2007 Recommendations apply to this type of existing exposure situation, including consideration of the justification and optimisation of protection strategies, and the introduction and application of a reference level to drive the optimisation process. The report also considers practical aspects of the implementation of protection strategies, both by authorities and the affected population. It emphasises the effectiveness of directly involving the affected population and local professionals in the management of the situation, and the responsibility of authorities at both national and local levels to create the conditions and provide the means favouring the involvement and empowerment of the population. The role of radiation monitoring, health surveillance, and the management of contaminated foodstuffs and other commodities is described in this perspective. The Annex summarises past experience of longterm contaminated areas resulting from radiation emergencies and nuclear accidents, including radiological criteria followed in carrying out remediation measures. PMID:20472181

  12. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

  13. Slide Rule for Rapid Response Estimation of Radiological Dose from Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B L; Childs, R L; Hopper, C M; Parks, C V

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes a functional slide rule that provides a readily usable "in-hand" method for estimating nuclear criticality accident information from sliding graphs, thereby permitting (1) the rapid estimation of pertinent criticality accident information without laborious or sophisticated calculations in a nuclear criticality emergency situation, (2) the appraisal of potential fission yields and external personnel radiation exposures for facility safety analyses, and (3) a technical basis for emergency preparedness and training programs at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The slide rule permits the estimation of neutron and gamma dose rates and integrated doses based upon estimated fission yields, distance from the fission source, and time-after criticality accidents for five different critical systems. Another sliding graph permits the estimation of critical solution fission yields based upon fissile material concentration, critical vessel geometry, and solution addition rate. Another graph provides neutron and gamma dose-reduction factors for water, steel, and concrete shields.

  14. Minor illness and injury: factors influencing attendance at a paediatric accident and emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, S; Beattie, T; Heaney, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To gather information on children with minor illness or injury presenting to a paediatric accident and emergency (A&E) department and the decision making process leading to their attendance. Methods: Prospective questionnaire based survey of 465 children selected by systematic sampling from A&E attenders allocated to the lowest triage category. Results: The study population was statistically representative of the total population of A&E attenders. The lower deprivation categories were over represented. Educational attainment, childcare experience, and parental coping skills were important in relation to A&E attendance. More children attended with injury as opposed to illness. There were no significant demographic differences between those children who presented directly to A&E and those who made prior contact with a GP. Just under half the study population had made contact with a general practitioner (GP) before attending A&E. The majority of those children were directly referred to A&E at that point. GPs referred equivalent numbers of children with illness and injury. Conclusions: Parents and GPs view paediatric A&E departments as an appropriate place to seek treatment for children with minor illness or injury. PMID:15908631

  15. Waiting time in an urban accident and emergency department--a way to improve it.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, F L; Leung, K P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how the introduction of a new small team consultation system could reduce the average waiting time of patients in the busy accident and emergency (A&E) department of a Hong Kong hospital. METHODS: 1,264 and 1,319 A&E cases, respectively, were samples during the four months before and after the introduction of a new small team consultation system. The data collected included the average and the range of the patients' waiting time as well as the number of patients in different triage categories and their average waiting time. Also recorded in the study were the average daily attendance, the admission rate, the number of complaints, and patients reattendance rate. RESULTS: Before and after the introduction of the new system, the average waiting time of the patients was 35.19 minutes and 22.04 minutes respectively (range 0 to 134.0 minutes and 0 to 106.3 minutes, respectively). The difference of 13.15 minutes in the average waiting times was clinically and statistically significant (t = 2.81; P = 0.004). There were no significant changes in other variables affecting the patients' waiting time and the quality o service. CONCLUSIONS: A small team consultation system can reduce the average waiting time of patients without compromising the existing quality of service. Images Figure 1 PMID:9315931

  16. Head injuries in the accident and emergency department: are we using resources effectively?

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, S A; Bennett, J; Perez-Avila, C A; Gullan, R W

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a retrospective criterion based audit which reviewed head injury management in two accident and emergency (A&E) departments. Management was compared with regionally agreed criteria for ordering a skull radiograph (SXR) and a computerized tomogram (CT scan) and for admission, and the quality of medical documentation was assessed. A total of 158 patients were reviewed and 132 patients (84%) satisfied the three key areas of recommended head injury management. Failures to satisfy recommended guidelines were present in 19 patients (12%) for SXR, four (2%) for admission and three (2%) for CT scanning. Three skull fractures (two in young babies) would have been missed if the criteria had been adhered to strictly. There was one adverse outcome when a patient who should have been admitted returned to A&E 8 days after initial attendance with a subdural haemorrhage and died shortly afterwards. Apart from 'loss of consciousness', the quality both in content and legibility of the medical documentation was poor. The result of 84% correctly managed patients may be over-optimistic according to the criteria used. Although criteria have a valuable role to play, there are problems with prescriptive standard setting. A recommendation was made to develop a head injury pro forma to address the poor quality medical documentation and it was also recommended that the SXR, CT scan and admission criteria for babies and young children be reviewed. PMID:7921546

  17. How do individuals with diabetes use the accident and emergency department?

    PubMed Central

    Goyder, E C; Goodacre, S W; Botha, J L; Bodiwala, G G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the frequency and pattern of use of the accident and emergency (A&E) department by individuals with diabetes is different from that of the general population. METHODS: A historical cohort of 696 individuals with diabetes from six randomly selected general practices and a non-diabetic comparison cohort matched on age, sex, and general practice were identified. The use of an urban A&E department by the two cohorts was compared for number of visits between 1984 and 1996 for injuries, diabetes related and non-diabetes related illness, proportion referred by a general practitioner, proportion arriving by ambulance, and proportion admitted. RESULTS: More visits were made by the diabetic cohort (1002 v 706, P = 0.0001); 121 visits were directly related to diabetes, including 52 for hypoglycaemia. The diabetic cohort also had more visits for medical illness unrelated to diabetes (357 v 231, P = 0.0001). The number of visits for injuries was similar (524 v 475, P = 0.3). Individuals with diabetes who attended A&E were not significantly more likely to be referred by a general practitioner (14% v 16%) or admitted (20% v 17%). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with diabetes made more frequent visits than the general population to the A&E department. Since there was no excess of visits for injuries and the proportion requiring admission was similar, the hypothesis that they have a different threshold for attending is not supported. PMID:9413776

  18. Needlestick injury among medical personnel in Accident and Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y W; Hassim, I Noor

    2007-03-01

    Needlestick injury has been recognized as one of the occupational hazards which results in transmission of bloodborne pathogens. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 136 health care workers in the Accident and Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals from August to November 2003 to determine the prevalence of cases and episodes of needlestick injury. In addition, this study also assessed the level of knowledge of blood-borne diseases and Universal Precautions, risk perception on the practice of Universal Precautions and to find out factors contributing to needlestick injury. Prevalence of needlestick injury among the health care workers in the two hospitals were found to be 31.6% (N = 43) and 52.9% (N = 87) respectively. Among different job categories, medical assistants appeared to face the highest risk of needlestick injury. Factors associated with needlestick injury included shorter tenure in one's job (p < 0.05). Findings of this study support the hypothesis that health care workers are at risk of needlestick injury while performing procedures on patients. Therefore, comprehensive infection control strategies should be applied to effectively reduce the risk of needlestick injury. PMID:17682562

  19. Evaluation of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital: assessment of radiology performance in the accident and emergency department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherburn, Gwyneth C.; Bryan, Stirling; Cocks, Robert

    1993-09-01

    In the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) x-ray images are used to assist in the initial diagnosis and management of the patient. It is therefore expected that the main benefits of PACS in A&E will arise from the ability of clinicians to manipulate the digital image and thus potentially improve their diagnostic performance. In order to evaluate whether this benefit is realized or not a case-study evaluation has been undertaken; this has three components: (a) monitoring the extent of misdiagnosis by A&E clinicians before and after the PACS implementation; (b) an examination of the decision performance of the clinician-image combination for the visualization of the lower cervical spine/upper thoracic spine and of fracture of the head of the radius; and (c) a more general monitoring of the impact of the image archiving and communication aspects of PACS. In this paper the study of the impact of PACS on misdiagnosis by A&E clinicians at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, is described and pre-PACS results for the period 31 March 1992 to 30 September 1992 are presented.

  20. Drug history taking and the identification of drug related problems in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Akwagyriam, I; Goodyer, L I; Harding, L; Khakoo, S; Millington, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of drug related problems that fail to be noted on casualty cards in patients subsequently admitted, and to compare medication histories as recorded by accident and emergency (A&E) senior house officers (SHOs) and a pharmacist. METHODS--An initial retrospective survey of 1459 acute inpatient admissions through A&E over a three month period was followed by a prospective study of 33 elderly patients. RESULTS--In the retrospective survey, 52 medication related problems were confirmed after examination of the medical records, of which only 16 were identified in A&E. In the prospective study, 125 currently prescribed items were identified by the pharmacist compared to 77 by A&E SHOs; 66% of the missed information was clinically relevant. Of 17 previous adverse drug reactions identified by the pharmacist only six were also recorded by the A&E officer. Only four over the counter medicines were identified by the A&E SHOs compared to 30 by the pharmacist. CONCLUSIONS--More accurate recording of drug history on casualty cards should be undertaken, particularly in respect of over the counter medication and the identification of drug related problems. PMID:8733649

  1. Development of Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) for AP1000

    SciTech Connect

    Yuichi Hayashi; Saiu, Gianfranco; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-07-01

    The AP1000 is two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 final design certification has been approved by the NRC in December, 2005. The Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) have been developed for the AP1000. The generic ERGs for the low pressure reference PWR plant were used as the basic documents to develop the AP1000 ERGs. The AP1000 design differences from the reference plant were reviewed and reflected in the process of developing operational steps in each ERG. The AP1000 used PRA in both design and licensing. The provisions of the AP1000 PRA were also reviewed and incorporated into the ERGs Although the AP1000 design does not require operator actions for the first 72 hours after accidents, the operator actions with both safety-related and non-safety-related equipment have an important role to mitigate the consequence of accidents. In the event of a LOCA, the AP1000 safety-related passive core cooling system (PXS) provides sources of core makeup water along with an automatic depressurization system (ADS) consisting of several sets of redundant flow paths which are sequentially opened in stages to reduce the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure in a controlled manner. The final stage of this system, ADS-4, consists of four large valves that open off the hot legs, reducing the pressure to allow gravity injection from the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) and eventually the containment sump recirculation. The AP1000 has non-safety-related normal residual heat removal system (RNS) pumps which can be used to provide low pressure pumped injection of cask loading pit and/or IRWST water and recirculation of containment water. These pumps are

  2. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    PubMed

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  3. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  4. Use of a pro forma for head injuries in the accident and emergency department--the way forward.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, S A; Gullan, R W; Byrne, P O; Bennett, J; Perez-Avila, C A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of documentation of head-injured patients seen in three accident and emergency (A&E) departments using a specially designed head injury pro forma. A 4-week prospective study of a single head injury pro forma was followed by a second similar study with an improved version (two head injury pro formas, one for young children and babies, the other for older children and adults). The main outcome measures were the degree of completion of the pro forma and questionnaire responses from receptionists, nurses and doctors. A total of 1260 patients had their details completed on the pro forma in both studies. Compared with standard hand written A&E notes, the degree of completion of clinical details specific to the head injury were high, eg. over 95% for symptoms. The pro forma was generally well received by A&E staff, particularly after recommended improvements were made, and the majority of staff felt it should be introduced permanently into the A&E department. Concern about its use in cases of very minor head injury and multiple injuries were raised. As well as improved documentation, the pro forma facilitates the process of audit and may have an important role to play in information technology and computers in the future. Images p39-a p40-a p41-a p42-a PMID:7921548

  5. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  6. Next-generation emergency response robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Forrest; Paul, George; Dunten, Seth; Kennedy, William; Dietsch, Jeanne A.

    2004-09-01

    As reported by Blitch, current Search and Rescue robots have proven inadequate in the field. Shortfalls in mobility include: inadequate relationship between traction and drag, inadequate self-righting, inadequate sensor protection and too many protrusions to snag. Because autonomous navigation is often impossible but tele-operation may be difficult, sliding autonomy is critical. In addition, next generation SR robots need plug-n-play sensor options and modular cargo holds to deliver daughter-bots or other specialized rescue equipment. Finally, dust and smoke have caused both sensors and robots to fail in the field. Many of the needs of Search and Rescue teams are shared by all Emergency Response robots: EOD, SWAT, HazMat and other law enforcement officers. We discuss how next-generation designs solve many of the problems currently facing ER robots.

  7. Code System for Emergency Response Dose Assessment.

    2002-01-16

    Version: 00 A dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Dose pathways represented in the model are those that are most likely to be important during and immediately following a release (hours) rather than over an extended time frame (days or weeks). The doses computed include: external dose resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides in the air and deposited on the ground, internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation, and total whole-body dose. Threemore » preprocessors are included. RSFPREP generates the MESORAD run specification (input) file, METWR creates the meteorological data file, and RELPREP prepares the release definition file. PRNT is a postprocessor for generating printer or screen-compatible output. All four programs run interactively. MESORAD was developed from version 2.0 of the MESOI atmospheric dispersion model (NESC 9862) retaining its modular nature.« less

  8. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  9. Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-12-06

    Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data.

  10. Support mechanisms for oil spill accident response in costal lagoon areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eduardo R.; Silveira, Bruno; Alves, Fátima L.

    2014-10-01

    Oil spill accidents can be caused by several risk factors associated to maritime transport and port activities, which cannot always be predicted or controlled. Therefore, it is essential to support prevention and contingency plans, whose effectiveness is crucial to produce adequate responses and minimize resulting impacts. Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) is a wide coastal lagoon, within a densely populated area, representing a concentration of important biodiversity resources and several economic activities. This paper presents alternative methodologies to support the optimization of civil protection assets in the occurrence of oil spill events and the results of their application on a section area of the Aveiro Lagoon, using an established geographic information system database containing crucial data. The presented methodologies are based on the Environmental Sensitivity Index developed by the North American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) and the Global Vulnerability Index which were applied on the Bay of Biscay (Spain). However, during the development of this work, neither of these methodologies was considered to entirely assess the study area in its full extent, which led to the need to adapt and define a bespoke approach. The introduced changes include extra categories in shoreline classification, an adapted physical vulnerability index for coastal lagoons, differentiated aspects for highly protected status areas, qualitative assessment of socioeconomic features and an access and operability index created to support emergency operation response. The resulting maps are the subject of analysis, in which considerations regarding control and cleanup methods are introduced, together with guidelines for further integration in local risk management strategies.

  11. Emerging technology for vehicular safety and emergency response to roadway crashes.

    PubMed

    Champion, H R; Cushing, B

    1999-12-01

    Emerging technology for vehicular safety and emergency response to roadway crashes is the topic of this article. Reduction in emergency medical services system notification time, improvements in vehicular safety, crash avoidance and protection, post-crash injury control, triage, national automatic crash notification systems, and technologic improvements in emergency diagnostics and treatment during the past year are discussed. PMID:10625974

  12. 49 CFR 172.604 - Emergency response telephone number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency response telephone number. 172.604... telephone number. (a) A person who offers a hazardous material for transportation must provide an emergency response telephone number, including the area code, for use in the event of an emergency involving...

  13. Correlates of work-related stress among consultants and senior registrars in accident and emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, J; Whitley, T W; Allison, E J; Revicki, D A

    1993-12-01

    A mail survey was conducted of consultants and senior registrars practising accident and emergency (A&E) medicine in the United Kingdom. The 201 respondents (72%) comprised 154 consultants (70.6%) and 47 senior registrars (77%), who provided demographic information and completed inventories measuring stress, depression, task and role clarity, work group functioning and overall satisfaction with work. The respondents did not report particularly high levels of stress or depression and generally evaluated aspects of their work environments favourably. Higher levels of stress were reported by consultants and respondents from district general hospitals. Levels of stress were similar to those reported by other groups of health care providers. Respondents generally considered tasks and roles to be clearly defined, work groups to be supportive, efficient units and work satisfying. There was no statistically significant correlation on the affective scales for the number of patient attendances, on call commitment or staffing numbers. Senior staff with more than 10 years experience in the specialty reported more satisfaction with work and work group functioning, and perceived their tasks and roles to be significantly clearer. Consultants over 45 evaluated their work groups favourably and were more likely to view them as cohesive, smoothly functioning units than senior registrars. The results probably reflect the ad hoc coping strategies adopted by a group of doctors, who have already demonstrated appropriate personality characteristics by completing a long training programme, with no realistic alternative late career opportunities. To prevent mid or late career attrition, however, A&E doctors should receive formal training in stress recognition and avoidance. Accessible counselling without stigma should be easily available. Senior A&E doctors have a role in detecting and managing stress amongst other staff in the department. PMID:8110315

  14. A health visitor for older people in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bridges, J; Meyer, J; McMahon, K; Bentley, J; Winter, J

    2000-02-01

    Published studies indicate that older people have special needs on discharge from accident and emergency (A&E) departments that are not always fully met. The literature reflects that although a significant proportion of older people have a decrease in functional independence and an increased need for services following discharge from A&E, social and functional assessment by A&E staff can be inadequate, as can the arrangement of follow-up community services. As part of a wider study into the organization of care for older people in A&E, a health visitor for older people was funded to work part-time in the A&E department of a large NHS Trust. The health visitor identified potential clients through reviewing the A&E documentation of patients aged 75 years or over discharged directly from A&E. Telephone calls or home visits were used to follow up those individuals deemed to be vulnerable by the health visitor. Interventions included health education, referral to other agencies and patient or family counselling. None of the clients followed up by the health visitor (n = 212) had been referred by A&E to a specialist in gerontology, which suggests that these clients would otherwise not have received the potential benefit of specialist intervention. The pilot study described here highlights a number of practical issues in relation to the health visitor post for older people in A&E, including the importance of dedicated office space and access to a telephone. Data collected during the study, plus the positive evaluation of the role by a small group of A&E staff confirm the claims made in other studies (e.g. Runciman et al, 1996) that health visitors for older people may be of value in meeting the post-discharge needs of these people. PMID:11125456

  15. Assessment and management of asthma in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, S; Diggle, S; Cushley, M J; Sleet, R A; Tattersfield, A E

    1985-01-01

    Patients with asthma presenting to the accident and emergency department at Southampton General Hospital during 12 months were reviewed retrospectively to determine how many patients attended, when and how patients were assessed and treated, and what factors appeared to influence whether a patient was admitted to a medical ward or not. Thirty five visits were made by patients requesting a repeat prescription for a metered dose inhaler. A further 193 visits were made by 152 patients (93 male, 59 female); only data on the first visit of any individual were analysed in this study. Patients were more likely to visit in the autumn, at the weekend, and in the evenings. Observations and measurements used to assess the severity of asthma were recorded with variable frequency--heart rate in 84% of examinations, pulsus paradoxus in 13%, and peak flow rate in 11%. Blood pressure was five times more likely to be recorded than peak flow rate. The drugs used to treat asthma were, in order of frequency, a beta agonist (120 patients), intravenous aminophylline (39), and intravenous corticosteroids (30). Sixty (39%) of the patients were admitted to a medical ward. Admission was more likely to occur when patients arrived during the week than at the weekend, when they had cyanosis or pulsus paradoxus, and after receiving parenteral treatment. There was no difference in mean heart rate between patients admitted to the ward and those discharged home. Although there was no specific evidence of inappropriate admission to or discharge from hospital in this retrospective study, the failure to record more objective measurements of the severity of asthma and, in particular, the extent of the airflow obstruction, is cause for concern. PMID:2869594

  16. Presentation of poisoned patients to accident and emergency departments in the north of England.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Bevan, L; Bhattacharyya, S; Bramble, M G; Chew, K; Connolly, J; Dorani, B; Han, K H; Horner, J E; Rodgers, A; Sen, B; Tesfayohannes, B; Wynne, H; Bateman, D N

    1996-06-01

    1. A 12 week prospective survey of all patients of any age with confirmed or suspected poisoning presenting to six accident and emergency departments in the North East of England was performed to establish the local incidence and patterns of presentation of poisoning. 2. 945 episodes of poisoning involving 852 patients were recorded representing approximately 1.2% of all A&E presentations and suggesting an annual attendance rate of 2.7 per 1000 persons per year. 3. Attendance rates varied threefold between hospitals and were similar in males and females overall; between the ages of five and 14 attendances were more common in females (1.9 vs 0.6/10(3)/y) while between 0 and 4 y (3.1 vs 2.4) and 25 and 34 y (3.9 vs 2.9/10(3)/y) they were more common in males. 4. The median interval between poisoning and presentation was 2 h (mean 4.1 h) and only 19% of cases presented within 1 h. Presentation was most common between Friday evening and Tuesday morning and in the late afternoon and evening. 5. 6% of the patients presented more than once with poisoning during the study period and 37% had a past history of deliberate self-harm. The most common poisons involved were paracetamol (43%), opioids (15%) and benzodiazepines (15%). 6. The study illustrates the frequency of presentations of poisoning to A&E departments. The high rate of poisoning in young men and the increasing use of paracetamol are particular causes for concern. PMID:8793528

  17. Medical Response to Radiological Accidents in Latin America and International Assistance.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Eduardo Herrera; Baciu, Florian; Benderitter, Marc; Lataillade, Jean Jacques; Bey, Eric; Trompier, Francois; Tamarat, Radia

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of four radiological accidents in Latin America, and includes a history of the events, the clinical manifestations and health consequences for the exposed individuals, the medical response based on preclinical studies and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in coordinating medical response assistance. PMID:27018777

  18. The Sheffield experiment: the effects of centralising accident and emergency services in a large urban setting

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, A; Wardrope, J; Burke, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the effects of centralisation of accident and emergency (A&E) services in a large urban setting. The end points were the quality of patient care judged by time to see a doctor or nurse practitioner, time to admission and the cost of the A&E service as a whole. Methods—Sheffield is a large industrial city with a population of 471 000. In 1994 Sheffield health authority took a decision to centralise a number of services including the A&E services. This study presents data collected over a three year period before, during and after the centralisation of adult A&E services from two sites to one site and the centralisation of children's A&E services to a separate site. A minor injury unit was also established along with an emergency admissions unit. The study used information from the A&E departments' computer system and routinely available financial data. Results—There has been a small decrease in the number of new patient attendances using the Sheffield A&E system. Most patients go to the correct department. The numbers of acute admissions through the adult A&E have doubled. Measures of process efficiency show some improvement in times to admission. There has been measurable deterioration in the time to be seen for minor injuries in the A&E departments. This is partly offset by the very good waiting time to be seen in the minor injuries unit. The costs of providing the service within Sheffield have increased. Conclusion—Centralisation of A&E services in Sheffield has led to concentration of the most ill patients in a single adult department and separate paediatric A&E department. Despite a greatly increased number of admissions at the adult site this change has not resulted in increased waiting times for admission because of the transfer of adequate beds to support the changes. There has however been a deterioration in the time to see a clinician, especially in the A&E departments. The waiting times at the minor injury unit are very short

  19. The Chernobyl Accident 20 Years On: An Assessment of the Health Consequences and the International Response

    PubMed Central

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Objectives Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. Discussion So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects, such as mini-satellite instability, which is potentially important. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment of Chernobyl’s future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Conclusions Because of the uncertainties over the dose from and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. Because of the problems with the international response to Chernobyl, the United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry. PMID:16966081

  20. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. PMID:24887122

  1. Shipping container response to three severe railway accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.; Murty, S.S.; Witte, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The probability of damage and the potential resulting hazards are analyzed for a representative rail shipping container for three severe rail accident scenarios. The scenarios are: (1) the rupture of closure bolts and resulting opening of closure lid due to a severe impact, (2) the puncture of container by an impacting rail-car coupler, and (3) the yielding of container due to side impact on a rigid uneven surface. The analysis results indicate that scenario 2 is a physically unreasonable event while the probabilities of a significant loss of containment in scenarios 1 and 3 are extremely small. Before assessing the potential risk for the last two scenarios, the uncertainties in predicting complex phenomena for rare, high- consequence hazards needs to be addressed using a rigorous methodology.

  2. Emerging Antigens Involved in Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    New allergic diseases can “emerge” because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease. PMID:24095162

  3. Medical and radiological aspects of emergency preparedness and response at SevRAO facilities.

    PubMed

    Savkin, M N; Sneve, M K; Grachev, M I; Frolov, G P; Shinkarev, S M; Jaworska, A

    2008-12-01

    Regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation has the overall goal of promoting improvements in radiation protection in Northwest Russia. One of the projects in this programme has the objectives to review and improve the existing medical emergency preparedness capabilities at the sites for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. These are operated by SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and in Gremikha village on the Kola Peninsula. The work is also intended to provide a better basis for regulation of emergency response and medical emergency preparedness at similar facilities elsewhere in Russia. The purpose of this paper is to present the main results of that project, implemented by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre. The first task was an analysis of the regulatory requirements and the current state of preparedness for medical emergency response at the SevRAO facilities. Although Russian regulatory documents are mostly consistent with international recommendations, some distinctions lead to numerical differences in operational intervention criteria under otherwise similar conditions. Radiological threats relating to possible accidents, and related gaps in the regulation of SevRAO facilities, were also identified. As part of the project, a special exercise on emergency medical response on-site at Andreeva Bay was prepared and carried out, and recommendations were proposed after the exercise. Following fruitful dialogue among regulators, designers and operators, special regulatory guidance has been issued by FMBA to account for the specific and unusual features of the SevRAO facilities. Detailed sections relate to the prevention of accidents, and emergency preparedness and response, supplementing the basic Russian regulatory requirements. Overall it is concluded that (a) the provision of medical and sanitary components of emergency

  4. Savannah River Plant emergency response: Environmental transport and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to evaluate rapidly the possible consequences of inadvertent releases of hazardous pollutants to the environment is vital for the safe operation of most industrial plants. The Savannah River Plant has developed an emergency response system which integrates environmental observations and computer predictions to provide relevant, reliable, and timely information to decision makers. Experience has shown that the interdependence of all components of an emergency response system requires that the system must be well integrated and coordinated. Research and development is an integral component of the Emergency Response Program. It is designed to increase knowledge of environmental transport and diffusion, and to develop technologies to improve the emergency response system. This paper describes the SRP emergency response system, discusses the importance of reliability through system integration, and indicates the role played by research and development in maintaining a vital emergency response system. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Neutron energy measurements in emergency response applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Hornish, Michael; Wilde, Scott; Stampahar, Tom; Reed, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  6. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

  7. Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described.

  8. Prevalence of Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers in the Accident and Emergency Department of a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, AR; Oguzie, KE; Okpogoro, OE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are continually exposed to hazards from contact with blood and body fluids of patients in the healthcare setting. Aim: To determine the prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) and associated factors among HCWs in the Accident and Emergency Department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Univariate, bivariate, and binary logistic regression analyses were done. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of NSIs 12 months preceding the study was 51.0% (50/98). Doctors 8/10 (80.0%) and nurses 28/40 (70.0%) had the highest occurrence. Recapping of needles 19/50 (38.0%) and patient aggression 13/50 (26.0%) were responsible for most injuries. The majority 31/50 (62.0%) of the injuries were not reported. The uptake of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was low 11/50 (22.0%). The factors that were significantly associated with NSI include age 30 years and above (odds ratio [OR] =0.28, confidence interval [CI] = 0.11–0.70), work duration of three years and above (OR = 0.29, CI = 0.11–0.75), and being a nurse (OR = 3.38, CI = 1.49–9.93) or a paramedic (OR = 0.18, CI = 0.06–0.52). Conclusion: The high prevalence of NSIs among the HCWs, especially in doctors and nurses is an indication that HCWs in UBTH are at great risk of contracting blood-borne infections. Efforts should be made to ensure that injuries are reported and appropriate PEP undertaken following NSIs. PMID:27057376

  9. Innovative approach to modeling accident response of Gravel Gerties

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, M.; McClure, P.; Sullivan, H.

    1997-08-01

    Recent safety analyses at nuclear explosive facilities have renewed interest in the accident phenomenology associated with explosions in nuclear explosive cells, which are commonly referred to as {open_quotes}Gravel Gerties.{close_quotes} The cells are used for the assembly and disassembly of nuclear explosives and are located in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at the Pantex facility. The cells are designed to mitigate the release of special nuclear material to the environment in the event of a detonation of high explosive within the Gravel Gertie. Although there are some subtle differences between the cells of DAF and Pantex, their general design, geometry, and configuration are similar. The cells consist of a round room approximately 10.4 m in diameter and 5.2 m high enclosed by 0.3-m-thick concrete. Each cell has a wire-rope cantenary roof overlain with gravel. The gravel is approximately 6.9 m deep at the center of the roof and decreases toward the outer edge of the cell. The cell is connected to a corridor and subsequent rooms through an interlocking blast door. In the event of a accidental explosion involving significant amounts of high explosive, the roof structure is lifted by the force of the explosion, the supporting cables break, the gravel is lifted by the blast (resulting in rapid venting of the cell), and the gravel roof collapses, filling the cell. The lifting and subsequent collapse of the gravel, which acts much like a piston, is very challenging to model.

  10. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: an approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Mary T; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-06-15

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire. PMID:18078713

  11. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  16. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency... harm to life, property, or important natural, cultural, or historic resources. When taking such...

  17. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency... harm to life, property, or important natural, cultural, or historic resources. When taking such...

  18. Ambulance and aeromedical accident rates during emergency retrieval in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lutman, D; Montgomery, M; Ramnarayan, P; Petros, A

    2008-05-01

    The retrieval of critically ill patients is frequently done in difficult circumstances and often under considerable time pressures. These adverse conditions have a finite risk of serious injury or death. The level of risk is poorly described in the literature and reliable data on accident rates are hard to find. Most of the information comes from North America. There are no clear published statistics for the UK. We report for the first time data on accidents and casualties involving vehicles classified as having an ambulance body type and air ambulances within Great Britain between 1999 and 2004. PMID:18434473

  19. The Evaluation of Time Performance in the Emergency Response Center to Provide Pre-Hospital Emergency Services in Kermanshah

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour Amir, Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients’ cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  20. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  1. Emergency response planning guidelines: A step-by-step approach

    SciTech Connect

    Petroff, D.M.

    1997-02-01

    Emergency planning and response has become a larger part of hazardous materials management since the enactment of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, Process Safety Management, and now Risk Management for Accidental Chemical Releases under the Clean Air Act (CAA). A large obstacle to the emergency planning process has been how to evaluate an incident and determine its potential consequences. To help alleviate this problem, the American Industrial Hygiene Association developed and approved a series of emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). The guidelines are intended to provide estimates of concentrations where the adverse effects as described for each of the levels defined would be observed -- thus providing a common measurement of harm to people from a multitude of chemicals. To date, ERPGs have been adopted by the US EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Energy for emergency planning or response.

  2. The Emergency Smoke Response System (a prototype)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahm, P.; Larkin, N.; Brown, T. J.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; Sullivan, D.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Emergency Smoke Response System (ESRS) prototype was first launched during the Santa Ana wildfire event of southern California (fall 2007) and after further refinement it was again launched during the lightening wildfire event of northing California (summer 2008). During both wildfire events smoke plumes from the fires caused significant impacts on the air quality in both urban and rural communities, transportation corridors, and aviation landing strips. The ESRS, called up by U.S.F.S. headquarters, is used to provide enhanced information and data on air quality impacts and smoke transport to fire management and the public. The prototype U.S.F.S. ESRS is a combination of efforts that supplement the ongoing smoke and fire modeling information with a high resolution meteorological and smoke modeling domain placed over the wildfire event location. This domain is used to look at fine-scale fire meteorology and smoke transport and air quality impacts. At the same time, additional smoke monitors (EBAMS) are deployed in the area with real-time reporting capabilities. The monitors supplement the existing network to provide air quality information in communities without monitors or in remote (i.e. locations along transportation corridors). The data from the modeling efforts and air quality monitoring are presented to fire managers and air quality regulators through websites, which show the latest available information. To ensure maximum utility of the modeling and monitoring information, an experienced air quality forecast produces daily forecast summaries by region, providing text forecast guidance and model output discussion. The forecaster is available for the daily fire calls that fire managers use to coordinate efforts across the region. Fire managers can request modifications or new graphics which they find useful for dissemination of the information. Fire is a natural ecological process. Policy, climate, and ecological shifts can change the

  3. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency response plan. 673.5 Section 673.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.5 Emergency response plan. Any person organizing a non-governmental expedition to or within Antarctica who...

  4. A Study of Frameworks Held by Emergency Response Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    A 47-item structured Q-sort methodology was used to identify and analyze the frameworks held by experienced emergency response personnel. The questionnaire was designed to determine the following: the characteristics/behaviors considered important by people within specific fields of emergency response; differences between individuals within a…

  5. 29 CFR 2700.24 - Emergency response plan dispute proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency response plan dispute proceedings. 2700.24 Section 2700.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.24 Emergency response plan dispute proceedings. (a) Referral by the Secretary....

  6. 49 CFR 172.604 - Emergency response telephone number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the emergency response information provider (ERI provider). The name of the person, or contract number or other unique identifier assigned by an ERI provider, identified with the emergency response... registered with the ERI provider must ensure that the agency or organization has received current...

  7. 46 CFR 148.61 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency response information. 148.61 Section 148.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.61 Emergency response information. The shipper of a...

  8. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters. Experts` determination of structural response issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, R.J.; Harper, F.T.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Murfin, W.; Amos, C.N.

    1992-03-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ``so-called`` point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station were assessed. Much of the important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Structural Response Panel.

  9. Joint research and development and exchange of technology on toxic material emergency response between LLNL and ENEA. 1985 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Caracciolo, R.

    1986-01-31

    For the past six years, the US Department of Energy, LLNL, and the ENEA, Rome, Italy, have participated in cooperative studies for improving a systems approach to an emergency response following nuclear accidents. Technology exchange between LLNL and the ENEA was initially confined to the development, application, and evaluation of atmospheric transport and diffusion models. With the emergence of compatible hardware configurations between LLNL and ENEA, exchanges of technology and ideas for improving the development and implementation of systems are beginning to emerge. This report describes cooperative work that has occurred during the past three years, the present state of each system, and recommendations for future exchanges of technology.

  10. Multifactorial intervention after a fall in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Fiona E; Bond, John; Richardson, David A; Dawson, Pamela; Steen, I Nicholas; McKeith, Ian G; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of multifactorial intervention after a fall in older patients with cognitive impairment and dementia attending the accident and emergency department. Design Randomised controlled trial. Participants 274 cognitively impaired older people (aged 65 or over) presenting to the accident and emergency department after a fall: 130 were randomised to assessment and intervention and 144 were randomised to assessment followed by conventional care (control group). Setting Two accident and emergency departments, Newcastle upon Tyne. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was number of participants who fell in year after intervention. Secondary outcomes were number of falls (corrected for diary returns), time to first fall, injury rates, fall related attendances at accident and emergency department, fall related hospital admissions, and mortality. Results Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference between intervention and control groups in proportion of patients who fell during 1 year's follow up (74% (96/130) and 80% (115/144), relative risk ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.05). No significant differences were found between groups for secondary outcome measures. Conclusions Multifactorial intervention was not effective in preventing falls in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department after a fall. What is already known on this topicMultifactorial intervention prevents falls in cognitively normal older people living in the community and in those who present to the accident and emergency department after a fallFall prevention strategies have not been tested by controlled trials in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia who fallWhat this study addsNo benefit was shown from multifactorial assessment and intervention after a fall in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department

  11. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bagrow, James P; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response. PMID:21479206

  12. Collective Response of Human Populations to Large-Scale Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response. PMID:21479206

  13. An Emerging Scholarship of Practice. Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Responding to Blumberg's and Bolin's articles, this article claims that a viable scholarship of practice for supervision has already emerged. The key to present-day theorizing is figuring out how the reflection-in-action process unfolds and how to inform it. Recent research suggests that the heart of professional practice is knowing in action.…

  14. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State`s economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ``low probability, high consequence`` aspect of the transportation risk.

  15. Use of a virtual learning environment for training in maxillofacial emergencies: impact on the knowledge and attitudes of staff in accident and emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Elledge, Ross; McAleer, Sean; Thakar, Meera; Begum, Fathema; Singhota, Sanjeet; Grew, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Many graduates will take up junior roles in accident and emergency (A&E) departments to which a large proportion of patients present with facial injuries caused by interpersonal violence. However, it is widely recognised that undergraduates and postgraduates have few opportunities for training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a specifically designed maxillofacial emergencies virtual learning environment (VLE) on the knowledge and confidence of junior doctors in two A&E departments. They were given free access to the VLE for one month, and were asked to complete multiple choice questions and to rate their confidence to deal with 10 common situations on visual analogue scales (VAS) at baseline and one month after training. A total of 29 doctors agreed to pilot the website, 21 (72%) completed both sets of questions, and 18 (62%) completed both VAS assessments. The mean (SD) multiple choice score improved from 10 (2.52) to 13 (3.56) out of a maximum of 20 (p=0.004) and the mean (SD) VAS improved from 29.2 (19.2) mm to 45.7 (16.6) mm out of a maximum of 100 mm (p=0.007). This was a small pilot study with limited numbers, but it showed improvements in the knowledge of maxillofacial emergencies and in confidence, although the latter remained low. Further work is needed to examine how these brief educational interventions affect the attitudes of frontline staff to maxillofacial emergencies. PMID:26725011

  16. Accident and Off Normal Response and Recovery from Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Processing Events

    SciTech Connect

    ALDERMAN, C.A.

    2000-09-19

    In the process of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the K Basins through its subsequent packaging, drymg, transportation and storage steps, the SNF Project must be able to respond to all anticipated or foreseeable off-normal and accident events that may occur. Response procedures and recovery plans need to be in place, personnel training established and implemented to ensure the project will be capable of appropriate actions. To establish suitable project planning, these events must first be identified and analyzed for their expected impact to the project. This document assesses all off-normal and accident events for their potential cross-facility or Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) process reversal impact. Table 1 provides the methodology for establishing the event planning level and these events are provided in Table 2 along with the general response and recovery planning. Accidents and off-normal events of the SNF Project have been evaluated and are identified in the appropriate facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) or in the transportation Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). Hazards and accidents are summarized from these safety analyses and listed in separate tables for each facility and the transportation system in Appendix A, along with identified off-normal events. The tables identify the general response time required to ensure a stable state after the event, governing response documents, and the events with potential cross-facility or SNF process reversal impacts. The event closure is predicated on stable state response time, impact to operations and the mitigated annual occurrence frequency of the event as developed in the hazard analysis process.

  17. Updating Dosimetry for Emergency Response Dose Projections.

    PubMed

    DeCair, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an update to the 1992 Protective Action Guides (PAG) Manual. The PAG Manual provides guidance to state and local officials planning for radiological emergencies. EPA requested public comment on the proposed revisions, while making them available for interim use by officials faced with an emergency situation. Developed with interagency partners, EPA's proposal incorporates newer dosimetric methods, identifies tools and guidelines developed since the current document was issued, and extends the scope of the PAGs to all significant radiological incidents, including radiological dispersal devices or improvised nuclear devices. In order to best serve the emergency management community, scientific policy direction had to be set on how to use International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60 age groups in dose assessment when implementing emergency guidelines. Certain guidelines that lend themselves to different PAGs for different subpopulations are the PAGs for potassium iodide (KI), food, and water. These guidelines provide age-specific recommendations because of the radiosensitivity of the thyroid and young children with respect to ingestion and inhalation doses in particular. Taking protective actions like using KI, avoiding certain foods or using alternative sources of drinking water can be relatively simple to implement by the parents of young children. Clear public messages can convey which age groups should take which action, unlike how an evacuation or relocation order should apply to entire households or neighborhoods. New in the PAG Manual is planning guidance for the late phase of an incident, after the situation is stabilized and efforts turn toward recovery. Because the late phase can take years to complete, decision makers are faced with managing public exposures in areas not fully remediated. The proposal includes quick-reference operational guidelines to inform re-entry to

  18. Introduction to the Special Issue on the U.S. Response to the Fukushima Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2012-05-01

    Provides an introduction to the May 2012 issue of Health Physics, based on a special session at the 2011 Health Physics Society (HPS) annual meeting that focused on the United States' radiological response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This introduction outlines the papers in this important issue and describes the activities of the U.S. response participants, including the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), Department of Defense, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations. Observations are provided and the stage is set for the articles in this issue which document many of the activities undertaken during the Fukushima accident and which describe challenges faced and valuable lessons learned.

  19. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  20. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Improvements to Emergency Medical Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraffenreid, Jeff Gordon

    The challenge facing many emergency medical services (EMS) is the implementation of a comprehensive educational strategy to address emergency responses to terrorism. One such service, Johnson County (Kansas) Medical Action, needed a strategy that would keep paramedics safe and offer the community an effective approach to mitigation. A…

  1. Trust Model Based on M-CRGs in Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shasha; Zhang, Pengzhu; Jia, Zhaoqing

    Many research results demonstrate that government itself cannot handle all the requests from residents in emergency response. Some scholars proposed that building community response grids which utilized pre-existing communities to support citizen request. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to achieve effective and trustworthy collaboration between professional emergency responders and residents. In this paper, the authors modify the architecture of CRGs to provide a valid organizational pattern in emergency response. Based on the modified CRGs (M-CRGs), the trust modeling framework is discussed in detail. Through recording the total behaviors and evaluation of all agents in the systems, the society network is built and the global trustworthiness which reflects the agents' true synthetical ability is gained in the model. An application of this model to Snow Disasters in Southern China is illustrated. Analysis shows that the model contributes to developing efficiency in emergency response.

  2. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  3. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  4. No longer waiting for an accident to happen: Simulation in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Stefanie; Sullivan, Christine; McCullough, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The practice of emergency medicine (EM) requires proficient and expert skills in multiple high risk procedures. The emergency physician in-training needs a safe and realistic environment in which to practice and perfect the skills necessary to care for patients ranging from the critically ill to the patient with difficult intravenous access. Undergraduate medical, education overall has a need for training that enables students to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes to practice in a variety of specialties. This article provides an overview of simulation in a three-year emergency medicine residency at Truman Medical Center, in a required final year clerkship for all medical students at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, and discusses national trends for the use of simulation in emergency medicine. PMID:23724485

  5. Methodological framework for developing decision support systems (DSS) for hazardous materials emergency response operations.

    PubMed

    Zografos, K G; Vasilakis, G M; Giannouli, I M

    2000-01-01

    The production, storage, and transportation of hazardous materials are processes of vital economic importance for any advanced and technologically complex society. Although the production and distribution of hazardous materials is associated with economic development, there is a significant potential danger to the natural and social environment in the event of their accidental release, a fact that prompts for the development and implementation of methods and techniques that aim to improve hazardous materials risk management decisions. The objective of this paper is to present a unified framework for developing a Decision Support System (DSS) for supporting a vital function of risk management, namely the management of emergency response operations. The proposed framework recognizes the peculiarities of the hazardous materials decision-making environment which is characterized by: (i) multiple stakeholders, i.e., persons and organizations involved in and affected by hazardous materials risk management decisions; (ii) lack of a formal management structure for monitoring and controlling in a unified manner all Emergency Response Resources; (iii) lack of clear distinction and fragmentation of responsibilities of the actors involved in risk management operations; and (iv) dynamic/real-time decisions, i.e., risk determinants change over time. The proposed framework was used in order to develop a DSS for managing emergency response operations for large scale industrial accidents in Western Attica, Greece. PMID:10677678

  6. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  7. Space Shuttle Hot Cabin Emergency Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, P.; Effenhauser, R. K.; McCluskey, R.; Gillis, D. B.; Hamilton, D.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Human thermal tolerance, countermeasures, and thermal model data were reviewed and compared to existing shuttle ECS failure temperature and humidity profiles for each failure mode. Increases in core temperature associated with cognitive impairment was identified, as was metabolic heat generation of crewmembers, temperature monitoring, and communication capabilities after partial power-down and other limiting factors. Orbiter landing strategies and a hydration and salt replacement protocol were developed to put wheels on deck in each failure mode prior to development of significant cognitive impairment or collapse of crewmembers. Thermal tradeoffs for use of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Liquid Cooling Garment, integrated G-suit and Quick Don Mask were examined. candidate solutions involved trade-offs or conflicts with cabin oxygen partial pressure limits, system power-downs to limit heat generation, risks of alternate and emergency landing sites or compromise of Mode V-VIII scenarios. Results: Rehydration and minimized cabin workloads are required in all failure modes. Temperature/humidity profiles increase rapidly in two failure modes, and deorbit is recommended without the ACES, ICU and g-suit. This latter configuration limits several shuttle approach and landing escape modes and requires communication modifications. Additional data requirements were identified and engineering simulations were recommended to develop more current shuttle temperature and humidity profiles. Discussion: After failure of the shuttle ECS, there is insufficient cooling capacity of the ACES to protect crewmembers from rising cabin temperature and humidity. The LCG is inadequate for cabin temperatures above 76 F. Current shuttle future life policy makes it unlikely that major engineering upgrades necessary to address this problem will occur.

  8. Relative radiological impact from a reactor accident in the case of emerging nuclear fuels.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2009-08-01

    An assessment has been carried out on the radiological impact on an area contaminated from an accident of a nuclear reactor loaded with different actinide fuels considered in transmutation and recycling schemes. The impact of these schemes is compared to reference cases of commercial UO2 and MOX fuels. The effective dose equivalent delivered to permanent residents has been calculated using the RESRAD code and used as an index for the assessment purposes. The highest and lowest doses would be delivered from the self-generating recycling of actinides in fast and thermal reactors, respectively. External irradiation is the main contributor to the dose delivered to the target population in comparison to ingestion and inhalation. The external dose delivered would be attributed for the first few years to 134Cs and for the following several tens of years to 137Cs. PMID:19590275

  9. EPA's role and requirements in Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J.; Becker, N.

    2007-12-01

    The National Response Plan (NRP)'s Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex describes how federal agencies should coordinate their actions when responding to nuclear/radiological incidents This would include sabotage and terrorist incidents, such as terrorist use of radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) or improvised nuclear devices, as well as reactor plant accidents (commercial or weapons production facilities), orphan radioactive material sources, transportation and foreign accidents involving nuclear/radioactive material, . For an Incident of National Significance (INS), DHS is always responsible for overall coordination of the Federal response taking the lead on external affairs (public, state/local, Congressional, White House), while working in consultation with the Coordinating Agency. The primary role of the Coordinating Agency during an INS is to focus on managing the technical aspects of the Federal radiological response, including establishing site perimeters, site characterization, contaminant control measures, data management, ensuring coordination of technical data, decontamination/cleanup, and waste management. EPA becomes the Coordinating Agency for non-terrorist incidents at nuclear facilities that are not DOD, DOE, or NRC/Agreement-State licensed facilities.even though DOD, DOE, and NRC become the Coordinating Agency for their own facilities, weapons, and materials. For all other radiological terrorist incidents, such as a RDD in a city, DOE is the initial Coordinating Agency. EPA will be expected to provide radiological emergency response of a magnitude, scope, and rapidity of response greater than in all their past experience. The EPA and Los Alamos National Laboratory have formed a partnership to current research to aid in response planning and enhance preparedness. Currently Los Alamos is defining the boundaries of contamination from an urban RDD using urban dispersion modeling, in order for the EPA to be able to identify, quantify and establish a

  10. Consideration of meteorological conditions in emergency response planning

    SciTech Connect

    Heinold, D.W.; Takacs, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    EPA`s Risk Management Program under Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act will require companies to develop emergency response plans for accidental releases of acutely hazardous substances. Typically, emergency response actions range from large scale community evacuation out of the high risk area to shelter-in-place. Efforts are underway to establish universally adopted ambient air quality criteria upon which response decisions can be based. The dose-response of the chemical of concern will determine whether it is more critical to limit the peak concentration to which a person could be exposed, or to diminish the integrated dose. The ability of a response action to achieve either objective depends on a variety of factors: the release, including time varying ambient concentration; spatial extent of plume; transport time; and release duration. In addition, choice of response actions may depend upon factors specific to the exposure site, such as personal mobility, building air infiltration rate, and response implementation time.

  11. Thermohydraulic responses of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO to loss-of-coolant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Tobita, K.; Someya, Y.; Utoh, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Gulden, W.

    2015-11-01

    Major in- and ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO reactor have been analysed. Analyses have identified responses of the DEMO systems to these accidents and pressure loads to confinement barriers for radioactive materials. As for the in-VV LOCA, we analysed the multiple double-ended break of the first wall cooling pipes around the outboard toroidal circumference. As for the ex-VV LOCA, we analysed the double-ended break of the primary cooling pipe. The thermohydraulic analysis results suggest that the in- and ex-vessel LOCAs crucially threaten integrity of the primary and final confinement barriers, respectively. Mitigations of the loads to the confinement barriers are also discussed.

  12. The epidemiology and type of injuries seen at the accident and emergency unit of a Nigerian referral center

    PubMed Central

    Adoga, Adeyi A.; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A plethora of injuries present at any accident and emergency unit, but the pattern of the injuries varies from region to region especially in ours with the increased ethno-religious clashes and terrorist attacks. This study aims to determine the epidemiology and type of injuries presenting to our center with the possibility of developing injury surveillance initiatives in our center and Nigeria as a whole. Materials and Methods: Injured patients consecutively presenting to the accident and emergency department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital within the period February 2011 to January 2012 were prospectively recorded. Results: A total of 720 injured patients admitted with an age range of 8 months to 75 years (mean = 37.9; SD = ±52.4), which consists of 544 males and 176 females giving a male to female ratio of 3.1:1. Patients aged 20-29 years were in the majority (n = 220, 30.6%) with peak incidences in the period of communal clashes. Injuries sustained from motorcycles were the highest (n = 248, 34.4%). Others were 160 (22.2%) in other vehicular and pedestrian injuries, machete (n = 128), gunshots (n = 92), burns (n = 36), bomb blast injuries (n = 16), fall from heights (n = 32) and miscellaneous (n = 8). Injuries sustained in communal clashes and terrorist attacks accounted for 236 (32.8%) presentations. The most common site of injury was the head (n = 30 4, 42.2%). Relatives, passersby and law enforcement agencies brought patients to the hospital with times between injury and presentation ranging from 1 h to 3 weeks. 40 (5.6%) patients were brought in dead. Conclusion: A collective effort - on the part of the government and the citizenry is required to ensure better outcomes and a safer society for all. PMID:24812451

  13. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  14. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  15. Site-specific emergency response concept plans for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    1989-12-01

    Site-specific emergency response concept plans were developed to help initiate enhanced emergency preparedness for continued storage of the stockpile and the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) at the eight army installations storing the unitary chemical stockpile -- Aberdeen Proving Ground, Anniston Army Depot, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pueblo Depot Activity, Tooele Army Depot, and Umatilla Depot Activity. This document summarizes the emergency response plans for all the sites and highlights similarities and differences among them. Section 2 summarizes site-specific differences in stockpile hazard and risk by showing differences in planning-basis accident categories and distributions of topographical features, meteorological conditions, and populations at risk. Section 3 presents a summary of the methodology used to identify the emergency planning zones for each site and the actual recommended boundaries of those zones for the eight sites. Section 4 identifies feasible and recommended protective actions for the sites and explains reasons for differences in them. Finally, Section 5 notes the dependence of protective action effectiveness on the development and implementation of command and control and warning systems that can be implemented in a timely manner, it also identifies the differences in recommended lead times (i.e., from the onset of an accidental release) needed at the sites for effective implementation of protective actions. 17 refs., 11 figs. , 12 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Response activities on National Forest System lands. Agency regulations at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73 FR 43093...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; request for public comment. SUMMARY:...

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-77 - Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deemed necessary to control or suppress a fire set or caused by the Contractor or the Contractor's agents... contracts: Emergency Response (NOV 1996) (a) Contractor's Responsibility for Fire Fighting. (1) The..., Equipment, Utilities, and Improvements, shall immediately extinguish all fires on the work site other...

  18. 48 CFR 452.236-77 - Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... deemed necessary to control or suppress a fire set or caused by the Contractor or the Contractor's agents... contracts: Emergency Response (NOV 1996) (a) Contractor's Responsibility for Fire Fighting. (1) The..., Equipment, Utilities, and Improvements, shall immediately extinguish all fires on the work site other...

  19. Use of geographic data in emergency response decision making system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H.

    1997-07-01

    Geographic data have a number of key roles in emergency response systems focused on releases of hazardous material to the environment. Maps are a key element in allowing emergency response personnel to become oriented during a response and in presenting status information effectively to these personnel. Geographic data are essential for modeling to predict dispersal patterns during a release. It is also necessary to integrate model and measurement data with demographic information in order to assess the consequences of a release. Appropriate support for such capabilities is based on a number of evolving technologies including fast computers, large databases, network technology, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

  20. Northern Territory Emergency Response: criticism, support and redesign.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brendon W

    2012-06-01

    The recent Federal Government Report and Media release, Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: Report on Consultations and its claim of 'widespread Indigenous Support' has brought the topic of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (the Intervention) back into the public mind. This article provides a synthesis of four years of debate around the Northern Territory Emergency Response, at a time when the program is nearing the end of its time frame. It outlines the main arguments supporting the Intervention, the central criticisms and the government's response to these evaluations, with the aim of providing a primer or summary for health professionals to the discussion around this important public issue. PMID:22620472

  1. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Zimmerman, G.A.

    1994-03-14

    During Phase 3 of the EPZ project, a sitewide analysis will be performed applying a spectrum-of-accidents approach to both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials release scenarios. This analysis will include the MCA but will be wider in scope and will produce options for the State of Colorado for establishing a bounding EPZ that is intended to more comprehensively update the interim, preliminary EPZ developed in Phase 2. EG&G will propose use of a hazards assessment methodology that is consistent with the DOE Emergency Management Guide for Hazards Assessments and other methods required by DOE orders. This will include hazards, accident, safety, and risk analyses. Using this methodology, EG&G will develop technical analyses for a spectrum of accidents. The analyses will show the potential effects from the spectrum of accidents on the offsite population together with identification of offsite vulnerable zones and areas of concern. These analyses will incorporate state-of-the-art technology for accident analysis, atmospheric plume dispersion modeling, consequence analysis, and the application of these evaluations to the general public population at risk. The analyses will treat both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials and mixtures of both released accidentally to the atmosphere. DOE/RFO will submit these results to the State of Colorado for the State`s use in determining offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. In addition, the results will be used for internal Rocky Flats Plant emergency planning.

  2. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  3. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.). PMID:25722867

  4. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  5. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, John A.

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  6. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  7. USGS Emergency Response and the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. K.; Lamb, R.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely sensed datasets such as satellite imagery and aerial photography can be an invaluable resource to support the response and recovery from many types of emergency events such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, and other natural or human-induced disasters. When disaster strikes there is often an urgent need and high demand for rapid acquisition and coordinated distribution of pre- and post-event geospatial products and remotely sensed imagery. These products and images are necessary to record change, analyze impacts, and facilitate response to the rapidly changing conditions on the ground. The coordinated and timely provision of relevant imagery and other datasets is one important component of the USGS support for domestic and international emergency response activities. The USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) serves as a single, consolidated point-of-access for relevant satellite and aerial image datasets during an emergency event response. The HDDS provides data visibility and immediate download services through a complementary pair of graphical map-based and traditional directory-based interfaces. This system allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and obtain pre-event ('baseline') and post-event emergency response imagery from many different sources. These datasets will typically include images that are acquired directly by USGS, but may also include many other types of images that are collected and contributed by partner agencies and organizations during the course of an emergency event response. Over the past decade, USGS Emergency Response and HDDS have supported hundreds of domestic and international disaster events by providing critically needed pre- and post-event remotely sensed imagery and other related geospatial products as required by the emergency response community. Some of the larger national events supported by HDDS have included Hurricane Sandy (2012), the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010), and Hurricane

  8. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-07-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  9. Assessment of the responsibility between a road traffic accident and medical defects after the traffic accident injury of knee joint.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiemin; Xia, Wentao

    2012-04-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese woman was hit by a car in a road traffic accident. Local county hospital considered that her right knee was injured, but didn't find any sign of fracture from X-ray imaging. Then the hospital gave diagnosis of soft tissue contusion and the patient started to exercise with burden 21 days after her right lower limb was fixed by plaster slab. Four months later, she had to go back to the county hospital for recheck due to persistent pain on her right knee. Then, the right tibia outer plateau fracture was found. The patient rejected the advice of open reduction and internal fixation of right tibia plateau fracture. Instead, she accepted the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a hospital affiliated to a medical college. The patient felt the knee pain alleviated after surgery However, the joint dysfunction was aggravated even more. The patient used the legal procedure for personal compensation. Both driver and the insurance company disputed that the final consequence of the injured knee was due to not only the traffic accident, but also poor medical practice involved. Therefore the court consigned us to make judicial judgment of expertise. After investigation, we found the earliest X-ray graph after the accident had shown the fracture of right tibia outer plateau and right knee valgum, with articular surface involvement, and the traffic accident was considered as the primary cause of sequelae. At the same time, the county hospital missed the diagnosis of fracture, and led to insufficient fixation of right lower limb, which was not good for rehabilitation from fracture and joint injury. This was the secondary cause of sequelae. Additionally, instead of the standard therapy, the affiliated hospital of medical college made the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty four months later, which also had a little defect. It was the minor reason for the result. PMID:22391004

  10. Development and application of a water pollution emergency response system for the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Peng, Shujuan; Zhai, Jun; Xiao, Haiwen

    2011-01-01

    There are many watercraft and production accidents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of the Yangtze River in China every year. Accidents threaten the water quality of the 1085 km2 surface area of the TGRA and millions of local people if oil and chemical leakage were to occur. A water pollution management system for emergency response (WPMS_ER) was therefore designed for the management of pollution in this area. An integrated geographic information system (GIS)-based water pollution management information system for the TGRA, called WPMS_ER_TGRA, was developed in this study. ArcGIS engine was used as the system development platform, and Visual Basic as the programming language. The models for hydraulic and water quality simulation and the generation of body-fitted coordinates were developed and programmed as a dynamically linked library file using Visual Basic, and they can be launched by other computer programs. Subsequently, the GIS-based information system was applied to the emergency water pollution management of a shipwreck releasing 10 tons of phenol into the Yangtze River during two hours. The results showed that WPMS_ER_TGRA can assist with emergency water pollution management and simulate the transfer and diffusion of accidental pollutants in the river. Furthermore, it can quickly identify the affected area and how it will change over time within a few minutes of an accident occurring. PMID:21793401

  11. Impact of reducing sodium void worth on the severe accident response of metallic-fueled sodium-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, R.A.; Turski, R.B.; Pizzica, P.A.

    1994-03-01

    Analyses have performed on the severe accident response of four 90 MWth reactor cores, all designed using the metallic fuel of the Integrated Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The four core designs have different sodium void worth, in the range of {minus}3$ to 5$. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the improvement in safety, as measured by the severe accident consequences, that can be achieved from a reduction in the sodium void worth for reactor cores designed using the IFR concept.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1507 - Emergency Response Plan; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident at a mine. (3) Permissions to cross properties, build roads, and construct drill sites. (4... would be completed and located near a refuge alternative structure within 48 hours of an accident at...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1507 - Emergency Response Plan; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident at a mine. (3) Permissions to cross properties, build roads, and construct drill sites. (4... would be completed and located near a refuge alternative structure within 48 hours of an accident at...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1507 - Emergency Response Plan; refuge alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident at a mine. (3) Permissions to cross properties, build roads, and construct drill sites. (4... would be completed and located near a refuge alternative structure within 48 hours of an accident at...

  15. 49 CFR 195.403 - Emergency response training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency response training. 195.403 Section 195.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation...

  16. 49 CFR 195.403 - Emergency response training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response training. 195.403 Section 195.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  17. "Grey" Areas and "Organized Chaos" in Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy; Plumb, Donovan; Jolemore, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organizational policies and daily work practices of paramedics and firefighters within two emergency response organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in a case study consisting of interviews, focus groups, and observations. The theoretical grounding…

  18. VIEW OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE VEHICLES PARKED OUTSIDE BUILDING 331, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE VEHICLES PARKED OUTSIDE BUILDING 331, THE VEHICLE MAINTENANCE GARAGE AND FIRE STATION. THE BUILDING, ORIGINALLY CONSTRUCTED IN 1953, WAS DESIGNED AND UTILIZED AS A WAREHOUSE. ADDITIONS TO THE STRUCTURE, INCLUDING THE FIRE DEPARTMENT STRUCTURE, WERE COMPLETED IN 1967. (4/7/87) - Rocky Flats Plant, Vehicle Maintenance Garage & Fire Station, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to develop, recommend, and administer policy goals, objectives... Organization Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau § 0.192 Emergency Response Interoperability Center. (a... extent permitted by applicable law, the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau...

  20. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to develop, recommend, and administer policy goals, objectives... Organization Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau § 0.192 Emergency Response Interoperability Center. (a... extent permitted by applicable law, the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau...

  1. Radiation Response of Emerging High Gain, Low Noise Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Farr, William H; Zhu, David Q.

    2007-01-01

    Data illustrating the radiation response of emerging high gain, low noise detectors are presented. Ionizing dose testing of silicon internal discrete avalanche photodiodes, and 51-MeV proton testing of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode are discussed.

  2. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., (78 FR 34031). This correction adds the Web site that was inadvertently omitted from the interim... Federal Register of June 6, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-13459, on page 34031, column 3, after the first... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service,...

  3. Emergent Listener Responses following Intraverbal Training in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Cammilleri, Anthony P.; Macias, Heather

    2012-01-01

    We examined the emergence of listener responses following intraverbal training in four children with autism. Intraverbal training consisted of a transfer-of-control procedure in which the participants were taught to answer questions in the form of "What is the state bird of [name of state]" using either picture prompts (tact-to-intraverbal…

  4. Emerging Conceptions of Children's Responses to Parental Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczynski, Leon

    This paper reviews the behavior modification and internalization models of parental control of children, and explores the conceptualizations of children's responses to control that are emerging from the literature on development. In the behavior modification model, no distinction is made among types of child compliance or noncompliance.…

  5. 4-H Teen Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette; Powell, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program is designed to train Americans to safely help themselves and their community in the event of a widespread disaster. This program is designed for adults. Despite youth increasingly becoming recognized as valuable resources, able to equally partner with adults in leadership and decision-making…

  6. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response information. 172.602 Section 172.602 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  7. Chilling stress response of post-emergent cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to post-emergent 13-d-old cotton seedlings. • Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. Fo...

  8. Exploring Interoperability as a Multidimensional Challenge for Effective Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santisteban, Hiram

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to further an understanding of how the federal government is addressing the challenges of interoperability for emergency response or crisis management (FEMA, 2009) by informing the development of standards through the review of current congressional law, commissions, studies, executive orders, and…

  9. Creating a Campus Based Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the reader with information regarding forming a community emergency response team (CERT) at a community college. College public safety departments are efficient entities in ordinary times. However, recent events at community colleges across the country have shown that there have been situations where their capabilities have…

  10. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shipping paper; (ii) In a document, other than a shipping paper, that includes both the basic description... on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest, in a... description of the hazardous material on the shipping paper with the emergency response information...

  11. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency response information. 172.602 Section 172.602 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  12. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shipping paper; (ii) In a document, other than a shipping paper, that includes both the basic description... on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest, in a... description of the hazardous material on the shipping paper with the emergency response information...

  13. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shipping paper; (ii) In a document, other than a shipping paper, that includes both the basic description... on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest, in a... description of the hazardous material on the shipping paper with the emergency response information...

  14. Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Training: The Colorado Training Institute. Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Leslie

    The Colorado Training Institute (CTI), established in 1980, is a non-profit, instructional program devoted to promoting hazardous materials safety through education. It has trained over 3,000 emergency response personnel and industry officials and is a unique example of the private and public sectors working together to protect the public from…

  15. In-plant emergency response training: Technical matters and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1997-02-01

    There are four key elements to any effective training program: knowledge, skill, attitude and behavior. Prior to commencement of any learning experience, there must be a knowledge objective. It is the responsibility of the trainer to provide students with the information needed to properly implement a specific task. All training can be boiled down to one thing -- behavior modification. Emergency response training is no exception. To have a well-trained team, all four elements must be present. Improving a training program`s effectiveness is the primary focus of this article. The emergency response provisions of the HAZWOPER legislation provide all companies that may be required to respond to hazardous materials emergencies with two options: train their own team or call in a qualified outside response team. There are advantages and disadvantages in either case. Training and equipping one`s own team is an expensive, time-consuming option, but it can decrease the response time and enhance the probability that a standard response procedure will be implemented.

  16. Evaluation of the Thermal Response of the 5-DHLWaste Package-Hypothetical Fire Accident

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Moore

    2001-11-03

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the thermal response of the 5-defense high level waste (DHLW)/Department of Energy (DOE) codisposal waste package (WP) to the hypothetical fire accident. The objective is to calculate the temperature response of the DHLW glass to the hypothetical short-term fire defined in 10 CFR 71, Section 73(c)(4), Reference 1. The scope of the calculation includes evaluation of the accident with the waste package above ground, at the Yucca Mountain surface facility. The scope is intended to cover a DHLW WP. This WP is loaded with DHLW canisters containing glass from the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a DOE canister containing Training, Research, and Isotope General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that for the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation. In addition to the nominal design configuration thermal load case, the effects of varying the central DOE canister and DHLW thermal loads are determined. Also, the effects of varying values of the flame and WP outer surface emissivities are evaluated.

  17. Medical emergency rescue in disaster: the international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Cai, Wenwei; Lu, Ye; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Zhiping; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Huakun; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Following Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been supporting the Government of the Philippines in coordinating the incoming relief supplies from more than 30 international humanitarian health organizations. During the 10 days in Abuyong, Philippines, the Chinese medical rescue team consisting of 50 experts specialized in clinical medicine and disease prevention and control action was taken including, medical treatment, environmental disinfection and health education. A total of 1,831 cases and 2,144 outpatients were treated, blood tests, B-ultrasound, electrocardiogram (ECG) and other laboratory examinations were carried out for more than 615 patients; a cumulative 90,000 square meters in external environment were disinfected, and more than 500 health education materials were handed out. Besides, measures of purifying drinking water, and rebuilding the local hospital have also been carried out. The international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines contributed to reconstruct the local disaster health system by the activities from international medical emergency rescue. To improve the capacity of international medical emergency rescue in disaster, the special project of foreign medical emergency rescue should be set in countries' medical emergency rescue, and disaster emergency medical rescue should be reserved as a conventional capacity. PMID:25641183

  18. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-04-22

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  19. Strengthening the Federal Emergency Management Agency's disaster response capabilities.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Glenn M

    2008-04-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Disaster Operations Directorate provides the core federal response capability to save lives and to protect property in US communities that have been overwhelmed by the impact of a major disaster or emergency. The directorate executes its mission through three main programme areas: operational direction, command and control; operational teams; and operational planning. Based on lessons learned from years of disaster response experience, FEMA is now taking a more proactive and collaborative approach with its partners. This paper discusses how FEMA is placing a greater emphasis on response operations and strengthening capabilities across the full range of operational and support missions by comprehensively revamping its disaster operations model; enhancing its headquarters and regional operations centres; enhancing its headquarters and regional operational planning capabilities; and addressing catastrophic disaster planning and related critical preparedness issues. PMID:21339114

  20. Microbial isolates in open fractures seen in the accident and emergency unit of a teaching hospital in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Alonge, T O; Ogunlade, S O; Salawu, S A; Fashina, A N

    2002-01-01

    In this prospective study, superficial and deep swabs of all open fractures seen at the accident and emergency unit of our hospital between January and June 2000 were taken (before wound debridement was done or anitibiotics commenced). Routine microscopy, culture and sensitivities for aerobic and anaerobic organisms were carried out on these specimens. The organisms were cultured and identified using standard techniques and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method of Stokes. Within six hours of injury, single-organism isolates were commonly found whilst after 48 hours a mixed or poly-microbial organism load were isolated. In 90% of the positive isolates, the organisms isolated form the superficial and the deep swabs were the same. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of all the isolates shows that pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were more effective compared to cefuroxime and amoxycillin which had substantial resistance to most of the isolates. 41 fractures were followed to union and 4 (9.7%) developed osteomyelitis. PMID:12665270

  1. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  2. Improving Emergency Response and Human-Robotic Performance

    SciTech Connect

    David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

    2007-08-01

    Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed by personnel wearing cumbersome personal protective equipment (PPE) and operating under high levels of stress and workload. While robotic assistance is postulated to reduce workload and exposure, limitations associated with communications and the robot’s ability to act independently have served to limit reliability and reduce our potential to exploit human –robotic interaction and efficacy of response. Recent work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on expanding robot capability has the potential to improve human-system response during disaster management and recovery. Specifically, increasing the range of higher level robot behaviors such as autonomous navigation and mapping, evolving new abstractions for sensor and control data, and developing metaphors for operator control have the potential to improve state-of-the-art in incident response. This paper discusses these issues and reports on experiments underway intelligence residing on the robot to enhance emergency response.

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory emergency management plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G.F.

    1998-07-15

    The Laboratory has developed this Emergency Management Plan (EMP) to assist in emergency planning, preparedness, and response to anticipated and actual emergencies. The Plan establishes guidance for ensuring safe Laboratory operation, protection of the environment, and safeguarding Department of Energy (DOE) property. Detailed information and specific instructions required by emergency response personnel to implement the EMP are contained in the Emergency Management Plan Implementing Procedure (EMPIP) document, which consists of individual EMPIPs. The EMP and EMPIPs may be used to assist in resolving emergencies including but not limited to fires, high-energy accidents, hazardous material releases (radioactive and nonradioactive), security incidents, transportation accidents, electrical accidents, and natural disasters.

  4. Air quality modeling for emergency response applications. [MATHEW; ADPIC; FEM3

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Chan, S.T.; Knox, J.B.; Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

    1985-12-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for real-time assessments of the consequences from accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. For the dispersion of hazardous heavier-than-air gases, a time-dependent, three-dimensional finite element model (FEM3) is used. These models have been evaluated extensively against a wide spectrum of field experiments involving the release of chemically inert tracers or heavier-than-air gases. The results reveal that the MATHEW/ADPIC models are capable of simulating the spatial and temporal distributions of tracer concentration to within a factor of 2 for 50% of the measured tracer concentrations for near surface releases in relatively flat terrain and within a factor of 2 for 20% of the comparisons for elevated releases in complex terrain. The FEM3 model produces quite satisfactory simulations of the spatial and temporal distributions of heavier-than-air gases, typically within a kilometer of the release point. The ARAC consists of a centralized computerized emergency response system that is capable of supporting up to 100 sites and providing real-time predictions of the consequence of transportation accidents that may occur anywhere. It utilizes pertinent accident information, local and regional meteorology, and terrain as input to the MATHEW/ADPIC models for the consequence analysis. It has responded to over 150 incidents and exercises over the past decade.

  5. A survey of the current clinical practice of psychiatrists and accident and emergency specialists in the United Kingdom concerning vitamin supplementation for chronic alcohol misusers.

    PubMed

    Hope, L C; Cook, C C; Thomson, A D

    1999-01-01

    Although it is well known that B-vitamin deficiencies directly affecting the brain are common in alcohol misuse, no concise guidelines on the use of vitamin supplements in alcohol misusers currently exist in the UK. The purpose of this study was to assess current practice and opinion among UK physicians. Questionnaires were completed by a total of 427 physicians comprising Accident and Emergency (A&E) specialists and psychiatrists, with a response rate of 25%. The main findings were that vitamin deficiency was perceived as being uncommon amongst alcohol misusers (<25%) and there was no consensus as to which B vitamins are beneficial in treatment or the best method of administration of B-vitamin supplementation. The majority of psychiatrists favoured oral administration for prophylaxis against the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol misusers and parenteral therapy in patients with signs of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Whilst only just over half the A&E specialists expressed a preference, most favoured parenteral therapy in both cases. Most respondents did not currently have a unit policy/protocol on the management of vitamin supplementation in chronic alcohol misusers. Overall, the findings suggest that there is wide variation in current practice and highlight the need for guidelines in this area. PMID:10659721

  6. Core thermal response and hydrogen generation of the N Reactor hydrogen mitigation design basis accident

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Heard, F.J.; Ogden, D.M.; Quapp, W.J.

    1988-04-01

    Calculations were performed to determine core heatup, core damage, and subsequent hydrogen production of a hypothetical loss-of-cooling accident at the Department of Energy's N Reactor. The thermal transient response of the reactor core was solved using the TRUMP-BD computer program. Estimates of whole-core thermal damage and hydrogen production were made by weighting the results of multiple half-length pressure tube simulations at various power levels. The Baker-Just and Wilson parabolic rate equations for the metal-water chemical reactions modeled the key phenomena of chemical energy and hydrogen evolution. Unlimited steam was assumed available for continuous oxidation of exposed Zircaloy-2 surfaces and for uranium metal with fuel cladding beyond the failure temperature (1038 C). Intact fuel geometry was modeled. Maximum fuel temperatures (1181 C) in the cooled central regions of the core were predicted to occur one-half hour into the accident scenario. Maximum fuel temperatures of 1447 C occurred in the core GSCS-regions at the end of the 10-h transient. After 10-h 26% of the fuel inventory was predicted to have failed. Peak hydrogen evolution equaled 42 g/s, while 10-h integrated hydrogen evolution equaled 167 kg. 12 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Learning from Japan: strengthening US emergency care and disaster response.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Parveen; Arii, Maya; Kayden, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    As Hurricane Katrina demonstrated in 2005, US health response systems for disasters-typically designed to handle only short-term mass-casualty events-are inadequately prepared for disasters that result in large-scale population displacements. Similarly, after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan found that many of its disaster shelters failed to meet international standards for long-term provision of basic needs and health care for the vulnerable populations that sought refuge in the shelters. Hospital disaster plans had not been tested and turned out to be inadequate, and emergency communication equipment did not function. We make policy recommendations that aim to improve US responses to mass-displacement disasters based on Japan's 2011 experience. First, response systems must provide for the extended care of large populations of chronically ill and vulnerable people. Second, policies should ensure that shelters meet or exceed international standards for the provision of food, water, sanitation, and privacy. Third, hospital disaster plans should include redundant communication systems and sufficient emergency provisions for both staff and patients. Finally, there must be routine drills for responses to mass-displacement disasters so that areas needing improvement can be uncovered before an emergency occurs. PMID:24301402

  8. Research on public health emergency response system platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Gan, Jie-fu; Qu, Yi-zhen

    2006-01-01

    The present public health system has continually struggled to combat ongoing and emerging public health threats and emergencies. The main impediment to improving public health readiness is the lack of an effective Public Health Emergency Response System. Although many health systems have been built and large amount of data collected, it is hard to analyze these data in depth and use them efficiently. An effective PHEMS should be able to manage data, produce information and provide services. Based on digital city, such a PHEMS has a most possible chance to be built. Detailed analysis of the architecture of the PHEMS, including (1) the surveillance system for data collection, (2) the consolidated information model based on HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM), (3) and the public health service framework, is focused in this paper. As a test-bed, the implementation of a prototype, which is a part of Digital Beijing Pilot, is illustrated. In the end, some operational and technical difficulties are discussed.

  9. Physiotherapists in emergency departments: responsibilities, accountability and education.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jacqueline; Delany, Clare

    2013-06-01

    Emergency physiotherapy roles have evolved within the UK and are increasingly being adopted in Australia in response to a need for greater workforce flexibility and improved service provision to meet growing patient demand. This paper discusses the need for the physiotherapy profession to develop evidence-based regulatory, ethical and educative frameworks to keep pace with the changing clinical environment and service delivery in emergency departments. Definitions of Emergency Physiotherapy as either advanced practice or extended scope of practice are identified, and the implications for both regulation of practice and education are highlighted. Suggestions for education in areas of clinical skills, ethical understanding and legal and professional knowledge are highlighted as important areas to support physiotherapists moving into this area of practice. PMID:23219643

  10. Bridging Scientific Model Outputs with Emergency Response Needs in Catastrophic Earthquake Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannes, Tay W.

    2010-01-01

    In emergency management, scientific models are widely used for running hazard simulations and estimating losses often in support of planning and mitigation efforts. This work expands utility of the scientific model into the response phase of emergency management. The focus is on the common operating picture as it gives context to emergency…

  11. Cardiac Emergency Response Planning for Schools: A Policy Statement.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kathleen; Martin Goble, Monica; Berger, Stuart; Courson, Ron; Fosse, Gwen; Gillary, Randall; Halowich, Joe; Indik, Julia H; Konig, Madeleine; Lopez-Anderson, Martha; Murphy, M Kathleen; Newman, Mary M; Ranous, Jeff; Sasson, Comilla; Taras, Howard; Thompson, Allison

    2016-09-01

    A sudden cardiac arrest in school or at a school event is potentially devastating to families and communities. An appropriate response to such an event-as promoted by developing, implementing, and practicing a cardiac emergency response plan (CERP)-can increase survival rates. Understanding that a trained lay-responder team within the school can make a difference in the crucial minutes between the time when the victim collapses and when emergency medical services arrive empowers school staff and can save lives. In 2015, the American Heart Association convened a group of stakeholders to develop tools to assist schools in developing CERPs. This article reviews the critical components of a CERP and a CERP team, the factors that should be taken into account when implementing the CERP, and recommendations for policy makers to support CERPs in schools. PMID:27486226

  12. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System(ERDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Lambert, Winifred C.; Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    The emergency response dose assessment system (ERDAS) is a protype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) region. ERDAS provides emergency response guidance to operations at KSC/CCAS in the case of an accidental hazardous material release or an aborted vehicle launch. This report describes the evaluation of ERDAS including: evaluation of sea breeze predictions, comparison of launch plume location and concentration predictions, case study of a toxic release, evaluation of model sensitivity to varying input parameters, evaluation of the user interface, assessment of ERDA's operational capabilities, and a comparison of ERDAS models to the ocean breeze dry gultch diffusion model.

  13. Satellite image collection modeling for large area hazard emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shufan; Hodgson, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Timely collection of critical hazard information is the key to intelligent and effective hazard emergency response decisions. Satellite remote sensing imagery provides an effective way to collect critical information. Natural hazards, however, often have large impact areas - larger than a single satellite scene. Additionally, the hazard impact area may be discontinuous, particularly in flooding or tornado hazard events. In this paper, a spatial optimization model is proposed to solve the large area satellite image acquisition planning problem in the context of hazard emergency response. In the model, a large hazard impact area is represented as multiple polygons and image collection priorities for different portion of impact area are addressed. The optimization problem is solved with an exact algorithm. Application results demonstrate that the proposed method can address the satellite image acquisition planning problem. A spatial decision support system supporting the optimization model was developed. Several examples of image acquisition problems are used to demonstrate the complexity of the problem and derive optimized solutions.

  14. a Uav Based Close-Range Rapid Aerial Monitoring System for Emergency Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2011-09-01

    As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  15. Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006. Public Law 109-236, S2803

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This Act may be cited as the 'Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006' or the 'MINER Act'. It amends the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 to improve the safety of mines and mining. The Act requires operators of underground coal mines to improve accident preparedness. The legislation requires mining companies to develop an emergency response plan specific to each mine they operate, and requires that every mine has at least two rescue teams located within one hour. S. 2803 also limits the legal liability of rescue team members and the companies that employ them. The act increases both civil and criminal penalties for violations of federal mining safety standards and gives the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) the ability to temporarily close a mine that fails to pay the penalties or fines. In addition, the act calls for several studies into ways to enhance mine safety, as well as the establishment of a new office within the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health devoted to improving mine safety. Finally, the legislation establishes new scholarship and grant programs devoted to training individuals with respect to mine safety.

  16. Establishing a mobile environmental survey system for real-time emergency response.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Chen, Ing-Jane; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2014-02-01

    After the 9/11 incident, the needs of environmental survey mobility were increased because the time and place of terrorism attacks are more unpredictable than traditional radiological and nuclear accident. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the radiation protection of the survey workers in the field. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research has established a Mobile Environmental Survey System (MESS) for real time emergency response by using network communication. The system consists of three major functional components: the mobile units, the management center, and the work stations. The system can display real time survey data on an electric map collected by the survey workers from the remote field to improve the environmental survey mobility. The system can also send the survey workers messages/warnings according to geographic information and the location of the mobile unit to keep them from unnecessary radiation exposure that may be an effective way to the goal of "as low as reasonably achievable" for environmental surveys. MESS has been adopted as an essential tool for emergency response in Taiwan. The application experience of MESS in the relative exercises will be discussed in this paper. PMID:24378562

  17. Designing Mobile Applications for Emergency Response: Citizens Acting as Human Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marco; Onorati, Teresa; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    When an emergency occurs, citizens can be a helpful support for the operation centers involved in the response activities. As witnesses to a crisis, they initially can share updated and detailed information about what is going on. Moreover, thanks to the current technological evolution people are able to quickly and easily gather rich information and transmit it through different communication channels. Indeed, modern mobile devices embed several sensors such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi, accelerometers or cameras that can transform users into well-equipped human sensors. For these reasons, emergency organizations and small and medium enterprises have demonstrated a growing interest in developing smart applications for reporting any exceptional circumstances. In this paper, we present a practical study about this kind of applications for identifying both limitations and common features. Based on a study of relevant existent contributions in this area and our personal direct experience in developing and evaluating emergency management solutions, our aim is to propose several findings about how to design effective and efficient mobile emergency notification applications. For this purpose we have exploited the basic sensors of modern mobile devices and the users’ aptitude for using them. The evaluation consists of a practical and a theoretical part. In the practical part, we have simulated a traffic accident as closely as possible to a real scenario, with a victim lying on the ground near a car in the middle of a street. For the theoretical part, we have interviewed some emergency experts for collecting their opinions about the utility of the proposed solution. Results from this evaluation phase confirm the positive impact that EN application have for both operators’ and citizens’ perspective. Moreover, we collected several findings useful for future design challenges in the same area, as shown in the final redesign of the proposed application. PMID:27007375

  18. Designing Mobile Applications for Emergency Response: Citizens Acting as Human Sensors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marco; Onorati, Teresa; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    When an emergency occurs, citizens can be a helpful support for the operation centers involved in the response activities. As witnesses to a crisis, they initially can share updated and detailed information about what is going on. Moreover, thanks to the current technological evolution people are able to quickly and easily gather rich information and transmit it through different communication channels. Indeed, modern mobile devices embed several sensors such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi, accelerometers or cameras that can transform users into well-equipped human sensors. For these reasons, emergency organizations and small and medium enterprises have demonstrated a growing interest in developing smart applications for reporting any exceptional circumstances. In this paper, we present a practical study about this kind of applications for identifying both limitations and common features. Based on a study of relevant existent contributions in this area and our personal direct experience in developing and evaluating emergency management solutions, our aim is to propose several findings about how to design effective and efficient mobile emergency notification applications. For this purpose we have exploited the basic sensors of modern mobile devices and the users' aptitude for using them. The evaluation consists of a practical and a theoretical part. In the practical part, we have simulated a traffic accident as closely as possible to a real scenario, with a victim lying on the ground near a car in the middle of a street. For the theoretical part, we have interviewed some emergency experts for collecting their opinions about the utility of the proposed solution. Results from this evaluation phase confirm the positive impact that EN application have for both operators' and citizens' perspective. Moreover, we collected several findings useful for future design challenges in the same area, as shown in the final redesign of the proposed application. PMID:27007375

  19. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  20. Emerging applications of stimuli-responsive polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.; Genzer, Jan; Müller, Marcus; Ober, Christopher; Stamm, Manfred; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Szleifer, Igal; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Urban, Marek; Winnik, Françoise; Zauscher, Stefan; Luzinov, Igor; Minko, Sergiy

    2010-02-01

    Responsive polymer materials can adapt to surrounding environments, regulate transport of ions and molecules, change wettability and adhesion of different species on external stimuli, or convert chemical and biochemical signals into optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical signals, and vice versa. These materials are playing an increasingly important part in a diverse range of applications, such as drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and 'smart' optical systems, as well as biosensors, microelectromechanical systems, coatings and textiles. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments towards applications of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials that are self-assembled from nanostructured building blocks. We also provide a critical outline of emerging developments.

  1. Intelligent situation assessment and response aiding in flight emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin; Cramer, Nichael; Young, David; Baron, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based pilot aiding system which performs situation assessment and response aiding is described. The system uses a causal model of the flight domain to both simulate the effects of identified failures on flight and to derive responses during emergencies. The model represents information at two levels of abstraction: Boolean, which simply states whether a subsystem or aircraft component is normal or abnormal, and qualitative, which expresses the subsystem or component status as one of several qualitative values, such as increasing, decreasing, or stable.

  2. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage. PMID:27393213

  3. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by "others" in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There is a significant relationship between occupation and the risk of experiencing sexual violence. Students were mostly targeted by the perpetrator throughout the study period. Among the offences, rape cases were the highest in number, among those who attended at the OSCC, HUSM with a total of 72.7%; followed by 27.3% of incest; 26.4% of child sexual abuse; 4.8% of sodomy and lastly 1.6% of gerontophilia cases. Only 70% of the specimens obtained from sexual offences victims were sent for laboratory analysis. The result remained negative in 82.4% specimens and thus the laboratory analysis result is merely functioning as a supportive evidence for sexual offence cases attended at OSCC. The studies showed that most of the sexual assault perpetrators were known to the victims. The place of crime was also known to the perpetrators. Health sectors of various levels should be working in conjunction to promote a societal changes to improve more of the women's right and thus to reduce the violence crime. PMID:22589588

  4. A national census of those attending UK accident and emergency departments with asthma. The UK National Asthma Task Force.

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, M R; Latouche, D; Trako, E; Thurston, J G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain a representative national picture of the type of people with asthma attending accident and emergency (A&E) departments in the UK, the reasons why they attend, and to determine the proportion admitted to hospital. DESIGN: A national census involving questionnaires. SETTING: 100 A&E departments throughout the UK. SUBJECTS: All those with asthma attending because of asthma during a one week period in September 1994. RESULTS: Details were obtained about 1292 attendances. About half of all attendances were by adults and half by children, and 87.8% were previously diagnosed asthmatics; 18.8% of adult attenders were unemployed. Perceived severity of asthma was the reason for attendance in 65.5%, but 11.5% reported non-availability, or perceived non-availability, of the general practitioner (GP) as the reason for attending. One fifth of adults had been kept awake by their asthma for over three nights before attendance. 425 of the 1292 attenders (32.9%) had been admitted to hospital in the previous 12 months and 316 (24.5%) had attended the A&E department in the previous three months. Only 24.6% of attenders had had contact with their general practitioner in the previous 24 h. 61.6% of under-5 attenders (n = 341) were admitted to hospital; the figures for those aged 5-15 and 15+ years and above were 265 (41.4%) and 665 (38.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Many people with asthma attend A&E departments without first having seen their GP. In many adult cases the asthma, while severe, is not acute, but a high proportion of both adults and children are admitted to hospital. Many of these attendances and admissions are repeat attendances. To enhance the quality of care provided to those with asthma may require easier access to primary care, enhanced patient education, or enhanced health professional education. Further study is needed of a variety of potential interventions. PMID:9023616

  5. WMD first response: requirements, emerging technologies, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; Hoehn, W E

    2000-06-19

    In the US today, efforts are underway to defend against the possible terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against US cities. These efforts include the development and adaptation of technologies to support prevention and detection, to defend against a possible attack, and, if these fail, to provide both mitigation responses and attribution for a WMD incident. Technologies under development span a range of systems, from early detection and identification of an agent or explosive, to diagnostic and systems analysis tools; and to forensic analysis for law enforcement. Also, many techniques and tools that have been developed for other applications are being examined to determine whether, with some modification, they could be of use by the emergency preparedness, public health, and law enforcement communities. However, anecdotal evidence suggests the existence of a serious disconnect between the technology development communities and these user communities. This disconnect arises because funding for technology development is derived primarily from sources (principally federal agencies) distant from the emergency response communities, which are predominantly state, county, or local entities. Moreover, the first responders with whom we have worked candidly admit that their jurisdictions have been given, or have purchased for them, a variety of technological devices, typically without consulting the emergency responders about their utility. In private discussions, emergency responders derisively refer to these as a closet full of useless toys. Technology developers have many new and relevant technologies currently in the development pipeline, but most have not been adequately vetted against the field needs or validated for field use. The Center for Global Security Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently sponsored a two-day workshop to bring together

  6. Avertable dose intervention applied in emergency response dose evaluation system for nuclear emergency preparedness in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chung-hsin; Teng, Jen-hsin; Yang, Yung-muh; Chang, Bor-jing

    2010-06-01

    In Taiwan the new guides for the nuclear emergency public protective action were laid down by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC on July 15th, 2005. The main modifications of the guides are that the avertable dose is applied as the intervention levels and suggests the public protective actions. The emergency response dose evaluation system named RPDOSE, which was developed in 2005, was employed in this work to enhance the capability of the avertable dose evaluation for the villages in the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The period of the long-term weather forecasting data was extended from 4 to 8 days to satisfy the requirement of avertable dose computing. According to the intervention levels, the RPDOSE system is used to calculate the avertable dose and suggest appropriate public protective actions such as sheltering, evacuation or iodine prophylaxis as well as the proposed acting times for each village in the EPZ. This system was employed and examined in the annual nuclear emergency exercise of 2008 in the Maanshan nuclear power plant.

  7. The application of mobile satellite services to emergency response communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freibaum, J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of an integrated satellite/terrestrial emergency response communications system in disaster relief operations is discussed. Large area coverage communications capability, full-time availability, a high degree of mobility, plus reliability, are pointed out as criteria for an effective emergency communications system. Response time is seen as a major factor determining the possible survival and/or protection of property. These criteria, can not be met by existing communications systems and complete blackouts were experienced during the past decades caused by either interruption or destruction of existing power lines, and overload or inadequacy of remaining lines. Several emergency cases, caused by either hurricanes, tornados, or floods, during which communication via satellite was instrumental to inform rescue and relief teams, are described in detail. Seismic Risk Maps and charts of Major Tectonic Plates Earthquake Epicenters are given, and it is noted that, 35 percent of the U.S. population is living in critical areas. National and international agreements for the implementation of a satellite-aided global Search and Rescue Program is mentioned. Technological and economic breakthroughs are still needed in large multibeam antennas, switching circuits, and low cost mobile ground terminals. A pending plan of NASA to initiate a multiservice program in 1982/83, with a Land Mobile Satellite capability operating in the 806 - 890 MHz band as a major element, may help to accelerate the needed breakthroughs.

  8. The Effect of Cause of Death on Responses to the Bereaved: Suicide Compared to Accident and Natural Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Breon G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of cause of death on responses to bereaved individual. Sixty adults listened to audiotape of recently bereaved widow. There were three versions of tape, each identical except for stated cause of death: suicide, accident, or heart attack. Found that respondents were more anxious after interaction than before. Perceptions of person…

  9. Containment building atmosphere response during severe accidents in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.; Chan, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    Several safety evaluations for large High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR), using a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) design, have concluded that Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) present the most important severe accidents, resulting in the dominant source term. While the core thermohydraulic transients for such accident sequences have been presented previously, the subject of this paper is the containment building (CB) atmosphere transient, with primary emphasis on the CB atmosphere temperature and pressure, as overpressurization is the most likely failure mode.

  10. Broadband macroscopic cortical oscillations emerge from intrinsic neuronal response failures

    PubMed Central

    Goldental, Amir; Vardi, Roni; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which were extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism—the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures (NRFs). These NRFs, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives. PMID:26578893

  11. Two-Graph Building Interior Representation for Emergency Response Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, P.; Mahdjoubi, L.; Zverovich, V.; Fadli, F.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, in a rapidly developing urban environment with bigger and higher public buildings, disasters causing emergency situations and casualties are unavoidable. Preparedness and quick response are crucial issues saving human lives. Available information about an emergency scene, such as a building structure, helps for decision making and organizing rescue operations. Models supporting decision-making should be available in real, or near-real, time. Thus, good quality models that allow implementation of automated methods are highly desirable. This paper presents details of the recently developed method for automated generation of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment, including a full 3D topological model, which may be used not only for standard navigation but also for finding safe routes and simulating hazard and phenomena associated with disasters such as fire spread and heat transfer.

  12. Civilian exposure to toxic agents: emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Baker, David

    2004-01-01

    Civilian populations are at risk from exposure to toxic materials as a result of accidental or deliberate exposure. In addition to industrial hazards, toxic agents designed for use in warfare now are a potential hazard in everyday life through terrorist action. Civil emergency medical responders should be able to adapt their plans for dealing with casualties from hazardous materials (HazMat) to deal with the new threat. Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) and HazMat agents can be viewed as a continuous spectrum. Each of these hazards is characterized by qualities of toxicity, latency of action, persistency, and transmissibility. The incident and medical responses to release of any agent is determined by these characteristics. Chemical and biological wardare agents usually are classified as weapons of mass destruction, but strictly, they are agents of mass injury. The relationship between mass injury and major loss of life depends very much on the protection, organization, and emergency care provided. Detection of a civil toxic agent release where signs and symptoms in casualties may be the first indicator of exposure is different from the military situation where intelligence information and tuned detection systems generally will be available. It is important that emergency medical care should be given in the context of a specific action plan. Within an organized and protected perimeter, triage and decontamination (if the agent is persistent) can proceed while emergency medical care is provided at the same time. The provision of advanced life support (TOXALS) in this zone by protected and trained medical responders now is technically feasible using specially designed ventilation equipment. Leaving life support until after decontamination may have fatal consequences. Casualties from terrorist attacks also may suffer physical as well as toxic trauma and the medical response also should be capable of dealing with mixed injuries. PMID:15506255

  13. Current Domain Challenges in the Emergency Response Community

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Burtner, Edwin R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2011-05-08

    This paper describes the development of a framework targeted to technology providers in order to better understand the grand domain challenges of the emergency response and management community (EM). In developing this framework, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain and corroborated these findings with current literature. We are currently examining relationships and dependencies within the framework. A thorough understanding of these gaps and dependencies will allow for a more informed approach prioritizing research, developing tools, and applying technology to enhance performance in the EM community.

  14. Transportation accident response of a high-capacity truck cask for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, W.J.; Glaser, R.E.; Johnson, G.L.; Perfect, S.A.; McGuinn, E.J.; Lake, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Two of the primary goals of this study were (i) to check the structural and thermal performance of the GA-4 cask in a broad range of accidents and (ii) to carry out a severe-accidents analysis as had been addressed in the Modal Study but now using a specific recent cask design and using current-generation computer models and capabilities. At the same time, it was desired to compare the accident performance of the Ga-4 cask to that of the generic truck cask analyzed in the Modal Study. The same range of impact and fire accidents developed in the Modal Study was adopted for this study. The accident-description data base of the Modal Study categorizes accidents into types of collisions with mobile or fixed objects, non-collision accidents, and fires. The mechanical modes of damage may be via crushing, impact, or puncture. The fire occurrences in the Modal Study data are based on truck accident statistics. The fire types are taken to be pool fires of petroleum products from fuel tanks and/or cargoes.

  15. The emergency medical response to the Cantara hazardous materials incident.

    PubMed

    Koehler, G A; Van Ness, C

    1993-01-01

    On 14 July 1991, at 2150 h, a train derailment occurred near the Cantara rail curve about six miles above Dunsmuir in Northern California. The derailment spilled approximately 19,000 gallons of metam-sodium into the Sacramento River. When mixed with water, metam-sodium degrades to methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and other gases. The contaminated river water passed the town of Dunsmuir and other occupied areas exposing residents to MITC gas. From 15 July to 20 July (five days), a total of 360 people underwent triage. The majority of patients displayed minor exposure symptoms that did not require hospital care. Mercy Mt. Shasta Hospital, a small rural hospital close to Dunsmuir, received the majority of patients. As of 29 July, 15 days after the incident, Mercy Mt. Shasta Hospital had seen 244 exposed patients in its emergency department, and had admitted five. Three had symptoms that could have been spill-related. Three Regional Poison Control Centers provided medical toxicology advice. Medical management of the emergency medical services (EMS) response to the event was piecemeal and weak. There did not appear to be a medical operations component at local Emergency Operations Centers (EOC). Most health care personnel interviewed complained about inadequate information about the substance and the situation. Local fire service mutual-aid agreements to obtain additional fire service and ambulance personnel worked well. It is important to emphasize that everyone who believed they had been exposed to the chemical underwent triage and received appropriate acute medical care. PMID:10155481

  16. 44 CFR 352.27 - Federal role in the emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal role in the emergency response. 352.27 Section 352.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS...

  17. Immune responses of wild birds to emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Staley, M; Bonneaud, C

    2015-05-01

    Over the past several decades, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wild birds have attracted worldwide media attention, either because of their extreme virulence or because of alarming spillovers into agricultural animals or humans. The pathogens involved have been found to infect a variety of bird hosts ranging from relatively few species (e.g. Trichomonas gallinae) to hundreds of species (e.g. West Nile Virus). Here we review and contrast the immune responses that wild birds are able to mount against these novel pathogens. We discuss the extent to which these responses are associated with reduced clinical symptoms, pathogen load and mortality, or conversely, how they can be linked to worsened pathology and reduced survival. We then investigate how immune responses to EIDs can evolve over time in response to pathogen-driven selection using the illustrative case study of the epizootic outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild North American house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We highlight the need for future work to take advantage of the substantial inter- and intraspecific variation in disease progression and outcome following infections with EID to elucidate the extent to which immune responses confer increased resistance through pathogen clearance or may instead heighten pathogenesis. PMID:25847450

  18. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  19. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  20. 76 FR 23810 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... advises interested persons that the FCC Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety...

  1. 76 FR 10898 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... advises interested persons that the FCC Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety...

  2. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  3. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  4. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  5. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  6. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  7. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises.

  8. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  9. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  10. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  11. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  12. Response of the GPHS/RTG system to potential launch accident environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunda, Meera

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft is designed to carry out an orbital tour of the Saturnian system and an investigation of the planet, its satellites, atmosphere, and its ring system. The space vehicle is powered by three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) which are mounted normal to the thrust axis of the vehicle. The nuclear heat source for each RTG consists of a stacked column of eighteen General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module primarily consists of an aeroshell, two Graphite Impact Shells (GIS), and four Fueled Clads (FC). Each FC consists of a fuel pellet of plutonium-238 in the form of the oxide PuO2 encased in an iridium shell which serves to contain the fuel. An extensive program of experimental tests and analyses was conducted in support of previous missions (Galileo and Ulysses) which served to calibrate and validate the PISCES 2D-ELK continuum mechanics code. This paper describes the response of the GPHS-RTG system to a large number of potential launch accident environments employing the MSC/PISCES Euler Lagrange shell coupled hydrocode as an analytical tool. The results of these calculations quantified the integrity of the iridium clad fuel containment system and provided a data base for a determination of the overall risk for the Cassini mission by others.

  13. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments’ Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs. PMID:26823922

  14. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments' Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs. PMID:26823922

  15. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here. PMID:24965965

  16. Technical basis for nuclear accident dosimetry at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Mei, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental, Safety, and Health Emergency Response Organization has the responsibility of providing analyses of personnel exposures to neutrons and gamma rays from a nuclear accident. This report presents the technical and philosophical basis for the dose assessment aspects of the nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) system at ORNL. The issues addressed are regulatory guidelines, ORNL NAD system components and performance, and the interpretation of dosimetric information that would be gathered following a nuclear accident.

  17. Senior house officers' work related stressors, psychological distress, and confidence in performing clinical tasks in accident and emergency: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S.; Dale, J.; Glucksman, E.; Wellesley, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between accident and emergency senior house officers' psychological distress and confidence in performing clinical tasks and to describe work related stressors. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey with data collected at four points during senior house officers' six month attachment to accident and emergency departments. SUBJECTS: 171 newly appointed accident and emergency senior house officers from 27 hospitals in the South Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychological distress measured with a 25 item questionnaire; confidence in performing a range of 35 clinical and practical activities (visual analogue scales); reported consultation stress factors, other work related stressors, and personal stressors. RESULTS: Overall confidence scores in carrying out a range of clinical and practical activities increased significantly between the end of the first and the end of the fourth month (Z = -6.05, P < 0.001). Senior house officers with higher psychological distress scores at the end of their first and fourth month had significantly lower confidence scores (Z = -3.20, P < 0.001; Z = -1.90, P < 0.05). Senior house officers with lower increases in confidence between the first and fourth month had significantly higher distress than those with greater increases (Z = -2.62, P < 0.001). Factors identified as causing stress during consultations included difficulties with communication, certain clinical presentations, and department organisational factors (particularly the intensity of workload). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress is linked to confidence in senior house officers. This supports the need to monitor and build confidence in senior house officers and to address work related stressors. Additional communication skills training needs to be considered. PMID:9116547

  18. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  19. Health risk assessment of major accidents with toxic chemicals for disaster preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Torn, P.

    1991-01-01

    Health risks of major accidents with toxic chemicals need to be defined by: (i) nature, (ii) number and (iii) severity. (ad i) Health effects are conveniently categorized by nature into local (L)/systemic (S) and immediate (1)/delayed (2) (health effects). (ad ii) Derivation of population responses generally is unfeasible, instead exposure bands can be specified by effect-level. (ad iii) The continuum of health effects should be described in a global disability scale. The 4 D'-scale seems most appropriate: death (D{sub 1}), disability (D{sub 2}), discomfort (D{sub 3}), detectability (D{sub 4}). For use in disaster response health risk specifications should furthermore be: (1) transparent, (2) in line with the overall situational analysis and (3) congruent with mitigation. (-ad 1) Transparency can be improved by selecting one main sign/symptom by effect level for field instructions. (-ad 2) Situational analysis initially involves the source-area (what effect levels are found near the source ) and the outer limits of the effect area (feedback from telephone complaints mostly D{sub 4}). Otherwise, knowledge is needed of the ratio of exposures that lead to consecutive effect levels to assess the overall health impact by interpolation. Finally, the need to recognize high risk situations is emphasized: e.g. data bases with distributions of dispersion constraints (urban areas), penetration potentials into the housing-stock, concentrations of groups at high-risk (over time). (-ad 3) Mitigation is divided into: (a) protection of the public in a threatened area and (b) medical assistance.

  20. Comparison of perceived and modelled geographical access to accident and emergency departments: a cross-sectional analysis from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David L; Christie, Stephen; Lester, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Assessment of the spatial accessibility of hospital accident and emergency departments as perceived by local residents has not previously been investigated. Perceived accessibility may affect where, when, and whether potential patients attend for treatment. Using data on 11,853 respondents to a population survey in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK, we present an analysis comparing the accessibility of accident and emergency departments as reported by local residents and drive-time to the nearest accident and emergency department modelled using a geographical information system (GIS). Results Median drive-times were significantly shorter in the lowest perceived access category and longer in the best perceived access category (p < 0.001). The perceived access and GIS modelled drive-time variables were positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.38, p < 0.01). The strongest correlation was found for respondents living in areas in which nearly all households had a car or van (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Correlations were stronger among respondents reporting good access to public transport and among those reporting a recent accident and emergency attendance for injury treatment compared to other respondents. Correlation coefficients did not vary substantially by levels of household income. Drive-time, road distance and straight-line distance were highly inter-correlated and substituting road distance or straight-line distance as the GIS modelled spatial accessibility measure only marginally decreased the magnitude of the correlations between perceived and GIS modelled access. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the accessibility of hospital-based health care services as perceived by local residents is related to measures of spatial accessibility modelled using GIS. For studies that aim to model geographical separation in a way that correlates well with the perception of local residents, there may be minimal advantage in using

  1. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting. PMID:25855946

  3. Reservoir Host Immune Responses to Emerging Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, Judith N.; Ahmed, Rafi; Barreiro, Luis B.; Daszak, Peter; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic viruses, such as HIV, Ebola virus, coronaviruses, influenza A viruses, hantaviruses, or henipaviruses, can result in profound pathology in humans. In contrast, populations of the reservoir hosts of zoonotic pathogens often appear to tolerate these infections with little evidence of disease. Why are viruses more dangerous in one species than another? Immunological studies investigating quantitative and qualitative differences in the host-virus equilibrium in animal reservoirs will be key to answering this question, informing new approaches for treating and preventing zoonotic diseases. Integrating an understanding of host immune responses with epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary insights into viral emergence will shed light on mechanisms that minimize fitness costs associated with viral infection, facilitate transmission to other hosts, and underlie the association of specific reservoir hosts with multiple emerging viruses. Reservoir host studies provide a rich opportunity for elucidating fundamental immunological processes and their underlying genetic basis, in the context of distinct physiological and metabolic constraints that contribute to host resistance and disease tolerance. PMID:25533784

  4. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) for Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julia; Chu, Kai-Dee; Baker, Paul; Starr, Cynthia; Fox, Jeffrey; Baitinger, Mick

    1998-01-01

    Today, most mission operations are geared toward lowering cost through unmanned operations. 7-day/24-hour operations are reduced to either 5-day/8-hour operations or become totally autonomous, especially for deep-space missions. Proper and effective notification during a spacecraft emergency could mean success or failure for an entire mission. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) is a tool designed for autonomous mission operations. The SERS automatically contacts on-call personnel as needed when crises occur, either on-board the spacecraft or within the automated ground systems. Plus, the SERS provides a group-ware solution to facilitate the work of the person(s) contacted. The SERS is independent of the spacecraft's automated ground system. It receives and catalogues reports for various ground system components in near real-time. Then, based on easily configurable parameters, the SERS determines whom, if anyone, should be alerted. Alerts may be issued via Sky-Tel 2-way pager, Telehony, or e-mail. The alerted personnel can then review and respond to the spacecraft anomalies through the Netscape Internet Web Browser, or directly review and respond from the Sky-Tel 2-way pager.

  5. The dentist's responsibilities with respect to a nofault motor accident compensation scheme.

    PubMed

    Craig, Pamela J G; Clement, John G

    2012-11-01

    The State of Victoria, Australia operates a no-fault accident compensation scheme for the treatment and rehabilitation of those injured on the roads. The administration of the scheme by the Transport Accident Commission includes an in-house clinical panel of clinicians in many disciplines including dentistry who liaise with treating practitioners with the aim of optimizing the outcome for the injured claimants. PMID:23221265

  6. HAZBOT - A hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Edmonds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used by hazardous materials emergency response teams to perform a variety of tasks including incident localization and characterization, hazardous material identification/classification, site surveillance and monitoring, and ultimately incident mitigation. In September of 1991, the HAZBOT II vehicle performed its first end-to-end demonstration involving a scenario in which the vehicle: navigated to the incident location from a distant (150-200 ft.) deployment site; entered a building through a door with thumb latch style handle and door closer; located and navigated to the suspected incident location (a chemical storeroom); unlocked and opened the storeroom's door; climbed over the storeroom's 12 in. high threshold to enter the storeroom; and located and identified a broken container of benzene.

  7. Multi-Criteria Sensor Placement for Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to locating a set of sensors to provide early warning of a dangerous chemical or biological agent release. The objective of the warning system is to minimize potential fatalities and any other health-related problems resulting from either an accidental release (such as a chemical spill) or from of a deliberate act of terrorism. The sensor placement solution is described as part of a broader simulation approach that considers the number of sensors available for deployment, the effect of weather conditions on the spread and concentration of the agent released, the speed at which appropriate emergency response actions can be taken to evacuate or shelter-in-place, and factors that make some release points more likely than others, such as the relative ease of site access or the presence of high priority or high impact targets within the at-risk area. Aerial photography and GIS also play important roles in the decision support environment described.

  8. SARS: mobilizing and maintaining a public health emergency response.

    PubMed

    Posid, Joseph M; Bruce, Sherrie M; Guarnizo, Julie T; Taylor, Melissa L; Garza, Brenda W

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mobilized the resources of the entire agency in a concerted effort to meet the challenges posed by the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Over the 133 days that comprised the emergency response phase of the SARS outbreak, CDC utilized the skills of more than 850 people. These staff were deployed from every Center, Institute, and Office within CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. They provided technical assistance to countries reporting large numbers of cases and requesting assistance, met passengers and crew from these locations upon arrival in the United States, and assured that the syndrome was reported and thoroughly investigated within the United States. This paper describes the operational requirements that were established and the resources that were used to conduct this investigation. PMID:15829833

  9. Simulation of thermal response of the 250 MWT modular HTGR during hypothetical uncontrolled heatup accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    One of the central design features of the 250 MWT modular HTGR is the ability to withstand uncontrolled heatup accidents without severe consequences. This paper describes calculational studies, conducted to test this design feature. A multi-node thermal-hydraulic model of the 250 MWT modular HTGR reactor core was developed and implemented in the IBM CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) simulation language. Survey calculations show that the loss of forced circulation accident with loss of steam generator cooling water and with accidental depressurization is the most severe heatup accident. The peak hot-spot fuel temperature is in the neighborhood of 1600/sup 0/C. Fuel failure and fission product releases for such accidents would be minor. Sensitivity studies show that code input assumptions for thermal properties such as the side reflector conductivity have a significant effect on the peak temperature. A computer model of the reactor vessel cavity concrete wall and its surrounding earth was developed to simulate the extremely unlikely and very slowly-developing heatup accident that would take place if the worst-case loss of forced primary coolant circulation accident were further compounded by the loss of cooling water to the reactor vessel cavity liner cooling system. Results show that the ability of the earth surrounding the cavity to act as a satisfactory long-term heat sink is very sensitive to the assumed rate of decay heat generation and on the effective thermal conductivity of the earth.

  10. The Behavioral Relevance of Cortical Neural Ensemble Responses Emerges Suddenly

    PubMed Central

    Sadacca, Brian F.; Mukherjee, Narendra; Vladusich, Tony; Li, Jennifer X.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas many laboratory-studied decisions involve a highly trained animal identifying an ambiguous stimulus, many naturalistic decisions do not. Consumption decisions, for instance, involve determining whether to eject or consume an already identified stimulus in the mouth and are decisions that can be made without training. By standard analyses, rodent cortical single-neuron taste responses come to predict such consumption decisions across the 500 ms preceding the consumption or rejection itself; decision-related firing emerges well after stimulus identification. Analyzing single-trial ensemble activity using hidden Markov models, we show these decision-related cortical responses to be part of a reliable sequence of states (each defined by the firing rates within the ensemble) separated by brief state-to-state transitions, the latencies of which vary widely between trials. When we aligned data to the onset of the (late-appearing) state that dominates during the time period in which single-neuron firing is correlated to taste palatability, the apparent ramp in stimulus-aligned choice-related firing was shown to be a much more precipitous coherent jump. This jump in choice-related firing resembled a step function more than it did the output of a standard (ramping) decision-making model, and provided a robust prediction of decision latency in single trials. Together, these results demonstrate that activity related to naturalistic consumption decisions emerges nearly instantaneously in cortical ensembles. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper provides a description of how the brain makes evaluative decisions. The majority of work on the neurobiology of decision making deals with “what is it?” decisions; out of this work has emerged a model whereby neurons accumulate information about the stimulus in the form of slowly increasing firing rates and reach a decision when those firing rates reach a threshold. Here, we study a different kind of more naturalistic decision

  11. The Behavioral Relevance of Cortical Neural Ensemble Responses Emerges Suddenly.

    PubMed

    Sadacca, Brian F; Mukherjee, Narendra; Vladusich, Tony; Li, Jennifer X; Katz, Donald B; Miller, Paul

    2016-01-20

    Whereas many laboratory-studied decisions involve a highly trained animal identifying an ambiguous stimulus, many naturalistic decisions do not. Consumption decisions, for instance, involve determining whether to eject or consume an already identified stimulus in the mouth and are decisions that can be made without training. By standard analyses, rodent cortical single-neuron taste responses come to predict such consumption decisions across the 500 ms preceding the consumption or rejection itself; decision-related firing emerges well after stimulus identification. Analyzing single-trial ensemble activity using hidden Markov models, we show these decision-related cortical responses to be part of a reliable sequence of states (each defined by the firing rates within the ensemble) separated by brief state-to-state transitions, the latencies of which vary widely between trials. When we aligned data to the onset of the (late-appearing) state that dominates during the time period in which single-neuron firing is correlated to taste palatability, the apparent ramp in stimulus-aligned choice-related firing was shown to be a much more precipitous coherent jump. This jump in choice-related firing resembled a step function more than it did the output of a standard (ramping) decision-making model, and provided a robust prediction of decision latency in single trials. Together, these results demonstrate that activity related to naturalistic consumption decisions emerges nearly instantaneously in cortical ensembles. Significance statement: This paper provides a description of how the brain makes evaluative decisions. The majority of work on the neurobiology of decision making deals with "what is it?" decisions; out of this work has emerged a model whereby neurons accumulate information about the stimulus in the form of slowly increasing firing rates and reach a decision when those firing rates reach a threshold. Here, we study a different kind of more naturalistic decision

  12. Adapting the U.S. Domestic Radiological Emergency Response Process to an Overseas Incident: FRMAC Without the F

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Bowman, David R.; Remick, Alan

    2012-05-01

    The earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan led to a radiological release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plan, which in turn resulted in the rapid activation and deployment by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) emergency response teams. These teams and those from other federal agencies are typically coordinated through the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) when responding to radiological incidents in the U.S. FRMAC is the body through which the collection, analysis, and assessment of environmental radiological data are coordinated and products released to decision makers. This article discusses DOE/NNSA’s role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident as it implemented its components of FRMAC in a foreign country, coordinated its assets, integrated with its federal partners, and collaborated with the Government of Japan. The technical details of the various data collections and analyses are covered in other articles of this issue.

  13. Emergency Response Damage Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Yésou, Hervé; Schneiderhan, Tobias; de Boissezon, Hélène; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-04-01

    During disasters rescue and relief organisations need quick access to reliable and accurate information to be better equipped to do their job. It is increasingly felt that satellites offer a unique near real time (NRT) tool to aid disaster management. A short introduction to the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', in operation since 2000 promoting worldwide cooperation among member space agencies, will be given as it is the foundation on which satellite-based, emergency response, damage assessment has been built. Other complementary mechanisms will also be discussed. The user access, triggering mechanism, an essential component for this user-driven service, will be highlighted with its 24/7 single access point. Then, a clear distinction will be made between data provision and geo-information delivery mechanisms to underline the user need for geo-information that is easily integrated into their working environments. Briefly, the path to assured emergency response product quality will be presented beginning with user requirements, expressed early-on, for emergency response value-adding services. Initiatives were then established, supported by national and European institutions, to develop the sector, with SERTIT and DLR being key players, providing support to decision makers in headquarters and relief teams in the field. To consistently meet the high quality levels demanded by users, rapid mapping has been transformed via workflow and quality control standardisation to improve both speed and quality. As such, SERTIT located in Alsace, France, and DLR/ZKI from Bavaria, Germany, join their knowledge in this presentation to report about recent standards as both have ISO certified their rapid mapping services based on experienced, well-trained, 24/7 on-call teams and established systems providing the first crisis analysis product in 6 hours after satellite data reception. The three main product types provided are then outlined: up-to-date pre

  14. Typhoon emergency response planning for the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, E.N.; Lynch, R.D.; Riffe, D.; Cardone, V.J.; Cox, A.; Chen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development, implementation and performance of a comprehensive typhoon emergency response plan (ERP) utilized during 1995 by Arco China Inc. (ACI) for their offshore Hainan Is. South China Sea development. An important component of the enhanced plan is a new system to forecast winds and sea states generated by tropical cyclones (TC) built around known uncertainties in forecasts of cyclones and well proven numerical models of the TC surface wind field and the spectral wave field. The forecast system provides specification of time histories of the winds and waves at the site for the nominally predicted track as well as the probabilities of exceedance of critical evacuation thresholds of wind speed and sea state. The ERP and forecast system were operated throughout the 1995 typhoon season and evaluated at the Yacheng development, which was seriously threatened by 15 tropical cyclones between June and November. The response to these threats in terms of interruption of operations, partial or total evacuation of offshore personnel and average downtime is described and compared to previous experience which used more conventional forecast services. The evaluation has shown the new system to provide significant benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and cost savings. The wind and sea state forecast histories provided year-round by the forecast system are also of significant benefit to the management of floating production systems.

  15. Optimization aspects of the ARAC real-time radiological emergency response system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1985-07-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory responds to radiological emergencies throughout the Continental United States. Using complex three-dimensional dispersion models to account for the effects of complex meteorology and regional terrain, ARAC simulates the release of radioactive materials and provides dispersion, deposition, and dose calculations that are displayed over local geographic features for use by authorities at the accident/release site. ARAC's response is ensured by a software system that (1) makes optimal use of dispersion models, (2) minimizes the time required to provide projections, and (3) maximizes the fault-tolerance of the system. In this paper we describe ARAC's goals and functionality and the costs associated with its development and use. Specifically, we address optimizations in ARAC notifications, meteorological data collection, the determination of site- and problem-specific parameters, the generation of site-specific topography and geography, the running of models, and the distribution of ARAC products. We also discuss the backup features employed to ensure ARAC's ability to respond.

  16. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  17. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  18. Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Young; Alan M Snyder

    2007-11-01

    During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the fundamentals of this emerging technology, applciations for emergency response and specific results of the technology evaluation conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. 44 CFR 352.27 - Federal role in the emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal role in the emergency... Federal Participation § 352.27 Federal role in the emergency response. In addition to the Federal... be needed. Any Federal response role, undertaken pursuant to this section, shall be transferred...

  20. 49 CFR 1.44 - Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.44 Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response. The Director of the Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response...

  1. 49 CFR 1.44 - Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.44 Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response. The Director of the Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response...

  2. 49 CFR 1.44 - Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.44 Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response. The Director of the Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response...

  3. Utilizing SAR and Multispectral Integrated Data for Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, S.; Schvartzman, I.; Maman, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gamba, P.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    the emergency response following an event.

  4. Modeling and public health emergency responses: lessons from SARS.

    PubMed

    Glasser, John W; Hupert, Nathaniel; McCauley, Mary M; Hatchett, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Modelers published thoughtful articles after the 2003 SARS crisis, but had limited if any real-time impact on the global response and may even have inadvertently contributed to a lingering misunderstanding of the means by which the epidemic was controlled. The impact of any intervention depends on its efficiency as well as efficacy, and efficient isolation of infected individuals before they become symptomatic is difficult to imagine. Nonetheless, in exploring the possible impact of quarantine, the product of efficiency and efficacy was varied over the entire unit interval. Another mistake was repeatedly fitting otherwise appropriate gamma distributions to times to event regardless of whether they were stationary or not, particularly onset-isolation intervals whose progressive reduction evidently contributed to SARS control. By virtue of their unknown biology, newly-emerging diseases are more challenging than familiar human scourges. Influenza, for example, recurs annually and has been modeled more thoroughly than any other infectious disease. Moreover, models were integrated into preparedness exercises, during which working relationships were established that bore fruit during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To provide the most accurate and timely advice possible, especially about the possible impact of measures designed to control diseases caused by novel human pathogens, we must appreciate the value and difficulty of policy-oriented modeling. Effective communication of insights gleaned from modeling SARS will help to ensure that policymakers involve modelers in future outbreaks of newly-emerging infectious diseases. Accordingly, we illustrate the increasingly timely care-seeking by which, together with increasingly accurate diagnoses and effective isolation, SARS was controlled via heuristic arguments and descriptive analyses of familiar observations. PMID:21420657

  5. ShakeMap-Based Earthquake Emergency Response for Lifelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishenko, S.; Eidinger, J.; McLaren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and a number of other lifeline operators and utilities are using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based products, including ShakeMap, to enhance their earthquake emergency response capabilities. PG&E uses ShakeMap in conjunction with improved digital hazard maps for the San Francisco Bay area as a decision support tool to prioritize response activities. Used as a screening tool, this information helps to rapidly identify potential gas and electric transmission problem areas, prior to the receipt of damage reports from the field. Earthquake Risk Values, which combine ground shaking estimates with surface fault rupture, ground failure, and pipeline performance factors, are used to identify potentially vulnerable transmission pipeline segments and gas handling facilities for inspection following an earthquake. Scenario ShakeMaps are used for emergency training exercises and, in the event a large earthquake causes the Internet to be temporarily out of service, can be used for initial damage assessments until actual ShakeMaps become available. BART integrates the ground motions developed in near real time using ShakeMap with a BART vulnerability model in a System Earthquake Risk Assessment (SERA) to establish the likely post earthquake damage to the BART system. After most M3 or larger earthquakes, the SERA model for BART is run, using the ShakeMap- developed ground motions, to assess the likely and near-lower bound performance for more than 15,000 individual structures and components in the BART system. If any of these structures or components are predicted to have greater than a 10% chance of material nonlinear performance that might invoke a life safety situation, BART sends out people to visually inspect the facilities so targeted by the analysis. This software has been used to analyze the BART system for 15 earthquakes (M3.5 to M4.4) using ShakeMaps since 2003

  6. Rapid alpha spectroscopy of evaporated liquid residues for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Semkow, T M; Khan, A J; Haines, D K; Bari, A

    2009-04-01

    A new method for alpha spectroscopy of evaporated water residues was developed, consisting of evaporation of drinking water, flaming of the planchets, and alpha-spectroscopic measurements using a grid ionization chamber. The method can identify and quantify radioactivity concentrations > or =3 mBq L-1 in a matter of several hours, whereas determination of sub-mBq L-1 levels is achievable in 1 day. Detailed investigations of flaming of the planchets, the humidity effect, and alpha spectroscopy of thick sources are described. A three-dimensional calibration of the method was performed using standards containing 238U, 230Th, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm radionuclides. In addition to its application to evaporated drinking water, this calibration is common for any environmental sample that can be prepared as a uniform layer, such as the residues from surface water, acidic washing or leaching from materials, as well as biological fluids such as urine. The developed method serves as a fast identifying or screening technique for emergency response involving alpha radioactivity. PMID:19276703

  7. Hanford Site emergency response needs, Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1996-04-16

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive third party needs assessment of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD), conducted by Hughes Associates Inc. The assessment was commissioned with the intent of obtaining an unbiased report which could be used as a basis for identifying needed changes/modifications to the fire department and its services. This report serves several functions: (1) it documents current and future site operations and associated hazards and risks identified as a result of document review, site and facility surveys, and interviews with knowledgeable personnel; (2) describes the HFD in terms of organization, existing resources and response capabilities; (3) identifies regulatory and other requirements that are applicable to the HFD and includes a discussion of associated legal liabilities; and (4) provides recommendations based on applicable requirements and existing conditions. Each recommendation is followed by a supporting statement to clarify the intent or justification of the recommendation. This report will be followed by a Master Plan document which will present an implementation method for the recommendations (with associated costs) considered to be essential to maintaining adequate, cost effective emergency services at the Hanford site in the next five to seven years.

  8. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications. PMID:25231139

  9. Atmospheric dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring in support of emergency planning and response for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1990-08-01

    This technical memorandum examines the role of atmospheric dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring in support of emergency planning and response for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). Air dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring are expected to form key components in integrated accident assessment and warning systems at each of the eight CSDP installations. This report assesses the capabilities of operating state-of-the-art systems in order to establish a baseline for developing the requirements of the CSDP systems. A general tutorial on the types of atmospheric dispersion models currently available is provided, and the criteria for selection of emergency response models are developed. The requirements for meteorological monitoring are also described. In addition, the basic limitations of modeling and monitoring are discussed, and the importance of model verification is emphasized. Staffing requirements to operate an integrated modeling and monitoring system are characterized. The current state of modeling, monitoring, and staffing levels in support of emergency response at the eight US Army chemical stockpile depots involved in the CSDP is examined. Specific requirements appropriate to emergency planning and response at each of the eight sites are described. Recommendations are made for both the integrated system and the individual components of air dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring. Finally, future work required to prepare for emergency response is discussed. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  11. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness & response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has played an increasing role in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-coupled, nonlinear equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Until recently, such computer power could be found only in CRAY-class supercomputers. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Such models have been the cornerstones of the ARAC operational system for the past ten years. Kamada (1992) provides a review of diagnostic models and their applications to dispersion problems. However, because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.

  14. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutronmore » detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.« less

  15. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  16. Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-09-23

    This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

  17. Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J S

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2274977

  18. U.S. DOE’S RESPONSE TO THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI REACTOR ACCIDENT: ANSWERS AND DATA PRODUCTS FOR DECISION MAKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Alexis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi response posed a plethora of scientific questions to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) radiological emergency response community. As concerns arose for decision makers, the DOE leveraged a community of scientists well-versed in the tenants of emergency situations to provide answers to time-sensitive questions from different parts of the world. A chronology of the scientific Q and A that occurred is presented along with descriptions of the challenges that were faced and how new methods were employed throughout the course of the response.

  19. Evaluation of the response to xenon-133 radiations by thermoluminescent dosimeters used during the accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Riley, R J; Zanzonico, P B; Masterson, M E; St Germain, J M; Laughlin, J S

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is presented of the accuracy and sensitivity of three types of TLD's used during the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This evaluation indicated that, due to the method of calibration, all the dosimeters over-responded to 133Xe radiations. The response ranged from slightly above unity to almost two. Exposures of the TLD's were of two types, namely, the characteristic X-rays either were or were not filtered from the beam. The angular sensitivity of the dosimeters is also reported. PMID:7068394

  20. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to...,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program (Emergency Relief Program, Catalogue of... Funds published in the Federal Register on February 6, 2013 (78 FR 8691), and consistent with...

  1. WETLAND INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO VARYING EMERGENT LITTER IN A PRAIRIE POTHOLE EMERGENT MARSH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant litter produced in the interior of dense emergent stands may directly or indirectly influence invertebrate communities. Low litter may provide structure and refuge to invertebrates while high litter may shade out vegetation and algae and decrease oxygen concentrations. With...

  2. Transport accidents among children and adolescents at the emergency service of a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; de Souza, Renata Maia; Gerolla, Viviane; Maso, Bruno; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Armond, Jane de Eston

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe the victim profile and circumstances of transport accidents involving children and adolescents who were attended at a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo. Methods this was an individual observational case series study among patients up to the age of 19 years who were attended at a hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil, due to traffic accidents. The files notifying suspected or confirmed cases of violence and accidents (SIVVA files) covering January to December 2012 were analyzed. Results among the 149 cases notified, 64.4% related to males and 35.6% to females. The transport accidents were predominantly among males, irrespective of age. The main injury diagnoses were superficial head trauma (24.8%) followed by multiple non-specified trauma (36.4%), in both sexes. Conclusion transport accidents among children and adolescents occurred more often among males. The main transport accidents among the children and adolescents attended as emergency cases were caused by motor vehicles and motorcycles. Among the accident victims, the largest proportion was attended because of being run over. PMID:26229833

  3. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Information for Pregnant Women - Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... your own plan, writing down the steps on paper. Talk about potential disasters and emergencies and how ... plastic bags that seal for water-proofing important papers, a battery-powered flashlight and radio with extra ...

  4. Eye Safety for Emergency Response and Disaster Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Eye Safety Eye Safety for Emergency ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  5. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  6. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  7. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  8. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  9. Development of urban planning guidelines for improving emergency response capacities in seismic areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Kambod Amini; Jafari, Mohammad Kazem; Hosseini, Maziar; Mansouri, Babak; Hosseinioon, Solmaz

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of research carried out to improve emergency response activities in earthquake-prone areas of Iran. The research concentrated on emergency response operations, emergency medical care, emergency transportation, and evacuation-the most important issues after an earthquake with regard to saving the lives of victims. For each topic, some guidelines and criteria are presented for enhancing emergency response activities, based on evaluations of experience of strong earthquakes that have occurred over the past two decades in Iran, notably Manjil (1990), Bam (2003), Firouz Abad-Kojour (2004), Zarand (2005) and Broujerd (2006). These guidelines and criteria are applicable to other national contexts, especially countries with similar seismic and social conditions as Iran. The results of this study should be incorporated into comprehensive plans to ensure sustainable development or reconstruction of cities as well as to augment the efficiency of emergency response after an earthquake. PMID:19500324

  10. Information collection and dissemination: toward a portable, real-time information sharing platform for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Crawford, David; Gao, Tia; White, David

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) project seeks to 1) identify unmet needs of Washington DC area emergency response teams during mass casualty incidents and, 2) conduct feasibility tests of technology-based solutions. This paper describes Surveillance and Incident Reporting PDAs (SIRP), which provide an alternative platform for emergency response information collection, dissemination, and visualization. PMID:17238517

  11. 49 CFR 1.69 - Delegations to the Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Intelligence... Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response. The Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response is delegated authority for the following: (a) Intelligence and Security. Carry out the...

  12. 49 CFR 1.69 - Delegations to the Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Intelligence... Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response. The Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response is delegated authority for the following: (a) Intelligence and Security. Carry out the...

  13. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  14. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  15. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  16. Accident analysis for US fast burst reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Paternoster, R.; Flanders, M.; Kazi, H.

    1994-09-01

    In the US fast burst reactor (FBR) community there has been increasing emphasis and scrutiny on safety analysis and understanding of possible accident scenarios. This paper summarizes recent work in these areas that is going on at the different US FBR sites. At this time, all of the FBR facilities have or in the process of updating and refining their accident analyses. This effort is driven by two objectives: to obtain a more realistic scenario for emergency response procedures and contingency plans, and to determine compliance with changing regulatory standards.

  17. Iodine isotopes in precipitation: temporal responses to (129)i emissions from the fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hou, Xiaolin; Watanabe, Akira; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Luyuan

    2013-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has released a large amount of radionuclides to the atmosphere, and the radioactive plume has been dispersed to a large area in Europe and returned to Asia. To explore long-term trend of the Fukushima-derived radioactive plume and the behavior of harmful radioiodine in the atmosphere, long-term precipitation samples have been collected over 2010-2012 at Fukushima, Japan for determination of long-lived (129)I. It was observed that (129)I concentrations of 1.2 × 10(8) atom/L in 2010 before the accident dramatically increased by ∼4 orders of magnitude to 7.6 × 10(11) atom/L in March 2011 immediately after the accident, with a (129)I/(127)I ratio up to 6.9 × 10(-5). Afterward, the (129)I concentrations in precipitation decreased exponentially to ∼3 × 10(9) atom/L by October 2011 with a half-life of about 29 days. This declining trend of (129)I concentrations in precipitation was interrupted around October 2011 by a new input of (129)I to the atmosphere following a second exponential decrease. Such a cycle has occurred three times until the present. This temporal variation can be attributed to alternating (129)I dispersion and resuspension from the contaminated local environment. A (129)I/(131)I atomic ratio of 16 ± 1 obtained from rainwater samples is comparable with a value estimated for surface soil samples. (129)I results from Denmark suggest an insignificant effect of (129)I released from Fukushima to the (129)I levels in Europe. PMID:24000802

  18. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. PMID:26897576

  19. Mapping immune response profiles: the emerging scenario from helminth immunology.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alvaro; Allen, Judith E

    2007-12-01

    Metazoan parasites of mammals (helminths) belong to highly divergent animal groups and yet induce a stereotypical host response: Th2-type immunity. It has long been debated whether this response benefits the host or the parasite. We review the current literature and suggest that Th2 immunity is an evolutionarily appropriate response to metazoan invaders both in terms of controlling parasites and repairing the damage they inflict. However, successful parasites induce regulatory responses, which become superimposed with, and control, Th2 responses. Beyond helminth infection, this superimposition of response profiles may be the norm: both Th1 and Th2 responses coexist with regulatory responses or, on the contrary, with the inflammatory Th17 responses. Thus, typical responses to helminth infections may differ from Th2-dominated allergic reactions in featuring not only a stronger regulatory component but also a weaker Th17 component. The similarity of immune response profiles to phylogenetically distinct helminths probably arises from mammalian evolution having hard-wired diverse worm molecules, plus tissue-damage signals, to the beneficial Th2 response, and from the convergent evolution of different helminths to elicit regulatory responses. We speculate that initiation of both Th2 and regulatory responses involves combinatorial signaling, whereby TLR-mediated signals are modulated by signals from other innate receptors, including lectins. PMID:18000958

  20. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of Panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802).

    PubMed

    Zeyrek, C T; Gündüz, H

    2012-09-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silène reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silène experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together. PMID:22389154

  1. Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

  2. Learning from accident and error: avoiding the hazards of workload, stress, and routine interruptions in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

  3. Radiation accidents and nuclear energy: medical consequences and therapy.

    PubMed

    Champlin, R E; Kastenberg, W E; Gale, R P

    1988-11-01

    After the accidents at Chernobyl, the Soviet Union, and in Goiania, Brazil, there is increasing concern about the medical risks from radiation accidents. This overview summarizes the principles of nuclear energy, the biologic effects of accidental radiation exposure, the emergency response to nuclear accidents, and approaches to treating radiation injuries. Also discussed are the related issues of reactor safety, the disposal of radioactive waste, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. With the increasing use of radioactive materials for power, weapons, and medical diagnostics, the medical community needs to understand the health consequences of radiation exposure. PMID:3056171

  4. Needs and fears of young people presenting at accident and emergency department following an act of self-harm: secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christabel; Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Presentation at an accident and emergency (A&E) department is a key opportunity to engage with a young person who self-harms. The needs of this vulnerable group and their fears about presenting to healthcare services, including A&E, are poorly understood. Aims To examine young people's perceptions of A&E treatment following self-harm and their views on what constitutes a positive clinical encounter. Method Secondary analysis of qualitative data from an experimental online discussion forum. Threads selected for secondary analysis represent the views of 31 young people aged 16–25 with experience of self-harm. Results Participants reported avoiding A&E whenever possible, based on their own and others' previous poor experiences. When forced to seek emergency care, they did so with feelings of shame and unworthiness. These feelings were reinforced when they received what they perceived as punitive treatment from A&E staff, perpetuating a cycle of shame, avoidance and further self-harm. Positive encounters were those in which they received ‘treatment as usual’, i.e. non-discriminatory care, delivered with kindness, which had the potential to challenge negative self-evaluation and break the cycle. Conclusions The clinical needs of young people who self-harm continue to demand urgent attention. Further hypothesis testing and trials of different models of care delivery for this vulnerable group are warranted. PMID:26450583

  5. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security. PMID:26449677

  6. Evaluation of an emergency response model for the Rocky Flats Plant: Charter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Charter provides a basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to evaluate the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code for emergency response and emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant. This document establishes the foundation for the project entitled, Evaluation of an Emergency Response Model for the Rocky Flats Plant'' (to be referred to as the Project). This document meets the following objectives: Identify the Project; establish the project management structure, organizational responsibilities, and organizational commitments for reaching the goals of the Project, and identify a process for model revision and revelation for acceptance. 2 figs.

  7. Some thoughts on the evaluation of long-range dispersion models in the context of emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, D.; Walker, H.; Klepikova, N.; Kostrikov, A.

    1993-05-14

    The Chernobyl reactor accident and the possibility of a similar event of equal or greater magnitude in the future suggest the need for long-range atmospheric transport and diffusion models. Assuming their ability to accurately predict the temporal and spatial distributions of a complex mixture of radionuclides, these models can provide indispensable information to emergency planners and responders as well as information to a concerned and increasingly well-informed public. Models designed for use in real-time, emergency response situations can be evaluated on the basis of accuracy, responsiveness, costs, and growth potential. Among these criteria, accuracy is paramount; without the ability to accurately determine the patterns of concentration in both space and time, all other critical measures of performance become irrelevant. The authors are in the process of evaluating the accuracy of two long-range, emergency response models -- one based on the particle-in-cell method of pollutant representation (ADPIC/US) and the other based on the superposition of Gaussian puffs released periodically in time (EXPRESS/Russia) -- using data obtained from 20 releases of perfluorocarbon tracers in January, 1987, during the Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). The purpose is to assess the current capabilities for stimulating continental-scale dispersion processes and to use these assessments as a means to improve the modeling tools. The model evaluations discussed here utilize performance measures tailored to the ANATEX field experiment. The design of a sampling network, programmatic requirements and resource limitations associated with a field experiment affect the choice of evaluation techniques. Several appropriate measures, many of which depend on the characterization of surface concentration {open_quotes}footprints,{close_quotes} have been identified or devised.

  8. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  9. 40 CFR 266.204 - Standards applicable to emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.204 Standards applicable to emergency... CFR 262.10(i), 263.10(e), 264.1(g)(8), 265.1(c)(11), and 270.1(c)(3), or alternatively to 40 CFR...

  10. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  11. A recommended epidemiological study design for examining the adverse health effects among emergency workers who experienced the TEPCO fukushima daiichi NPP accident in 2011.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2016-01-01

    Results from medical examinations conducted in 2012 of workers who were engaged in radiation work in 2012 as a result of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident showed that the prevalence of abnormal findings was 4.21%, 3.23 points higher than the 0.98% that was found prior to the accident in the jurisdiction area of the labor inspection office which holds jurisdiction over the NPP. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) concluded that the 2010 and 2012 data cannot be easily compared because 70% of the enterprises within the jurisdiction of the office that reported the 2012 results were different from those that did so in 2010. In addition, although the radiation workers' estimated average dose weighted by number of workers was 3.66 times higher than decontamination workers' dose, the prevalence among radiation workers was only 1.14 times higher than that among decontamination workers. Based on the results of the medical examinations, however, the MHLW decided to implement an epidemiological study on the health effects of radiation exposure on all emergency workers. This article explains key issues of the basic design of the study recommended by the expert meeting established in the MHLW and also identifies challenges that could not be resolved and thus required further consideration by the study researchers. The major issues included: (a) study methods and target group; (b) evaluation of cumulative doses; (c) health effects (end points); (d) control of confounding factors; and (e) study implementation framework. Identified key challenges that required further deliberation were: (a) preventing arbitrary partisan analysis; (b) ensuring a high participation rate; (c) inquiry about the medical radiation doses; and (d) the preparedness of new analytical technology. The study team formulated and implemented the pilot study in 2014 and started the full-scale study in April 2015 with funding from a research grant from the MHLW. PMID

  12. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  13. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria.

    PubMed

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-06-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material. PMID:21617296

  14. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  15. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  16. Project Responder: technology needs for local emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, Guy; Garwin, Thomas; Pollard, Neal A.; Singley, George T., III; Tuohy, Robert V.; Lupo, Jasper

    2003-09-01

    Since April 2001, the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism has funded an effort by Hicks &Associates, Inc. and the Terrorism Research Center, Inc., aimed ultimately at improving local, state, and federal emergency responders" capabilities for mitigating the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive/ incendiary (CBRNE) terrorism. This effort, titled "Project Responder," began by developing an understanding of how state and local responders view their current capabilities, shortfalls, and needs. This paper discusses some of the results of this first phase of the effort that has resulted in a comprehensive report titled "Emergency Responders" Needs, Goals, and Priorities." This paper addresses two of the capabilities from that report which we believe are of most interest to this conference. There are ten other capabilities discussed in the report, which may also be of interest.

  17. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  18. Emergency response concept plan for Tooele Army Depot and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Miller, R.L.; Watson, A.P.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-10-01

    The continued storage and disposal of the United States' unitary chemical stockpile, including that portion stored at Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) near Tooele, Utah, have the potential for accidental releases that could escape installation boundaries and pose a threat to civilian populations. The US Army, in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other federal agencies, is committed to implement an emergency preparedness program that will significantly reduce the probability of adverse effects from such releases. This concept plan, which is but a part of a comprehensive ongoing effort, provides a framework for initiating such a program for the TEAD stockpile. This report develops information and methodologies that bear on two major decisions for such a program -- determining emergency planning zones and selecting protective action strategies. These decisions are based on the hazards posed by the TEAD stockpile and its disposal. These hazards, in turn, are based largely on the distribution of potential accidental releases associated with interim storage and disposal activities and associated external events (e.g., earthquakes and airplane crashes), the distribution of natural features that can affect an agent release (topographical features and meteorological characteristics), and the distribution of people and resources (e.g., homes, schools, and hospitals) potentially affected by an accidental release. 22 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  20. Governmental re-evaluation of the committed effective dose received by emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) noticed that significant discrepancies were present between the committed effective dose (CED) data for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provided by TEPCO and that reported by five primary contractors. The MHLW, based on re-evaluation of the data, provided administrative guidance which required TEPCO and the five primary contractors to readjust the CED data for 479 workers (2.5% of 19,346 emergency workers). Of these, data for 450 workers from the primary contractors were readjusted based on the change in assessment methods. Doses were readjusted to higher values for 431 workers and doses were readjusted to lower values for 19 workers, CED data were corrected due to calculation errors for 29 workers from seven contractors, 12 additional workers were found to have received more than 50 mSv but no more than 100 mSv, an increase of 1.7% over the previously established count of 723 workers who had received that dose. Six additional workers were found to have received more than 100 mSv, an increase of 3.6% compared with the previous count of 167 workers. Major issues addressed during re-evaluation included: a) selection of intake scenario for the calculation of the residual activity ratio; b) assumptions about the intake date; c) assessments of exposure to radiation from (132)I and (132)Te; and d) assumptions about (131)I exposure in cases where (131)I was undetectable. Regarding the divergent CED data of 138 workers, the MHLW also confirmed that the CEDs assessed by the primary contractors were valid. To prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, the MHLW issued administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and primary contractors to employ standardized CED assessment methods on July 5. 2013. PMID:25585203

  1. Emergency control system based on the analytical hierarchy process and coordinated development degree model for sudden water pollution accidents in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %. PMID:26979314

  2. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Dario; Comolli, Luis R.; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, “Omics” and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm), and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or “willingness” to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments. PMID:25191306

  3. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Dario; Comolli, Luis R; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, "Omics" and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm), and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or "willingness" to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments. PMID:25191306

  4. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/ reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp. PMID:26647499

  5. Design of highway landslide warning and emergency response systems based on UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yujie; Yi, Shen; Li, Zongyu; Shao, Shegang; Qin, Xiaochun

    2010-09-01

    Landslide is one of the serious geological disasters that bring serious impact on transportation construction and highway traffics. It is critical to improve the level of warning and emergency response to the highway landslide. Based on the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), the highway landslide warning and emergency response system is developed in this paper. The system consists of two main components, including landslide warning sub-system and the UAV emergency response sub-system. The establishment of this system will contribute to: 1) improving the warning and monitoring of highway landslide; 2) quickly understanding the situation of landslide disaster, and therefore helping the policy-makers with emergency rescue, disaster assessment, and reconstruction; and 3) using it as a research platform for large-scale landslides, debris flow monitoring and warning, and other emergency relief work.

  6. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES FOR CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is provided for selecting the best spill stabilization controls for hazardous substances regulated by the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Information is also provided on the onsite assessment of spill severity, app...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furnished to those personnel. Training and equipment that meets 29 CFR 1910.120, hazardous-waste operations... and rescue pending the arrival of resources for firefighting or pollution control. Response and...

  8. A GLIMPSE INTO THE EYE OF THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE AT EPA KATRINA AND RITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was given at the Texas Environmental Health Association Annual Meeting in Round Rock, TX on October 12, 2005. The keynote address was focused on the conditions after Katrins, organizing response, field response, EPA's role in emergency response, what is EPA doi...

  9. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  10. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-05-15

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas individual differences in neuroticism are thought to modulate the effect of stress on mental health, the mechanistic link between stress, neuroticism and amygdala responsivity is unknown. Thus, we studied the relationship between experimentally induced stress, individual differences in neuroticism, and amygdala responsivity. To this end, fearful and happy faces were presented to a large cohort of young, healthy males (n=120) in two separate functional MRI sessions (stress versus control) in a randomized, controlled cross-over design. We revealed that amygdala reactivity was modulated by an interaction between the factors of stress, neuroticism, and the emotional valence of the facial stimuli. Follow-up analysis showed that neuroticism selectively enhanced amygdala responses to fearful faces in the stress condition. Thus, we show that stress unmasks an association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity to potentially threatening stimuli. This effect constitutes a possible mechanistic link within the complex pathophysiology of affective disorders, and our novel approach appears suitable for further studies targeting the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25776217

  11. Time/Loss Analysis in the development and evaluation of emergency response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.A.

    1994-08-01

    Time/Loss Analysis (T/LA) provides a standard for conducting technically consistent and objective evaluations of emergency response planning and procedures. T/LA is also a sound tool for evaluating the performance of safeguards and procedures.

  12. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... on the role of DACA, the communication service architecture and various DACA platform...

  13. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations.

  14. The computer emergency response team system (CERT-System)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    This paper describes CERT-System, an international affiliation of computer security response teams. Formed after the WANK and OILZ worms attacked numerous systems connected to the Internet, an operational charter was signed by representatives of 11 response teams. This affiliation's purpose is to provide a forum for ideas about incident response and computer security, share information, solve common problems, and develop strategies for responding to threats, incidents, etc. The achievements and advantages of participation in CERT-System are presented along with suggested growth areas for this affiliation. The views presented in this paper are the views of one member, and do not necessarily represent the views of others affiliated with CERT-System.

  15. The computer emergency response team system (CERT-System)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    This paper describes CERT-System, an international affiliation of computer security response teams. Formed after the WANK and OILZ worms attacked numerous systems connected to the Internet, an operational charter was signed by representatives of 11 response teams. This affiliation`s purpose is to provide a forum for ideas about incident response and computer security, share information, solve common problems, and develop strategies for responding to threats, incidents, etc. The achievements and advantages of participation in CERT-System are presented along with suggested growth areas for this affiliation. The views presented in this paper are the views of one member, and do not necessarily represent the views of others affiliated with CERT-System.

  16. A proposed architecture for emergency response systems based on Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Cheng, Chengqi

    2010-11-01

    Emergencies are incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare. Many disastrous emergency events that happened in recent years have drawn great attention to more effective Emergency Response Systems (ERS). ERS need to integrate various kinds of information to support quick emergency response. Digital Earth can solve data interoperation and information integration problems in emergency response. This paper aims to establish the system architecture for quick emergency response based on relevant principles and technologies in the domain of Digital Earth. First, this paper analyzes the system requirements of ERS in terms of information integration, fast data access, timeliness and information updating, etc. Second, this paper explores the useful principles and technologies in Digital Earth and discusses how to incorporate them into the architecture of ERS. More attention is paid to Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) information standards. Furthermore, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Location-Based Services (LBS) are also reviewed and the "From Sensor to User" application pattern in emergency response is put forward. Finally, a system architecture based on Digital Earth is proposed for ERS.

  17. A proposed architecture for emergency response systems based on Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Cheng, Chengqi

    2009-09-01

    Emergencies are incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare. Many disastrous emergency events that happened in recent years have drawn great attention to more effective Emergency Response Systems (ERS). ERS need to integrate various kinds of information to support quick emergency response. Digital Earth can solve data interoperation and information integration problems in emergency response. This paper aims to establish the system architecture for quick emergency response based on relevant principles and technologies in the domain of Digital Earth. First, this paper analyzes the system requirements of ERS in terms of information integration, fast data access, timeliness and information updating, etc. Second, this paper explores the useful principles and technologies in Digital Earth and discusses how to incorporate them into the architecture of ERS. More attention is paid to Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) information standards. Furthermore, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Location-Based Services (LBS) are also reviewed and the "From Sensor to User" application pattern in emergency response is put forward. Finally, a system architecture based on Digital Earth is proposed for ERS.

  18. The experiences of patients and relatives/significant others of overcrowding in accident and emergency in Ireland: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Michael; Corry, Margarita

    2007-10-01

    Overcrowding in Accident and Emergency Departments (A&E) in Ireland has reached crisis proportions since the dawning of the new millennium. Although this phenomenon is not unique to Ireland and many authors have suggested causes and management strategies to deal with these crises, little appears to have been written regarding the experiences of patients or their families waiting in the A&E. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the experiences of patients and/or their relatives/significant others who had spent 12 h or more in A&E awaiting admission to hospital. Four patients and three relatives/significant others volunteered to participate in the study. Participants described the A&E departments as resembling a disaster zone or a hospital scene from a third world country. Descriptions portrayed an environment that was overcrowded, dirty and lacking in resources. Participants were generally positive in their attitudes towards the care they received, but some descriptions appeared to suggest that the quality of care was not always ideal. Recommendations from participants included reduced waiting times with a maximum of 6 h from admission to transfer or discharge; better communications systems with perhaps a liaison person who could advise them about the expected duration of stay in A&E and what was happening regarding their care; and better privacy and security within the departments. PMID:17920270

  19. Are archetypes transmitted or emergent? A response to Christian Roesler.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vallas, François

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the author argues that Jung's concept of archetype should not be reduced to an univocal definition. Jung himself proposed many definitions of this concept, some of them being partially or totally contradictory to others. A univocal and logical way of thinking can lead us to refute and reject part of those definitions, but a complex way of thinking, as proposed by Edgar Morin or Roy Bhaskar for example, can allow us to consider that those apparent contradictions in Jung's definitions of archetype reflect the complexity of the psychic reality. The main argument of the author is that Jung was missing the epistemological concept of emergence (which appeared in science at the time of his death) and that he tried to express it with the epistemological concepts of his time. PMID:23550577

  20. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2005-07-01

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments.

  1. Emerging Responsibilities, Emerging Persons: Reflective and Relational Religious Education in Three Episcopal High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Based in an ethnographic project involving three Episcopal Church-affiliated high schools, this article considers how reflective and relational pedagogy influenced students' personal growth in religious education classes. Students became self-responsible for their spiritual development in the school settings where the practice of…

  2. Uses of the Internet in post-emergency response: Some issues

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.

    1998-09-01

    Can the Internet be of value in post-emergency response? The answer is yes, to judge by its use following the Kobe earthquake in Japan and the ice storms in the US and Canada last winter. This will not be a technical account of the Internet, but rather a quick look at some advantages, disadvantages, promising applications, and issues that may arise in using the Internet for post-emergency response.

  3. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  4. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  5. Using Geo-Data Corporately on the Response Phase of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir Ozbek, E.; Ates, S.; Aydinoglu, A. C.

    2015-08-01

    Response phase of emergency management is the most complex phase in the entire cycle because it requires cooperation between various actors relating to emergency sectors. A variety of geo-data is needed at the emergency response such as; existing data provided by different institutions and dynamic data collected by different sectors at the time of the disaster. Disaster event is managed according to elaborately defined activity-actor-task-geodata cycle. In this concept, every activity of emergency response is determined with Standard Operation Procedure that enables users to understand their tasks and required data in any activity. In this study, a general conceptual approach for disaster and emergency management system is developed based on the regulations to serve applications in Istanbul Governorship Provincial Disaster and Emergency Directorate. The approach is implemented to industrial facility explosion example. In preparation phase, optimum ambulance locations are determined according to general response time of the ambulance to all injury cases in addition to areas that have industrial fire risk. Management of the industrial fire case is organized according to defined actors, activities, and working cycle that describe required geo-data. A response scenario was prepared and performed for an industrial facility explosion event to exercise effective working cycle of actors. This scenario provides using geo-data corporately between different actors while required data for each task is defined to manage the industrial facility explosion event. Following developing web technologies, this scenario based approach can be effective to use geo-data on the web corporately.

  6. The Communication of Information Such as Evacuation Orders at the Time of a Nuclear Power Station Accident: -Recommendations for responses by the national government and electric power utilities to the "Information Disaster".

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Yoshida, Sumito; Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-12-01

    This research was carried out from the perspective that the damage to the people of Fukushima and others from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident was an "information disaster." It evaluated the critical problems raised by and actual condition analysis on the process of events in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS disaster and responses of the governments and others, notification of the occurrence of the accident and evacuation order by the national and local governments and the evacuation of residents, and guidance for distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. The research aimed to provide a basis for the implementation of effective distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets and responses to the "information disaster" in the nuclear power disaster. On March 15 at the time that the most radioactive substances were dispersed, even when the average wind speed at the site area was 1.6 m/s, the radioactive substances had reached the outer boundary of Urgent Protective action planning Zone (UPZ, the region with a radius of 30 km) within about five hours. Because of this, every second counted in the provision of information about the accident and the issuance of evacuation orders. This study evaluated the actual condition of information provision by the national government and others from the perspective of this awareness of the importance of time. On the basis of the results of this kind of consideration, we come to the following recommendations: The Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines and the system for communication of information to medical providers should be revised. The national government should make preparations for the effective advance distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. PMID:26557446

  7. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  8. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.26 Arrangements for... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  9. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  10. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  11. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation. PMID:22317163

  12. LEADERS: Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Todd A.

    2002-06-01

    Technological advancements in molecular biology now offer a wide-range of applications for bio-warfare defense, medical surveillance, agricultural surveillance and pure research. Idaho Technology has designed and produced the world's fastest DNA-based identifiers. The R.A.P.I.D. TM (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device) provides several options for using sensitive and specific molecular biology-based technology One of the key features of the RAPID is a software package called Detector*. Detector* allows Minimally Trained Care Providers (MTCP) to operate the instrument by automating the steps of running PCR and automatically analyzing the sample data. Pathogen identification is carried out automatically using positive and negative controls to protect against false positive and false negative results. As part of the LEADER system, the Remote RAPID Viewer (RRV) component allows for real-time remote monitoring of PCR reactions run on the RAPID, thus giving the Subject Matter Expert (SME) the ability to request specific tests when triggered by the auto-analysis system. In addition the RRV component facilitates in result verification of tests run by MTCP, assists in tracking outbreaks, and helps coordinate large scale real-time crisis management. The system will allow access to epidemiological data from thin client (i.e. web browser), thus allowing the SME to connect from anywhere with an internet connection. In addition the LEADER system will automatically contact and alert SME when threshold criteria are met, helping reduce the time to first response.

  13. Immune response in pemphigus and beyond: progresses and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Amber, Kyle T; Sayar, Beyza S; Müller, Eliane J; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called desmosomes and represent extra-desmosomal adhesion receptors. We herein review the advances in our understanding of the immune response underlying pemphigus, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-associated genetic susceptibility, characteristics of pathogenic anti-Dsg antibodies, antigenic mapping studies as well as findings about Dsg-specific B and T cells. The pathogenicity of anti-Dsg autoantibodies has been convincingly demonstrated. Disease activity and clinical phenotype correlate with anti-Dsg antibody titers and profile while passive transfer of anti-Dsg IgG from pemphigus patients' results in pemphigus-like lesions in neonatal and adult mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3-knockout mice immunized with murine Dsg3 into immunodeficient mice phenotypically recapitulates PV. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms leading to blister formation have not been fully elucidated, intracellular signaling following antibody binding has been found to be necessary for inducing cell-cell dissociation, at least for PV. These new insights not only highlight the key role of Dsgs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis but are expected to progressively change pemphigus management, paving the way for novel targeted immunologic and pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26597100

  14. A model for structural response to hydrogen combustion loads in severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Breitung, W.; Redlinger, R.

    1995-09-01

    The response of structures to different pressure histories from hydrogen combustion is analyzed using the model of a linear undamped oscillator. The effective static pressures from a slow deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) and a stable detonation are calculated as functions of oscillator frequency. The response of components with a low natural frequency, such as the outermost shell in a large dry containment, is governed by the long-term pressure after combustion. Detonation peak pressure and impulse are not important. For structures with low frequencies, fast flames have a damage potential very similar to detonations. For the investigated pressure loads, the normally reflected detonation provides the bounding effective static pressure for oscillators up to 500 Hz. Fully confined DDT events can exceed the detonation load near the transition location for structural frequencies about {approximately}40 Hz.

  15. K-Reactor emergency core coolant system response during a double-ended guillotine break LOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, S.B. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling and benchmarking of the Savannah River Site K-Reactor emergency core coolant system (ECCS), using the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). The ECCS model was benchmarked against plant data obtained from various ECCS configurations. Next, the benchmarked model was used to simulate various loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The adequacy of the model's behavior during the LOCAs was then analyzed. The K-Reactor ECCS model can adequately simulate a wide variety of system configurations. The TRAC output compared favorably with the plant data for the different ECCS configurations. The results of the plenum-inlet double-ended guillotine break LOCA simulation showed the ECCS protected the core.

  16. The hydrological impact assessment in the decision support of nuclear emergency response.

    PubMed

    Vamanu, Dan V; Slavnicu, Dan S; Gheorghiu, Dorina; Acasandrei, Valentin T; Slavnicu, Elena

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents several aspects believed to be relevant for the integration in the decision support systems for the management of radiological emergencies, of assessment tools addressing surface water contamination. Three exemplary cases are discussed in the context-the CONVEX 2005 international alert exercise, AXIOPOLIS 09, a national drill targeting a CANDU reactor at Cernavoda nuclear power plant in Romania, and Oltenia 07-a nation-wide drill around a scenario, involving trans-border effects of a virtual accident at a VVER reactor at Kozloduy, Bulgaria. The capability of different analytic tools were tested, including public deliverables like real-time, online decision support system's HDM module and model-based computerised system for management support to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring radionuclide-contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas, as well as research-grade, home-made facilities, in order to identify and sort out merits and issues of interest in steering their effective utilisation. PMID:20172931

  17. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-11-09

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations.

  18. Coordinating a Team Response to Behavioral Emergencies in the Emergency Department: A Simulation-Enhanced Interprofessional Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ambrose H.; Wing, Lisa; Weiss, Brenda; Gang, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While treating potentially violent patients in the emergency department (ED), both patients and staff may be subject to unintentional injury. Emergency healthcare providers are at the greatest risk of experiencing physical and verbal assault from patients. Preliminary studies have shown that a team-based approach with targeted staff training has significant positive outcomes in mitigating violence in healthcare settings. Staff attitudes toward patient aggression have also been linked to workplace safety, but current literature suggests that providers experience fear and anxiety while caring for potentially violent patients. The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an interprofessional curriculum focusing on improving teamwork and staff attitudes toward patient violence using simulation-enhanced education for ED staff, and (2) to assess attitudes towards patient aggression both at pre- and post-curriculum implementation stages using a survey-based study design. Methods Formal roles and responsibilities for each member of the care team, including positioning during restraint placement, were predefined in conjunction with ED leadership. Emergency medicine residents, nurses and hospital police officers were assigned to interprofessional teams. The curriculum started with an introductory lecture discussing de-escalation techniques and restraint placement as well as core tenets of interprofessional collaboration. Next, we conducted two simulation scenarios using standardized participants (SPs) and structured debriefing. The study consisted of a survey-based design comparing pre- and post-intervention responses via a paired Student t-test to assess changes in staff attitudes. We used the validated Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale (MAVAS) consisting of 30 Likert-scale questions grouped into four themed constructs. Results One hundred sixty-two ED staff members completed the course with >95% staff participation, generating a total of

  19. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  20. A public health perspective of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  1. Statistical study of emerging flux regions and the response of the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    We statistically study the properties of emerging flux regions (EFRs) and response of the upper solar atmosphere to the flux emergence using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Parameters including total emerged flux, flux growth rate, maximum area, duration of the emergence and separation speed of the opposite polarities are adopted to delineate the properties of EFRs. The response of the upper atmosphere is addressed by the response of the atmosphere at different wavelengths (and thus at different temperatures). According to our results, the total emerged fluxes are in the range of (0.44-11.2)×1019 Mx while the maximum area ranges from 17 to 182 arcsec2. The durations of the emergence are between 1 and 12 h, which are positively correlated to both the total emerged flux and the maximum area. The maximum distances between the opposite polarities are 7-25 arcsec and are also positively correlated to the duration. The separation speeds are from 0.05 to 1.08 km s-1, negatively correlated to the duration. The derived flux growth rates are (0.1-1.3)×1019 Mx h-1, which are positively correlated to the total emerging flux. The upper atmosphere first responds to the flux emergence in the 1600Å chromospheric line, and then tens to hundreds of seconds later, in coronal lines, such as the 171Å (T = 105.8 K) and 211Å (T = 106.3 K) lines almost simultaneously, suggesting the successive heating of the atmosphere from the chromosphere to the corona.

  2. Thermal Response of the 21-PWR Waste Package to a Fire Accident

    SciTech Connect

    F.P. Faucher; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2000-10-03

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal response of the 21-PWR WP (pressurized water reactor waste package) to the regulatory fire event. The scope of this calculation is limited to the two-dimensional waste package temperature calculations to support the waste package design. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation (Attachment IV) is that of the potential design of the type of waste package considered in this calculation. The procedure AP-3.12Q.Calculations (Reference 1), and the Development Plan (Reference 24) are used to develop this calculation.

  3. Numerical simulation of PWR response to a small break LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) with reactor coolant pumps operating

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Dobbe, C.A.; Bayless, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations have been made of the response of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) during a small-break, loss-of-coolant accident with the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) operating. This study was conducted, as part of a comprehensive project, to assess the relationship between measurable RCP parameters, such as motor power or current, and fluid density, both local (at the RCP inlet) and global (average reactor coolant system). Additionally, the efficacy of using these RCP parameters, together with fluid temperature, to identify an off-nominal transient as either a LOCA, a heatup transient, or a cooldown transient and to follow recovery from the transient was assessed. The RELAP4 and RELAP5 computer codes were used with three independent sets of RCP, two-phase degradation multipliers. These multipliers were based on data obtained in two-phase flow conditions for the Semiscale, LOFT, and Creare/Combustion Engineering (CE)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pumps, respectively. Two reference PWRs were used in this study: Zion, a four-loop, 1100-MWe, Westinghouse plant operated by Commonwealth Edison Co. in Zion, Illinois and Bellefonte, a two-by-four loop, 1213 MWe, Babcock and Wilcox designed plant being built by the Tennessee Valley Authority in Scottsboro, Alabama. The results from this study showed that RCP operation resulted in an approximately homogeneous reactor coolant system and that this result was independent of reference plant, computer code, or two-phase RCP head degradation multiplier used in the calculation.

  4. An assessment of the response of the GPHS-RTG to potential accident environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunda, Meera

    1995-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft is designed to carry out an orbital tour of the Saturnian system and an investigation of the planet, its satellites, atmosphere, and ring system. The spacecraft will carry three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RGTs) to provide electrical power. It is scheduled to be launched aboard the Titan IV/Centaur launch vehicle system. This paper describes the details of the hydrocode analysis simulating the impact of an RTG on the launch pad and the collision of high speed plate fragments with the RTG. Calculations of the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and the fueled clads to these events are presented. It will be shown that the analysis is an effective tool to guide and support the experimental satety test program plan which will be conducted as part of the RTG Safety Assessment for Cassini mission.

  5. An assessment of the response of the GPHS-RTG to potential accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mukunda, M.

    1995-01-20

    The Cassini spacecraft is designed to carry out an orbital tour of the Saturnian system and an investigation of the planet, its satellites, atmosphere, and ring system. The spacecraft will carry three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RGTs) to provide electrical power. It is scheduled to be launched aboard the Titan IV/Centaur launch vehicle system. This paper describes the details of the hydrocode analysis simulating the impact of an RTG on the launch pad and the collision of high speed plate fragments with the RTG. Calculations of the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and the fueled clads to these events are presented. It will be shown that the analysis is an effective tool to guide and support the experimental satety test program plan which will be conducted as part of the RTG Safety Assessment for Cassini mission. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  6. Social response to technological disaster: the accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Until recently the sociological study of man environment relations under extreme circumstances has been restricted to natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, tornadoes). Technological disasters are becoming more commonplace (e.g., Times Beach, MO, Love Canal, TMI-2) and are growing as potential sources of impact upon human populations. However, theory regarding the social impact of such disasters has not been developed. While research on natural disasters is in part applicable to technological disasters, theory adapted from environmental sociology and psychology are also utilized to develop a theory of social response to extreme environmental events produced by technology. Hypotheses are developed in the form of an empirically testable model based on the literature reviewed.

  7. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  8. The changing nature and scope of public health emergencies in response to annual flu.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G

    2013-06-01

    The rapid spread of influenza during the 2012-13 season brought a series of public health challenges and corresponding response efforts. For decades, responses to annual flu have been undertaken routinely without extensive legal intervention. With the recent declaration of states of public health emergencies in Boston (January 9, 2013) and New York State (January 12, 2013), however, the legal baseline is changing. Propelled by a slate of state and local emergency declarations during the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, public officials are beginning to show cause for the issuance of formal emergency declarations in support of flu response efforts. The legal effects of these types of declarations are profound. Public and private actors are given significant, expedited public health powers. Scarce resources like vaccines can be more efficiently allocated. Laws relating to licensure, scope of practice, and liability can be effectively waived. Though originally conceptualized and once reserved for catastrophic, long-term health-related or bioterrorism events, public health emergency declarations are evolving to address temporary impacts on health care and public health services arising annually from flu outbreaks. This commentary explores the changing nature of public health emergencies and their current and potential impact on the provision of healthcare services in response to national or regional threats to the public's health. PMID:23641729

  9. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  10. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for postfire debris-flow emergency-response planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, S.H.; Boldt, E.M.; Laber, J.L.; Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Following wildfires, emergency-response and public-safety agencies can be faced with evacuation and resource-deployment decisions well in advance of coming winter storms and during storms themselves. Information critical to these decisions is provided for recently burned areas in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. A compilation of information on the hydrologic response to winter storms from recently burned areas in southern California steeplands is used to develop a system for classifying magnitudes of hydrologic response. The four-class system describes combinations of reported volumes of individual debris flows, consequences of debris flows and floods in an urban setting, and spatial extents of the hydrologic response. The range of rainfall conditions associated with different magnitude classes is defined by integrating local rainfall data with the response magnitude information. Magnitude I events can be expected when within-storm rainfall accumulations (A) of given durations (D) fall above the threshold A = 0.4D0.5 and below A = 0.5D0.6 for durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude II events will be generated in response to rainfall accumulations and durations between A = 0.4D0.5 and A = 0.9D0.5 for durations less than 1 h, and between A = 0.5D0.6 and A = 0.9D0.5 or durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude III events can be expected in response to rainfall conditions above the threshold A = 0.9D0.5. Rainfall threshold-magnitude relations are linked with potential emergency-response actions as an emergency-response decision chart, which leads a user through steps to determine potential event magnitudes and identify possible evacuation and resource-deployment levels. Use of this information in planning and response decision-making process could result in increased safety for both the public and emergency responders. ?? 2011 US Government.

  11. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE CAPABILITIES FOR CONDUCTING INGESTION PATHWAY CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C

    2007-12-11

    Potential airborne releases of radioactivity from facilities operated for the U. S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site could pose significant consequences to the public through the ingestion pathway. The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a suite of technologies needed to conduct assessments of ingestion dose during emergency response, enabling emergency manager at SRS to develop initial protective action recommendation for state agencies early in the response and to make informed decisions on activation of additional Federal assets that would be needed to support long-term monitoring and assessment activities.

  12. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  13. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Shih, Chung-Liang

    2016-09-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  14. Emergency management in the early phase.

    PubMed

    Crick, M; McKenna, T; Buglova, E; Winkler, G; Martincic, R

    2004-01-01

    An overview of response management in the early phase of an emergency at a nuclear installation is provided from a systems approach. This starts with the recognition of response goals, and using detailed analyses of threats, past experience, international law and principles, a response strategy is developed. The process is illustrated for the case of severe accidents at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and identifies the need for and nature of: emergency classification based on plant conditions, notification, radiological monitoring and assessment strategies, operational criteria for implementing protective action decisions and management of public information. From the strategy detailed, functional and infrastructure requirements can be defined. The paper also presents some reflections on the key differences between response to emergencies arising from accidents and those arising from deliberate acts; on the preparedness and response capabilities of States, highlighting areas where generic improvements are needed and how best to achieve that. PMID:15238649

  15. Structural response of reactor-core hexcan subassemblies subjected to dynamic overpressurization under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional structural analysis for the evaluation of a single core subassembly due to internal overpressure associated with possible failure of fuel pins having high fission gas plenum pressure. Structural models are developed for the subassemblies and their surroundings with emphasis on the critical physical aspects of the problem. With these models the strains, deformations and the extent of permanent damage (plastic strain) to the subassemblies can be assessed. The nonlinear structural analyses was performed with a finite element program called STRAW (Structural Transient Response of Assembly Wrappers). This finite element program is applicable to nonlinear large displacement problems. The results of this study indicate that the permanent deformation (damage) is strongly influenced by the rise time (time to reach peak pressure) of the pressure pulse and the pressure in the fuel pin. The rise time is influenced by the opening time of the flow path for release of gas from the fuel pin plenum. Several examples are illustrated with various rise times and pressure magnitudes and the resulting permanent deformation of the hexcan wall.

  16. Structural response of reactor-core hexcan subassemblies subjected to dynamic overpressurization under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional structural analysis for the evaluation of a single core subassembly due to internal overpressure associated with possible failure of fuel pins having high fission gas plenum pressure. Structural models are developed for the subassemblies and their surroundings with emphasis on the critical physical aspects of the problem. With these models the strains, deformations and the extent of permanent damage (plastic strain) to the subassemblies can be assessed. The nonlinear structural analyses was performed with a finite element program called STRAW (Structural Transient Response of Assembly Wrappers). This finite element program is applicable to nonlinear large displacement problems. The results of this study indicate that the permanent deformation (damage) is strongly influenced by the rise time (time to reach peak pressure) of the pressure pulse and the pressure in the fuel pin. The rise time is influenced by the opening time of the flow path for release of gas from the fuel pin plenum. Several examples are illustrated with various rise times and pressure magnitudes and the resulting permanent deformation of the hexcan wall.

  17. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  18. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Leinhos, Mary; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems. PMID:25355970

  19. Akt inhibition improves irinotecan treatment and prevents cell emergence by switching the senescence response to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vétillard, Alexandra; Jonchère, Barbara; Moreau, Marie; Toutain, Bertrand; Henry, Cécile; Fontanel, Simon; Bernard, Anne-Charlotte; Campone, Mario; Guette, Catherine; Coqueret, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Activated in response to chemotherapy, senescence is a tumor suppressive mechanism that induces a permanent loss of proliferation. However, in response to treatment, it is not really known how cells can escape senescence and how irreversible or incomplete this pathway is. We have recently described that cells that escape senescence are more transformed than non-treated parental cells, they resist anoikis and rely on Mcl-1. In this study, we further characterize this emergence in response to irinotecan, a first line treatment used in colorectal cancer. Our results indicate that Akt was activated as a feedback pathway during the early step of senescence. The inhibition of the kinase prevented cell emergence and improved treatment efficacy, both in vitro and in vivo. This improvement was correlated with senescence inhibition, p21waf1 downregulation and a concomitant activation of apoptosis due to Noxa upregulation and Mcl-1 inactivation. The inactivation of Noxa prevented apoptosis and increased the number of emergent cells. Using either RNA interference or p21waf1-deficient cells, we further confirmed that an intact p53-p21-senescence pathway favored cell emergence and that its downregulation improved treatment efficacy through apoptosis induction. Therefore, although senescence is an efficient suppressive mechanism, it also generates more aggressive cells as a consequence of apoptosis inhibition. We therefore propose that senescence-inducing therapies should be used sequentially with drugs favoring cell death such as Akt inhibitors. This should reduce cell emergence and tumor relapse through a combined induction of senescence and apoptosis. PMID:26485768

  20. Preparing EBS messages. [Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.