#### Sample records for accident fatality rates

1. Estimated rate of fatal automobile accidents attributable to acute solvent exposure at low inhaled concentrations.

PubMed

Benignus, Vernon A; Bushnell, Philip J; Boyes, William K

2011-12-01

Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mechanisms. These observations, along with the extensive data on the relationship between ethanol consumption and fatal automobile accidents, suggested a way to estimate the probability of fatal automobile accidents from solvent inhalation. The problem can be approached using the logic of the algebraic transitive postulate of equality: if A=B and B=C, then A=C. We first calculated a function describing the internal doses of solvent vapors that cause the same magnitude of behavioral impairment as ingestion of ethanol (A=B). Next, we fit a function to data from the literature describing the probability of fatal car crashes for a given internal dose of ethanol (B=C). Finally, we used these two functions to generate a third function to estimate the probability of a fatal car crash for any internal dose of organic solvent vapor (A=C). This latter function showed quantitatively (1) that the likelihood of a fatal car crash is increased by acute exposure to organic solvent vapors at concentrations less than 1.0 ppm, and (2) that this likelihood is similar in magnitude to the probability of developing leukemia from exposure to benzene. This approach could also be applied to other potentially adverse consequences of acute exposure to solvents (e.g., nonfatal car crashes, property damage, and workplace accidents), if appropriate data were available.

2. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-06-01

TI FLE CY N Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria, VA 22310-3398 SWES% Ot DNA-TR-89-45 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes A. Laupa G. H. Anno...0104 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes PE - 62715H PR - RM 6 AUTHOR(S) TA -RH A. Laupa: G. H. Anno WU - DH026130 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...vi 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................... 1I DATA SOURCES ON CHERNOBYL VICTIMS ............... 3 CHERNOBYL

3. Estimating transport fatality risk from past accident data.

PubMed

Evans, Andrew W

2003-07-01

This paper examines the statistical properties of estimates of fatal accident rates, mean fatalities per accident, and fatality rates when these estimates are based on past accident data. The statistical properties are illustrated by two long-term transport fatal accident datasets from Great Britain, the principal one for railways and the other for roads, chosen to provide a statistical contrast. In both modes, the accident rates have fallen substantially over the long term. Two statistical estimates of current accident and fatality rates are presented for each dataset, one based only on recent data and the other based on estimates of long-term trends. The trend-based estimate is preferred for train accidents because this makes maximum use of the limited and variable data; the recent data are preferred for road accidents because this avoids unnecessary dependence on modelling the trends. For train accidents, the estimated fatality rate based on past accidents is compared with an estimate produced by the railway industry using a risk model. The statistical estimate is less than half the industry's estimate, and the paper concludes that the statistical estimate is to be preferred.

4. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

EPA Science Inventory

Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

5. Fatal train accidents on Europe's railways: 1980-2009.

PubMed

Evans, Andrew W

2011-01-01

This paper presents an analysis of fatal train accident rates and trends on Europe's main line railways from 1980 to 2009. The paper uses a new set of data for the European Union together with Norway and Switzerland, assembled partly under the auspices of the European Railway Agency and partly on the author's own account. The estimated overall trend in the number of fatal train collisions and derailments per train-kilometre is -6.3% per year from 1990 to 2009, with a 95% confidence interval of -8.7% to -3.9%. The estimated accident rate in 2009 is 1.35 fatal collisions or derailments per billion train-kilometres, giving an estimated mean number of fatal accidents in 2009 of 6.0. The overall number of fatalities per fatal accident in 1990-2009 is 4.10, with no apparent long term change over time, giving an estimated mean of 24.6 fatalities per year in train collisions and derailments in 2009. There are statistically significant differences in the fatal train accident rates and trends between the different European countries, although the estimates of the rates and trends for many individual countries have wide confidence limits. The distribution of broad causes of accidents appears to have remained unchanged over the long term, so that safety improvements appear to have been across the board, and not focused on any specific cause. The most frequent cause of fatal train collisions and derailments is signals passed at danger. In contrast to fatal train collisions and derailments, the rate per train-kilometre of serious accidents at level crossings remained unchanged in 1990-2009. The immediate causes of most of the serious level crossing accidents are errors or violations by road users.

6. The Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fatal General Aviation Accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheuring, RIchard

2005-01-01

In-flight Spatial Disorientation (SD) in pilots is a serious threat to aviation safety. Indeed, SD may play a much larger role in aviation accidents than the approximate 6-8% reported by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) each year, because some accidents coded by the NTSB as aircraft control-not maintained (ACNM) may actually result from SD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SD is underestimated as a cause of fatal general aviation (GA) accidents in the NTSB database. Fatal GA airplane accidents occurring between January 1995 and December 1999 were reviewed from the NTSB aviation accident database. Cases coded as ACNM or SD as the probable cause were selected for review by a panel of aerospace medicine specialists. Using a rating scale, each rater was instructed to determine if SD was the probable cause of the accident. Agreement between the raters and agreement between the raters and the NTSB were evaluated by Kappa statistics. The raters agreed that 11 out of 20 (55%) accidents coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD (p less than 0.05). Agreement between the raters and the NTSB did not reach significance (p greater than 0.05). The 95% C.I. for the sampling population estimated that between 33-77% of cases that the NTSB identified as ACNM could be identified by aerospace medicine experts as SD. Aerospace medicine specialists agreed that some cases coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD. Consequently, a larger number of accidents may be caused by the pilot succumbing to SD than indicated in the NTSB database. This new information should encourage regulating agencies to insure that pilots receive SD recognition training, enabling them to take appropriate corrective actions during flight. This could lead to new training standards, ultimately saving lives among GA airplane pilots.

7. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

PubMed

Evans, Andrew W

2011-09-01

8. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

PubMed

Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

2004-01-01

The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

9. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

2014-07-01

Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

10. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

PubMed

Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

2014-11-01

Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

11. Killer crashes: fatal road traffic accidents in the UK.

PubMed

Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

2010-03-01

Road traffic accidents are responsible for over 3000 deaths per year in the UK, according to Department for Transport (2004a) figures. Although progress is being made in a number of areas, vehicle occupant fatalities have not been falling in line with casualty reduction targets for the year 2010. A sample of 1185 fatal vehicle occupant cases was considered, from ten UK police forces, from the years 1994-2005 inclusive. The main findings were: (1) over 65% of the accidents examined involved driving at excessive speed, a driver in excess of the legal alcohol limit, or the failure to wear a seat belt by a fatality, or some combination of these. (2) Young drivers have the great majority of their accidents by losing control on bends or curves, typically at night in rural areas and/or while driving for 'leisure' purposes. These accidents show high levels of speeding, alcohol involvement and recklessness. (3) Older drivers had fewer accidents, but those fatalities they were involved in tended to involve misjudgement and perceptual errors in 'right of way' collisions, typically in the daytime on rural rather than urban roads. Blameworthy right of way errors were notably high for drivers aged over 65 years, as a proportion of total fatal accidents in that age group.

12. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

PubMed

Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

2001-06-01

So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

13. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

PubMed

2015-01-01

Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

14. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

15. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

PubMed

Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

2012-11-30

Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

16. Fatal accidents in the Icelandic fishing fleet 1980-2005.

PubMed

Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hjoervar, Tryggvi; Snorrason, Hilmar

2007-01-01

The paper describes how the Icelandic fleet increased from 1980 to 2005, as well as the number of fishermen employed in the various sections of the fleet. All categories of the fleet have increased considerably in tonnage, while the number of fishermen has declined. At the same time the catch per man-year at sea has increased, rendering the Icelandic fisheries among the most efficient in the world in terms of catch and value per manpower. The number of fatalities in the Icelandic fisheries has declined steadily in this period. In absolute numbers these accidents are most common on decked vessels under 45m, but when weighed against man-years, fishermen on open boats are in greatest danger of losing their lives. The most common cause of fatalities is foundering of the vessel, which may cause multiple fatalities, then is man-over-board, followed by drowning in harbour and miscellaneous accidents. The reduction in the number of fatal accidents at sea may have several reasons. Mandatory safety and survival training of all fishermen, improved working conditions at sea, better telecommunications, constant VMS surveillance and a 24hr availability of airborne rescue teams have all helped to reduce fatalities in the Icelandic fishing fleet from 1980 until 2005.

17. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

PubMed

Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

1998-06-08

This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

18. Fatal traffic accidents among trailer truck drivers and accident causes as viewed by other truck drivers.

PubMed

Häkkänen, H; Summala, H

2001-03-01

Causality factors, the responsibility of the driver and driver fatigue-related factors were studied in fatal two-vehicle accidents where a trailer truck driver was involved during the period of 1991-1997 (n = 337). In addition, 251 long-haul truck drivers were surveyed in order to study their views regarding contributing factors in accidents involving trucks and the development of possible countermeasure against driver fatigue. Trailer truck drivers were principally responsible for 16% of all the accidents. Younger driver age and driving during evening hours were significant predictors of being principally responsible. In addition, the probability of being principally responsible for the accident increased by a factor of over three if the driver had a chronic illness. Prolonged driving preceding the accident, accident history or traffic offence history did not have a significant effect. Only 2% of the drivers were estimated to have fallen asleep while driving just prior to the accident, and altogether 4% of the drivers had been tired prior to the accident. Of the drivers 13% had however, been driving over 10 h preceding the accident (which has been criminally punishably in Finland since 1995 under the EC regulation) but no individual factors had a significant effect in predicting prolonged driving. The surveyed views regarding causes of truck accidents correspond well with the accident analysis. Accidents were viewed as being most often caused by other road users and driver fatigue was viewed to be no more than the fifth (out of eight) common cause of accidents. The probability of viewing fatigue as a more common cause increased significantly if the driver had experienced fatigue-related problems while driving. However, nearly half of the surveyed truck drivers expressed a negative view towards developing a technological countermeasure against driver fatigue. The negative view was not related to personal experiences of fatigue-related problems while driving.

19. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

PubMed

Boyd, Douglas D

2015-04-01

Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

20. Patterns of injury in a fatal BASE jumping accident.

PubMed

Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

2008-12-01

Skydiving is a popular and relatively safe sport. The patterns of injury and mechanisms of death in the rare fatalities resulting from skydiving accidents have been well-documented. In contrast, BASE jumping, that is, jumping from a fixed object using a parachute, is a more dangerous and unregulated sport practiced by few individuals. There are no reports in forensic literature documenting the injuries found in deaths occurring in the practice of BASE jumping. We report the case of the death of an experienced BASE jumper who died after jumping from the antenna of a radio broadcast tower in southwest Florida to illustrate the unique hazards inherent in this sport.

1. [ACN (Automatic Collision Notification)--reducing fatalities in traffic accidents by automated accident reporting].

PubMed

Pieske, O; Lob, G; Messner, G; Lange, W; Haberl, J

2002-01-01

To improve patient's outcome of seriously injured occupants after vehicle accident rescue should be performed as soon as possible. While the rescue-time-period after EMS alarming is well-defined the rescue-time-period before EMS-alarm is very variable from minutes to several hours. To reduce the rescue-time-period between accident occurrence and EMS-alarm the Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) was developed. The ACN is a new invehicle-equipment which detects a severe vehicle crash and alarms via cellular phone the EMS automatically. Simultaneously the exact accident location is transmitted (GPS). Official data of the European Community predict a 15% reduction of road traffic fatalities with ACN. Thereby the economical benefit of about 561 million [symbol: see text] could be calculated for Germany 2000.

2. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

3. Analysis of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian accidents in China.

PubMed

Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Yang, Guangyu; Che, Xingping; Xie, Jingru; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhengguo

2014-10-01

To study the characteristics of fatal vehicle-pedestrian accidents in China，a team was established and passenger car-pedestrian crash cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing and Chongqing, China were collected. A total of 121 fatal passenger car-adult pedestrian collisions were sampled and analyzed. The pedestrian injuries were scored according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The demographical distributions of fatal pedestrian accidents differed from other pedestrian accidents. Among the victims, no significant discrepancy in the distribution of ISS and AIS in head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities by pedestrian age was found, while pedestrian behaviors prior to the crashes may affect the ISS. The distributions of AIS in head, thorax, and abdomen among the fatalities did not show any association with impact speeds or vehicle types, whereas there was a strong relationship between the ISS and impact speeds. Whether pedestrians died in the accident field or not was not associated with the ISS or AIS. The present results may be useful for not only forensic experts but also vehicle safety researchers. More investigations regarding fatal pedestrian accidents need be conducted in great detail.

4. The dynamic nature of risk perceptions after a fatal transit accident.

PubMed

Wernstedt, Kris; Murray-Tuite, Pamela

2015-03-01

In 2009, two trains of Washington, DC's Metrorail system collided, resulting in nine deaths and 50 serious injuries. Based on a multiwave survey of Metrorail users in the months after the crash, this article reports how the accident appears to have (1) changed over time the tradeoffs among safety, speed, frequency of service, cost, and reliability that the transit users stated they were willing to make in the postaccident period and (2) altered transit users' concerns about safety as a function of time and distance from the accident site. We employ conditional logit models to examine tradeoffs among stated preferences for system performance measures after the accident, as well as the influence that respondent characteristics of transit use, location, income, age, and gender have on these preference tradeoffs. As expected, respondents appear averse to longer headways between trains, longer travel durations, higher travel costs, a higher number of late trains, and a higher number of fatalities. The models also show evidence of higher aversion to fatalities from transit system operation among females compared to males. In addition, respondents less experienced with Metrorail travel and those with lower household incomes show higher aversion to fatalities, and this aversion increases as a subject's psychological distance from the accident site decreases. Contrary to expectations shaped by previous studies, aversion to fatalities appears to have increased between the early months after the accident and the end of the survey period, and the expected relationship between age and aversion to fatalities is not statistically significant.

5. Alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and drunk-driving fatal accidents in the United States, 1996-2010.

PubMed

Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary; Miller, Emily N

2017-03-18

Widespread concern regarding the detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption (especially by minors) and associated social problems (particularly drunk driving) continues to exist among policymakers, law enforcement officers, and the general public. Alcohol consumption is a leading contributor to death from injuries, which itself is one of the main causes of death for people under 21years of age in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the volume and timing of alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents in the U.S. We estimate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to predict rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents by state and month as a function of the volume of alcohol-control PSAs aired during the previous 8months. Models include controls for state anti-drunk-driving laws and regulations, state demographic characteristics, state taxes on alcohol, calendar year, and seasonality. Results indicate that higher volumes of anti-drunk driving PSAs airing in the preceding 2 to 3months are associated, albeit modest in magnitude, with reduced rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents. The regression coefficients are largest for adults (relative to underage drunk drivers) and when the PSAs air during prime time (relative to daytime or nighttime). We conclude that PSAs could play an important contributing role in reducing drunk-driving fatal accidents, although levels of exposure and potential effects likely remain modest due to reliance on donated air time. Well-funded anti-drunk driving campaigns could achieve higher levels of exposure and have a larger impact.

6. [Fatal skiing accidents: a forensic analysis taking the example of Salzburg].

PubMed

Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Grove, Christina; Lochner, Stefanie; Monticelli, Fabio

2015-01-01

The rising popularity of Alpine skiing in recent years has led to an increase of skiing accidents, some with fatal outcome. In this paper, all fatal skiing accidents from the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Paris Lodron University Salzburg were evaluated and compared with statistical data of the Alpine Police. In the wintertime of 2005/2006 until 2013/2014, 22 deadly skiing accidents were autopsied. The age of the male and female victims ranged between 12 and 71 years. The main cause of death was craniocerebral and chest trauma. A relevant blood alcohol concentration was detected in only one case. Together with trauma-biomechanical and technical experts, forensic medicine serves as a necessary clarification interface between the investigating authorities and the judiciary. Determining the cause and manner of death as well as reconstructing the accident is the main task of the forensic pathologist. The present study shows that in the county of Salzburg, only a small percentage of fatal skiing accidents is evaluated from a forensic and trauma-biomechanical point of view. Thus the possibilities of an interdisciplinary accident analysis are not always fully utilized.

7. Fatal accidents on glaciers: forensic, criminological, and glaciological conclusions.

PubMed

Ambach, E; Tributsch, W; Henn, R

1991-09-01

The rare event of a corpse immersed in glacier ice becoming exposed on a glacier surface is closely connected with the glaciological conditions at the scene and the site of the accident. Provided that the time since death is known, certain questions relative to the circumstances of a mountain accident can only be answered by considering glaciological aspects. How the scene of an accident can be reconstructed by inference from the site of discovery is discussed by means of three exemplary cases that occurred on Tyrolean glaciers (Austria) during the past 40 years: (1) Two corpses were discovered close above the equilibrium line in the accumulation area after 25 years. The two victims had fallen down a rock face after the breaking off of a cornice and had come to rest in the uppermost part of the accumulation area. (2) A victim was discovered in the lower ablation area 8 years after falling down a crevasse in the middle part of the ablation area. (3) A female alpinist was discovered at the very end of the glacier after 29 years; it was concluded that the accident must have happened in the accumulation area.

8. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

PubMed

Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

2016-01-01

While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

9. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

PubMed

Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

2003-08-01

Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

10. The hit-and-run in fatal pedestrian accidents: victims, circumstances and drivers.

PubMed

Solnick, S J; Hemenway, D

1995-10-01

Hit-and-run pedestrian fatalities are classified as to victim characteristics, accident circumstances and driver characteristics. Over 18,000 pedestrian fatalities are reported in the Fatal Accident Recording System for 1989-1991. Twenty percent of the drivers involved left the accident scene. Children and senior citizens are the least likely to be left. Drivers more commonly run in urban areas, outside the South, on weekends and at night. Comparing motorists who left the scene but were later identified with the drivers who remained, drivers aged 66 and older are half as likely as younger drivers to leave the accident scene and male drivers are 60% more likely than female drivers to run. Drivers with previous driving while intoxicated arrests are twice as likely to run as those with no such arrests. Forty-nine percent of hit-and-run motorists involved in pedestrian fatalities are ultimately identified by the police. Other factors constant, drivers are more likely to be identified if the victim was female or a child. Drivers are identified 2.5 times as often when the incident occurred in daylight. Drivers appear to run more often when they are at fault and will be severely punished (e.g. when they are intoxicated) and when it is likely that they can escape detection (e.g. at night).

11. Tricyclic Antidepressants Found in Pilots Fatally Injured in Civil Aviation Accidents.

PubMed

Dulkadir, Zeki; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Hickerson, Jeffery S; Cliburn, Kacey D

2017-01-01

Prevalence of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has not been explored in pilots. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident and the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology and medical certification databases were searched for pilots fatally injured in aviation accidents. During 1990-2012, CAMI received bio-samples of pilots from 7037 aviation accidents. Of these, 2644 cases were positive for drugs. TCAs were present in 31. TCA blood concentrations ranged from therapeutic to toxic levels. The NTSB determined that the use of drugs and ethanol as the probable cause or contributing factor in 35% (11 of 31) of the accidents. None of the 31 pilots reported the use of TCAs during their aviation medical examination. The prevalence of TCAs in aviators was less than 0.5% (31 of 7037 cases). There is a need for aviators to fully disclose the use of medications at the time of their medical examination.

12. Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners.

PubMed

Lindroos, Ola; Burström, Lage

2010-11-01

Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of

13. Prevalence of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pilot Fatalities of Civil Aviation Accidents, 1990-2001

DTIC Science & Technology

2003-05-01

searched to ascertain the number of 1990-2001 aviation accidents and associated pilot fatalities (cases) from which CAMI received post - mortem biological...Company, Inc., 2002. 32. Pounder DJ, Jones GR. Post - mortem drug redis- tribution—a toxicological nightmare. Forensic Sci Int 1990; 45:253-63. 33...Contained 17% carboxyhemoglobin and 0.31 µg·mL−1 cyanide. **Air taxi and commuter accident. ††Blood not available. 14 T ab le V III . C ita lo pr am

14. Heavy-Tailed Distributions in Fatal Traffic Accidents:. Role of Human Activities

Tseng, Jie-Jun; Lee, Ming-Jer; Li, Sai-Ping

Human activities can play a crucial role in the statistical properties of observables in many complex systems such as social, technological, and economic systems. We demonstrate this by looking into the heavy-tailed distributions of observables in fatal plane and car accidents. Their origin is examined and can be understood as stochastic processes that are related to human activities. Simple mathematical models are proposed to illustrate such processes and compared with empirical results obtained from existing databanks.

15. Postmortem Concentrations of Tramadol and O-Desmethyltramadol in 11 Aviation Accident Fatalities

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-12-01

Crump University of Central Oklahoma Edmond, OK 73034 December 2010 Final Report Postmortem Concentrations of Tramadol and O-Desmethyltramadol in...Subtitle 5. Report Date Postmortem Concentrations of Tramadol and O-Desmethyltramadol in 11 Aviation Accident Fatalities December 2010 6. Performing...This work was accomplished under the approved task AM-B-10-TOX-204. 16. Abstract Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic used to treat moderate

16. Prevalence of Chlorpheniramine in Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1991-1996.

DTIC Science & Technology

1999-12-01

Chlorpheniramine , a popular nonprescription antihistaminic, is known to cause drowsiness. This side effect has a potential to impair performance and...for toxicological evaluation, and the findings are maintained in a database. Those data were examined for the presence of chlorpheniramine in the...fatalities, which occurred during a 6-year (1991-1996) period. It was determined that there were 47 (2.2%) accidents involving chlorpheniramine . In 16 of

17. Hispanic employees in the workplace: higher rate of fatalities.

PubMed

Johnson, Shelly; Ostendorf, Judith

2010-01-01

This article reviews the higher fatality and injury rates among the Hispanic population in the United States, whether legal immigrants, citizens, or illegal immigrants; reviews the current government and private industry regulations and safety programs; proposes additional legislation or programs; and describes the role of the occupational and environmental health nurse in reducing injuries and fatalities in this population.

18. [Medical opinions on fatal auto-erotic accidents for insurance purposes (author's transl)].

PubMed

Naeve, W

1975-01-01

The problematic nature of medico-legal opinions on fatal auto-erotic accidents made for private accident insurance companies is outlined in a survey based on our own records. Taking the "General Insuranc Terms for Accident Insurance" (AUB) into consideration, guidelines for the forming of such opinions are given. One is warned not to form summary opinions. Decisive is the insured's state of conciousness when the accident was triggered. Only in exceptional cases can an insurance covered accident be rejected because of a body injury inflicted by the insured on himself (see article). These actions do not usually result in external injury to the body. Experience proves that "ideal conditions" for forming an opinion are rarely given. Also, the nature of the death situation is such that often the corpse is discovered only days after death. From the outset, forming a medical opinion is beset with varying degrees of difficulty depending upon which category of auto-erotic activities the accident falls into: 1. direct stimulation of the erotic regions, 2. stimulation of sexual centers in the central nervous system, 3. the creation of fear and anguish in the context of masochistic perversion. According the presently valid insurance terms (AUB), cases of auto-erotic electrocution are to be regarded as covered. A disturbance of consciousness--with the exception of such disturbances following the influence of alcohol, medicines or narcotics--cannot be assumed for the moment in which the accident was triggered. At this moment body "integrity" was also intact. Accidents through strangulation, respectively asphyxiation (plastic bags etc.), usually occur during a disturbance of consciousness of the victim. This disturbance is the result of cerebral hypoxia, that is a result of strangulation, respectively external respiratory obstruction. The forming of a medical opinion for insurance purposes on auto-erotic accidents with clearly recognizable masochistic tendency is particularly

19. Residence place as a risk factor in different types of fatal car accidents.

PubMed

Leveau, Carlos M; Vacchino, Marta N

2015-01-01

The association between place of residence, population density, relief and type of event (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) has not been evaluated in developing countries. The main objective of this study is to determine the differential factors associated with the occurrence of deaths of collision and non-collision automobile users in Patagonia, Argentina. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using as the dependent variable death by car accident (collision or non-collision of the vehicle) and sex, age, place of residence of the victim, relief and population density as the independent variables. Collision fatalities were related to areas of high population density, while non-collision fatalities were related to areas of low population density, mountainous landscape and place of residence of the victims outside the Patagonian region. The results obtained in this study indicate the need to develop differential primary prevention policies by place of residence of car occupants, focusing on Patagonia non-resident drivers and by emphasising non-collision accidents.

20. [Evaluation of the strategy for identification and measurement of the fatal accidents at work].

PubMed

Drumond, Eliane de Freitas; Silva, Jussara de Medeiros

2013-05-01

In order to evaluate the strategy used by the Municipal Health Department of Belo Horizonte (SMSA/BH) for reducing the under-reporting of deaths from work-related accidents during the years of 2008 to 2010, a deterministic comparison of data on deaths from work-related accidents as reported in SINAN and SIM was conducted. As a complementary strategy to the deterministic comparison, the Investigation Data Sheets and Death Certificates were analyzed, which although not clearly declared, were suspected of involving death by work-related accident. Death from work accident was confirmed when the same victim, same accident, with a temporal connection between accident and death, were matched. The complementary strategy used by SMSA reduced the under-reporting identified by deterministic linking, with an increase of 45 deaths. Higher rates of under-reporting of deaths in the SINAN (n = 117) were found than in the SIM (n = 70). Although data linkage between SIM/SINAN is a necessary strategy to reduce the under-reporting of deaths from accidents, it is still insufficient, considering the limitations still present in both systems. The complementary strategy adopted by SMSA/BH, which is simple and easy to perform, yields good results.

1. Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states

Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

1983-08-01

Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

2. Organizational Learning from near Misses, Incidents, Accidents, and Fatalities: A Multiple Case Study of the USA Amusement Industry

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wall, Kathleen Horner

2011-01-01

Accidents and fatalities at USA amusement parks are rare, yet when they do occur, they can injure, maim, and even kill. This dissertation sheds light on how three family-owned amusement parks learned and improved as organizations from their own and others' failure experience. Using a multiple case study design, 18 participants were interviewed.…

3. First-Generation H1 Antihistamines Found in Pilot Fatalities of Civil Aviation Accidents, 1990-2005

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-05-01

accidents wherein pilot fatalities (cases) were found to contain the antihistaminics brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine ...chlorpheniramine; 9–3800 (n = 125) for diphenhydramine; 10– 1309 (n = 33) for doxylamine ; and 4 (n = 1) for phenyltoloxamine. The use of antihistamine(s), with...azatadine, bromazine, brompheniramine, carbinoxamine, chlorpheniramine, clemastine, diphen- hydramine, doxylamine , pheniramine, phenyltoloxamine

4. Fatality rate of pedestrians and fatal crash involvement rate of drivers in pedestrian crashes: a case study of Iran.

PubMed

Kashani, Ali Tavakoli; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

2016-04-20

The aim of this study was to uncover patterns of pedestrian crashes. In the first stage, 34,178 pedestrian-involved crashes occurred in Iran during a four-year period were grouped into homogeneous clusters using a clustering analysis. Next, some in-cluster and inter-cluster crash patterns were analysed. The clustering analysis yielded six pedestrian crash groups. Car/van/pickup crashes on rural roads as well as heavy vehicle crashes were found to be less frequent but more likely to be fatal compared to other crash clusters. In addition, after controlling for crash frequency in each cluster, it was found that the fatality rate of each pedestrian age group as well as the fatal crash involvement rate of each driver age group varies across the six clusters. Results of present study has some policy implications including, promoting pedestrian safety training sessions for heavy vehicle drivers, imposing limitations over elderly heavy vehicle drivers, reinforcing penalties toward under 19 drivers and motorcyclists. In addition, road safety campaigns in rural areas may be promoted to inform people about the higher fatality rate of pedestrians on rural roads. The crash patterns uncovered in this study might also be useful for prioritizing future pedestrian safety research areas.

5. The global role of natural disaster fatalities in decision-making: statistics, trends and analysis from 116 years of disaster data compared to fatality rates from other causes

Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; McLennan, Amy; Daniell, Katherine; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Kunz, Michael; Girard, Trevor

2016-04-01

In this study, analysis is undertaken showing disaster fatalities trends from around the world using the CATDAT Natural Disaster and Socioeconomic Indicator databases from 1900-2015. Earthquakes have caused over 2.3 million fatalities since 1900; however absolute numbers of deaths caused by them have remained rather constant over time. However, floods have caused somewhere between 1.7 and 5.4 million fatalities, mostly in the earlier half of the 20th century (depending on the 1931 China floods). Storm and storm surges (ca. 1.3 million fatalities), on the other hand, have shown an opposite trend with increasing fatalities over the century (or a lack of records in the early 1900s). Earthquakes due to their sporadic nature, do not inspire investment pre-disaster. When looking at the investment in flood control vs. earthquakes, there is a marked difference in the total investment, which has resulted in a much larger reduction in fatalities. However, a key consideration for decision-makers in different countries around the world when choosing to implement disaster sensitive design is the risk of a natural disaster death, compared to other types of deaths in their country. The creation of empirical annualised ratios of earthquake, flood and storm fatalities from the year 1900 onwards vs. other methods of fatalities (cancer, diseases, accidents etc.) for each country using the CATDAT damaging natural disasters database is undertaken. On an annualised level, very few countries show earthquakes and other disaster types to be one of the highest probability methods for death. However, in particular years with large events, annual rates can easily exceed the total death count for a particular country. An example of this is Haiti, with the equivalent earthquake death rate in 2010 exceeding the total all-cause death rate in the country. Globally, fatality rates due to disasters are generally at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other causes such as heart disease. However, in

6. Do failures in non-technical skills contribute to fatal medical accidents in Japan? A review of the 2010–2013 national accident reports

PubMed Central

Uramatsu, Masashi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Mizuno, Shinya; Souma, Takahiro; Komatsubara, Akinori; Miki, Tamotsu

2017-01-01

Objectives We sought to clarify how large a proportion of fatal medical accidents can be considered to be caused by poor non-technical skills, and to support development of a policy to reduce number of such accidents by making recommendations about possible training requirements. Design Summaries of reports of fatal medical accidents, published by the Japan Medical Safety Research Organization, were reviewed individually. Three experienced clinicians and one patient safety expert conducted the reviews to determine the cause of death. Views of the patient safety expert were given additional weight in the overall determination. Setting A total of 73 summary reports of fatal medical accidents were reviewed. These reports had been submitted by healthcare organisations across Japan to the Japan Medical Safety Research Organization between April 2010 and March 2013. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cause of death in fatal medical accidents, categorised into technical skills, non-technical skills and inevitable progress of disease were evaluated. Non-technical skills were further subdivided into situation awareness, decision making, communication, team working, leadership, managing stress and coping with fatigue. Results Overall, the cause of death was identified as non-technical skills in 34 cases (46.6%), disease progression in 33 cases (45.2%) and technical skills in two cases (5.5%). In two cases, no consensual determination could be achieved. Further categorisation of cases of non-technical skills were identified as 14 cases (41.2%) of problems with situation awareness, eight (23.5%) with team working and three (8.8%) with decision making. These three subcategories, or combinations of them, were identified as the cause of death in 33 cases (97.1%). Conclusions Poor non-technical skills were considered to be a significant cause of adverse events in nearly half of the fatal medical accidents examined. Improving non-technical skills may be effective for

7. Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991-1998.

PubMed

Chaturvedi, A K; Smith, D R; Canfield, D V

2001-10-01

Blood samples submitted to the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) from aviation accident fatalities are analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO), as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and hydrogen cyanide, as cyanide (CN(-)). These analyses are performed to establish possible exposure of victims to smoke from in-flight/post-crash fires or to CO from faulty exhaust/heating systems. The presence of both gases in blood would suggest that the victim was alive and inhaled smoke. If only COHb is elevated, the accident (or a death) could be the result of CO contamination of the interior. Information pertaining to blood levels of these gases in aviation fatalities, in relation to the associated accidents, is scattered or not available, particularly with regard to toxicity. Therefore, considering that COHb> or =10% and CN(-)> or =0.25 microg/ml are sufficient to produce some degree of toxicological effects, the necessary information was extracted from the CAMI database. Samples from 3857 fatalities of 2837 aviation accidents, occurring during 1991-1998, were received; 1012 accidents, encompassing 1571 (41%) fatalities, were fire associated, whereas 1820 accidents were non-fire related. The remaining five accidents were of unknown fire status. There were fewer fire related fatalities and associated accidents in the (COHb> or =10% and CN(-)> or =0.25 microg/ml) category than that in the (COHb<10% and CN(-)<0.25 microg/ml) category. No in-flight fire was documented in the former category, but in-flight fires were reported in 14 accidents (18 fatalities) in the latter category. No non-fire accident fatality was found wherein levels of both gases were determined to be at or above the stated levels. There were 15 non-fire accidents with 17 fatalities wherein only COHb (10-69%) was elevated. The present study suggests that aviation fire accidents/fatalities were fewer than aviation non-fire accidents/fatalities and confirms that aviation accidents related to in-flight fires and CO

8. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

PubMed

Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

2013-01-01

9. The Economic Burden of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Fatal Traffic Accidents in Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital, Shiraz, Iran

PubMed Central

Kavosi, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hatam, Nahid; Enaami, Meysam

2015-01-01

Background: Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) as a result of traffic accidents are one of the major causes of deaths, which lead to the loss of individuals’ productive and working years of life. Objectives: This study aimed to calculate the economic burden of traumatic brain injuries in fatal crashes at Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital, Shiraz, Iran for a period of five years. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study the population included people who had died as a result of TBIs during 2009 to 2013 in Shiraz Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital. Cost and demographic data were obtained from the participants’ medical records using data gathering forms, and some other information was also collected via telephone calls to the victims’ families. Economic burden of TBIs due to traffic accidents, which led to death, was estimated using the human capital as direct costs of treatment, and the number of potential years of life lost and lost productivity as indirect costs. Results: Deaths resulting from TBIs due to traffic accidents in Shiraz imposed 6.2 billion Rials (511000 USD) of hospital costs, 6390 potential years of life lost, and 506 billion Rials (20 million USD) of productivity lost. In the present study, the mean age of the individuals who died was 38.4 ± 19.41 and the productivity lost per capita was 1.8 billion Rials (73000 USD). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that the economic burden of TBIs was high in fatal accidents in Fars Province so that it was equivalent to 0.00011% of Iran’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2013. Therefore, more attention has to be paid to the rules to prevent the fatal accidents. PMID:25834791

10. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

PubMed

Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

2013-10-01

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

11. Tobit analysis of vehicle accident rates on interstate highways.

PubMed

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Tarko, Andrew P; Mannering, Fred L

2008-03-01

There has been an abundance of research that has used Poisson models and its variants (negative binomial and zero-inflated models) to improve our understanding of the factors that affect accident frequencies on roadway segments. This study explores the application of an alternate method, tobit regression, by viewing vehicle accident rates directly (instead of frequencies) as a continuous variable that is left-censored at zero. Using data from vehicle accidents on Indiana interstates, the estimation results show that many factors relating to pavement condition, roadway geometrics and traffic characteristics significantly affect vehicle accident rates.

12. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

13. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

PubMed

Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E

1993-06-01

Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

14. United States pedestrian fatality rates by vehicle type

PubMed Central

Paulozzi, L

2005-01-01

Objective: To describe the relation between motor vehicle type and the risk of fatally injuring a pedestrian. Design: The risk of killing a pedestrian was measured as the number of pedestrian fatalities per billion miles of vehicle travel by each vehicle type in the US in 2002 as reported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: Rates for each vehicle type by sex, age, and rural/urban roadway type and rate comparisons using relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Passenger cars and light trucks (vans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles) accounted for 46.1% and 39.1%, respectively, of the 4875 deaths, with the remainder split among motorcycles, buses, and heavy trucks. Compared with cars, the RR of killing a pedestrian per vehicle mile was 7.97 (95% CI 6.33 to 10.04) for buses; 1.93 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.86) for motorcycles; 1.45 (95% CI 1.37 to 1.55) for light trucks, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.18) for heavy trucks. Compared with cars, buses were 11.85 times (95% CI 6.07 to 23.12) and motorcycles were 3.77 times (95% CI 1.40 to 10.20) more likely per mile to kill children 0–14 years old. Buses were 16.70 times (95% CI 7.30 to 38.19) more likely to kill adults age 85 or older than were cars. The risk of killing a pedestrian per vehicle mile traveled in an urban area was 1.57 times (95% CI 1.47 to 1.67) the risk in a rural area. Conclusions: Outcomes reflect the ways in which a vehicle's characteristics (mass, front end design, and visibility) and its degree of interaction with pedestrians affect its risk per mile. Modifications in vehicle design might reduce pedestrian injury. The greatest impact on overall US pedestrian mortality will result from reducing the risk from the light truck category. PMID:16081753

15. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate.

PubMed

Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

2007-03-01

Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N=171) to various geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N=88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance of speed and traffic volume for traffic accidents with more than one partner involved. The 48 single cyclist accidents were significantly related to the traffic volume of cyclists only. Due to our limited number of observations, the models should be regarded as indicative.

16. Postmortem Coronary Atherosclerosis Findings in General Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities: 1975-1977

DTIC Science & Technology

1980-02-01

known about the contribution of cardio- vascular disease to aviation accidents. While the potential for accident outcome has been recognized for some...potential for interaction between existing cardio- vascular disease and aircraft accidents (1-7). Pettyjohn and McMeekin found coronary artery disease present...Cardiovascular disease through the National Technic-,l Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161 19. Security Clossif. (of this report) 20

17. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

PubMed Central

Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

2015-01-01

Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

18. A Human Factors Analysis of Fatal and Serious Injury Accidents in Alaska, 2004-2009

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-12-01

During. the.analysis,.these.were.sometimes.referred.to.as.“ moose . 8..... stalls .”.All.but.one.of.these.accidents.ended.when.the...to.be.fair,. moose -watching.was.not.the.only.distraction .. Several.of.these.accidents.did.involve.looking.at.wildlife. (sheep,.wolves,.a.whale.bone

19. A study into blood alcohol concentration in fatal accidents among vulnerable road users in a tertiary care hospital Sri Lanka.

PubMed

Edirisinghe, Anuruddhi Samanthika; Kitulwatte, Indira Deepthi; Senarathne, Udara Dilrukshi

2015-01-01

Reckless driving behaviour associated with alcohol has been well known. In Sri Lanka, research on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in road fatalities is scares. Thus, we studied the BAC in vulnerable road users (VRUs) encountered in medico-legal autopsies. A retrospective descriptive study based on case records of VRU fatalities from 2005 to 2012 referred for a tertiary care unit for post-mortem examination was conducted. A pro-forma was developed to extract data from the post-mortem blood alcohol reports. Data were analysed using percentages and p-values. There were 119 cases from the 328 autopsies to investigate blood alcohol tests. A total of 51% (n = 61) out of 119 had BAC above 80 mg/100 ml and mean level was 103 mg/100 ml. 2/3 of pedestrians had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml with a mean level of 139 mg/dl. The highest mean blood alcohol (158 mg/dl) was reported from three-wheeler users. Majority of cases with more than 80 mg/100 ml BAC was reported in the age group of 40-60 years, while 40% of the elderly too had a BAC above 80 mg/100 ml. The comparison between pedestrians having above 80 mg/100 ml of BAC with that of other VRUs (active road users) showed a significant statistical difference (p = 0.017). The study results suggest that alcohol influence among pedestrians represent a significant risk factor for fatal road traffic accidents.

20. Trends in rates of occupational fatal injuries in the United States (1983-92)

PubMed Central

Bailer, A. J.; Stayner, L. T.; Stout, N. A.; Reed, L. D.; Gilbert, S. J.

1998-01-01

OBJECTIVES: An updated version of a national surveillance system of traumatic occupational fatalities was used to explore adjusted and unadjusted trends in rates of fatal injury. METHODS: Data from the national traumatic occupational fatalities surveillance system were combined with data on employment from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Poisson regression was then used to examine trends in rates of occupational fatality injuries while controlling for demographic and workplace characteristics. RESULTS: Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decline of 6.2% for workers in technical and administrative support occupations--for example, health, science, and engineering technicians, pilots, computer programmers--to an increase of 1.6% in machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. For industries, annual changes ranged from a decline of 5.3% for workers in public administration--for example, justice, public order, and safety workers--to an increase of 2.6% for workers in the wholesale trade. By comparison, the annual decline over all industries and occupations was 3.1%. In many industries and occupations, an effect modification of annual trends by the age of the worker was also found with the oldest workers experiencing either no decline or a significant increase in rates of fatal injuries. CONCLUSIONS: This general pattern of decline, adjusted for the effects of demographic characteristics of the worker population, is encouraging; however, increases in rates of fatal injuries found in particular industries and occupations, suggest appropriate targets for increased injury prevention efforts.   PMID:9816383

1. Fatal accident due to anti-personnel ARGES EM01 rifle grenade explosion.

PubMed

Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakasi, Valeria; Birbilis, Theodossios-A

2016-06-01

During the process of unsealing an old ammunition box in order to destroy it, a 42-year-old ammunition technician was fatally injured due to an anti-personnel ARGES EM01-type rifle grenade detonation. The explosion took place in the victim's hands, in point-blank range. This report aimed to show the anatomical position, the severity and the dispersion extent of the multiple injuries in the human body due to the detonation, and draw firm conclusions regarding the position of the human body and the circumstances prevailing at the moment of the explosion.

2. An uncommon accident and unusual cause of death--a fatal domestic ram attack.

PubMed

2013-07-01

Domestic animal attacks are not common; their fatal attacks are even rarer. Herein, a case of a 78-year-old woman attacked by a ram is presented. She sustained multiple head and chest injuries. The autopsy findings and the inspection of the scene revealed that the fatal aortic injury had been caused by direct force from the front, which subsequently caused a powerful anteroposterior chest compression, resulting in an incomplete tear by flexion and compression of the aortic arch. The aortic dissection propagated in both an ante- and retrograde direction, with intact adventitia. However, due to a rise in pressure in the formed false lumen, dissection propagated downward to the base of the heart, and further into the subepicardial adipose tissue, forming a subepicardial hematoma. This hematoma gradually compressed the proximal sections of the coronary arteries, impairing their filling, and producing a myocardial ischemia. In addition, circulation had probably been already disturbed by the right-sided pneumothorax, as well as a possible pneumomediastinum.

3. Survival rates after serious immersion accidents in childhood.

PubMed

Pearn, J

1978-01-01

A study of childhood survival rates, after loss of consciousness in fresh water, has been undertaken. Age-specific, sex-specific and site-specific survival rates for childhood fresh water immersion accidents are reported for the first time. The overall survival rate, after loss of consciousness in the water was 0.49; swimming pool and domestic bath tub serious immersion accidents have a survival rate of 0.60 compared with a rate of 0.05 for similar immersion accidents in creeks and rivers. Young male schoolboys have the lowest potential survival (0.20 or less) of any group. Survival rates were significantly higher during the winter (0.86) than during the warmer months (survival rate of 0.49). This gives a quantitative expression to the protection from cerebral anoxia afforded by body chilling which is not extreme. Survival rates have increased significantly over the 5 year period 1971--1975; it is considered that this is due to public education campaigns of the potential danger of water to children. The use of survival rates to measure factors which modify the pathophysiology of human drowning and near-drowning is discussed.

4. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.

2014-10-01

Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

5. Impact of the effect of economic crisis and the targeted motorcycle safety programme on motorcycle-related accidents, injuries and fatalities in Malaysia.

PubMed

Law, T H; Umar, R S Radin; Zulkaurnain, S; Kulanthayan, S

2005-03-01

In 1997, a Motorcycle Safety Programme (MSP) was introduced to address the motorcycle-related accident problem. The MSP was specifically targeted at motorcyclists. In addition to the MSP, the recent economic recession has significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic-related incidents. This paper examines the effects of the recent economic crisis and the MSP on motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia. The autocorrelation integrated moving average model with transfer function was used to evaluate the overall effects of the interventions. The variables used in developing the model were gross domestic product and MSPs. The analysis found a 25% reduction in the number of motorcycle-related accidents, a 27% reduction in motorcycle casualties and a 38% reduction in motorcycle fatalities after the implementation of MSP. Findings indicate that the MSP has been one of the effective measures in reducing motorcycle safety problems in Malaysia. Apart from that, the performance of the country's economy was also found to be significant in explaining the number of motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia.

6. Non-fatal injuries sustained in road traffic accidents: a pilot study in provincial hospitals in Chon Buri, Thailand.

PubMed

Jirojwong, Sansnee; Rudtanasudjatum, Koolarb; Watcharavitoon, Pornpun; Sathitsathien, Wilai; Sangjun, Sunisa

2002-03-01

The characteristics of patients with non-fatal road traffic injuries who received care from non-referral hospitals are described; an assessment of the difference between the characteristics of patients who received care at a referral hospital and those of patients who were treated at non-referral hospitals is made. A retrospective study, conducted in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, reviewed information from two sources: 324 records from eight non-referral hospitals and the 1999 Injury Surveillance Report of Chon Buri Hospital, a referral hospital. A data collection tool was designed to retrieve information from the non-referral hospitals. Data were analysed descriptively and analytically. The majority of the patients of the non-referral hospitals were male (71.1%) motorcyclists (84.2%), and received ambulatory care (83.9%). Young patients had a higher risk of being admitted to these hospitals. Non-motorcyclists, pedestrians, and nonlocal persons were more likely to receive care from the referral hospital. The results were similar to those of previous studies. The different characteristics of patients who receive care at referral--and non-referral hospitals need to be taken into account when designing traffic accident reduction programs.

7. A motor vehicle accident fatality involving the inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane.

PubMed

Hahn, Timothy; Avella, Joseph; Lehrer, Michael

2006-10-01

A 24-year-old female driver with a history of substance abuse was pronounced dead following a single car motor vehicle accident. A surviving front seat passenger witnessed the decedent inhaling "Dust Off" cleaner just prior to losing control of the vehicle. The propellant compound used in this product is the halogenated hydrocarbon 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE). Sealed autopsy specimens were examined for the presence and subsequent quantitation of DFE utilizing an Agilent 6850 gas chromatograph (GC)-flame-ionization detector. The levels of DFE obtained were as follows: 29.8 mg/L in femoral blood, 40.3 mg/L in pulmonary arterial blood, 85.6 mg/L in aortic blood, 79.9 mg/L in chest cavity blood, 21.2 mg/L in vitreous, 11.7 mg/kg in brain, 27.9 mg/kg in liver, 71.0 mg/L in urine, and 51.8 mg/total gastric contents. The presence of DFE was confirmed in the decedent's urine by injection on an Agilent 6890/5973 GC-mass spectrometer in full scan mode. This case presents a uniquely witnessed observation of the apparent impairing effects and consequences of the acute inhalation of halogenated hydrocarbons such as DFE and the operation of a motor vehicle. The proximity of time of death to inhalant use may also provide insight to postmortem distribution patterns of DFE in relation to normal physiologic blood flow. With further investigations, estimating the time of final use of an inhalant prior to death may be deciphered from such patterns, although a degree of caution should be applied in deaths resulting from severe trauma in which normal tissue structure is compromised because postmortem redistribution may result.

8. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

PubMed Central

Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

2013-01-01

Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (< 0.08% vs. ≥ 0.08%), and household income. Results A total of 1,612 bicycle-related fatalities were sustained by children <16 years old. There were no statistical differences in median household income, the proportion of states with elderly licensure laws, or the proportion of states with a blood alcohol limit of > 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

9. Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities of Cyclists Associated with Impact Velocities of Cars in Car-Cyclist Accidents in Japan.

PubMed

Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko

2015-11-01

The main purpose of this study is to define the relationship between the car impact velocity and serious injury risk or fatality risk of cyclists. The authors investigated the risks of serious injuries and fatalities of cyclists using vehicle-cyclist accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, mini vans, box vans, light passenger cars and light cargo vans. The results revealed that a 10-km/h decrease in the impact velocity could reduce the severe injury risk and fatality risk for impact velocities of 40 km/h or higher. Specifically, when the impact velocity was less than or equal to 30 km/h, the serious injury risks were less than 21% and the fatality risks were less than or equal to 1% for the above listed vehicle types. Therefore, if the Collision Damage Mitigation Braking System (CDMBS) equipped vehicles can perform its functions effectively so as to reduce the impact velocities, then cyclist injuries will likely be significantly reduced. Another purpose of this study is to assess the effect of wearing a helmet for protection of the cyclist's head. Impact experiment results showed that the measured head injury criterion (HIC) with helmets are lower than that of head-form impactor without a helmet, reducing the HIC by 57%.

10. Declining Rates of Fatal and Nonfatal Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Epidemiological Trends in Australia

PubMed Central

Gattellari, Melina; Goumas, Chris; Worthington, John

2014-01-01

Background A recent systematic review of epidemiological studies reported intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) incidence and mortality as unchanged over time; however, comparisons between studies conducted in different health services obscure assessment of trends. We explored trends in ICH rates in a large, representative population in New South Wales, Australia's most populous state (≈7.3 million). Methods and Results Adult hospitalizations with a principal ICH diagnosis from 2001 to 2009 were linked to death registrations through to June 30, 2010. Trends for overall, fatal, and nonfatal ICH rates within 30 days and fatal rates for 30‐day survivors at 365 days were calculated. There were 11 332 ICH patient admissions meeting eligibility criteria, yielding a crude hospitalization rate of 25.2 per 100 000 (age‐standardized rate: 17.2). Age‐ and sex‐adjusted overall rates significantly declined by an average of 1.6% per year (P=0.03). Fatal ICH declined by an average of 2.6% per year (P=0.004). For 30‐day survivors, a nonsignificant decline of 2.3% per year in fatal ICH at 365 days was estimated (P=0.17). Male sex and birth in the Oceania region and Asia were associated with an increased ICH risk, although this depended on age. Approximately 12% of ICH admissions would be prevented if the socioeconomic circumstances of the population equated with those of the least disadvantaged. Conclusions Overall and fatal ICH rates have fallen in this large Australian population. Improvements in cardiovascular prevention and acute care may explain declining rates. There was no evidence of an increase in devastated survivors because the longer term mortality of 30‐day survivors has not increased over time. PMID:25488294

11. 23 CFR 1313.5 - Requirements for a low fatality rate state.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for a low fatality rate state. 1313.5 Section 1313.5 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INCENTIVE GRANT CRITERIA FOR ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.5 Requirements for a...

12. 23 CFR 1313.5 - Requirements for a low fatality rate state.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for a low fatality rate state. 1313.5 Section 1313.5 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INCENTIVE GRANT CRITERIA FOR ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.5 Requirements for a...

13. 23 CFR 1313.5 - Requirements for a low fatality rate state.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for a low fatality rate state. 1313.5 Section 1313.5 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INCENTIVE GRANT CRITERIA FOR ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.5 Requirements for a...

14. Estimation of the duration after methamphetamine injection using a pharmacokinetic model in suspects who caused fatal traffic accidents.

PubMed

Matsubara, Kazuo; Asari, Masaru; Suno, Manabu; Awaya, Toshio; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Omura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Joe; Maseda, Chikatoshi; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Shiono, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Keiko

2012-07-01

When the population parameters of drug pharmacokinetics in the human body system are known, the time-course of a certain drug in an individual can generally be estimated by pharmacokinetics. In the present two cases where methamphetamine abusers were suspected to have inflicted mortalities in traffic accidents, the time-elapse or duration immediately after methamphetamine injection to the time when the accidents occurred became points of contention. In each case, we estimated the time-course of blood methamphetamine after the self-administration in the suspects using a 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model with known pharmacokinetic parameters from the literatures. If the injected amount can be determined to a certain extent, it is easy to calculate the average time-elapse after injection by referring to reference values. However, there is considerable individual variability in the elimination rate based on genetic polymorphism and a considerably large error range in the estimated time-elapse results. To minimize estimation errors in such cases, we also analyzed genotype of CYP2D6, which influenced methamphetamine metabolism. Estimation based on two time-point blood samples would usefully benefit legal authorities in passing ruling sentences in cases involving similar personalities and circumstances as those involved in the present study.

15. Disabling and fatal occupational claim rates, risks, and costs in the Oregon construction industry 1990-1997.

PubMed

Horwitz, Irwin B; McCall, Brian P

2004-10-01

This study estimated injury and illness rates, risk factors, and costs associated with construction work in Oregon from 1990-1997 using all accepted workers' compensation claims by Oregon construction employees (N = 20,680). Claim rates and risk estimates were estimated using a baseline calculated from Current Population Survey data of the Oregon workforce. The average annual rate of lost-time claims was 3.5 per 100 workers. More than 50% of claims were by workers under 35 years and with less than 1 year of tenure. The majority of claimants (96.1%) were male. There were 52 total fatalities reported over the period examined, representing an average annual death rate of 8.5 per 100,000 construction workers. Average claim cost was \$10,084 and mean indemnity time was 57.3 days. Structural metal workers had the highest average days of indemnity of all workers (72. 1), highest average costs per claim (\$16,472), and highest odds ratio of injury of all occupations examined. Sprains were the most frequently reported injury type, constituting 46.4% of all claims. The greatest accident risk occurred during the third hour of work. Training interventions should be extensively utilized for inexperienced workers, and prework exercises could potentially reduce injury frequency and severity.

16. Ethnic differences in coronary heart disease case fatality rates in Auckland.

PubMed

Bullen, C; Beaglehole, R

1997-12-01

Data from the Auckland Coronary or Stroke (ARCOS) study for the years 1983 to 1992 were analysed to describe 28-day case fatality rates from coronary heart disease among Europeans, Maori and Pacific Islands people in Auckland, New Zealand. The case fatality rate was consistently higher in each age group and for both sexes among Maori and Pacific Islands people than in Europeans. Age-standardised case fatalities for Maori and Pacific Islands people were similar at around 65 per cent, compared with around 45 per cent among Europeans, and these differences were not explained by ethnic differences in possible underreporting of nonfatal myocardial infarction, in socioeconomic status, smoking, symptoms or past myocardial infarction. There was evidence of a more rapid progression of acute coronary events to a fatal outcome among Maori and Pacific Islands people, partly explained by delays in access to life support and coronary care: greater proportions of Pacific Islands people than Maori or Europeans who died did so within an hour of onset of symptoms (56 per cent of Pacific Islands people, 47 per cent of Maori, 45 per cent of Europeans). Pacific Islands and Maori people with acute coronary events took longer to reach a coronary care unit (mean times: Pacific Islands people 8.6 hours, Maori 7.4 hours, Europeans 6.7 hours, P < 0.05), although the median times were not significantly different; life-support units were used by a majority of Pacific Islands people and Europeans (57 per cent and 55 per cent, respectively), compared with only 46 per cent of Maori, but hospital care was similar for the three groups. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to investigate the reasons for these ethnic disparities in case fatality rates.

17. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

PubMed

Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

2010-09-01

Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death.

18. The role of tourism in alcohol-related highway fatalities.

PubMed

Colón, I

1985-04-01

Tourism and fatal single motor vehicle accidents, an index of alcohol-related motor accidents, are examined in a cross-sectional analysis of the 50 states of the Union and the District of Columbia. A multiple regression model is employed in which average mileage driven, percent of metropolitan residents, and number of licensed drivers are statistically controlled. Tourism is found to be positively associated with the single motor vehicle fatality rate. Further research and policy implications are discussed.

19. Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…

20. Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer

SciTech Connect

Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B.; Blower, D.F.

1994-04-01

Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

1. Fatal Community-acquired Pneumonia in Children Caused by Re-emergent Human Adenovirus 7d Associated with Higher Severity of Illness and Fatality Rate

PubMed Central

Yu, Zhiwu; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Yuxian; Chen, Manjun; Guo, Yonghui; Yu, Nan; Chodosh, James; Fu, Ning; Che, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiwei

2016-01-01

2. The covariance between the number of accidents and the number of victims in multivariate analysis of accident related outcomes.

PubMed

Bijleveld, F D

2005-07-01

In this study some statistical issues involved in the simultaneous analysis of accident related outcomes of the road traffic process are investigated. Since accident related outcomes like the number of victims, fatalities or accidents show interdependencies, their simultaneous analysis requires that these interdependencies are taken into account. One particular interdependency is the number of fatal accidents that is always smaller than the number of fatalities as at least one fatality results from a fatal accident. More generally, when the number of accidents increases, the number of people injured as a result of these accidents will also increase. Since dependencies between accident related outcomes are reflected in the variance-covariance structure of the outcomes, the main focus of the present study is on establishing this structure. As this study shows it is possible to derive relatively simple expressions for estimates of the variances and covariances of (logarithms of) accidents and victim counts. One example reveals a substantial effect of the inclusion of covariance terms in the estimation of a confidence region of a mortality rate. The accuracy of the estimated variance-covariance structure of the accident related outcomes is evaluated using samples of real life accident data from The Netherlands. Additionally, the effect of small expected counts on the variance estimate of the logarithm of the counts is investigated.

3. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

PubMed Central

Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne; Dornonville de la Cour, Kenn; Young, Alyssa; Brooks, Tim; Sesay, Tom; Salam, Alex P.; Mishra, Sharmistha; Storgaard, Merete

2017-01-01

Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis, suggesting a survival selection bias. Comparisons of case-fatality rates across ETCs and clinical management strategies should account for potential survival selection bias. PMID:28322693

4. Analysis of non-fatal and fatal injury rates for mine operator and contractor employees and the influence of work location

SciTech Connect

Karra, V.K.

2005-07-01

Mining injury surveillance data are used as the basis for assessing the severity of injuries among operator and contractor employees in the underground and surface mining of various minerals. Injury rates during 1983-2002 derived from Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) database are analyzed using the negative binomial regression model. The logarithmic mean injury rate is expressed as a linear function of seven indicator variables representing Non-Coal Contractor, Metal Operator, Non Metal Operator, Stone Operator, Sand and Gravel Operator, Coal Contractor, and Work Location, and a continuous variable, RelYear, representing the relative year starting, with 1983 as the base year. Based on the model, the mean injury rate declined at a 1.69% annual rate, and the mean injury rate for work on the Surface is 52.53% lower compared to the title for work in the underground. With reference to the Coal Operator mean injury rate: the Non-Coal Contractor rate is 30.34% lower, the Metal Operator rate is 27.18% lower, the Non-Metal Operator rate is 37.51% lower, the Stone Operator rate is 23.44% lower, the Sand and Gravel Operator rate is 16.45% lower, and the Coal Contractor rate is 1.41% lower. Fatality rates during the same 20 year period are analyzed similarly using Poisson regression model. Based on this model, the mean fatality rate declined at a 3.17% annual rate, and the rate for work on the surface is 64.3% lower compared to the rate for work in the underground. With reference to the Coal Operator mean fatality rate: the Non-Coal Coil tractor rate is 234.81% higher, the Metal Operator rate is 5.79% lower, the Non-Metal Operator rate is 47.36% lower, the Stone Operator rate is 8.29% higher, the Sand and Gravel Operator rate is 60.32% higher, and the Coal Contractor rate is 129.54% higher.

5. A multivariate tobit analysis of highway accident-injury-severity rates.

PubMed

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E; Mannering, Fred L

2012-03-01

Relatively recent research has illustrated the potential that tobit regression has in studying factors that affect vehicle accident rates (accidents per distance traveled) on specific roadway segments. Tobit regression has been used because accident rates on specific roadway segments are continuous data that are left-censored at zero (they are censored because accidents may not be observed on all roadway segments during the period over which data are collected). This censoring may arise from a number of sources, one of which being the possibility that less severe crashes may be under-reported and thus may be less likely to appear in crash databases. Traditional tobit-regression analyses have dealt with the overall accident rate (all crashes regardless of injury severity), so the issue of censoring by the severity of crashes has not been addressed. However, a tobit-regression approach that considers accident rates by injury-severity level, such as the rate of no-injury, possible injury and injury accidents per distance traveled (as opposed to all accidents regardless of injury-severity), can potentially provide new insights, and address the possibility that censoring may vary by crash-injury severity. Using five-year data from highways in Washington State, this paper estimates a multivariate tobit model of accident-injury-severity rates that addresses the possibility of differential censoring across injury-severity levels, while also accounting for the possible contemporaneous error correlation resulting from commonly shared unobserved characteristics across roadway segments. The empirical results show that the multivariate tobit model outperforms its univariate counterpart, is practically equivalent to the multivariate negative binomial model, and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident-injury-severity rates on specific roadway segments.

6. Risks of pedestrian serious injuries and fatalities associated with impact velocities of cars in car-versus-pedestrian accidents in Japan.

PubMed

Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Ando, Kenichi

2013-11-01

The first purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between the car impact velocity and pedestrian injury severity or mortality risk. We investigated the frequency of serious injuries and fatalities of pedestrians using vehicle-pedestrian accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, minivans, and box vans (ordinary automobiles) and light passenger cars and light cargo vans (light automobiles). The results revealed that a 10-km/h reduction in impact velocity could mitigate severe pedestrian injuries in cases involving impact velocities of 40 km/h or more for the five vehicle types analyzed. Specifically, if the impact velocity was 30 km/h or less, the frequency of serious injuries was less than 27% and the frequency of fatalities was less than 5% for the five vehicle types. Therefore, if the collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) that uses a sensor to detect pedestrians can effectively reduce the impact velocity for various vehicle types, pedestrian injuries will be greatly mitigated. The second purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect injury risk. Impact experiments were conducted in which a sedan impacted against a pedestrian full-scale dummy at 40 km/h and a pedestrian headform impactor was impacted against a road surface. The results indicated that the risk of pedestrian serious injury was significantly affected by multiple impact conditions, such as the pedestrian height, car impact velocity, car frontal shape, and car stiffness in cases where the car impacted the pedestrian's head, the degrees of influence of which were driven by the vehicle impact velocity.

7. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

PubMed

Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

2015-11-01

The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

8. Severe maternal morbidity from direct obstetric causes in West Africa: incidence and case fatality rates.

PubMed Central

Prual, A.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; de Bernis, L.; Bréart, G.

2000-01-01

Data on maternal morbidity make it possible to assess how many women are likely to need essential obstetric care, and permit the organization, monitoring and evaluation of safe motherhood programmes. In the present paper we propose operational definitions of severe maternal morbidity and report the frequency of such morbidity as revealed in a population-based survey of a cohort of 20,326 pregnant women in six West African countries. The methodology and questionnaires were the same in all areas. Each pregnant woman had four contacts with the obstetric survey team: at inclusion, between 32 and 36 weeks of amenorrhoea, during delivery and 60 days postpartum. Direct obstetric causes of severe morbidity were observed in 1215 women (6.17 cases per 100 live births). This ratio varied significantly between areas, from 3.01% in Bamako to 9.05% in Saint-Louis. The main direct causes of severe maternal morbidity were: haemorrhage (3.05 per 100 live births); obstructed labour (2.05 per 100), 23 cases of which involved uterine rupture (0.12 per 100); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0.64 per 100), 38 cases of which involved eclampsia (0.19 per 100); and sepsis (0.09 per 100). Other direct obstetric causes accounted for 12.2% of cases. Case fatality rates were very high for sepsis (33.3%), uterine rupture (30.4%) and eclampsia (18.4%); those for haemorrhage varied from 1.9% for antepartum or peripartum haemorrhage to 3.7% for abruptio placentae. Thus at least 3-9% of pregnant women required essential obstetric care. The high case fatality rates of several complications reflected a poor quality of obstetric care. PMID:10859853

9. Raised Speed Limits, Speed Spillover, Case-Fatality Rates, and Road Deaths in Israel: A 5-Year Follow-Up

PubMed Central

Richter, Elihu D.; Barach, Paul; Friedman, Lee; Krikler, Samuel; Israeli, Abraham

2004-01-01

Objectives. We assessed the 5-year, nationwide impact on road deaths of the raise in the speed limit (November 1, 1993) on 3 major interurban highways in Israel from 90 to 100 kph. Methods. We compared before–after trends in deaths as well as case fatality—an outcome independent of exposure (defined as vehicle-kilometers traveled). Results. After the raise, speeds rose by 4.5%–9.1%. Over 5 years, there was a sustained increase in deaths (15%) and case fatality rates (38%) on all interurban roads. Corresponding increases in deaths (13%) and case fatality (24%) on urban roads indicated “speed spillover.” Conclusions. Immediate increases in case fatality predicted and tracked the sustained increase in deaths from increased speeds of impact. Newtonian fourth power models predicted the effects of “small” increases in speed on large rises in case fatality rates. Countermeasures and congestion reduced the impact on deaths and case-fatality rates by more than half. PMID:15054007

10. Rate of occupational accidents in the mining industry since 1950--a successful approach to prevention policy.

PubMed

Breuer, Joachim; Höffer, Eva-Marie; Hummitzsch, Walter

2002-01-01

This paper deals with the decrease in the rate of accident insurance claims in the German mining industry over the last five decades. It intends to show that this process is above all the result of a prevention policy where companies and the body responsible for the legal accident insurance in the mining industry, the Bergbau-Berufsgenossenschaft (BBG), work hand in hand. A system like the German accident insurance scheme, combining prevention, rehabilitation, and compensation, enables successful and modern safety and health measures.

11. A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.

PubMed

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

2012-03-01

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments.

PubMed

Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

2016-11-01

This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

13. Distribution of ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid in Postmortem Biological Fluids and Tissues From Pilots Fatally Injured in Aviation Accidents.

PubMed

Kemp, Philip M; Cardona, Patrick S; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Soper, John W

2015-07-01

Little is known of the postmortem distribution of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Data from 55 pilots involved in fatal aviation accidents are presented in this study. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis obtained mean THC concentrations in blood from multiple sites, liver, lung, and kidney of 15.6 ng/mL, 92.4 ng/g, 766.0 ng/g, 44.1 ng/g and mean THCCOOH concentrations of 35.9 ng/mL, 322.4 ng/g, 42.6 ng/g, 138.5 ng/g, respectively. Heart THC concentrations (two cases) were 184.4 and 759.3 ng/g, and corresponding THCCOOH measured 11.0 and 95.9 ng/g, respectively. Muscle concentrations for THC (two cases) were 16.6 and 2.5 ng/g; corresponding THCCOOH, "confirmed positive" and 1.4 ng/g. The only brain tested in this study showed no THC detected and 2.9 ng/g THCCOOH, low concentrations that correlated with low values in other specimens from this case. This research emphasizes the need for postmortem cannabinoid testing and demonstrates the usefulness of a number of tissues, most notably lung, for these analyses.

14. Relationship between pedestrian headform tests and injury and fatality rates in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

PubMed

Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David

2013-11-01

Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.

15. An experimental evaluation of the effects of periodic motor vehicle inspection on accident rates.

PubMed

Fosser, S

1992-12-01

204,000 cars were randomly assigned to three different experimental conditions. 46,000 cars were inspected annually during a period of three years; 46,000 cars were inspected once during three years; and 112,000 cars were not inspected. The number of accidents was recorded for a period of four years. No differences in accident rates were found between the groups. The technical condition of inspected vehicles improved compared to those not inspected. The experiment did not have any unintended side-effects. It is concluded that periodic motor vehicle inspection has no preventive effect on the technical condition of cars in a system where roadside inspections also exist.

16. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

PubMed

Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

2016-03-01

We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions.

17. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

PubMed

Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

1986-12-01

In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables.

18. Improving safety behaviour and accident rates of professional drivers: the Dead Sea project.

PubMed

Calé, Michael H

2012-01-01

It was the aim of the Dead Sea project to change and improve traffic safety behaviour and lower the accident rates of professional drivers by applying principles and techniques known from social and traffic psychology. All interventions were based on a sample of 48 workers from one company. Extensive changes in attitudes were obtained by manipulating the workers' behaviour and causing them to publicly represent positive safety attitudes and values. The results show significant improvements in safety behaviour and reductions of accident rates. In spite of the fact that only a small minority of the workers in this plant directly participated in the programme, many others were influenced and improved their safety behaviour on the road. Therefore, the employed method seems to be not only effective but also very cost efficient.

19. Wind energy development: methods to assess bird and bat fatality rates post-construction

USGS Publications Warehouse

Huso, Manuela; Dalthorp, Daniel; Miller, T J; Bruns, Dawn

2016-01-01

Monitoring fatalities at wind energy facilities after they have been constructed can provide valuable information regarding impacts of wind power development on wildlife. The objective of this monitoring is to estimate abundance of a super-population of carcasses that entered the area within a designated period of time. By definition, the population is not closed and carcasses can enter as they are killed through collision with turbines, and leave as they are removed by scavengers or decompose to a point where they are not recognizable. In addition, the population is not inherently mobile, but can only change location through some external force. A focus on number of animal carcasses comprising the super-population, combined with peculiar traits that resist classic assumptions, distinguish fatality estimation at wind-power facilities from more classic abundance estimates that can be addressed through mark-recapture techniques or other well-known abundance estimators. We review the available methods to estimate the super-population of carcasses at wind power facilities. We discuss the role of these estimates in determining appropriate levels of minimization and mitigation of impacts to individual species of concern. We discuss the potential to extrapolate these measurements to reflect the cumulative effect of the industry on individual species. Finally, we suggest avenues of research needed to strengthen our understanding of the effect wind power development has, and might have in the future, on wildlife on this continent and worldwide.

20. [The determinants of the low case fatality rate of the cholera epidemic in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

PubMed

Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Sossou, Roch Aristide; Dossou, Jean-Paul; Mongbo, Virginie; Massougbodji, Achille

2011-01-01

The 2008 cholera outbreak in Benin was characterized by a low case fatality rate (0.39 p.100) in the Littoral department, where 502 cases were recorded between July and December. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors associated with the low case fatality rate within the department. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted as part of this research used 404 patient records, focus group discussions with ten former patients, in-depth interviews with 8 health authorities involved in the response and structured face-to-face interviews with 12 health personnel involved in the treatment of patients. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis based on EPIINFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007 software. The results from several sources were cross-checked through triangulation. The mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 14.8 years. 39.35% patients were admitted with severe dehydration. Oral rehydration, intravenous rehydration and antibiotic therapy were given to 99.5%, 85% and 97.77% of patients, respectively. Only one hospital death was noted. The low case fatality rate was mainly due to the following factors: the high quality of care provided in a center with qualified personnel and available and free of charge treatment kits, protocols based on massive rehydration and appropriate hygiene measures, and patient compliance with the treatment plan. The response was also characterized by good coordination, wide mass and local health promotion, and selective antibiotic prophylaxis, which contributed significantly to reducing the spread of the infection.

1. An Analysis of U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents by Cost and Injury (1990-1996)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iseler, Laura; DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

A study of rotorcraft accidents was conducted to identify safety issues and research areas that might lead to a reduction in rotorcraft accidents and fatalities. The primary source of data was summaries of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident reports. From 1990 to 1996, the NTSB documented 1396 civil rotorcraft accidents in the United States in which 491 people were killed. The rotorcraft data were compared to airline and general aviation data to determine the relative safety of rotorcraft compared to other segments of the aviation industry. In depth analysis of the rotorcraft data addressed demographics, mission, and operational factors. Rotorcraft were found to have an accident rate about ten times that of commercial airliners and about the same as that of general aviation. The likelihood that an accident would be fatal was about equal for all three classes of operation. The most dramatic division in rotorcraft accidents is between flights flown by private pilots versus professional pilots. Private pilots, flying low cost aircraft in benign environments, have accidents that are due, in large part, to their own errors. Professional pilots, in contrast, are more likely to have accidents that are a result of exacting missions or use of specialized equipment. For both groups judgement error is more likely to lead to a fatal accident than are other types of causes. Several approaches to improving the rotorcraft accident rate are recommended. These mostly address improvement in the training of new pilots and improving the safety awareness of private pilots.

2. Effect of recall on estimation of non-fatal injury rates: a community based study in Tanzania

PubMed Central

Moshiro, C; Heuch, I; Astrom, A; Setel, P; Kvale, G

2005-01-01

Study objective: To investigate the effect of recall on estimation of non-fatal injury rates in Tanzania. Design: Retrospective population based survey. Setting: Eight branches in an urban area and six villages in a relatively prosperous rural area in Tanzania. Subjects: Individuals of all ages living in households selected by cluster sampling. Main outcome measures: Estimated non-fatal injury rates calculated at each of the 12 recall periods (one to 12 months before the interview). Results: Out of a population of 15 223 persons, 509 individuals reported 516 injuries during the preceding year. Of these 313 (61.5%) were males and 196 (38.5%) females. The data showed notable declining incidence rates from 72 per 1000 person-years when based on a one month recall period to 32.7 per 1000 person-years for a 12 month recall period (55% decline). The decline was found for injuries resulting in fewer than 30 days of disability whereas rates for severe injuries (disability of 30 days or more) did not show a consistent variation with recall period. Decline in injury rates by recall period was higher in rural than in urban areas. Age, sex, and education did not notably affect recall. Conclusions: Longer recall periods underestimate injury rates compared with shorter recall periods. For severe injuries, a recall period of up to 12 months does not affect the rate estimates. It is essential that a recall period of less than three months be used to calculate injury rates for less severe injuries. PMID:15691990

3. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

PubMed

Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

2016-07-01

A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014.

4. Freshwater drowning and near-drowning accidents involving children: a five-year total population study.

PubMed

Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Wilkey, I

A large total population study of childhood fresh water immersion accidents is reported. The study was undertaken in the City of Brisbane over the five-year period 1971 to 1975 inclusive, and 111 fresh water immersion accidents involving children were studied and analysed. The childhood fresh water immersion accident rate, including drowning and near-drownings, of 10-43 per year per 100,000 at risk (fatality rate of 5-17) is the highest reported. If an unsupervised child gets into difficulties in fresh water and loses consciousness he has a 50% chance of dying. The immersion accident rate has doubled over the last six years. Age-specific immersion accident rates have been calculated, and have revealed that, in the toddler group (12 months to 23 months), the fresh water immersion accident rate is 50-01 per 100,000 (fatality rate of 22-55). Rates for drowning and near-drowning accidents after a fresh water immersion, by site, age and outcome (survival versus fatality), are also presented for the first time. Swimming pools produce 6-20 immersion accidents per year per 100,000 children at risk, and the domestic family bath tub produces 1-78. Possible factors explaining the high incidence are discussed, and comparisons of drowning rates from other centres are made.

5. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

SciTech Connect

Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

2008-07-01

This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

6. Trends of hospitalizations, fatality rate and costs for acute myocardial infarction among Spanish diabetic adults, 2001-2006

PubMed Central

2010-01-01

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the more frequent reasons diabetic patients are admitted to hospital, and there are reports that the long-term prognosis after an AMI is much worse in these patients than in non-diabetic patients. This study aims to compare hospital admissions and costs in Spanish diabetic and non-diabetic subjects due to AMI during the period 2001-2006. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 6 years of national hospitalization data associated with diabetes using the Minimum Basic Data Set. National hospitalization rates were calculated for AMI among diabetic and non-diabetic adults. Fatality rates, mean hospital stay and direct medical costs related to hospitalization were analyzed. Costs were calculated using Diagnosis-Related Groups for AMI in diabetics and non-diabetics patients. Results During the study period, a total of 307,099 patients with AMI were admitted to Spanish hospitals. Diabetic patients made up 29.6% of the total. The estimated incidence due to AMI in diabetics increased from 54.7 cases per 100,000 in 2001 to 64.1 in 2006. Diabetic patients had significantly higher mortality than nondiabetic patients after adjusting for age, gender, and year (OR 1.11 [95% CI, 1.08-1.14]). The cost among diabetic patients increased by 21.3% from 2001 to 2006. Conclusions Diabetic patients have higher rates of hospital admission and fatality rates during the hospitalization after an AMI than nondiabetic patients. Diabetic adults who have suffered an AMI have a greater than expected increase in direct hospital costs over the period 2001-2006. PMID:20205960

7. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

PubMed

Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

2016-11-01

The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

8. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

PubMed

Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

1998-06-01

A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning.

9. Work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China.

PubMed

Jin, Kezhi; Courtney, Theodore K

2009-07-01

Over the past several decades, work-related fatal incident reporting in China has become faster, more publicly accessible and, hence, a potentially more valuable process in support of the decision-making and enforcement actions of the government and safety professionals. A study was conducted to examine the characteristics of work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China (PRC) available from the State Work Accident Briefing (SWAB) system. Injury incident records related to industries other than coal mining were downloaded from the SWAB system (April 2001 to March 2003). The findings were compared with a previously published regional work fatality study in China, data from the U.S. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, and estimates from the International Labor Organization (ILO). During the 2-year period, 1538 work-related events (7046 worker fatalities) were recorded. Collisions (25.6%), drownings (14.6%), and structural collapses (12.5%) were the most frequently reported fatal events. Collisions (24.5%) and falls (14.5%) were the most frequent causes of cited fatal events. Transportation (105.87 per 100 000); mining industries other than coal mining and quarrying (73.28); and electricity, gas, and water supply (14.88) were the industries with the highest estimated fatality rates. Generally, regions with lower economic activity reported more fatalities. The fatal injury rate estimated from the SWAB system was 4.80 per 100,000 (U.S. rate 4.00). ILO estimates for 1994 and 2002 were substantially higher than the estimates derived from the SWAB system. SWAB system differences with other data sources analyzed herein indicate that there remains room for system refinement.

10. Characterization of Foreign-Born vs. Native-Born Worker Fatalities in Kentucky, 2001-2014.

PubMed

Cruz, Yailet; Bunn, Terry Lee; Hanner, Nancy; Slavova, Svetla

2017-02-15

Information on foreign-born worker (FBW) and native-born worker (NBW) fatal injuries is scarce. The Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program analyzed 2001-2014 worker fatality data. The Kentucky FBW fatality rate was double the US FBW and NBW rates, and 50% higher than the Kentucky NBW fatality rate. FBW average age at death was 38 years; NBW age was 47 years. FBW deaths occurred in construction (26%) and services (22%) industries, and transportation [28% (54% due to semi truck crashes)] and construction [26%(48% due to roofing, scaffolding, and ladder-related falls)] occupations; in contrast, NBW deaths occurred in services (22%), and transportation (18%) industries, and transportation (25%) and management (20%) occupations, and were due to exposures to inanimate mechanical forces (38%), and transport accidents (30%). Enhanced FBW cultural competent interventions and policies are needed to prevent FBW occupational injuries, and improve FBW workplace safety and health.

11. Recommendations for Injury Prevention in Transport Aviation Accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grierson, Anita E.; Jones, Lisa E.

2001-01-01

In 1996, a national objective was established to reduce the rate of fatal accidents in aviation. To assist in determining the best methods for improving aircraft crash survivability, a combined approach was used involving database research and the examination of case studies of transport aviation accidents. The results of the study include recommendations for maintaining occupiable space, enhancing occupant restraint, managing energy transferred to the occupant, improving egress, and increasing post-crash survival.

12. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

PubMed

Koh, David Soo Quee

2012-06-01

Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

13. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world". PMID:22993714

14. [Notification of accidents and occupational diseases to the ministry of labor. Peru 2010-2014].

PubMed

Mejia, Christian R; Cárdenas, Matlin M; Gomero-Cuadra, Raúl

2015-01-01

In order to determine trends in accidents and illnesses reported to the Ministry of Labor of Peru, a descriptive study of secondary data from the reports of monthly newsletters from September 2010 to December 2014 was performed. At the national level, 54,596 non-fatal accidents were reported. The rates of non-fatal accidents increased in 2011-2013 (296.5 in 2011, 955.9 in 2012 and 1176.3 in 2013), decreasing in 2014 (878.9). There were 674 fatal accidents whose rates increased between 2011 and 2012 and were reduced between 2013 and 2014. 346 occupational diseases were reported; the most frequent were cases of hearing loss (77), illness by inadequate postures (57) and allergic dermatitis (44). Reports declined from 6.9 in 2011 to 2.3 in 2014. Reports of occupational diseases were declining, which could indicate significant underreporting.

15. The influence of seam height on lost-time injury and fatality rates at small underground bituminous coal mines.

PubMed

Peters, R H; Fotta, B; Mallett, L G

2001-11-01

Due to variations in the thickness of U.S. coal seams, there is great variability in the height of the roof where underground miners work. Restrictions imposed by low seam heights have important safety consequences. As the height of their workplace decreases, miners must stoop, duck walk, or crawl, and their vision, posture, and mobility become increasingly restricted. Low seam height also places important restrictions on the design of mobile equipment and other mining machinery. Using the employment and injury data reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) from 1990 to 1996, small underground bituminous coal mines with less than 50 employees were stratified by average coal seam height according to the following categories: low (< or =42"), medium (43"-60"), and high (> or =61"). Injury rates for both nonfatal days lost and fatality cases were examined by seam height and leading type of injury incidents. The leading types of incidents associated with fatalities were roof falls and powered haulage equipment. In comparison to high-seam mines, miners working in low or medium seams are at higher risk of being killed by powered haulage equipment, roof bolting machines, and falls of unsupported roof. The leading types of incidents associated with nonfatal injuries were handling materials and powered haulage. As mining height decreases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from incidents involving roof bolting machines, load-haul-dump equipment, personnel carriers, and powered haulage conveyors. As mining height increases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from slips and falls and incidents involving shuttle cars and roof and rib falls. Knee injuries are a particularly severe problem in low-seam mines. The rate of injuries to miners while crawling or kneeling is 10 times higher in low seams than in high seams.

16. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

PubMed Central

YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

2016-01-01

Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

17. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.

PubMed

Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

2004-04-01

The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector.

18. Daily variation of radiation dose rate after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Yamauchi, Masatoshi

2015-04-01

After the radioactive contamination of the lands from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the radiation dose rates observed by the dosimeters often shows daily variations, at different local times at different places or time. These variations are caused by different reasons: the temperature-dependent characteristics of the dosimeter (instrumental effect), the daily convective wind that lifts up the radioactive small particle on the ground (local effect), and the daily sea-land wind that transports the radioactive small particle from highly contaminated area (regional effect). The last type is most important in understanding the internal dose by air taking. However, while very regular patterns can easily be judged as instrumental effect, variations that strongly depend on the weather conditions are not easily judged. Combining the atmospheric electric field measurement near the ground (potential gradient, PG) with the wind and weather data, some of these unclear cases can be classified into above three reasoning, which will be shown in the presentation. Thus, the PG measurement is important right after any nuclear accidents in the future.

19. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

PubMed Central

AUBAKIROVA, Alma; KOSSUMOV, Alibek; IGISSINOV, Nurbek

2013-01-01

Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000), which was higher (P<0.05) than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000). High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30–39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50–59 years old and 70–79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Tdec=−2.4%), men (Tdec=−2.3%) and women (Tdec=−1.4%). When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000), average (between 18.3 and 24.00/0000) and high (from 24.00/0000 and above). Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000), Mangistau region (25.90/0000), Zhambyl region (27.30/0000), Almaty region (29.30/0000) and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000). Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents. PMID:23641400

20. Case fatality rate and associated factors in patients with 22q11 microdeletion syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

PubMed Central

Repetto, Gabriela M; Guzmán, M Luisa; Delgado, Iris; Loyola, Hugo; Palomares, Mirta; Lay-Son, Guillermo; Vial, Cecilia; Benavides, Felipe; Espinoza, Karena; Alvarez, Patricia

2014-01-01

Objective Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is the most commonly occurring known microdeletion syndrome. Deaths related to the syndrome have been reported, but the magnitude of death has not been quantified. This study evaluated the deletion's impact on survival and its clinical manifestations in a large cohort of Chilean patients. Design Demographic and clinical data of individuals with 22q11 deletions diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were collected from medical records and death certificates. Case fatality rate was calculated and compared with national vital statistics. OR with 95% CI analysis was used to assess the association between clinical manifestations and death. Setting Genetic services in tertiary care centres in Chile, following patients with 22q11.2 deletion. Outcomes Fatality rate and associated factors. Results 59 of 419 patients (14.1%) died during the study period at a median of 3.4 months (range 0 to 32 years of age). Factors associated with death included congenital heart disease (OR 5.27; 95% CI 2.06 to 13.99; p<0.0001), hypocalcaemia (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.67 to 11.15; p<0.002) and airway malacia (OR 13.37; 95% CI 1.19 to 110.51; p<0.002). Patients with deletions and defects such as tetralogy of Fallot with or without pulmonary atraesia, truncus arteriosus or ventricular septal defect, had a 2.6-fold to 4.6-fold higher death rate compared with nationwide reports for the same types of defects. Conclusions In this cohort, we observed a death rate of 14.1%, implying that one in seven patients with 22q11 deletion died during the study period. Significant associations with cardiac defects, hypocalcaemia and airway malacia were observed. Furthermore, the death risk in patients with 22q11 deletion and cardiac defects exceeded the global figures observed in Chile for infants with structurally similar but apparently isolated anomalies. These observations indicate a need to identify patients who may require specific perioperative management to improve survival

1. [The enlarged diagnosis of the fatal penicillin accident. Immunehistologic demonstration of antigen-antibody complexes and of antibodies against the tubular basement membrane after administraiton of depot penicillin].

PubMed

Dirnhofer, R; Sonnabend, W; Sigrist, T

1978-05-20

In a case of fatal penicillin allergy it proved possible at autopsy to demonstrate (by immunohistological examination of basal membranes of proximal renal tubuli) antigen-antibody complexes belonging to the penicillin (BPO) group and to an anti-penicilloyl antibody of the IgG type. In addition, complement C3 was detected. Antibodies against the basal membranes or renal tubuli were also demonstrated in material eluted from the kidney, although an inflammatory reaction ot the immunoligical changes had not yet been observed in light microscopy. It is undecided whether this discrepancy is due to the low dose of penicillin administered or the relatively short time lag between first injection and time of fatality. It is assumed that, pathogenetically, a reaction of the serum sickness type is probably involved. For etiological clarification the use of immunohistological methods in addition to serological procedures provides further indices for an antecedent sensitization to penicillin, because assay effectiveness does not decrease even after a lengthy postmortal time-lapse. On the other hand, tissues and serum for examination should be frozen at low temperatures immediately after autopsy.

2. Insights from interviews regarding high fatality rate caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

Ando, M.; Ishida, M.

2012-12-01

The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) caused approximately 19,000 casualties including missing persons along the entire coast of the Tohoku region. Three historical tsunamis occurred in the past 115 years preceding this tsunami. Since these tsunamis, numerous countermeasures against future tsunamis such as breakwaters, early tsunami warning systems and tsunami evacuation drills were implemented. Despite the preparedness, a number of deaths and missing persons occurred. Although this death rate is approximately 4 % of the population in severely inundated areas; 96 % safely evacuated or managed to survive the tsunami. To understand why some people evacuated immediately while others delayed; survivors were interviewed in the northern part of the Tohoku region. Our interviews revealed that many residents obtained no appropriate warnings and many chose to remain in dangerous locations partly because they obtained the wrong idea of the risks. In addition, our interviews also indicated that the resultant high casualties were due to current technology malfunction, underestimated earthquake size and tsunami heights, and failure of warning systems. Furthermore, the existing breakwaters provided the local community a false sense of security. The advanced technology did not work properly, especially at the time of the severe disaster. If residents had taken an immediate action after the major shaking stopped, most local residents might have survived considering that safer highlands are within 5 to 20 minute walking distance from the interviewed areas. However, the elderly and physically disabled people would still be in a much more difficult situation to walk such distance into safety. Nevertheless, even if these problems occur in future earthquakes, better knowledge regarding earthquakes and tsunami hazards could save more lives. People must take immediate action without waiting for official warning or help. To avoid similar high tsunami death ratios in the future

3. Fatalities in Swedish skydiving.

PubMed

Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

2005-11-01

Exact risk patterns in skydiving fatalities are not well known, but incomplete world injury data indicate that many are preventable. A comprehensive national material for Sweden of 37 skydiving fatalities 1964-2003 were reviewed to identify risk factors. In relation to jump volume, the period 1994-2003 had a fatality rate 11 times lower than 1964-1973. Student skydivers had the highest risk of fatal outcome, often caused by instability in freefall leading to unstable parachute activation with subsequent line entanglement, or parachute activation failure. Unintentional water landings also contributed to student fatality, with life jacket malfunctions, neglect to use life jackets, and automatic reserve parachute activation devices activated by water as aggravating factors. One-third of all fatalities had an inflated and operational parachute at some point prior to injury. A drastic worldwide increase in fatal landing incidents with fast wing parachutes during the 1990s did not occur in Sweden. Every fourth fatality caused by rapid deceleration against ground or water survived impact and died during transports or in hospitals. Rescue units and health care providers can improve management of skydiving incidents from knowledge about the incident and injury mechanisms we have described, and the skydiving community can target risk factors in preventive safety work.

4. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

PubMed

Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

2016-01-01

General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (<12,501lb) powered by 1-2 turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (p<0.001) in the "non-adherence to V Speeds" sub-category. For accidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold

5. Risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity in China.

PubMed

Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chen, Guanghan

2013-10-01

With the recent economic boom in China, vehicle volume and the number of traffic accident fatalities have become the highest in the world. Meanwhile, traffic accidents have become the leading cause of death in China. Systematically analyzing road safety data from different perspectives and applying empirical methods/implementing proper measures to reduce the fatality rate will be an urgent and challenging task for China in the coming years. In this study, we analyze the traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report, are the only officially available and reliable source of traffic accident data (with a sample size>7000 per year). In particular, we focus on two outcome measures: traffic violations and accident severity. Human, vehicle, road and environmental risk factors are considered. First, the results establish the role of traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. An immediate implication is: if the traffic violation rate could be reduced or controlled successfully, then the rate of serious injuries and fatalities would be reduced accordingly. Second, specific risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity are determined. Accordingly, to reduce traffic accident incidence and fatality rates, measures such as traffic regulations and legislation-targeting different vehicle types/driver groups with respect to the various human, vehicle and environment risk factors-are needed. Such measures could include road safety programs for targeted driver groups, focused enforcement of traffic regulations and road/transport facility improvements. Data analysis results arising from this study will shed lights on the development of similar (adjusted) measures to reduce traffic violations and/or accident fatalities and injuries, and to promote road safety in other regions.

6. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

2016-12-01

that mainly occurred in association with landslides and avalanches. The average age of victims of natural hazards was 35.9 years and, accordingly, the age groups with the largest number of victims were the 20-29 and 30-39 year-old groups, which in combination represented 34 % of all fatalities. It appears that the overall natural hazard mortality rate in Switzerland over the past 70 years has been relatively low in comparison to rates in other countries or rates of other types of fatal accidents in Switzerland. However, a large variability in mortality rates was observed within the country with considerably higher rates in Alpine environments.

7. FATAL EPISTAXIS

PubMed Central

Quinn, Francis Berchmans

1961-01-01

The instances in which nosebleed is potentially fatal are those in which there is a history of recent head injury, severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease or an underlying vascular tumor in the nasal chambers. Fatal nasal bleeding has not been reported in children. An awareness on the part of the physician of the potentially fatal significance of his patient's nosebleed is the very best insurance against such an event. Intelligent history-taking, careful physical and x-ray examination, generous sedation, precise local cauterization and packing, estimation of hemoglobin mass and a search for bleeding and clotting disorders are the best weapons of the physician called to treat epistaxis. These procedures, coupled with adequate blood replacement and an informed attitude toward surgical interruption of the blood supply to the bleeding region should forestall death from fatal nosebleed. PMID:13738727

8. [Accidents and injuries at work].

PubMed

Standke, W

2014-06-01

In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

9. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

Kato, H.

2015-12-01

We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

10. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

2016-10-01

Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

11. The Impact of State Level Graduated Driver Licensing Programs on Rates of Passenger Restraint Use and Unlicensed Driving in Fatal Crashes

PubMed Central

Fu, Jonathan; Anderson, Craig L.; Dziura, James D.; Crowley, Michael J.; Vaca, Federico E.

2013-01-01

Since 1996, states have been implementing and enhancing their graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. Increased licensing restrictions could steer new drivers to bypass training and licensing altogether. Unlicensed driving is associated with increased fatal crashes and high-risk behaviors that have been shown to adversely affect passenger safety behaviors like restraint use. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of varying state level GDL programs on rates of unlicensed driving and on passenger restraint use. De-identified data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System from years 1996–2010 was analyzed. Fatal crashes involving drivers (15–24 yrs) and their passengers (15–24 yrs) were included. Using a validated system, each state’s GDL laws at a given month were rated as poor, marginal, fair, or good. The association between GDL strength and unlicensed driving was analyzed graphically and by chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were undertaken to assess the relationship between GDL strength and passenger restraint use. From January 1996 to December 2010, 26,504 (23.4%) passengers were involved in fatal crashes taking place in states with GDL programs rated poor, 21,366(18.9%) marginal, 33,603 (29.6%) fair, and 31,903 (28.1%) good. Rates of unlicensed driving ranged from 16.4% in state-months rated marginal versus 21.5% in state-months rated good (p<0.001). In the multivariate model, compared to states with poor GDL ratings, each additional rating boost was associated with an increased odds of passenger safety restraint use (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.18). Our findings suggest that stronger GDL law can mitigate passenger risk in fatal crashes by encouraging passenger restraint use. Our study provides evidence that stronger legislation in these states may reduce overall risk to young drivers and their passengers. PMID:24406949

12. 49 CFR 655.44 - Post-accident testing.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 655.44 Section 655.44... of Testing § 655.44 Post-accident testing. (a) Accidents. (1) Fatal accidents. (i) As soon as practicable following an accident involving the loss of human life, an employer shall conduct drug and...

13. 49 CFR 655.44 - Post-accident testing.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post-accident testing. 655.44 Section 655.44... of Testing § 655.44 Post-accident testing. (a) Accidents. (1) Fatal accidents. (i) As soon as practicable following an accident involving the loss of human life, an employer shall conduct drug and...

14. Ambient dose equivalent rate in Goiânia 12 years after the 137Cs radiological accident.

PubMed

Yoshimura, E M; Umisedo, N K; Facure, A; Anjos, R M; Okuno, E

2001-06-01

This paper describes the situation of ambient dose equivalent rates in four of the main foci of 137Cs contamination in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in 1999, 12 y after one of the worst radiological accidents in the world. During the decontamination, all the buildings of the three highly contaminated sites were demolished and the top soil removed. Afterwards, the soil of two of these lots was covered with concrete, and they remain vacant today. The soil of the third of these lots, identified here as E, previously known as junkyard II, was covered only with clean soil. Three to four years after the accident, new houses were constructed on this lot, and some very poor people live and work there collecting recyclable material. Gamma ray spectrometry, with a portable survey meter, was performed in the quoted places along with outdoor measurements in many other locations of Goiânia. The average ambient dose equivalent rate due to natural background radiation from radionuclides in the soil and cosmic radiation in non-contaminated areas of the city of Goiânia is 62 nSv h(-1). In most of the highly contaminated sites during the accident, the average ambient dose equivalent rate ranged from around 100 to 1,000 nSv h(-1). The only exception was site E, where values of ambient dose equivalent rate as high as 2.6 microSv h(-1) were found.

15. The special severity of occupational accidents in the afternoon: "the lunch effect".

PubMed

Camino López, Miguel A; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcántara, Oscar J; Ritzel, Dale O

2011-05-01

The severity of occupational accidents suffered by construction workers at different hours of the day is analyzed in this study. It may be seen that the interval of time between 13:00 and 17:00 has incomprehensibly high rates of severe and fatal accidents in comparison with any other. We associate this higher accident rate with what we have termed the "lunch effect". We studied 10,239,303 labor accidents in Spain over the period 1990-2002. The relationships between potential risk factors for occupational accidents around lunch in Spain, especially alcohol consumption are studied, using two methods: analysis of national archival data of 2,155,954 occupational accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector over the period 1990-2002 and a survey study. This study also seeks to contribute the opinions of the workers themselves regarding the causes that might explain this situation.

16. Air weapon fatalities.

PubMed Central

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

17. Diving fatality investigations: recent changes.

PubMed

Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James

2014-06-01

Modifications to the investigation procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident investigators. The most germane proposal for investigators assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications.

18. [Concealed and simulated trauma fatalities(II)].

PubMed

Klotzbach, H; Püschel, K

2001-12-01

A careful investigation of fatal accidents is required due to the relevant financial consequences for the insured as well as for the insurance company. An evaluation of post-mortem cases handled by our institute from 1988 to 1998 showed that 16% of all fatal accidents were not initially classified as such; it was only possible to determine the cause by post-mortem and criminal investigation. The frequency of a relevant alcoholization varied with different types of accidents. Furthermore, of all fatal accidents, 3% were revealed to be deceptive. Those 42 cases in total, presenting themselves as fatal accidents at first glance, were later determined either to be natural deaths (n = 27), homicide (n = 11) or suicide (n = 4). In addition to this, autopsies showed 83 cases of death to be sequelae to accidents. Particularly in cases of a victim plunging out of the window or into water, it can be difficult to make the distinction between natural death--e.g. as a reason for falling--and suicide or homicide. Further difficulties can result from interpretations of the findings in cases of putrefaction, mauling by animals, defects caused by burning or severely deformed corpses. In these cases, the importance of patho-morphological findings from the autopsy must be emphasized. Indirect sequelae of accidents may be pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. The cause of death has to be classified as accidental if the chain of events is of traumatic origin. Mistakes can be avoided if the medical history is taken conscientiously. If no facts are available, the cause of death should be certificated as undetermined. Our evaluation only included autopsy cases from our institute. The concealed fatal accidents which were incorrectly certified as natural deaths or the cases dismissed by the police and the public prosecutor without performing an autopsy were not evaluated.

19. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

1998-01-01

An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

20. Office of Inspector General report on inspection of selected issues regarding the Department of Energy accident investigation program

SciTech Connect

1999-04-01

One method used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to promote worker safety is through the Department`s accident investigation program. The objectives of the program are, among other things, to enhance safety and health of employees, to prevent the recurrence of accidents, and to reduce accident fatality rates and promote a downward trend in the number and severity of accidents. The Assistant Secretary, Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH), through the EH Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oversight, is responsible for implementation of the Department`s accident investigation program. As part of the inspection, the authors reviewed an April 1997 EH accident investigation report regarding an accident involving a Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) welder, who suffered fatal burns when his clothing caught fire while he was using a cutting torch at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. They also reviewed reports of other accident investigations conducted by EH and DOE field organizations. Based on the review of these reports, the authors identified issues concerning the adequacy of the examination and reporting by accident investigation boards of specific management systems and organizations as a possible accident root cause. The inspection also identified issues concerning worker safety that they determined required immediate management attention, such as whether occurrences were being reported in the appropriate management systems and whether prompt consideration was being given to implementing revisions of national standards when the revisions increased worker safety.

1. A description of the general aviation fixed wing accident

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hall, D. S.

1981-01-01

The Emergency Local Transmitter (ELT) is a radio transmitter with a self-contained power source designed to provide notification of and homing to aircraft accident sites. The Crash Research Institute has monitored general aviation fixed-wing accidents in the United States and in Canada and has found that: (1) the ELT was destroyed in approximately 25% of all fatal accidents; (2) the ELT activated in about 62% of the fatal accidents, 69% of the fatal with survivors accidents, almost 80% of the serious accidents and about 57% of the minor accidents; (3) in fatal accidents the aircraft sections least likely to be destroyed are the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces; (4) antenna cable disconnection and antenna breakage caused failure to transmit usable signals; and (5) initial alerting control occurred in nearly half of the situations where the ELT aided in search.

2. Suicide rate following attendance at an accident and emergency department with deliberate self harm.

PubMed Central

Ryan, J; Rushdy, A; Perez-Avila, C A; Allison, R

1996-01-01

OBJECTIVE--To determine the risk of suicide in patients attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department with deliberate self harm. METHODS--Information was obtained on suicides and open verdicts from the coroner's office and cross checked with computerised records in the A&E department. RESULTS--There was a trend to suicide among younger socially isolated males and older females. CONCLUSIONS--There is a significant association between suicide and a previous attendance at A&E with deliberate self harm. Appropriate assessment of these patients is an efficient way of managing self harm. PMID:8653229

3. Alcohol in Fatal Recreational Boating Accidents.

DTIC Science & Technology

1988-05-01

water on muscle control (peripheral hypothermia) and further impair a swimmer’s 0 abilities. These sensory and motor effects of alcohol lead to specific...water. 42 4.3 Conclusions The effects of alcohol on sensory processing and motor control and the interactions of the effects of alcohol and the marine...the effects of alcohol on motor control and coordination may impair swimming ability and increase the likelihood of drowning. This factor is especially

4. Evaluation of farm tractor-related fatalities.

PubMed

Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Sunam, Guven S; Deniz, Idris; Gunaydin, Gursel

2010-03-01

Farm tractors are the major cause of occupational fatalities in agricultural regions. Fatalities typically result from being run over or crushed by the tractor, becoming entangled in the moving parts of the tractor, accidents on roadways, and tractor rollovers, which involve the tractor tipping sideways or backwards and crushing the operator. In this study, tractor-related fatalities in the Konya province of Turkey are retrospectively evaluated. Out of the 3940 cases on which a death examination and/or autopsy was performed between the years 2000 and 2007 at The Konya Branch of Forensic Medicine Council, 86 (2.2%) of the death cases were caused by tractor accidents and are included in this study. The ages of the victims varied between 3 and 80 years old with a mean age of 31.7 + or - 22.3. Sixty-eight (79.1%) of the cases involved males, while 18 (20.9%) of the cases involved females. In 32 (37.2%) of the cases, the deaths due to tractor accidents occurred when the tractor overturned. In 37 (43.0%) of the cases, the tractor-related fatalities involved the passengers and the drivers were involved in 34 (39.5%) of the cases. In conclusion, tractor accidents are preventable and deaths from tractor accidents can be significantly reduced if drivers are required to wear safety belts and helmets and frequent checks are implemented to enforce the ban on carrying passengers.

5. Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.

PubMed

Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

1997-06-15

Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted.

6. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

7. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

8. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

9. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

10. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

11. Oxidation rate of nuclear-grade graphite NBG-18 in the kinetic regime for VHTR air ingress accident scenarios

Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2013-07-01

One of the most severe accident scenarios anticipated for VHTRs is an air ingress accident caused by a pipe break. Graphite oxidation could be severe under these conditions. In this work, the oxidation rate of NBG-18 nuclear-grade graphite was studied thermogravimetrically for different oxygen concentrations and with temperatures from 873 to 1873 K. A semi-empirical Arrhenius rate equation was developed for the temperature range of 873-1023 K. The activation energy of NBG-18 was 187 kJ/mol and the order of reaction was 1.25. The penetration depth of oxidant was about 3-4 mm for NBG-18 oxidized at 973 K. Increased porosity and changes in external geometry became more prominent at higher temperatures from about 1173 to 1873 K. The surface of oxidized NBG-18 was characterized by SEM, EDS, FTIR and XPS. Diffusion of oxygen to the graphite surface and walls of open volume pores. Adsorption of oxygen atoms on the graphite surface free active sites and complexes inducing the simultaneous forming of Csbnd O and Csbnd H bonds and breaking of Csbnd C bonds (dissociative chemisorption). Chemical reactions occur at the surface. Desorption of gaseous products, CO and CO2, from the graphite surface and transport to the bulk gas mixture.

12. Contrasting roles of rivers and wells as sources of drinking water on attack and fatality rates in a hepatitis E epidemic in Somalia.

PubMed

Bile, K; Isse, A; Mohamud, O; Allebeck, P; Nilsson, L; Norder, H; Mushahwar, I K; Magnius, L O

1994-10-01

In early 1988, an increased incidence of acute hepatitis was observed in villages along the Shebeli River in the Lower Shebeli region of Somalia. This was followed by a large epidemic that lasted until late 1989. In a survey of 142 villages with a population of 245,312 individuals, 11,413 icteric cases were recorded, of which 346 died, corresponding to an attack rate and a case fatality rate of 4.6% and 3.0%, respectively. The etiologic role of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in this epidemic was proven by demonstrating anti-HEV in 128 of 145 sampled cases as a sign of recent infection with HEV. In three villages, where a special study protocol was implemented, the attack rate was found to increase significantly with age from 5% in the group 1-4 years of age to 13% in the group 5-15 years of age and to 20% for persons older than 15 years of age. Among cases 20-39 years of age, the female-to-male ratio was 1.5:1, which was a significant predominance of females. As in other hepatitis E outbreaks, there was a high fatality rate in pregnant females, estimated to be 13.8%. The epidemic peaked with the rise in the level of the river during rainfall, suggesting that the disease was waterborne. The attack rate was higher (6.0%) in villages supplied with river water, while fewer cases were recorded in those relying on wells or ponds for their water supply, 1.7% and 1.2%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

13. Pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in a South African municipality.

PubMed

Olukoga, I A

2003-12-01

A study of the pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in Durban, a South African municipality, for 1999 was undertaken using official road traffic accident data. The pedestrians age 25 to 44, although only 23.9% of the population, were 39.3% of the casualties and 48.2% of the fatalities. The most vulnerable pedestrians were those 30 to 34 years old who were 6.1% of the population, 11.7% of the casualties, and 14.6% of the fatalities; 35- to 39-year-olds who were 6% of the population, 8.8% of the casualties, and 13.5% of the fatalities; and the 40- to 44-year-olds who were 4.9% of the population, 7.5% of the casualties, and 10.2% of the fatalities. Cars were involved in 52% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes but had fewer crashes than minibuses and buses, and fewer casualties and fatalities than minibuses, buses, and motorcycles. Minibuses recorded the most crashes at 1,037 per 100 million km, the highest casualty rate of 268 per 100 million km, and highest fatality rate of 17 per 100 million km. Buses, which were involved in 3% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes, had 951 crashes per 100 million km, 182 casualties per 100 million km, and 11 fatalities per 100 million km. Motorcycles were involved in 1% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes and had per 100 million km 508 crashes, 192 casualties, and 7 fatalities. There was no statistically significant difference in the monthly distribution of the road traffic crashes.

14. Global earthquake fatalities and population

USGS Publications Warehouse

Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

2013-01-01

Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

15. [Epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis on Reunion Island in 2004-2008: possible impact of Chikungunya infection on the case fatality rate of leptospirosis].

PubMed

Renault, P; Boidin, E; D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Daniel, B; Filleul, L

2011-05-01

In 2006, increased mortality due to leptospirosis in Reunion Island had alerted the authorities and justified the conduct of this study in order to update knowledge on the epidemiology of leptospirosis, whereas the latest epidemiological data published on the disease dated back to 2003. This study followed the scheme of a descriptive retrospective survey based on data from reporting and investigation of hospitalized cases of leptospirosis that occurred in Reunion between the 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2008. Data from the National Reference Center (NRC) have also been used. The annual number of reported cases (40 to 50) was stable over the period, which contrasted with the historical decreasing trend of incidence reported by the NRC. The circumstances of exposure were those usually associated with the disease on the island: about 80% of cases were infected between January and June, during the wet season; the main exposure factor identified was the practice of agriculture, declared or not; Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae remained the most frequently isolated serovar, although regressing. Finally, our study has shown that excess mortality observed in 2006 did not result from an increased incidence but from a rise in the case fatality rate. This could be linked to the outbreak of chikungunya, which peaked in February 2006. In endemic areas of leptospirosis, health professionals should remain aware of the risk of occurrence of fatal cases during arbovirosis outbreaks.

16. Severe accidents in the energy sector: comparative perspective.

PubMed

Hirschberg, Stefan; Burgherr, Peter; Spiekerman, Gerard; Dones, Roberto

2004-07-26

This paper addresses one of the controversial issues in the current comparative studies of the environmental and health impacts of energy systems, i.e. the treatment of severe accidents. The work covers technical aspects of severe accidents and thus primarily reflects an engineering perspective on the energy-related risk issues, though some social implications are also touched upon. The assessment concerns fossil energy sources (coal, oil and gas), nuclear power and hydro power. The scope is not limited to the power production (conversion) step of these energy chains but, whenever applicable, also includes exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. With the exception of the nuclear chain the focus of the work has been on the evaluation of the historical experience of accidents. The basis used for this evaluation is a comprehensive database ENSAD (Energy-related Severe Accident Database), established by the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). For hypothetical nuclear accidents the probabilistic technique has also been employed and extended to cover the assessment of economic consequences of such accidents. The broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads on the world-wide basis to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil chains than what one would expect if only power plants were considered. Generally, the immediate fatality rates are for all considered energy carriers significantly higher for the non-OECD countries than for OECD countries. In the case of hydro and nuclear the difference is in fact dramatic. The presentation of results is not limited to the aggregated values specific for each energy chain. Also frequency-consequence curves are provided. They reflect implicitly the ranking based on the aggregated values but include also such information as the observed or predicted chain-specific maximum extents of damages. This perspective on severe accidents may lead to different system

17. Estimation of MERS-Coronavirus Reproductive Number and Case Fatality Rate for the Spring 2014 Saudi Arabia Outbreak: Insights from Publicly Available Data

PubMed Central

Majumder, Maimuna S.; Rivers, Caitlin; Lofgren, Eric; Fisman, David

2014-01-01

18. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evans, Joni K.

2015-01-01

Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

19. Numerical reconstruction of high dose rate zones due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

PubMed

Katata, Genki; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi

2012-09-01

To understand how the high dose rate zones were created during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on March 2011, the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during the period from 15 to 17 March was reproduced by using a computer-based nuclear emergency response system, WSPEEDI-II. With use of limited environmental monitoring data, prediction accuracy of meteorological and radiological fields by the system was improved to obtain best estimates of release rates, radiation dose maps, and plume movements. A large part of current high dose rate zones in Fukushima was explained by simulated surface deposition of radionuclides due to major releases of radionuclides on 15 March. In the simulation, the highest dose rate zones to the northwest of FNPP1 were created by a significant deposition of radionuclides discharged from FNPP1 during the afternoon. The results indicate that two environmental factors, i.e., rainfall and topography, strongly affected the spatial patterns of surface deposition of radionuclides. The wet deposition due to rainfall particularly played an important role in the formation of wide and heterogeneous distributions of high dose rate zones. The simulation also demonstrated that the radioactive plume flowed along the valleys to its leeward, which can expand the areas of a large amount of surface deposition in complex topography.

20. Scuba decompression illness and diving fatalities in an overseas military community.

PubMed

Arness, M K

1997-04-01

A retrospective study of scuba decompression illness (DCI) and fatalities in the U.S. military community on Okinawa Island, Japan, was performed for 1989-95. Some 94 cases of diving DCI, including 10 cases of cerebral air-gas embolism (CAGE), and 9 diving fatalities were reported, for an annual incidence of 13.4 DCI events and 1.3 fatalities per 100,000 dives. The overall estimated incidence of scuba DCI was estimated to be 1/7400 dives, with an annual incidence of undeserved DCI of 1/37,300, and a fatality rate of 1/76,900. A review of treatment dives revealed a 10% overdiagnosis rate in cases treated for presumed DCI. A bimodal distribution of DCI accidents was observed for depths deeper or shallower than 24.6m/80FSW (feet of sea water). Increased risk of DCI in diving deeper than 24.6m/80FSW was associated with violations of no-decompression limits (NDL), while other risk factors were associated with diving to less than 24.6m/80FSW. NDL violations accounted for only 24/94 (26%) of all DCI accidents. Treatment of divers with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT) led to complete recovery in 91% of cases, but of those divers requiring retreatment with HBOT, 67% had chronic residua of DCI. Selected illustrative and interesting cases are discussed.

1. Oxidation rate of nuclear-grade graphite IG-110 in the kinetic regime for VHTR air ingress accident scenarios

Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2014-03-01

The oxidation rates of nuclear-grade graphite IG-110 in the kinetically-controlled temperature regime of graphite oxidation were predicted and compared in Very High Temperature Reactor air ingress accident scenarios. The oxidative mass loss of graphite was measured thermogravimetrically from 873 to 1873 K in 100% air (21 mol%). The activation energy was found to be 222.07 kJ/mol, and the order of reaction with respect to oxygen concentration is 0.76. The surfaces of the samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation. These results are compared with those available in the literature, and our recently reported results for NBG-18 nuclear-grade graphite using the same technique.

2. Hang-gliding accidents.

PubMed Central

Margreiter, R; Lugger, L J

1978-01-01

Seventy-five known hang-gliding accidents causing injury to the pilot occurred in the Tyrol during 1973-6. Most occurred in May, June, or September and between 11 am and 3 pm, when unfavourable thermic conditions are most likely. Thirty-four accidents happened during launching, 13 during flight, and 28 during landing, and most were caused by human errors--especially deficient launching technique; incorrect estimation of wind conditions, altitude, and speed; and choice of unfavourable launching and landing sites. Eight pilots were moderately injured, 60 severely (multiply in 24 cases), and seven fatally; fractures of the spine and arms predominated. Six of the 21 skull injuries were fatal. The risk of hang-gliding seems unjustifiably high, and safety precautions and regulations should be adopted to ensure certain standards of training and equipment and to limit flying to favourable sites and times. Images p401-a PMID:624028

3. Work-related maritime fatalities.

PubMed

O'Connor, Peter J; O'Connor, Nina

2006-07-01

All maritime fatalities investigated by Coroners that occurred in Australia from 1992 to 1998 inclusive have been collated, coded and recorded in the Australian Boating Injury Database: Fatal Injury (ABID:FI). This article focuses on the work-related maritime fatalities recorded in the database. Over the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities involving people who were working for income at the time of the incident: 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The fatality rate of commercial fishermen has declined substantially in Australia over recent years. The main contributing factors were: hazardous conditions; an error of judgement; unsafe work practices; and failure to wear a personal flotation device (PFD) in circumstances where, in the opinion of the Coroners, it would have saved life. Hazardous conditions were much more of a factor in fishermen deaths than in other maritime deaths. Most vessels involved had an insufficient number of PFDs for the number of crew on board. The Australian fatal injury database should be updated with the details of recent fatalities in order to further monitor safety performance, causal factors and prevention measures in the maritime industry in Australia. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage. In order to continue to improve safety, it is essential that a constructive dialogue is maintained with industry sources, informed by independent research and up-to-date information.

4. Changes in ambient dose equivalent rates around roads at Kawamata town after the Fukushima accident.

PubMed

Kinase, Sakae; Sato, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Saito, Kimiaki

2015-11-01

Changes in ambient dose equivalent rates noted through vehicle-borne surveys have elucidated ecological half-lives of radioactive caesium in the environment. To confirm that the ecological half-lives are appropriate for predicting ambient dose equivalent rates within living areas, it is important to ascertain ambient dose equivalent rates on/around roads. In this study, radiation monitoring on/around roads at Kawamata town, located about 37 km northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, was performed using monitoring vehicles and survey meters. It was found that the ambient dose equivalent rates around roads were higher than those on roads as of October 2012. And withal the ecological half-lives on roads were essentially consistent with those around roads. With dose predictions using ecological half-lives on roads, it is necessary to make corrections to ambient dose equivalent rates through the vehicle-borne surveys against those within living areas.

5. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

PubMed

Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

6. A season of snakebite envenomation: presentation patterns, timing of care, anti-venom use, and case fatality rates from a hospital of southcentral Nepal

PubMed Central

Pandey, Deb P; Vohra, Rais; Stalcup, Philip; Shrestha, Bhola R

2016-01-01

Snakebite envenomation affects thousands of people annually in Nepal. Published hospital-based studies of snakebite treatment in Nepal are scarce. Here we present the results of the first prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized envenomed snakebite cases in southcentral Nepal, a region characterized by poor pre-hospital care of snakebites, limited supply and excessive use of antivenom, and a high case/fatality ratio. We seek to identify clinical management problems and suggest potential interventions to improve treatment of snakebites. Out of the 342 patients presented with snakebites to an urban emergency department in the Terai region of Nepal between April and September of 2007, 39 patients were enrolled based on development of ptosis or swelling of bitten body parts. We collected patient demographic information and documented circumstances of snakebite, prehospital care, hospital care, and development of complications. Among 39 envenomated patients admitted to Bharatpur Hospital enrolled in the study 34 (92%) exhibited features of clinically significant neurotoxicity and were treated with antivenom. Antivenom use ranged from 4 to 98 vials of Polyspecific Indian Antivenom per patient. Each of victims (n=34) received antivenom an average of 4.3 (median) ±0.73 (standard error of mean) hours after receiving the snakebite. The overall case fatality rate was 21%. Neurotoxicity developed up to 25.8hr after suspected elapid snakebites. This was not observed for viperid snake bites. No enrolled patients received any of the currently recommended first aid for snake bite. The prevalence of nocturnal elapid snake bites, the practice of inappropriate first aid measures and highly variable administration of antivenom were identified as major challenges to appropriate care in this study. To address these issues we suggest development of a comprehensive checklist for identification of snake species, management of envenomation, and an educational program which

7. Estimation of radionuclide ((137)Cs) emission rates from a nuclear power plant accident using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM).

PubMed

Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Ju, Jae-Won; Joo, Seung Jin

2016-10-01

A methodology for the estimation of the emission rate of (137)Cs by the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) with the use of monitored (137)Cs concentrations around a nuclear power plant has been developed. This method has been employed with the MM5 meteorological model in the 600 km × 600 km model domain with the horizontal grid scale of 3 km × 3 km centered at the Fukushima nuclear power plant to estimate (137)Cs emission rate for the accidental period from 00 UTC 12 March to 00 UTC 6 April 2011. The Lagrangian Particles are released continuously with the rate of one particle per minute at the first level modelled, about 15 m above the power plant site. The presently developed method was able to simulate quite reasonably the estimated (137)Cs emission rate compared with other studies, suggesting the potential usefulness of the present method for the estimation of the emission rate from the accidental power plant without detailed inventories of reactors and fuel assemblies and spent fuels. The advantage of this method is not so complicated but can be applied only based on one-time forward LPDM simulation with monitored concentrations around the power plant, in contrast to other inverse models. It was also found that continuously monitored radionuclides concentrations from possibly many sites located in all directions around the power plant are required to get accurate continuous emission rates from the accident power plant. The current methodology can also be used to verify the previous version of radionuclides emissions used among other modeling groups for the cases of intermittent or discontinuous samplings.

8. Oxidation rate of graphitic matrix material in the kinetic regime for VHTR air ingress accident scenarios

Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2014-08-01

Data on oxidation rates of matrix-grade graphite in the kinetically-controlled temperature regime of graphite oxidation are needed for safety analysis of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors and Very High Temperature Reactors. In this work, the oxidation rate of graphitic matrix material GKrS was measured thermogravimetrically for various oxygen concentrations and with temperatures from 873 to 1873 K. A semi-empirical Arrhenius rate equation was also developed for this temperature range. The activation energy of the graphitic material is found to be about 111.5 kJ/mol. The order of reaction was found to be about 0.89. The surface of oxidized GKrS was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

9. Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke subtypes in a multiethnic population: the South London Stroke Register

PubMed Central

Wolfe, C; Rudd, A; Howard, R; Coshall, C; Stewart, J; Lawrence, E; Hajat, C; Hillen, T

2002-01-01

Objective: To identify sociodemographic differences in the incidence of the subtypes of first ever stroke in a multiethnic population. Methods: A prospective community stroke register (1995–8) was developed using multiple notification sources and pathological and clinical classifications of stroke. Standardisation of rates was to European and World populations and adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status in multivariate analyses. A multiethnic population of 234 533 in south London, of whom 21% are black was studied. Results: A total of 1254 cases were registered. The average age of stroke was 71.7 years with black patients being 11.3 years younger than white patients (p<0.0001). The incidence rate/1000 population was 1.33 (crude) (95% CI 1.26 to 1.41), 1.28 (European adjusted) (95% CI 1.2 to 1.35) with a 2.18 (95% CI 1.86 to 2.56) (p<0.0001) age and sex adjusted incidence rate ratio in the black population. Radiological diagnosis was confirmatory in 1107 (88.3%) with 862 (68.7%) infarction, 168 (13.4%) primary intracerebral haemorrhage, and 77 (6.2%) subarachnoid haemorrhage. Of the cerebral infarction cases 189 (21.9%) were total anterior circulatory, 250 (29%) partial anterior, 141 (16.4%) posterior (POCI) and 282 (32.7%) lacunar infarcts. The black group had a significantly higher incidence of all subtypes of stroke except for POCI and unclassified strokes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for men compared with women was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19 to 1.50; p<0.001). The IRR for manual versus non-manual occupations in those aged 35–64 years was 1.64 (95%CI 1.22 to 2.23; p<0.0001). There was a borderline significant increase in adjusted survival at 6 months in the black group 95% (CI 0.61 to 1.03, p=0.078) with a hazard ratio of 0.79 after adjustment and stratification. Conclusions: Although the black population is at increased risk of stroke and most subtypes of stroke, this is not translated into significant differences in survival

10. Share of mass transit miles traveled and reduced motor vehicle fatalities in major cities of the United States.

PubMed

Stimpson, Jim P; Wilson, Fernando A; Araz, Ozgur M; Pagan, Jose A

2014-12-01

The USA leads the developed world in motor vehicle fatalities, presenting a critical public health threat. We examined whether an increasing share of mass transit use, relative to vehicle miles traveled on public roads, was associated with reduced motor vehicle fatalities. We used annual city-level data for the USA from 1982-2010 provided by the Fatality Accident Reporting System, the Texas A&M Transportation Institute, the Census Bureau, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to estimate a structural equation model of the factors associated with mass transit miles and motor vehicle fatalities. The final analytic data included 2,900 observations from 100 cities over 29 years. After accounting for climate, year, and the economic costs of driving, an increasing share of mass transit miles traveled per capita was associated with reduced motor vehicle fatalities. The costs of congestion to the average commuter and gas prices were positively associated with increasing the share of mass transit miles traveled. The economic costs of driving increased over time, while both the fatality rate and the share of mass transit miles traveled decreased over time. Increasing the share of mass transit miles traveled may be associated with fewer motor vehicle miles traveled. Increasing mass transit uptake may be an effective public health intervention to reduce motor vehicle fatalities in cities.

11. The fatal toll of driving to drink: the effect of minimum legal drinking age evasion on traffic fatalities.

PubMed

Lovenheim, Michael F; Slemrod, Joel

2010-01-01

There is a sizeable literature on the effect of minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions on teenage drunk driving. This paper adds to the literature by examining the effect of MLDA evasion across states with different alcohol restrictions. Using state-of-the-art GIS software and micro-data on fatal vehicle accidents from 1977 to 2002, we find that in counties within 25 miles of a lower-MLDA jurisdiction, a legal restriction on drinking does not reduce youth involvement in fatal accidents and, for 18 and 19-year-old drivers, fatal accident involvement actually increases. Farther from such a border, we find results consistent with the previous literature that MLDA restrictions are effective in reducing accident fatalities. The estimates imply that, of the total reduction in teenager-involved fatalities due to the equalization of state MLDAs at 21 in the 1970s and 1980s, for 18-year olds between a quarter and a third and for 19-year olds over 15 percent was due to equalization. Furthermore, the effect of changes in the MLDA is quite heterogeneous with respect to the fraction of a state's population that need not travel far to cross a border to evade its MLDA. Our results imply the effect of lowering the MLDA in select states, such as has been proposed in Vermont, could lead to sizeable increases in teenage involvement in fatal accidents due to evasion of local alcohol restrictions.

12. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patlach, Robert

2010-01-01

Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

13. Accidents in the U.S. and Europe: 1970-1980.

PubMed

Lamm, R; Choueiri, E M; Kloeckner, J H

1985-12-01

This study compares certain demographic and accident characteristics among Western European countries and between Western Europe and the United States. The specific objectives of the study were to: Identify various changes in fatalities and fatality rates experienced by each of eleven Western European Countries, by these countries as a whole, and by the United States from 1970 through 1980, with special attention given to the energy crisis and its aftermath from 1974 through 1980. Determine whether there were statistically significant changes during the 1970-1980 time period in the traffic accident characteristics studied. The findings of this study are as follows: During the decade studied, Western Europe as a whole experienced a fatality rate reduction per 10(9) vehicle-kilometers traveled of 45.8% while the U.S. experienced a 29.1% reduction during this same period. In Western Europe the age groups 0-14, 25-64 and over 64 and its road user groups pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists and moped riders showed statistically significant improvements in the characteristics studied. The only U.S. group to experience a significant reduction in fatalities during this period was the age group 0-14; however the 1980 fatality rate per 10(9) vehicle-kilometers of travel of 21.0 for the U.S., versus 34.8 for Western Europe, indicates that driving in the U.S. is still much safer.

14. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

2016-12-01

Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

15. [Fatal electrocution in prison].

PubMed

Grellner, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

The clarification of deaths from electric current can be difficult when electric skin marks are missing or overlooked. In the following, the fatal electric accident of a 21-year-old man in prison is reported with a scene which primarily seemed to be inconspicuous. The autopsy disclosed typical electric marks in the skin of the left thumb and the corresponding part of the left index finger. A second inspection of the jail room, which was large enough for three men, but occupied by the deceased alone, led to the finding of widely spread utensils (two forks with signs of corrosion and deformation of the prongs, radio cable with socket, water container) for the self-construction of a kind of "immersion heater" for the heating of water. The man must have suffered electrocution when touching the prongs of the forks. Death supposedly occurred due to disturbances of the cardiac rhythm after a longer interval of maintained ability to act. The case again proves the difficulties in the detection and examination of possible electric deaths in which unusual sources of electricity must be considered.

16. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

PubMed

Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

2011-01-01

The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth.

17. Accident mortality among children

PubMed Central

Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

1956-01-01

The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

18. A dynamic model to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as consequences of a nuclear accident.

PubMed

Keum, Dong-Kwon; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

2015-02-01

This paper describes a dynamic compartment model (K-BIOTA-DYN-M) to assess the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as a result of a nuclear accident. The model considers the transport of radioactivity between the marine biota through the food chain, and applies the first order kinetic model for the sedimentation of radionuclides from seawater onto sediment. A set of ordinary differential equations representing the model are simultaneously solved to calculate the activity concentration of the biota and the sediment, and subsequently the dose rates, given the seawater activity concentration. The model was applied to investigate the long-term effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the marine biota using (131)I, (134)Cs, and, (137)Cs activity concentrations of seawater measured for up to about 2.5 years after the accident at two locations in the port of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) which was the most highly contaminated area. The predicted results showed that the accumulated dose for 3 months after the accident was about 4-4.5Gy, indicating the possibility of occurrence of an acute radiation effect in the early phase after the Fukushima accident; however, the total dose rate for most organisms studied was usually below the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation)'s bench mark level for chronic exposure except for the initial phase of the accident, suggesting a very limited radiological effect on the marine biota at the population level. The predicted Cs sediment activity by the first-order kinetic model for the sedimentation was in a good agreement with the measured activity concentration. By varying the ecological parameter values, the present model was able to predict the very scattered (137)Cs activity concentrations of fishes measured in the port of FDNPS. Conclusively, the present dynamic model can be usefully applied to estimate the activity concentration and whole

19. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

PubMed

Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

2000-03-01

This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

20. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand, July 1997-June 1999.

PubMed

Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

2003-05-01

Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand. Methods. Press records from a major English language newspaper for the period from July 1997 to June 1999 were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. From July 1997 to June 1999, up to 233 deaths were reported and up to a further 216 were reported injured in incidents involving tourists. One hundred and one deaths and 45 injured were reported following one major domestic jet aircraft crash in southern Thailand, however, it was not stated what proportion of casualties were tourists. Approximately 90 people perished in a single hotel fire in southeast Thailand. Most of the victims were local travellers attending meetings of two Thai companies. Sixteen deaths and 86 injured resulted from five road accidents. The majority of deaths and injuries involved foreigners. Twelve deaths and at least 33 injured resulted from three ferry and tour boat accidents. Most victims were reported to be foreigners. Three deaths and 35 injured resulted from a single cable car accident in northern Thailand. Most of these were Thai tourists, however, four of the injured were foreigners. Eight deaths and six injured resulted from 11 muggings and other violent incidents. All were foreigners. Six deaths were reportedly connected to a scam at the airport in Bangkok involving unlicensed airport taxis. Three deaths and four injured were due to other reported incidents. Conclusions. Newspaper reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand were probably uncommon, particularly given the volume of tourists entering the Kingdom, although better reporting mechanisms are needed. With the exception of the unusual major incidents, most reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists were due to road trauma and other transportation accidents, muggings, and occasional water sports and other accidents, which could occur at any major tourist

1. Risk Factors for Fatal and Nonfatal Road Crashes in Iran

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

2. A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Risk Factors and Case Fatality Rates of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) Disease in Africa (1966 to 2014)

PubMed Central

Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; MacLennan, Calman A.

2017-01-01

This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases. It documents the geographical spread of iNTS disease over time in Africa, and describes its reported incidence, risk factors and CFR. We found that Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) have been reported as a cause of bacteraemia in 33 out of 54 African countries, spanning the five geographical regions of Africa, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa since 1966. Our review indicates that NTS have been responsible for up to 39% of community acquired blood stream infections in sub-Saharan Africa with an average CFR of 19%. Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the major serovars implicated and together have been responsible for 91%% of the cases of iNTS disease, (where serotype was determined), reported in Africa. The study confirms that iNTS disease is more prevalent amongst Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals, infants, and young children with malaria, anaemia and malnutrition. In conclusion, iNTS disease is a substantial cause of community-acquired bacteraemia in Africa. Given the high morbidity and mortality of iNTS disease in Africa, it is important to develop effective prevention and control strategies including vaccination. PMID:28056035

3. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

2010-01-01

Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

4. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

PubMed

Huggins, Richard

2013-10-01

Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted.

5. Military parachute mishap fatalities: a retrospective study.

PubMed

Mellen, P F; Sohn, S S

1990-12-01

Military parachuting is relatively safe. Most injuries involve vertebral bodies or the lower extremity, and fatalities are rare. We studied 49 military parachute accident facilities occurring during 1964-1989. Causes of the accidents included accidental deployment of reserve parachute in aircraft, static line failures and entanglements, equipment (canopy) failures, in-air collisions, landing injuries, drowning, and dragging. Rarely, preexisting illness such as coronary artery disease caused or contributed to an accident. Pathologic findings revealed a high proportion of deceleration and blunt force injuries: cardiac, aortic and liver laceration, and skull, pelvic and extremity fractures. Isolated head injury, strangulation, and post traumatic pulmonary embolus were occasionally noted. Toxicological examination demonstrated contributing factors such as alcohol intoxication or antihistamine use in a small number of cases. Background investigations, scene inspections, autopsy and toxicology studies all yielded important data or pertinent negatives during investigations. We propose an investigation protocol.

6. An inverse modeling method to assess the source term of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using gamma dose rate observations

Saunier, O.; Mathieu, A.; Didier, D.; Tombette, M.; Quélo, D.; Winiarek, V.; Bocquet, M.

2013-06-01

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and more recently the Fukushima accident highlighted that the largest source of error on consequences assessment is the source term including the time evolution of the release rate and its distribution between radioisotopes. Inverse modeling methods, which combine environmental measurements and atmospheric dispersion models, have proven efficient in assessing source term due to an accidental situation (Gudiksen, 1989; Krysta and Bocquet, 2007; Stohl et al., 2012a; Winiarek et al., 2012). Most existing approaches are designed to use air sampling measurements (Winiarek et al., 2012) and some of them also use deposition measurements (Stohl et al., 2012a; Winiarek et al., 2013) but none of them uses dose rate measurements. However, it is the most widespread measurement system, and in the event of a nuclear accident, these data constitute the main source of measurements of the plume and radioactive fallout during releases. This paper proposes a method to use dose rate measurements as part of an inverse modeling approach to assess source terms. The method is proven efficient and reliable when applied to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP). The emissions for the eight main isotopes 133Xe, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 137mBa, 131I, 132I and 132Te have been assessed. Accordingly, 103 PBq of 131I, 35.5 PBq of 132I, 15.5 PBq of 137Cs and 12 100 PBq of noble gases were released. The events at FD-NPP (such as venting, explosions, etc.) known to have caused atmospheric releases are well identified in the retrieved source term. The estimated source term is validated by comparing simulations of atmospheric dispersion and deposition with environmental observations. The result is that the model-measurement agreement for all of the monitoring locations is correct for 80% of simulated dose rates that are within a factor of 2 of the observed values. Changes in dose rates over time have been overall properly reconstructed, especially

7. Static stability as a predictor of overturn in fatal motor vehicle crashes.

PubMed

Robertson, L S; Kelley, A B

1989-03-01

Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) files for the years 1981-1984 were examined for rollover crash involvement of 15 utility and passenger vehicle make-models for which static stability values (1/2 track width divided by height of center of gravity) were published. The values ranged from highs of 1.57-1.62 for the pre-1979 Ford LTD, the pre-1979 Chevrolet Nova, and the pre-1982 Pontiac Firebird to lows of 1.01-1.07 for the Jeep CJ-5 and CJ-7 and the pre-1978 Ford Bronco. Rollover as the first harmful event and as the most harmful event per 100,000 vehicles registered was strongly predicted by stability. Stability was unrelated to nonrollover crashes. The low-stability vehicles were much more likely to roll over on the road rather than after leaving the road. Other road, driver, and environmental risk factors recorded in the FARS files were not correlated to stability in such a way as to explain the high rollover of low-stability vehicles. Using Federal Highway Administration vehicle mileage estimates, calculations were made of the mileages under various conditions which the vehicles with low stability values would have to have been driven if mileage or hazardous-condition differences rather than stability differences accounted for their substantially higher fatal rollover fatal crash rates. This analysis indicates that fatal rollover rates of low-stability vehicles could not have occurred at reasonable mileage.

8. Fatal traffic injuries among children and adolescents in three cities (capital Budapest, Vilnius, and Tallinn).

PubMed

Töro, Klára; Szilvia, Fehér; György, Dunay; Pauliukevicius, Alvydas; Caplinskiene, Marija; Raudys, Romas; Lepik, Delia; Tuusov, Jana; Vali, Marika

2011-05-01

Motor vehicle accidental injuries are a frequent cause of death among young children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to compare patterns of injury between three capitals (Budapest, Vilnius, and Tallinn). Information on 190 fatal traffic accidents (69 pedestrians, 14 bicyclists, and 107 motor vehicle occupants) between 2002 and 2006 was collected from databases of medico-legal autopsies. The role of victims in accidents, the location of injuries, cause of death, survival period, and blood alcohol levels were evaluated. One-hundred and forty-one (74%) victims had a passive role in traffic as pedestrians, passengers in cars, or public transport. In victims who died at the scene, the rate of head injury was higher than in cases who received medical treatment (odds ratio = 2.58, CI = 1.2-5.55, p = 0.0127). These results underline the importance of postmortem studies to examine the pathomechanism of fatal traffic accidental injuries and to provide information for the prevention of road traffic accidents against children and adolescents.

9. An inverse modeling method to assess the source term of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident using gamma dose rate observations

Saunier, O.; Mathieu, A.; Didier, D.; Tombette, M.; Quélo, D.; Winiarek, V.; Bocquet, M.

2013-11-01

The Chernobyl nuclear accident, and more recently the Fukushima accident, highlighted that the largest source of error on consequences assessment is the source term, including the time evolution of the release rate and its distribution between radioisotopes. Inverse modeling methods, which combine environmental measurements and atmospheric dispersion models, have proven efficient in assessing source term due to an accidental situation (Gudiksen, 1989; Krysta and Bocquet, 2007; Stohl et al., 2012a; Winiarek et al., 2012). Most existing approaches are designed to use air sampling measurements (Winiarek et al., 2012) and some of them also use deposition measurements (Stohl et al., 2012a; Winiarek et al., 2014). Some studies have been performed to use dose rate measurements (Duranova et al., 1999; Astrup et al., 2004; Drews et al., 2004; Tsiouri et al., 2012) but none of the developed methods were carried out to assess the complex source term of a real accident situation like the Fukushima accident. However, dose rate measurements are generated by the most widespread measurement system, and in the event of a nuclear accident, these data constitute the main source of measurements of the plume and radioactive fallout during releases. This paper proposes a method to use dose rate measurements as part of an inverse modeling approach to assess source terms. The method is proven efficient and reliable when applied to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD-NPP). The emissions for the eight main isotopes 133Xe, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 137mBa, 131I, 132I and 132Te have been assessed. Accordingly, 105.9 PBq of 131I, 35.8 PBq of 132I, 15.5 PBq of 137Cs and 12 134 PBq of noble gases were released. The events at FD-NPP (such as venting, explosions, etc.) known to have caused atmospheric releases are well identified in the retrieved source term. The estimated source term is validated by comparing simulations of atmospheric dispersion and deposition with

10. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

SciTech Connect

Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

1998-08-01

A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

11. Can fear of going to jail reduce the number of road fatalities? The Spanish experience.

PubMed

Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal, Diego J

2011-06-01

12. Elderly woman with cerebrovascular accident and refractory arrhythmias.

PubMed

Sethi, S K; Sarm, P S A

2009-11-01

Fatal bilateral cerebro-vascular accident with variable atrio-ventricular blocks, atrial fibrillation and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in a previously healthy 75-years-old hypertensive female is presented.

13. Relating traffic fatalities to GDP in Europe on the long term.

PubMed

Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Lassarre, Sylvain

2016-07-01

Modeling road safety development can provide important insight into policies for the reduction of traffic fatalities. In order to achieve this goal, both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters, as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed, need to be considered. One of the key relationships in road safety links fatalities with risk and exposure, where exposure reflects the amount of travel, which in turn translates to how much travelers are exposed to risk. In general two economic variables: GDP and unemployment rate are selected to analyse the statistical relationships with some indicators of road accident fatality risk. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of relevant literature on the topic and outline some recent developments in macro-panel data analysis that have resulted in ongoing research that has the potential to improve our ability to forecast traffic fatality trends, especially under turbulent financial situations. For this analysis, time series of the number of fatalities and GDP in 30 European countries for a period of 38 years (1975-2012) are used. This process relies on estimating long-term models (as captured by long term time-series models, which model each country separately). Based on these developments, utilizing state-of-the-art modelling and analysis techniques such as the Common Correlated Effects Mean Group estimator (Pesaran), the long-term elasticity mean value equals 0.63, and is significantly different from zero for 10 countries only. When we take away the countries, where the number of fatalities is stationary, the average elasticity takes a higher value of nearly 1. This shows the strong sensitivity of the estimate of the average elasticity over a panel of European countries and underlines the necessity to be aware of the underlying nature of the time series, to get a suitable regression model.

14. A decade of occupational accidents due to direct or indirect electrical contact in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in Spain (2003-2012).

PubMed

2017-03-01

Occupational accidents caused by electrical contact are a major concern worldwide due to their severe consequences. The study conducted is based on an analysis of the evolution of incidence rates and dependence between variables for 14,022 electrical accidents occurring in Spain between 2003 and 2012. The results show that electrical accidents as a whole are 3.6 times more likely to have severe consequences than the rest of the accidents in the country. This proportion is even nine times greater in the case of fatal accidents. They also confirm a significant relationship between the severity of this type of accidents and the economic sector in which they occur. On the other hand, there is a positive trend in the reduction of the incidence rate, especially in relation to direct contact, although unexpectedly the rate of accidents due to indirect contact is on the rise. Thus, preventing electrical occupational accidents requires efforts to guarantee adequate training adapted to the needs of workers in the various economic sectors. Furthermore, those responsible for safety should work to implement mechanisms to monitor and control compliance with efficient protective measures against electrical contact.

15. Fatal falls among Hispanic construction workers.

PubMed

Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Fujimoto, Alissa; Ringen, Knut; Men, Yurong

2009-09-01

This study evaluated occupational deaths resulting from fall injuries among Hispanic construction workers using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. The demographics and characteristics of fatal falls among Hispanic workers were examined and compared with that of their white, non-Hispanic counterparts. The results show that fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers were more likely to be caused by a fall than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.10) after controlling for possible confounders. The rate of fatal falls for foreign-born Hispanic construction workers was 5.5 per 100,000 FTE, which is significantly higher than 4.1 per 100,000 FTE for Hispanic workers who were born in the U.S. (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67). The disparities in fatal injuries from falls were found in age groups, job tenure, occupations, and types of construction projects. This study also found that about every two of three fatal falls in construction occurred in establishments with 10 or fewer employees. More prevention, intervention, and training measures must be applied to Hispanic workers, especially those who are new immigrants. OSHA enforcements should target small construction establishments in order to lower overall fatality rates, costs, and unnecessary losses of life.

16. About morphological findings in fatal railway collisions.

PubMed

Driever, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard

2002-04-18

The autopsy findings in fatal cases of railway collisions of the Bonn Institute of Legal Medicine in 1992-1999 were investigated and compared to the statements in the investigation files of the public prosecutor with regard to classification as accident or suicide as well as with regard to type and speed of collision. Of the 38 deaths, 10 were hit in an upright position, 11 fatal collisions affected persons lying outside the track and 13 were hit and overrun lying inside the track. According to the investigation classification 21 persons committed suicide (56%), while 10 died in an accident (26%). Our survey confirmed the leading role of being over-rolled in a lying position as an indication for suicides, while in accidents the upright hit was most important. With exception of the persons primarily affected between the rails in upright position and over-rolled consecutively an unequivocal assignment of injury patterns to the hit categories was possible. In cases of persons being primarily over-rolled in a lying position especially the criteria (i) opening of body cavities, (ii) organ injuries and (iii) loss of parts of the body allowed for careful conclusion on hit, respectively, overrunning speed.

17. Analysis of Construction Fatalities - The OSHA Data Base 1985-1989

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-11-01

This report presents the results of an analysis of the 3,496 construction fatalities investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health...accidents. Statistics from the OSHA data base are compared with construction fatality data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Safety Council.

18. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

PubMed

Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

2013-01-01

The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data.

19. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

PubMed

Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

2016-03-01

The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year.

20. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

PubMed

Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

2015-02-01

A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain.

1. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

PubMed

Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

2013-06-01

The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

2. Fatal big cat attacks.

PubMed

Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

1990-09-01

Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

3. Radiocaesium contamination and dose rate estimation of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife in the exclusion zone of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

PubMed

Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Osamu; Sato, Youji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aono, Tatsuo; Soeda, Haruhi; Yoshida, Satoshi

2017-03-02

To characterise the radioactive contamination of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, biological samples, namely, fungi, mosses, plants, amphibians, reptiles, insects, molluscs, and earthworms, were collected mainly from the forests of the exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture from 2011 to 2012. Caesium-134 and (137)Cs were detected by gamma spectrometry in almost all the samples. Fungi, ferns, and mosses accumulated high amounts of radiocaesium, as they did in Chernobyl, with (134)Cs + (137)Cs activity concentrations of 10(4)-10(6) Bq kg(-1) fresh mass (FM). Earthworms, amphibians, and the soft tissue of the garden snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana, also had levels as high as 10(4)-10(5) Bq kg(-1) FM of (134)Cs + (137)Cs. Most of the estimated total (internal + external) dose rates to herbaceous plants, amphibians, insects, and earthworms were below the corresponding derived consideration reference levels (DCRLs) recommended by the ICRP. This suggests that, in most cases, there was little chance of deleterious effects of ionising radiation on these organisms in the exclusion zone for the first year after the accident, though the dose rates were underestimated mainly due to the lack of consideration of short-lived radionuclides.

4. Spatial variability of the dose rate from (137)Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident.

PubMed

Bernhardsson, C; Rääf, C L; Mattsson, S

2015-11-01

Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10ths of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil).

5. The Impact of In-Vehicle Cell-Phone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents among College Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2004-01-01

With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291…

6. Jurisdictional spillover effects of sprawl on injuries and fatalities.

PubMed

Mohamed, Rayman; Vom Hofe, Rainer; Mazumder, Sangida

2014-11-01

There is a considerable literature on the relationship between sprawl and accidents. However, these studies do not account for the spatially correlated effects of sprawl on accidents. In our analysis of 122 jurisdictions in Southeast Michigan, we use a Bayesian spatial autoregressive model to estimate how injuries and fatalities in one jurisdiction are associated with sprawl in that jurisdiction and sprawl in neighboring jurisdictions; we also correct for heteroskedasticity in the data. Using principal component analysis, we create a sprawl index from five underlying land use characteristics. Our results show that the number of injuries and fatalities in a jurisdiction increases with the magnitude of sprawl in neighboring jurisdictions. We believe that this is because more drivers per capita in sprawled jurisdictions traverse similarly sprawled neighboring jurisdictions for daily activities. Furthermore, driving habits attuned to less defensive driving in sprawled jurisdiction are transferred to similarly designed neighboring jurisdictions, contributing to accidents in the latter.

7. Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle accidents: A questionnaire-based survey.

PubMed

Zwahlen, Daniel; Jackowski, Christian; Pfäffli, Matthias

2016-11-01

In Switzerland, the prevalence of an excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in drivers undergoing a driving capacity assessment is currently not known. In this study, private and professional drivers were evaluated by means of a paper-based questionnaire, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and additional questions to sleepiness-related accidents, near-miss accidents, health issues, and demographic data. Of the 435 distributed questionnaires, 128 completed were returned. The response rate was 29%. The mean age of the investigated drivers was 42.5 years (20-85 years). According to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 9% of the participants are likely to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. An equal percentage has a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome based on the Berlin Questionnaire. 16% admitted an involuntary nodding off while driving a motor vehicle. This subset of the participants scored statistically significant higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p = 0.036). 8% of the participants already suffered an accident because of being sleepy while driving. An equal number experienced a sleepiness-related near-miss accident on the road. The study shows that a medical workup of excessive daytime sleepiness is highly recommended in each driver undergoing a driving capacity assessment. Routine application of easily available and time-saving assessment tools such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire could prevent accidents in a simple way. The applicability of the Berlin Questionnaire to screen suspected fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents is discussed.

8. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

2015-08-01

A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

9. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

2015-03-01

A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

10. Nuclear accidents

SciTech Connect

Mobley, J.A.

1982-05-01

A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

11. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

PubMed Central

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

2013-01-01

Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. PMID:23519652

12. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

PubMed

Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

2016-01-01

The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

13. Comparison of the injury severity and medical history of disease-related versus trauma-related bicyclist fatalities.

PubMed

Hitosugi, Masahito; Koseki, Takeshi; Miyama, Genta; Furukawa, Satoshi; Morita, Satomu

2016-01-01

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity and mechanism of death in bicycle fatalities resulting from trauma compared with those resulting from disease, to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicyclist accidents. Autopsy and accident records were reviewed for bicyclist fatalities who had undergone forensic autopsy at the Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine between September 1999 and March 2014. Victims' health histories, blood alcohol levels, causes of death, mechanisms of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were determined. Fifty-five bicyclists (43 male and 12 female) with a mean age of 62.5±17.3 years were included in this study. Sixteen victims had driven under the influence of alcohol (mean blood concentration of 1.8±0.7 mg/ml). Mean ISS was 32.4 and the chest had the highest mean AIS score (2.6), followed by the head (2.1) and the neck (1.8). Thirty-nine victims (70.9%) had died of trauma and 16 had died of disease. The disease-death victims had significantly higher prevalence of having diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases (50.0% vs. 22.2%, p=0.03) and a lower rate of drunk driving (6.3% vs. 41.0%, p=0.01) than the trauma-death group. All victims who were affected by disease, and 33.3% of trauma-death victims, had fallen on the road without a vehicle collision (p<0.001). The mean ISS of the trauma-death group was significantly higher than that of the disease-death group (44.0 vs. 4.2, p<0.001). Except for facial injuries, the AIS scores were significantly higher in trauma-death victims than in the disease-death group (p<0.005). To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities, the authors strongly advocate efforts that will increase compliance with drunk driving prohibitions. For victims of fatal bicycle accidents with a medical history of diseases, a forensic autopsy should be performed to establish a

14. The epidemiology and cost analysis of patients presented to Emergency Department following traffic accidents

PubMed Central

Karadana, Gökçe Akgül; Aksu, Nalan Metin; Akkaş, Meltem; Akman, Canan; Üzümcügil, Akın; Özmen, M. Mahir

2013-01-01

Background Traffic accidents are ranked first as the cause of personal injury throughout the world. The high number of traffic accidents yielding injuries and fatalities makes them of great importance to Emergency Departments. Material/Methods Patients admitted to Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Adult Emergency Department due to traffic accidents were investigated epidemiologically. Differences between groups were evaluated by Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. A value of p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results We included 2003 patients over 16 years of age. The mean age was 39.6±16.1 and 55% were males. Admissions by ambulance and due to motor vehicle accidents were the most common. In 2004 the rate of traffic accidents (15.3%) was higher than the other years, the most common month was May (10.8%), and the most common time period was 6 pm to 12 am (midnight). About half of the patients (51.5%) were admitted in the first 30 minutes. Life-threatening condition was present in 9.6% of the patients. Head trauma was the most common type of trauma, with the rate of 18.3%. Mortality rate was 81.8%. The average length of hospital stay was 403 minutes (6.7 hours) and the average cost per patient was 983±4364 TL. Conclusions Further studies are needed to compare the cost found in this study with the mean cost for Turkey. However, the most important step to reduce the direct and indirect costs due to traffic accidents is the prevention of these accidents. PMID:24316815

15. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

PubMed Central

Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

2009-01-01

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

16. Social host liability for minors and underage drunk-driving accidents.

PubMed

Dills, Angela K

2010-03-01

Social host laws for minors aim to reduce teenage alcohol consumption by imposing liability on adults who host parties. Parents cite safety reasons as part of their motivation for hosting parties, preferring their teens and their teens' friends to drink in a supervised and safe locale. Both sides predict an effect of social host liability for minors on alcohol-related traffic accident rates for under-aged drinkers; the effects, however, work in opposite directions. This paper finds that, among 18-20 year olds, social host liability for minors reduced the drunk-driving fatality rate by 9%. I find no effect on sober traffic fatalities. Survey data on drinking and drunk driving suggest the declines resulted mostly from reductions in drunk driving and not reductions in drinking.

17. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

1995-01-01

Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

18. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

PubMed Central

Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

2011-01-01

Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

19. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

Catalin Stanga, Iulian

2013-04-01

20. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

2010-01-01

Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

1. Measurements of air dose rates in and around houses in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan after the Fukushima accident.

PubMed

Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Saito, Kimiaki

2017-01-01

Measurements of air dose rates for 192 houses in a less contaminated area (<0.5 μSv h(-1)) of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan were conducted in both living rooms and/or bedrooms using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and around the houses via a man-borne survey at intervals of several meters. The relation of the two air dose rates (inside and outside) for each house, including the background from natural radionuclides, was divided into several categories, determined by construction materials (light and heavy) and floor number, with the dose reduction factors being expressed as the ratio of the dose inside to that outside the house. For wooden and lightweight steel houses (classed as light), the dose rates inside and outside the houses showed a positive correlation and linear regression with a slope-intercept form due to the natural background, although the degree of correlation was not very high. The regression coefficient, i.e., the average dose reduction factor, was 0.38 on the first floor and 0.49 on the second floor. It was found that the contribution of natural radiation cannot be neglected when we consider dose reduction factors in less contaminated areas. The reductions in indoor dose rates are observed because a patch of ground under each house is not contaminated (this is the so-called uncontaminated effect) since the shielding capability of light construction materials is typically low. For reinforced steel-framed concrete houses (classed as heavy), the dose rates inside the houses did not show a correlation with those outside the houses due to the substantial shielding capability of these materials. The average indoor dose rates were slightly higher than the arithmetic mean value of the outdoor dose rates from the natural background because concrete acts as a source of natural radionuclides. The characteristics of the uncontaminated effect were clarified through Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that there is a great variation

2. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

PubMed Central

Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

2009-01-01

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

3. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

SciTech Connect

Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

1996-12-31

Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

4. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

PubMed

Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

2012-07-01

The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

5. Criticality accident alarm system

SciTech Connect

Malenfant, R.E.

1991-01-01

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

6. Radiocesium contaminations of 20 wood species and the corresponding gamma-ray dose rates around the canopies at 5 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

PubMed

Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru

2013-01-01

Radiocesium ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) deposition from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was measured in 20 woody plants (12 evergreen and 8 deciduous species) grown in Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW from the NPP). Leaves (needles) and twigs were sampled from each of three foliar positions (top, middle, and bottom) in the plant canopy in early August 2011. At the time, soils around the plants were also sampled, and gamma radiation dose rates were measured at each sampling position. The average radiocesium activity in the observed leaves of the evergreen species was 7.7 times that in the leaves of the deciduous species. Among the observed evergreen coniferous species, the activity in pre-fallout-expanded leaves was 2.4 times that in the post-fallout-expanded leaves. Notably, a distinct variation in the activity among the evergreen coniferous species could be observed for the post-fallout-expanded leaves but not for the pre-fallout-expanded leaves. Although these differences depend on whether the leaves had expanded at the time of the fallout, it is probable that a considerable amount of radiocesium was translocated to newly developed leaves at a species-specific rate. In addition, it was demonstrated that dose rates around woody plants were not consistent with the prevailing prediction that general dose rates correspondingly decrease with monitoring height from the ground. Thus, the dose rates in the top foliar layer of the deciduous species decreased more than predicted, whereas those in the top foliar layer of the coniferous species did not decrease. This may be due to differences in the balance between the attenuation resulting from a shielding effect of the plant bodies and the higher radiocesium accumulation in the leaves.

7. A fatal mongoose bite.

PubMed

Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar; Deshmukh, Ashutosh Yashwant

2012-11-19

Animal bite is a bite wound from a pet, farm or wild animal. Dog bites make up 80-85% of all reported incidents. Cats amount for about 10% of reported bites and other animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, raccoons, bats and monkeys amount to 5-10%. Bites by mongoose are uncommon. Here, we present a case of fatal mongoose bite to an elderly woman who died as a complication of streptococcal infection at the bite site.

8. Long-term trends in flood fatalities in the United State

Sharif, Hatim; Chaturvedi, Smita

2015-04-01

This presentation reviews flood-related fatalities in the United States between 1959 and 2013. Information on flood fatality victims and the flood-causing events was obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The data collected included the date, time, location, and weather conditions and the gender and age of the flood victims. Long term trends in the numbers of fatalities and fatality rates were analyzed. For most of the states fatalities were largely caused by single catastrophic events. The analysis indicates that the standardized annual flood fatality rates are decreasing significantly for all states. Vehicle related fatalities represent more than 50% of flood fatalities for most of the states and can be as high as 77%. A combination of improved hydrometeorological forecasting, educational programs aimed at enhancing public awareness of flood risk and the seriousness of flood warnings, and timely and appropriate action by local emergency and safety authorities will help further reduce flood fatalities in Texas.

9. Differences in rates of decrease of environmental radiation dose rates by ground surface property in Fukushima City after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

PubMed

Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Miyake, Masao; Hayakawa, Takehito; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Yayoi; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Hazama, Akihiro; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

2013-01-01

After the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, the environmental radiation dose in Fukushima City increased. On 11 April, 1 mo after the earthquake, the environmental radiation dose rate at various surfaces in the same area differed greatly by surface property. Environmental radiation measurements continue in order to determine the estimated time to 50% reduction in environmental radiation dose rates by surface property in order to make suggestions for decontamination in Fukushima. The measurements were carried out from 11 April to 11 November 2011. Forty-eight (48) measurement points were selected, including four kinds of ground surface properties: grass (13), soil (5), artificial turf (7), and asphalt (23). Environmental radiation dose rate was measured at heights of 100 cm above the ground surface. Time to 50% reduction of environmental radiation dose rates was estimated for each ground surface property. Radiation dose rates on 11 November had decreased significantly compared with those on 11 April for all surface properties. Artificial turf showed the longest time to 50% reduction (544.32 d, standard error: 96.86), and soil showed the shortest (213.20 d, standard error: 35.88). The authors found the environmental radiation dose rate on artificial materials to have a longer 50% reduction time than that on natural materials. These results contribute to determining an order of priority for decontamination after nuclear disasters.

10. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

PubMed

Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji

2008-10-01

In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

11. [Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident].

PubMed

Sewerin, I

2001-10-22

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen.

12. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

PubMed Central

Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

2003-01-01

The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

13. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

PubMed

Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

2015-01-01

Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

14. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports

PubMed Central

Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

2015-01-01

Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized. PMID:26356371

15. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients

PubMed Central

Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

2017-01-01

Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population. Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients’ outcomes. Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and 556 patients had a normal eGFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A total of 694 patients suffered from cerebral artery stenosis, in which 293 patients only had intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS), 110 only with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), and 301 with both ICAS and ECAS. The patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 had a higher proportion of death and newly ischemic events compared with those with a relatively normal eGFR. Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 increased the risk of mortality by 3.089-fold and newly ischemic events by 4.067-fold. In further analysis, a reduced eGFR was associated with increased rates of mortality and newly events both in ICAS patients and ECAS patients. However, only an increased risk of newly events was found as the degree of renal function deteriorated in ICAS patients (odds ratio = 8.169, 95% confidence interval = 2.445–14.127). A low baseline eGFR predicted a high mortality and newly ischemic events at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent

16. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1979

SciTech Connect

1980-12-01

The Department of Energy's safety performance in fiscal year 1979 showed improvement in all categories over fiscal year 1978. The loss rates were less than one-half the United States industry average as reported by the National Safety Council. Incidence rates per 200,000 workhours were 1.1 lost workday cases and 17.2 lost workdays compared to 1.2 lost workday cases and 17.6 lost workdays during fiscal year 1978. The recordable occupational illness rate, based on only 80 cases, was 0.06 cases per 200,000 workhours compared to 0.07 cases per 200,000 workhours for fiscal year 1978. Nine fatalities of contractor employees resulted in an annual rate of 6.0 deaths per 100,000 workers compared with 10 fatalities during fiscal year 1978, and an annual rate of 6.7 deaths per 100,000 workers. The total Department of Energy property loss reported during fiscal year 1979 was \$3.3 million; \$765,400 was caused by fire, and \$2.5 million by other causes. A total of 121 million vehicle miles of official travel resulted in 685 accidents with \$338,400 in property damage. The loss rates of 5.7 accidents per million vehicle miles and \$2.80 per 1000 miles were improvements over the fiscal year 1978 rates of 5.8 accidents per million vehicle miles and \$2.97 property damage per 1000 miles. The 104,986 monitored Department of Energy and its contractor employees received a total dose of 9040 rem in calendar year 1979. Both the total dose and the 1748 employees receiving radiation exposures greater than 1 rem in 1979 represent a continuing downward trend from the calendar year 1978 total dose of 9380 rem and the 1826 employees who received radiation exposures greater than 1 rem.

17. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

2000-01-01

In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

SciTech Connect

Saenger, E.L.

1986-09-01

It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

19. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

PubMed

Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

2016-01-01

Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

20. [An unusual case of fatal airbag injury].

PubMed

Usumoto, Yosuke; Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

2008-11-01

We report an unusual case of fatal airbag injury. A woman in her forties was driving a light car when it was involved in an accident. When the car was found, the left front wheel had dropped into the gutter, the front bumper was dented and the airbag had deployed. Forensic autopsy revealed that the right subclavian artery and the left vertebral artery were ruptured and 1,570 ml and 360 ml of blood with clots were observed in the left and the right thoracic cavity, respectively. It was considered that the unusual collision produced by deployment of the airbag had caused these ruptures and massive hemorrhaging. Although an airbag is an effective tool for ensuring the safety of a driver and the passengers, it may injure and occasionally kill the occupants if they do not remain in the appropriate and restrained seating position.

1. Fatal crocodile attack.

PubMed

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

2013-11-01

Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

2. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

PubMed

Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

3. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

SciTech Connect

Squires, D.J.

1996-12-31

On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire & smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations.

4. Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory.

PubMed

Muriale, L; Lee, E; Genovese, J; Trend, S

1996-12-01

A fatal accident involving concentrated hydrofluoric acid in a palynological laboratory is described. Similar deaths due to dermal exposure to concentrated hydrofluoric acid have been reported in the literature. It is evident that rigorous control measures including proper personal protective equipment and first aid are of utmost importance in the prevention of death and injury when handling hydrofluoric acid. Possible factors that may have contributed to the accident are reviewed.

5. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India

PubMed Central

Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

2016-01-01

Background India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. Objectives We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. Patients and Methods A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). Conclusions A lack of respect for the

6. Does periodic vehicle inspection prevent accidents?

PubMed

White, W T

1986-02-01

The hypothesis that periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) has no safety effect was tested using accident involvement rates analysed by "vehicle age" and "time since the most recent inspection." The alternative of interest was that the probability of accident is lowest (ceteris paribus) immediately after an inspection, and subsequently increases over time. Two types of adjustment for exposure variations by time since last inspection were made, yielding two kinds of accident involvement rate. The first accident rate was the proportion of accident-involved vehicles having "preventable" defects which could possibly have helped to cause the accident. The second accident rate was the number of accident-involved vehicles divided by the number of inspected vehicles, and amounted to an adjustment for premature re-inspection. The observed probability of accident involvement (as measured by either rate) was found to increase with time since last inspection. This result supports the alternative hypothesis that a mandatory safety inspection has an immediate safety benefit which decreases over time. In neither analysis was there an interaction between vehicle age group and "week since inspection."

7. A fatal leopard attack.

PubMed

Hejna, Petr

2010-05-01

A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

8. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

PubMed

Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

1992-01-01

During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

9. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

PubMed

Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

2011-03-01

10. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage.

PubMed Central

Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Dennis, M; Burn, J; Warlow, C

1990-01-01

The age and sex specific incidence rates for cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage in a population of approximately 105,000 are presented. Over four years 675 patients with a first-ever stroke were registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The pathological diagnosis was confirmed by computerised tomography (CT) scan, necropsy or lumbar puncture (cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage only) in 78% of cases and a further 17% were diagnosed according to the Guy's Hospital Stroke Diagnostic Score. The proportion of all first-ever strokes by pathological type was: cerebral infarction 81% (95% confidence interval 78-84), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 10% (8-12), subarachnoid haemorrhage 5% (3-7) and uncertain type 5% (3-7). These proportions are similar to other community-based studies. The overall 30 day case fatality rate was 19% (16-22), that for cerebral infarction being 10% (7-13), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 50% (38-62) and subarachnoid haemorrhage 46% (29-63). One year post stroke 23% (19-27) with cerebral infarction were dead and 65% (60-70) of survivors were functionally independent. The figures for primary intracerebral haemorrhage were 62% (43-81) dead and 68% (50-86) of survivors functionally independent and for subarachnoid haemorrhage were 48% (24-72) dead and 76% (56-96) of survivors functionally independent. There are important differences between these rates and those from other sources possibly due to more complete case ascertainment in our study. Nevertheless, the generally more optimistic early prognosis in our study, particularly for cases of cerebral infarction, has important implications for the planning of clinical trials and for the expected impact that any treatment might have on the general population. PMID:2303826

11. Children's Acceptance of Safety Guidelines after Exposure to Televised Dramas Depicting Accidents.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cantor, Joanne; Omdahl, Becky L.

1999-01-01

Presents a study where grade-school children were exposed to a scene from a movie involving one of two activities (either fire- or water-related activities) and involving one of two outcomes (fatal accidents or neutral events). Finds that watching the dramatized accidents increased students' estimated importance of adopting safety guidelines and…

12. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

PubMed

Bilban, Marjan

2002-12-01

The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

13. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

PubMed Central

Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

2004-01-01

In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and unpublished works was done for the review of this area. Both international and Indian studies on prevalence, risk factors, management, and prevention of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents were collected, analysed and reviewed. The study concludes that professionals, like general practitioners, paediatricians, school teachers, school counselors, need to be trained in identifying non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents, and know when to refer them to a mental health professional or mental health service for thorough assessment and effective management. Timely and efficient management of non-fatal suicidal behaviors can prevent future suicidal attempts and completed suicide in most of this highly vulnerable population. Indian studies are very few and without robust study design. Systematic studies in India on this important topic are required. PMID:21206789

14. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

PubMed

Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

2014-01-01

This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

15. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

PubMed

Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

1978-09-29

Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

16. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1980-05-01

The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was \$11.9 million; \$1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per \$100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than \$50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports.

17. Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

Background: Predicting the trend in traffic accidents deaths and its analysis can be a useful tool for planning and policy-making, conducting interventions appropriate with death trend, and taking the necessary actions required for controlling and preventing future occurrences. Objective: Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All the information related to fatal traffic accidents available in the database of Iran Legal Medicine Organization from 2004 to the end of 2013 were used to determine the change points (multi-variable time series analysis). Using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, traffic accidents death rates were predicted for 2014 and 2015, and a comparison was made between this rate and the predicted value in order to determine the efficiency of the model. Results: From the results, the actual death rate in 2014 was almost similar to that recorded for this year, while in 2015 there was a decrease compared with the previous year (2014) for all the months. A maximum value of 41% was also predicted for the months of January and February, 2015. Conclusion: From the prediction and analysis of the death trends, proper application and continuous use of the intervention conducted in the previous years for road safety improvement, motor vehicle safety improvement, particularly training and culture-fostering interventions, as well as approval and execution of deterrent regulations for changing the organizational behaviors, can significantly decrease the loss caused by traffic accidents. PMID:27308255

18. Accidents associated with oil and gas operations: Outer continental shelf, 1956-1990. Final report

SciTech Connect

Tracy, L.M.

1992-10-01

The report is a compilation of descriptions of all blowouts, explosions and fires, pipeline breaks or leaks, significant pollution incidents, and major accidents that occurred on federally leased offshore lands from 1956 through 1990. The report identifies accidents by area, block number, lease number, platform number, well number, and operator. It describes the type of accident, corrective action taken, and the amount of pollution. It provides figures on fatalities, injuries, and property and environmental damage.

19. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities

PubMed Central

Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

2013-01-01

20. Fatal and Severe Injury Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Personnel 1988-1999

DTIC Science & Technology

2001-04-01

stronger than man. –G. K. Chesterton Motor vehicle accidents are the nation‘s most common and costly serious injury producer, and rob the young in...Public Health. 1998;112(5):289-95. 14 Laapotti S, Keskinen E. —Differences in fatal loss-of-control accidents between young male and female drivers... Accident Analysis and Prevention. 1998;30(4):435-42. 15 Doherty ST, Andrey JC, MacGregor C. —The situational risks of young drivers: the influence

1. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

PubMed

Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

1997-08-01

Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

2. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

PubMed

2015-01-01

Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

3. [Fatal rat bites].

PubMed

Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Hiss, J

1999-04-15

We present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. Domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. Bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. There is little information about death due to house rat bites. Since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. An 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in her mother's bed in a rat-infested home. The infant's clothing was covered with blood, parts of her face were missing and marks of gnawing were present on her neck and extremities. There was subcutaneous bleeding around the wounds indicating that they were inflicted while the child was alive. Autopsy findings revealed profound blood loss. We conclude that a combination of low socio-economic status, severe failure to thrive, and poor hygiene in a rat-infested environment contributed to the fatal outcome in this attack.

4. Urban Sprawl as a Risk Factor in Motor Vehicle Occupant and Pedestrian Fatalities

PubMed Central

Ewing, Reid; Schieber, Richard A.; Zegeer, Charles V.

2003-01-01

Objectives. We sought to determine the association between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities. Methods. We created a sprawl index by applying principal components analysis to data for 448 US counties in the largest 101 metropolitan areas. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between the index and traffic fatalities. Results. For every 1% increase in the index (i.e., more compact, less sprawl), all-mode traffic fatality rates fell by 1.49% (P < .001) and pedestrian fatality rates fell by 1.47% to 3.56%, after adjustment for pedestrian exposure (P < .001). Conclusions. Urban sprawl was directly related to traffic fatalities and pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent studies should investigate relationships at a finer geographic scale and should strive to improve on the measure of exposure used to adjust pedestrian fatality rates. PMID:12948977

5. To Err is Human Case Reports of Two Military Aircraft Accidents

PubMed Central

Dikshit, Mohan B

2010-01-01

It has been postulated that pilot error or in-flight incapacitation may be the main contributory factors to 70–80% of aircraft accidents. Two fatal aircraft accidents are presented in which either of the above possibilities may have played a role. The first case report describes an erroneous decision by a fighter pilot to use a seat position adjustment of the ejection seat leading to fatal injuries when he had to eject from his aircraft. Injuries to the body of the pilot, and observations on the state of his flying clothing and the ejection seat were used to postulate the mechanism of fatal injury and establish the cause of the accident. The second case report describes the sequence of events which culminated in the incapacitation of a fighter pilot while executing a routine manouevre. This resulted in a fatal air crash. Possible contributions of environmental factors which may have resulted in failure of his physiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21509093

6. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

PubMed

Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

2017-01-01

A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

7. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

2015-10-01

Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

8. Individual external dose monitoring of all citizens of Date City by passive dosimeter 5 to 51 months after the Fukushima NPP accident (series): 1. Comparison of individual dose with ambient dose rate monitored by aircraft surveys.

PubMed

Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo

2016-12-06

Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys. The results show that the individual doses were about 0.15 times the ambient doses, the coefficient of 0.15 being a factor of 4 smaller than the value employed by the Japanese government, throughout the period of the airborne surveys used. The method obtained in this study could aid in the prediction of individual doses in the early phase of future radiological accidents involving large-scale contamination.

9. Impact of gender, age and experience of pilots on general aviation accidents.

PubMed

Bazargan, Massoud; Guzhva, Vitaly S

2011-05-01

General aviation (GA) accounts for more than 82% of all air transport-related accidents and air transport-related fatalities in the U.S. In this study, we conduct a series of statistical analyses to investigate the significance of a pilot's gender, age and experience in influencing the risk for pilot errors and fatalities in GA accidents. There is no evidence from the Chi-square tests and logistic regression models that support the likelihood of an accident caused by pilot error to be related to pilot gender. However, evidence is found that male pilots, those older than 60 years of age, and with more experience, are more likely to be involved in a fatal accident.

10. Fatal and near-fatal animal bite injuries.

PubMed

Clark, M A; Sandusky, G E; Hawley, D A; Pless, J E; Fardal, P M; Tate, L R

1991-07-01

Fatal and near-fatal maulings of humans by pit bulls have recently become a topic of major public concern, resulting in the passage of laws in some jurisdictions that make the owner of a pit bull criminally liable for manslaughter if his or her pet causes a human death. The authors recently investigated two cases in which children were fatally injured by pet dogs. In the first case, a 17-day-old girl suffered fatal abdominal injuries when attacked by a pregnant Siberian husky. A 2-year-old girl expired from neck wounds inflicted by a pit bull or a rottweiler or both. Because no expert would testify as to which dog caused the fatal injury, the owner of the animals was not charged under a statute which specified criminality only if a pit bull caused the fatal injury. We also examined a 12-year-old boy who attempted to pet a circus tiger; the animal grabbed his arm with its claws and bit off the arm at the shoulder. The arm could not be reattached, but the child survived. These cases and the differentiation of animal bites from other injuries will be presented.

11. An empirical model for global earthquake fatality estimation

USGS Publications Warehouse

Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David

2010-01-01

We analyzed mortality rates of earthquakes worldwide and developed a country/region-specific empirical model for earthquake fatality estimation within the U. S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. The earthquake fatality rate is defined as total killed divided by total population exposed at specific shaking intensity level. The total fatalities for a given earthquake are estimated by multiplying the number of people exposed at each shaking intensity level by the fatality rates for that level and then summing them at all relevant shaking intensities. The fatality rate is expressed in terms of a two-parameter lognormal cumulative distribution function of shaking intensity. The parameters are obtained for each country or a region by minimizing the residual error in hindcasting the total shaking-related deaths from earthquakes recorded between 1973 and 2007. A new global regionalization scheme is used to combine the fatality data across different countries with similar vulnerability traits. [DOI: 10.1193/1.3480331

12. The Effect of State Regulations on Truck-Crash Fatalities

PubMed Central

Richardson, Lilliard E.

2009-01-01

To improve traffic safety, states limit truck length and weight, and some set lower speed limits for trucks than for other vehicles. We examined the impact of truck-specific restrictions and general traffic-safety policies on fatality rates from crashes involving large trucks. We used state-level data from 1991 to 2005 with a cross-sectional time-series model that controlled for several policy measures. We found that higher speed limits for cars and trucks contributed to higher fatality rates, but differential speed limits by vehicle type had no significant impact. Truck-length limitations reduced fatalities in crashes involving large trucks. Our model estimates suggested that if all states had adopted a speed limit of 55 miles per hour for all vehicles in 2005, an additional 561 fatalities would have been averted. PMID:19150907

13. Survey of Bicycling Accidents in Boulder, Colorado.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watts, Cliff K.; And Others

1986-01-01

A survey conducted in Boulder during the primary cycling months revealed that nearly half of bicycle accidents involved a motor vehicle and 30 percent were caused by gravel. Steps which can be taken to reduce the bicycle accident rate are presented. (MT)

14. Fatal occupational injuries among electric power company workers.

PubMed

Loomis, D; Dufort, V; Kleckner, R C; Savitz, D A

1999-03-01

Surveillance data suggest high rates of electrocutions and fatal falls among workers in electric utility companies, who may be exposed to electric current, heights, flammable agents, and frequent motor vehicle travel. To characterize the occurrence of fatal injuries among electric utility workers, we studied workers in five electric power companies in the United States. A cohort of 127,129 men hired between 1950 and 1986 was followed through 1988. Injuries at work were identified through manual review of death certificates. The occurrence of occupational injuries was analyzed with directly adjusted rates and Poisson regression. The overall rate of fatal occupational injuries was 13.20 per 100,000 person-years (n = 192), with 76% due to electric current, homicide, and falls from heights. Deaths were concentrated in a few groups with elevated injury rates, notably linemen (rate ratio (RR) 3.33), electricians (RR 2.79), and painters (RR 3.27). Occupations requiring daily work on elevations or frequent, direct contact with energized electrical equipment experienced markedly higher rates of fatal injury from falls and electrocutions with rate ratios of 21.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.4-41.5) and 16.7 (95% CI 6.6-42.6), respectively, independent of worker age and seniority. Although fatal injury rates in this industry have declined in recent decades, significant numbers of deaths still occur. Based on the premise that all injuries are preventable, a need for continued vigilance and efforts at prevention is indicated.

15. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

PubMed

Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

2011-01-01

This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends <0.01). Injuries taking place out of the usual occupational setting (aOR=2.85, 95%CI 2.27-3.59), or carrying out atypical tasks (aOR=2.08; 95%CI 1.27-3.39) showed increased risks of a fatal result too, as occupational accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries.

16. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

PubMed

2014-12-01

Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

17. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patlach, Robert

2011-01-01

This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

18. A fatal case of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

PubMed

Cohen, Ronny; Mallet, Thierry; Mirrer, Brooks; Loarte, Pablo; Gale, Michael; Kastell, Paul

2014-06-01

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening cardiac condition affecting pregnant women either late in pregnancy or early in the post-partum period. The latest studies show a dramatic improvement in the mortality rates of women affected with this disorder, which has been correlated with advances in medical therapy for heart failure. However, patients continue to die of this condition. The following case report describes a typical patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy diagnosed on clinical grounds, along with echocardiogram findings of severe systolic dysfunction and global hypokinesis consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. Emergency cesarean delivery had to be performed for fetal distress. There was significant improvement of the patient's condition with standard pharmacological management for heart failure at the time of discharge. However, five weeks after discharge, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. It is hoped that this article will raise awareness about this rare but potentially fatal condition and promote understanding of its main clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and conventional pharmacological management.

19. A fatal case of anaphylactic shock during paragliding.

PubMed

Feltracco, Paolo; Barbieri, Stefania; Galligioni, Helmut; Pasin, Laura; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Tommasi, Aurelio; Zucchetto, Alessandro; Trevisiol, Paride; Ori, Carlo; Avato, Francesco Maria

2012-11-01

The growth in popularity of flying ultralight aircraft and paragliding has been associated with an increased involvement of Emergency Medical Services because of various types of trauma suffered from both inexperienced and skilled individuals. This case presentation reports on a paraglider pilot, who was seen spinning "unusually" rapidly toward the ground, without visible attempts to regain control of the aircraft. Besides the bilateral mydriasis and the absence of any ECG activity, there was a significant swelling of face, lips, neck, and tongue. Upon opening the mouth, a dead bee was found over the tongue, underneath the palate. A fatal anaphylactic shock was the likely cause of death of the pilot while still "in mid-air." This case is certainly different from the commonly reported accidents during paragliding. An updated review of the medical literature shows no reported cases of fatal anaphylactic shock during the practice of paragliding.

20. Review of aviation safety measures which have application to aviation accident prevention.

PubMed

Doughtery, J D

1975-01-01

Introduction of certain human-factors techniques has been followed by market reduction in military and airline accident rates. In this study, these safety measures are analyzed to determine the value of their application to general aviation activity. Some techniques are already in use. They are: 1. medical evaluation of iarcrews; 2. aeronautical innovations which tailor the machine to the man; 3. imporvement of precision navigational air traffic control and flight procedures; 4. standardization of flight training and flight procedures. A remaining field of interest, and one which appears to be underused, is that of supervision. After ending his association with the flight instructor, the general aviation pilot is essentially unsupervised. Accident data gathered over several years show that with increases in the proportion of pilots who have not maintained an association with a flight instructor, the general aviation fatal accident rate is increased. Current regulations, which require revalidation of airman's certificates, provide a method by which this association can be maintained. The flight instructor, or some similar aviation professional, can maintain an element of supervision with otherwise independent general aviation pilots. Data from previous years supports the hypothesis that such a program would make a substantial improvement in general aviation safety.

1. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl.

PubMed

Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

2016-10-01

We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident.

2. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

SciTech Connect

Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

1994-06-01

This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

3. An aggregate accident model based on pooled, regional time-series data.

PubMed

Fridstrøm, L; Ingebrigtsen, S

1991-10-01

The determinants of personal injury road accidents and their severity are studied by means of generalized Poisson regression models estimated on the basis of combined cross-section/time-series data. Monthly data have been assembled for 18 Norwegian counties (every county but one), covering the period from January 1974 until December 1986. A rather wide range of potential explanatory factors are taken into account, including road use (exposure), weather, daylight, traffic density, road investment and maintenance expenditure, accident reporting routines, vehicle inspection, law enforcement, seat belt usage, proportion of inexperienced drivers, and alcohol sales. Separate probability models are estimated for the number of personal injury accidents, fatal accidents, injury victims, death victims, car occupants injured, and bicyclists and pedestrians injured. The fraction of personal injury accidents that are fatal is interpreted as an average severity measure and studied by means of a binomial logit model.

4. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evans, Joni K.

2014-01-01

The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

5. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

SciTech Connect

Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T.; Cliff Po, L.C.

1995-09-01

A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

PubMed Central

Holmberg, O

2007-01-01

In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer. PMID:21614274

7. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

PubMed

Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

2016-08-01

The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

8. Motor vehicle crash fatalities by race/ethnicity in Arizona, 1990–96

PubMed Central

Campos-Outcalt, D; Bay, C; Dellapena, A; Cota, M

2003-01-01

Objective: To compare rates of motor vehicle crash (MVC) fatalities among different race/ethnic groups in urban and rural Arizona. Method: Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death file, MVC fatalities in Arizona from 1990–96 inclusive were classified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban or rural residence. Age adjusted rates of total, occupant, pedestrian, and alcohol related fatalities were calculated. The total MVC fatality rate for each race/ethnic group was then adjusted for proportion of rural residence. Results: Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), American Indians had raised relative risks for MVC fatality in all gender and residence subgroups. Hispanic females and rural Hispanic males had lower relative risks, as did rural African-American men. Raised relative risks for American Indian men and women included all subgroups: total, occupant, pedestrian, and alcohol related. Hispanic and African-American men both had raised relative risks of pedestrian related fatalities, and Hispanic men had a slightly higher relative risk while Hispanic women had a lower relative risks, for alcohol related fatality. Hispanic men and women and African-American men had lower occupant fatality rates. Close to half (45%) of the excess MVC fatality among American Indians can be attributed to residence in rural areas, where MVC fatality rates are higher. There were 1.85 occupants in crashes involving NHW deaths compared with 2.51 for Hispanics and 2.71 for American Indians (p<0.001). The proportion of occupants not using a seatbelt was higher in Hispanics and American Indians in both urban and rural areas. Conclusion: The major disparity in MVC fatality in Arizona is among American Indians. The higher MVC fatality rates among American Indians occur in all age groups, in both urban and rural areas, and among occupants and pedestrians. Rural residence, lower rates of seatbelt use, higher rates of

9. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

PubMed

1989-01-01

For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

10. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

PubMed Central

Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

2017-01-01

A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

11. Vessel traffic safety in busy waterways: A case study of accidents in western shenzhen port.

PubMed

Mou, J M; Chen, P F; He, Y X; Yip, Tsz Leung; Li, W H; Tang, J; Zhang, H Z

2016-08-03

Throughout the world, busy waterways near large ports witness heavy vessel traffic in recent decades. The waterways are characterized by high risk in terms of loss of life, property, and pollution to environment. To facilitate maritime safety management with satisfactory efficiency and efficacy, the authors propose a framework of safety indexes to evaluate the risk level in busy waterways according to the accident severity, fatality rate and special indicators of maritime transportation. The safety indexes consist of Safety Evaluation Index (SEI) and Safety Warning Index (SWI), and are derived from the proposed risk criteria of Chinese vessel traffic. As a case study, data on vessel traffic accidents reported in the Western Shenzhen Port, South China from 1995 to 2015 are analyzed. The actual risk level of this area during the period is calculated under the framework. The implementation of the safety indexes indicate that the risk criteria and safety indexes are practicable and effective for the vessel traffic management. The methodology based on long-term accident data can significantly support the risk analysis in the macroscopic perspective for busy ports and waterways, such that SWI can act as threshold to trigger actions, while SEI can act as an indicator to measure safety status.

12. [Fatal methadone poisoning of a child].

PubMed

Klupp, N; Risser, D; Stichenwirth, M; Hönigschnabl, S; Stimpfl, T; Bauer, G

2000-04-21

The substance methadone is used for substitution therapy since the 1960s in the U.S. Mainly because of the endemic spread of HIV-1 infections among intravenous drug abusers methadone was made legally available through medical prescription in Austria in 1987. Legal authorities today also allow the patient to take home the necessary daily consumption for weekends or public holidays. The drug is distributed as a watery solution in tiny bottles, which are fitted with an ordinary screw cap. This kind of distribution may, however, have fatal consequences. This is demonstrated in the following case of accidental poisoning of an infant: A two-year-old girl whose parents were both participating in the substitution scheme was found dead in her bed in Vienna in 1997. Forensic autopsy revealed a methadone concentration in the liver tissue of 640 ng/g. The criminal investigation determined that the girl had opened a bottle of methadone solution and subsequently had taken the drug. Considering the circumstances of this accident, from the medical point of view safety devices for the screw caps of the methadone bottles should be required by law, in order to avoid future accidental poisoning.

13. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

PubMed

2016-01-01

The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining.

14. Financial performance, ISO 9000 standard and safe driving practices effects on accident rate in the U.S. motor carrier industry.

PubMed

Naveh, Eitan; Marcus, Alfred

2007-07-01

The question this research address is if voluntary certification with ISO 9000 standards can reduce the number of accidents large trucks have. Certification might have a positive effect depending upon the actions a company takes as a result of being certified, for instance, a company may change driver training and maintenance and how it carries out corrective action. We identified 40 ISO 9002: 1994 certified U.S. trucking companies and compared their safety performance before and after ISO certification. We also compared them to a group of motor carriers that had similar characteristics but were not certified. The safety performance of the certified carriers was significantly better after certification than before, and it also was significantly better than that of non-certified carriers, findings that we believe can be useful to carriers, shippers and regulators who wish to better understand the value of certification.

15. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

PubMed

Aasjord, Halvard L

2006-01-01

Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

16. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

PubMed

Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

2014-02-01

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima.

17. Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

1972-01-01

A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

18. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

2010-01-01

Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

19. The turning point in the number of traffic fatalities: two hypotheses about changes in underlying trends.

PubMed

Brüde, Ulf; Elvik, Rune

2015-01-01

The number of traffic fatalities reached a peak in many highly motorised countries around 1970. Some previous studies have suggested that the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities was inevitable and did not reflect a change in the underlying trends influencing the number of traffic fatalities. Other studies suggest that trends in traffic growth and fatality rate changed from before to after the turning point. This paper proposes two hypotheses about the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities. One hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were the same before and after the turning point. The other hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were different before and after the turning point was reached, in particular that the annual percentage decline in fatality rate became greater after the turning point than before. Such a change would suggest that road safety policy became more effective. Analysis of data for six countries (Denmark, Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States) lends stronger support to the latter hypothesis than to the former. The lesson for policy makers, in particular in countries where the number of traffic fatalities is still growing, is that they should not expect a turning point to be reached without policy interventions.

20. Occupational injury and fatality investigations: the application of forensic nursing science.

PubMed

Harris, Colin

2013-01-01

The forensic evaluation of trauma in occupational injuries and fatalities can provide the benefit of a more thorough analysis of incident causation. Forensic nursing science applied during workplace investigations can assist investigators to determine otherwise unknown crucial aspects of the incident circumstances that are important to event reconstruction, the enforcement of occupational health and safety requirements, and the direction of workplace prevention initiatives. Currently, a medical and forensic medical knowledge gap exists in the subject-matter expertise associated with occupational accident investigations. This gap can be bridged with the integration of forensic nursing in the investigation of workplace fatalities and serious injuries.

1. Traffic Fatality Reductions: United States Compared With 25 Other Countries

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Objectives. I compared US traffic fatality trends with those in 25 other countries. Methods. I have introduced a new measure for comparing safety in different countries: traffic deaths in a specific year relative to largest annual number recorded. I used only data from the International Road Traffic Accident Database. Results. The United States is a unique outlier. Fatalities in all 25 other countries declined further after reaching their maximum values. For example, the United States and the Netherlands both reached maximum values in 1972. From 1972 to 2011 US deaths declined by 41%, whereas those in the Netherlands declined by 81%. If US fatalities had declined by 81% there would have been 22 000 fewer US road deaths in 2011. If the United States matched percentage declines of 6 additional countries, US deaths would have declined by more than 20 000. Conclusions. If US traffic deaths had declined by the same percentage as in any 1 of 7 other countries, more than 20 000 fewer Americans would have been killed in 2011. PMID:24922136

2. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Siewert, R. D.

1972-01-01

Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result of this study was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments were obtained from reports of tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

3. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Siewert, R. D.

1972-01-01

Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m (2000 ft) is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments was obtained from reports or tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

4. Repository preclosure accident scenarios

SciTech Connect

Yook, H.R.; Arbital, J.G.; Keeton, J.M.; Mosier, J.E.; Weaver, B.S.

1984-09-01

Waste-handling operations at a spent-fuel repository were investigated to identify operational accidents that could occur. The facility was subdivided, through systems engineering procedures, into individual operations that involve the waste and one specific component of the waste package, in one specific area of the handling facility. From this subdivision approximately 600 potential accidents involving waste package components were identified and then discussed. Supporting descriptive data included for each accident scenario are distance of drop, speed of collision, weight of package component, and weight of equipment involved. The energy of impact associated with each potential accident is calculated to provide a basis for comparison of the relative severities of all the accidents. The results and conclusions suggest approaches to accident consequence mitigation through waste package and facility design. 35 figures, 9 tables.

5. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

SciTech Connect

Barat, K

2003-01-24

The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

6. Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces.

PubMed

Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon P; Nam, Doohee

2006-03-01

Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics suggest that efforts to reduce crashes at these locations may significantly reduce crash costs. The objective of this paper is to examine factors associated with railroad crossing crashes. Various statistical models are used to examine the relationships between crossing accidents and features of crossings. The paper also compares accident models developed in the United States and the safety effects of crossing elements obtained using Korea data. Crashes were observed to increase with total traffic volume and average daily train volumes. The proximity of crossings to commercial areas and the distance of the train detector from crossings are associated with larger numbers of accidents, as is the time duration between the activation of warning signals and gates. The unique contributions of the paper are the application of the gamma probability model to deal with underdispersion and the insights obtained regarding railroad crossing related vehicle crashes.

7. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

PubMed

Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

2016-01-01

8. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

PubMed Central

Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

2016-01-01

9. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

PubMed

Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

1988-09-01

With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

10. Patterns of death among avalanche fatalities: a 21-year review

PubMed Central

Boyd, Jeff; Haegeli, Pascal; Abu-Laban, Riyad B.; Shuster, Michael; Butt, John C.

2009-01-01

Background Avalanches are a significant cause of winter recreational fatalities in mountain regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of trauma and asphyxia to avalanche deaths. Methods We reviewed all avalanche fatalities between 1984 and 2005 that had been investigated by the offices of the British Columbia Coroners Service and the Chief Medical Examiner of Alberta. In addition, we searched the database of the Canadian Avalanche Centre for fatal avalanche details. We calculated injury severity scores for all victims who underwent autopsy. Results There were 204 avalanche fatalities with mortality information over the 21-year study period. Of these, 117 victims underwent autopsy, and 87 underwent forensic external examination. Asphyxia caused 154 (75%) deaths. Trauma caused 48 (24%) deaths, with the rate of death from trauma ranging from 9% (4/44) for snowmobilers to 42% (5/12) for ice climbers. In addition, 13% (12/92) of the asphyxia victims who underwent autopsy had major trauma, defined as an injury severity score of greater than 15. Only 48% (23/48) of victims for whom trauma was the primary cause of death had been completely buried. Interpretation Asphyxia and severe trauma caused most avalanche fatalities in western Canada. The relative rates differed between snowmobilers and those engaged in other mountain activities. Our findings should guide recommendations for safety devices, safety measures and resuscitation. PMID:19213801

11. [An unusual autoerotic accident: sexual pleasure from peritoneal pain].

PubMed

Schmeling, A; Correns, A; Geserick, G

2001-01-01

The paper describes a fatal autoerotic accident of a 23-year-old man who derived sexual pleasure from painful irritation of the peritoneum by sharp force. For this purpose he clamped two knife blades into a vice suspended from a rope-pulley construction so that he could lower it to pierce the abdominal skin with the tips of the knives. When one of the ropes broke, the vice with the knives fell onto the man's belly piercing the inferior vena cava and leading to death by exsanguination. This, to the authors' knowledge, has been the first ever report of a fatal autoerotic accident in which sexual pleasure was to be obtained from painful irritation of the peritoneum.

12. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

PubMed

Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

2013-04-01

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted.

13. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

PubMed Central

Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

2014-01-01

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

14. Road traffic accidents and policy interventions in Korea.

PubMed

Yang, Bong-Min; Kim, Jinhyun

2003-01-01

15. The effects of safety climate on vessel accidents in the container shipping context.

PubMed

Lu, Chin-Shan; Tsai, Chaur-Luh

2008-03-01

This study empirically evaluates the influence of safety climate on vessel accidents from a seafarer's perspective, specifically in the container shipping context. Factor analysis revealed six safety climate dimensions: management safety practices, supervisor safety practices, safety attitude, safety training, job safety, and co-workers' safety practices. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of safety climate dimensions on vessel accidents in respect of crew fatality and vessel failure. Study findings indicated that management safety practices, safety training, and job safety dimensions significantly affect crew fatality incidence, and the job safety dimension has a significant influence on vessel failure. Overall, results suggest the job safety dimension has the most important effect on vessel accidents, followed by management safety practices and safety training dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for vessel accident prevention in the container shipping context are discussed.

16. Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities.

PubMed

Domingo, Olwen; Roider, Gabriele; Stöver, Andreas; Graw, Matthias; Musshoff, Frank; Sachs, Hans; Bicker, Wolfgang

2017-02-01

Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects. Irrespective of the big differences in mitragynine concentrations in the postmortem blood samples, mitragynine was not the primary cause of death in either of the two cases reported here. Additionally, by rough estimation, a significant difference in ratio of mitragynine to its diastereomers in the blood and urine samples between the two cases could be seen.

17. Fire fatalities in elderly people.

PubMed

Elder, A T; Squires, T; Busuttil, A

1996-05-01

Fatal dwelling-house fires account for 10% of all accidental deaths in the United Kingdom with one-quarter of the deaths being of elderly people. No study had described the characteristics of elderly individuals who die in fires. We report results from a retrospective review of all fatal dwelling-house fires in Scotland from 1980 to 1990. Of 1096 people dying in fires, 243 (23%) were aged over 75. When compared with patients under the age of 75, older patients were significantly less likely to be smokers. Significantly more fires killing elderly people were caused by faulty or misused electrical items in the house, particularly electric blankets. These differences between elderly and younger individuals dying in dwelling-house fires may suggest that preventive strategies for the elderly population require a different emphasis from those for younger people.

18. Perception of road accident causes.

PubMed

Vanlaar, Ward; Yannis, George

2006-01-01

19. Language, income, education, and alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes.

PubMed

Romano, Eduardo O; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

2006-01-01

This paper investigates the role of race/ethnicity, language skills (a proxy for acculturation among Hispanics in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas), income, and education level on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we confirmed previous state-based studies showing that high income and education levels have a protective influence on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. We also confirmed that language proficiency/acculturation tends to increase the vulnerability of Hispanic women to alcohol-related fatalities. Differences in alcohol-related fatality rates across Hispanic subgroups are observed. Future reductions in alcohol-related traffic fatalities may require prevention policies that take into account existent variations in acculturation, income, and education among racial/ethnic groups and subgroups.

20. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

PubMed Central

de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

2014-01-01

Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

1. Inadequate harnesses as a cause of death in two light aircraft accidents.

PubMed

Hill, I R

1980-09-01

In the two accidents described, both fatalities occurred because the victims were wearing only lap belts. One of the victims was piloting an aircraft. These were survivable aircraft accidents and illustrate the inadequacy of this type of harness. Recently promulgated legislation in the United Kingdom should mean that front seat incidents of this nature will become a rarity. The dangers will still exist for those in rear passenger seats, however, because they are not covered by the new laws.

2. Excess Fatality from Desipramine in Children and Adolescents

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amitai, Yona; Frischer, Henri

2006-01-01

Objective: To compare the case fatality rate (CFR) from desipramine ingestion in children and adolescents with that of other tricyclic antidepressants. Method: All mentions of desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, nortriptyline, and doxepin in children and adolescents recorded in the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure…

3. Evaluation of reported fatality data associated with workers using respiratory protection in the United States (1990-2012).

PubMed

Cowan, Dallas M; Benson, Stacey M; Cheng, Thales J; Hecht, Shelby; Boulos, Nancy M; Henshaw, John

2016-06-24

OSHA revised the 1971 respiratory protection standard in 1998 to add guidance for selecting and maintaining respirators. Fatality reports from 1990 to 2012 were used to characterize historical trends in fatalities associated with respirators. Industry- and time-specific trends were evaluated to determine the effect of the revision to the standard on respirator-related fatalities; 174 respirator-related deaths were reported. The majority of fatalities were associated with using an airline respirator (n = 34) or the absence of using a respirator in required spaces (n = 38). Overall, 79% of fatalities were associated with asphyxia. Fatalities were associated with improper employee use or lack of employer compliance. Reductions in fatality rates over time appeared to be associated with the revisions to the respirator standard, although other variables may influence rates (eg, controls). Recommendations for employers and employees regarding maintaining safe use of respirators are provided.

4. Unintentional fatal injuries arising from unpaid work at home

PubMed Central

Driscoll, T; Mitchell, R; Hendrie, A; Healey, S; Mandryk, J; Hull, B

2003-01-01

Objective: Unpaid work in and around the home is a common and potentially high risk activity, yet there is limited information about the circumstances surrounding resulting injuries. This study aimed to describe circumstances surrounding fatal injuries resulting from home duties activities, in order to identify and prioritise areas for prevention. Design and setting: Coroners' reports on all unintentional deaths in Australia from 1989–92 inclusive were inspected to identify deaths of interest. Rates were calculated using population data and incorporating measures of time engaged in particular home duties activities. Results: There were 296 home duties deaths over the four year period. Most (83%) deaths were of males, and males had 10 times the risk of fatal injury compared with females. The most common activities resulting in fatal injuries were home repairs, gardening, and car care. The highest risk activities (deaths per million persons per year per hour of activity) were home repairs (49), car care (20), home improvements (18), and gardening (16). Being hit by inadequately braced vehicles during car maintenance, falls from inadequately braced ladders, contact with fire and flames while cooking, and contact with electricity during maintenance were the most common injury scenarios. Conclusions: Fatal injury of persons engaged in unpaid domestic work activities is a significant cause of death. Use of activity specific denominator data allows appropriate assessment of the degree of risk associated with each activity. The recurrence of similar circumstances surrounding many independent fatal incidents indicates areas where preventative interventions might be usefully targeted. PMID:12642552

5. Motor vehicle fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers.

PubMed

Retzer, Kyla D; Hill, Ryan D; Pratt, Stephanie G

2013-03-01

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of work-related fatality in the U.S. as well as in the oil and gas extraction industry. This study describes the characteristics of motor vehicle-related fatalities in the oil and gas extraction industry using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. It compares the risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash in this industry to other major industries and among different types and sizes of oil and gas extraction companies. There were 202 oil and gas extraction workers who died in a work-related motor vehicle crash from 2003 to 2009. The motor vehicle fatality rate for workers in this industry was 8.5 times that of all private wage and salary workers (7.6 vs. 0.9, p<.0001). Workers from small oil and gas establishments (<20 workers) and workers from well-servicing companies were at greatest risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash. Pick-up trucks were the most frequent type of vehicle occupied by the fatally injured worker (n=104, 51.5%). Safety belt non-use was identified in 38.1% (n=77) of the cases. Increased focus on motor vehicle safety in this industry is needed, in particular among small establishments. Extraction workers who drive light duty vehicles need to be a specific focus.

6. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

PubMed Central

Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

2012-01-01

Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

7. Fatal occupational injuries of women, Texas 1975-84.

PubMed

Davis, H; Honchar, P A; Suarez, L

1987-12-01

A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 348 cases of fatal occupational injuries of civilian females. Homicides accounted for 53 per cent and motor vehicle-related injuries accounted for 26 per cent of the deaths. Injuries from firearms caused 70 per cent of the homicides. One hundred thirty-three deaths occurred to women employed in the retail trade industry; of these, 77 per cent resulted from homicide. Women workers in gasoline service stations, food-bakery-and-dairy stores, and eating-and-drinking places had especially high risks of homicide. Texas female heavy-truck drivers had the highest fatal-injury rate, with motor-vehicle-related injuries causing 89 per cent of their deaths. These results indicate that effective strategies to prevent fatal occupational injuries of Texas women will need to address the problems of workplace violence and the hazards posed by motor vehicles.

8. The economic value of fatal and non-fatal occupational risks in Mexico City using actuarial- and perceived-risk estimates.

PubMed

Hammitt, James K; Ibarrarán, María Eugenia

2006-12-01

Compensating wage differentials are used to estimate marginal rates of substitution between income and both fatal and non-fatal occupational-injury risks in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Data are obtained by in-person survey of almost 600 workers and include workers' perceived risks of fatal and non-fatal occupational injury supplemented by actuarial-risk estimates from government statistics. Results using both actuarial- and perceived-risk estimates are reasonably consistent. Estimates of the value per statistical life are between 235,000 US dollars and 325,000 US dollars and estimates of the value per statistical non-fatal injury are between 3500 US dollars and 11,000 US dollars (2002 US dollars). These values are much smaller than corresponding estimates for higher-income countries but are compatible with the small number of prior estimates for lower-income countries.

9. Traffic accident or dumping? - Striking results of a traffic accident reconstruction.

PubMed

Nerger, Eric; Bayer, Ronny; Gärtner, Tobias; Dreßler, Jan; Ondruschka, Benjamin

2017-01-01

An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge. The pedestrian was hit in an upright body position, was lifted up by the car, smashed the windscreen and flew over the car with several body rotations. His flight curve ends directly at the roof of the car during brake processing, where the body touched the roof, smashed the rear-window and landed in the trunk. Based on the technical investigation, the driver of the car was not able to hide the accident. However, the pedestrian could have avoided the collision if he did not cross the motorway on foot.

10. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

PubMed

Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

1990-03-01

The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

11. [Fatal exposure to Aconitum napellus].

PubMed

German Jørgensen, Jørgen Rahr; Andersen, Anne Elsborg

2013-06-10

Fatal exposure to poisonous plants in northern Europe is a rare condition. In this case report we describe an intended poisoning with Aconitum napellus (monkshood), which contains the toxin aconitine. The lethal dose in adults is 3-6 mg. The toxin affects excitable cells such as neurons and myocytes causing degrees of unconsciousness, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is no antidote and treatment is symptomatic. We describe a patient who had eaten monkshood. She was treated with infusion of lidocaine and survived. After 24 hours of treatment and monitoring she was discharged from the intensive care unit.

12. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

PubMed

Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

2012-01-01

Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

13. [Recreational boating accidents--Part 1: Catamnestic study].

PubMed

Lignitz, Eberhard; Lustig, Martina; Scheibe, Ernst

2014-01-01

Deaths on the water are common in the autopsy material of medicolegal institutes situated on the coast or big rivers and lakes (illustrated by the example of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Greifswald University). They mostly occur during recreational boating activities. Apart from hydro-meteorological influences, human error is the main cause of accidents. Often it is not sufficiently kept in mind whether the boat crew is fit for sailing and proper seamanship is ensured. Drowning (following initial hypothermia) is the most frequent cause of death. Medicolegal aspects are not decisive for ordering a forensic autopsy. As statistics are not compiled in a uniform way, a comparison of the data of different institutions engaged in investigating deaths at sea and during water sports activities is hardly possible, neither on a national nor an international basis--and the reconstruction of aquatic accidents is generally difficult. Fatal accidents can only be prevented by completely clarifying their causes.

14. Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.

PubMed

Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

2009-01-01

Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes.

15. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

PubMed

Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

2001-01-01

Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

16. Accident resistant transport container

DOEpatents

Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

1980-01-01

The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

17. Accident resistant transport container

DOEpatents

Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

18. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

SciTech Connect

Hales, Jason Dean; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence

2016-05-01

The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

19. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

PubMed

Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

2013-01-01

Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

20. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

PubMed

Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

2015-01-01

This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

1. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

PubMed Central

He, Monica M.

2016-01-01

The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003–2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. PMID:26967529

2. Heat fatalities in Pima County, Arizona.

PubMed

Keim, Samuel M; Mays, Mary Z; Parks, Bruce; Pytlak, Erik; Harris, Robin M; Kent, Michael A

2007-03-01

The most common cause of heat fatalities is environmental exposure during heat waves. Deserts of the southwestern USA are known for temperatures that exceed 32 degrees C for 30 days or more; yet, heat-related fatalities are rare among residents of the region. We compiled data from the National Weather Service and the Office of the Medical Examiner in order to determine the relationship between temperature and occurrence of heat fatalities in Pima County, AZ. Logistic regression indicated that for each degree of increase in temperature (degrees C), there was a 35% increase in the odds of a heat fatality occurring (p<0.001).

3. Fatality estimator user’s guide

USGS Publications Warehouse

Huso, Manuela M.; Som, Nicholas; Ladd, Lew

2012-12-11

Only carcasses judged to have been killed after the previous search should be included in the fatality data set submitted to this estimator software. This estimator already corrects for carcasses missed in previous searches, so carcasses judged to have been missed at least once should be considered “incidental” and not included in the fatality data set used to estimate fatality. Note: When observed carcass count is <5 (including 0 for species known to be at risk, but not observed), USGS Data Series 881 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0881/) is recommended for fatality estimation.

4. Transport accident mortality in Chile: trends from 2000 to 2012.

PubMed

Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara

2016-12-01

The aim of this study is to describe the trends of transport accident mortality in Chile from 2000 to 2012 by year, geographic distribution, gender, age group, and type of accident. Population-based study. Data for transport accident mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used. The crude and adjusted per region transport accident mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates and relative risks (RR) were calculated. The average transport accident mortality rate (TAMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 12.2. The rates were greater in men (19.7) than in women (4.8), with a RR of 4.1. The rates were higher in the country's southern zone (15.9), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC in the northern and central zones. The Maule region had the highest rate (21.1), although Coquimbo was the region with the most significant APC (2.2%). The highest rate (20.3) was verified in the 25-40 age group. The highest rate (14.3) was recorded in 2008. The most frequent type of accident was pedestrian. In general the APC trends of the rates are increasing significantly. This, added to rapid annual automotive growth, will only exacerbate mortality due to transport accidents.

5. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

1982-01-01

The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

6. An alternative accident prediction model for highway-rail interfaces.

PubMed

Austin, Ross D; Carson, Jodi L

2002-01-01

Safety levels at highway/rail interfaces continue to be of major concern despite an ever-increasing focus on improved design and appurtenance application practices. Despite the encouraging trend towards improved safety, accident frequencies remain high, many of which result in fatalities. More than half of these accidents occur at public crossings, where active warning devices (i.e. gates, lights, bells, etc.) are in place and functioning properly. This phenomenon speaks directly to the need to re-examine both safety evaluation (i.e. accident prediction) methods and design practices at highway-rail crossings. With respect to earlier developed accident prediction methods, the Peabody Dimmick Formula, the New Hampshire Index and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Hazard Index, all lack descriptive capabilities due to their limited number of explanatory variables. Further, each has unique limitations that are detailed in this paper. The US Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Accident Prediction Formula, which is most widely, also has limitations related to the complexity of the three-stage formula and its decline in accident prediction model accuracy over time. This investigation resulted in the development of an alternate highway-rail crossing accident prediction model, using negative binomial regression that shows great promise. The benefit to be gained through the application of this alternate model is (1) a greatly simplified, one-step estimation process; (2) comparable supporting data requirements and (3) interpretation of both the magnitude and direction of the effect of the factors found to significantly influence highway-rail crossing accident frequencies.

7. Tuberculosis treatment adherence and fatality in Spain

PubMed Central

2009-01-01

Background The adherence to long tuberculosis (TB) treatment is a key factor in TB control programs. Always some patients abandon the treatment or die. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with defaulting from or dying during antituberculosis treatment. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of TB cases diagnosed during 2006-2007 by 61 members of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). Predictive factors of completion outcome (cured plus completed treatment vs. defaulters plus lost to follow-up) and fatality (died vs. the rest of patients) were based on logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of the 1490 patients included, 29.7% were foreign-born. The treatment outcomes were: cured 792 (53.2%), completed treatment 540 (36.2%), failure 2 (0.1%), transfer-out 33 (2.2%), default 27 (1.8%), death 27 (1.8%), lost to follow-up 65 (4.4%), other 4 (0.3%). Completion outcome reached 93.5% and poor adherence was associated with: being an immigrant (OR = 2.03; CI:1.06-3.88), living alone (OR = 2.35; CI:1.05-5.26), residents of confined institutions (OR = 4.79; CI:1.74-13.14), previous treatment (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98), being an injecting drug user (IDU) (OR = 9.51; CI:2.70-33.47) and treatment comprehension difficulties (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98). Case fatality was 1.8% and it was associated with the following variables: age 50 or over (OR = 10.88; CI:1.12-105.01), retired (OR = 12.26;CI:1.74-86.04), HIV-infected (OR = 9.93; CI:1.48-66.34), comprehension difficulties (OR = 4.07; CI:1.24-13.29), IDU (OR = 23.59; CI:2.46-225.99) and Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) (OR = 3.54; CI:1.07-11.77). Conclusion Immigrants, those living alone, residents of confined institutions, patients treated previously, those with treatment comprehension difficulties, and IDU patients have poor adherence and should be targeted for DOT. To reduce fatality rates, stricter monitoring is required

8. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

PubMed

Zhou, D S

1991-01-01

This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence.

9. Mass fatality aircraft disaster processing.

PubMed

Clark, M A; Clark, S R; Perkins, D G

1989-07-01

On Dec. 12, 1985, a contract transport carrying 248 U.S. Army personnel crashed on takeoff at Gander, Nfld., Canada, killing all the passengers as well as the crew of eight. This was the worst aircraft accident in U.S. military history and, at the time was the fifth worst accident in aviation history. Cooperation between the governments of Canada and the United States allowed for the transport of all human remains to the U.S. Air Force mortuary facility at Dover AFB, DE, where they were processed, identified, and ultimately returned to their families for burial. Under ideal circumstances, any medical examiner's office or mortuary facility would be overwhelmed by a mass disaster of this magnitude. Before the arrival of the first shipment of bodies, a concerted planning effort was undertaken and the facility arranged so that remains would pass in a logical sequence through a series of 10 "work stations." This report details the process and outlines the logistics of the operations.

10. Major mishaps among mobile offshore drilling units, 1955-1981: time trends and fatalities.

PubMed

Clemmer, D I; Diem, J E

1985-03-01

Major mishaps among mobile offshore drilling units worldwide from 1955-1981 were identified from industry and government sources. Based on annual numbers of rigs in service and typical staffing patterns, annual mishap rates and fatality rates for rig types and mishap categories were computed. While the frequency of major mishaps has increased in recent years, the mishap rate per 100 rig-years of service has remained stable. The overall stability obscures the fact that jack-up rigs have had an increasing mishap rate while the rate for other rig types combined has gradually declined. Although the fatal mishap rate has also remained constant, the annual fatality rate per 100 000 full time equivalent (FTE) workers has risen sharply. This can be attributed to increasing numbers of lives lost in environmental mishaps while deaths from operational mishaps have declined. There were 344 fatalities during the 27-year period. Although an average of some 13 deaths per year worldwide appears minimal, the relatively small size of the workforce gives this number significance particularly when it is noted that 'occupational' fatalities, those occurring in the course of routine operations, are not included. The overall fatality rate secondary to major mishaps was 84.3 per 100 000 FTE worker-years.

11. The Effectiveness of Drinking and Driving Policies for Different Alcohol-Related Fatalities: A Quantile Regression Analysis

PubMed Central

Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chih; Chang, Koyin

2013-01-01

To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles), people’s habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because “preemptive regulations” are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles), “ex-post regulations” are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates. PMID:24084673

12. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

13. Occupant injury and fatality in general aviation aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is certification-mandated.

PubMed

Boyd, Douglas D

2015-06-01

Towards further improving general aviation aircraft crashworthiness, multi-axis dynamic tests have been required for aircraft certification (14CFR23.562) since 1985. The objective of this study was to determine if occupants in aircraft certified to these higher crashworthiness standards show a mitigated fraction of fatal accidents and/or injury severity. The NTSB aviation database was queried for accidents occurring between 2002 and 2012 involving aircraft certified to, or immune from, dynamic crash testing and manufactured after 1999. Only operations conducted under 14CFR Part 91 were considered. Statistical analysis employed proportion tests and logistic regression. Off-airport landings are associated with high decelerative forces; however for off-airport landings, the fraction of fatal accidents for aircraft subject to, or exempt from, dynamic crash testing was similar (0.53 and 0.60, respectively). Unexpectedly, for on-airport landings a higher fraction of fatalities was evident for aircraft whose certification mandated dynamic crash testing. Improved crashworthiness standards would be expected to translate into a reduced severity of accident injuries. For all accidents, as well as for those deemed survivable, the fraction of minor and serious injuries was reduced for occupants in aircraft certified to the higher crashworthiness standards. Surprisingly, the fraction of occupants fatally injured was not decreased for aircraft subject to dynamic crash tests. To shed light on this unexpected finding flight history, airman demographics and post-impact fires for aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is mandatory or exempt was examined. For the former cohort the median distance of the accident flight was nearly 44% higher. Aircraft subject to dynamic crash testing were also involved in a greater fraction (0.25 versus 0.12, respectively) of post-impact fires. Our data suggest that while the more stringent crashworthiness standards have mitigated minor and serious

14. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

PubMed

Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

2015-12-01

In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types.

15. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

2004-01-01

Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

16. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

PubMed Central

Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

2014-01-01

We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

17. Fatal haemorrhage following male ritual circumcision.

PubMed

Hiss, J; Horowitz, A; Kahana, T

2000-03-01

Lethal complications following ritual circumcision are extremely rare, the most common being sepsis. We present here a case of fatal haemorrhage from a tiny incision of the glans, following a 'home' circumcision of a 6-week-old baby. The post-mortem examination disclosed idiopathic neonatal hepatitis. It is suggested that the previously undiagnosed hepatic condition was responsible for the fatal haemorrhage.

18. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

PubMed

Hansen, J U

1993-09-27

During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

19. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

PubMed

Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

1993-01-01

During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

20. Lockout/tagout accident investigation.

PubMed

White, James R

2014-08-01

When I was in boot camp, our drill instructor told us that assume makes an ass out of u and me. It was true then, and it is true today. In this instance, assumptions came into play several times, both by the worker and by the companies involved. The good news is that it did not result in a fatality, but that does not relieve the pain and suffering that the employee had to endure. This same type of scenario is likely repeated at many job sites throughout the United States. Multiple contractors, dozens--maybe hundreds--of workers, power system equipment and devices; all of these have to be taken into consideration when performing maintenance activities. It can become a blur. People are people, and people make mistakes. That is why we have OSHA regulations, NFPA 70E, company procedures, policies, etc. Most if not all of us have either been involved in accidents or know people who have been. It's not like it's a secret that people make mistakes, but talk to some and they seem to think only others have that failing. Safety is not about just any one procedure or rule. It's about slowing down, making a plan, and executing that plan. There are plenty of tools available to help us: policies, procedures, codes, standards, federal regulations, and state and local laws. I am not about to say that the worker involved in this incident was not taking safety seriously, but he failed to follow some fundamental safety rules like test-before-touch. If he had taken just that one step, there would be nothing to write about.

1. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

PubMed

Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

2014-03-01

The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

2. Injuries are not accidents

PubMed Central

Gutiérrez, María Isabel

2014-01-01

Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

3. [Travel and accidents].

PubMed

Cha, Olivier

2015-04-01

Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

4. Accidents and repatriation.

PubMed

Leggat, Peter A; Fischer, Philip R

2006-01-01

Accidents and injury contribute greatly to the morbidity and mortality of travellers worldwide, with road traffic accidents being a major contributer. Those travelers with serious illness and injury may need specialised medical evacuation services, which may involve an air ambulance and a specialised medical team. Such aeromedical repatriations require considerable organisation and liaison between the sending and receiving medical services and other interested parties. However, the majority of travellers requiring emergency assistance are stable patients requiring referral for medical or dental attention or special requirements for carriage on scheduled aircraft.

5. Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident

SciTech Connect

Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.; Lucas, H.F.

1987-01-01

Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were /sup 131/I, /sup 134,137/Cs, and /sup 103/Ru//sup 103/Rh. The median /sup 131/I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of /sup 134/Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable /sup 137/Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10/sup -6/ for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ to 4.2 x 10/sup -5/ with 95% of the risk attributable to /sup 137/Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

6. Train accidents involving pedestrians, motor vehicles, and motorcycles.

PubMed

Goldberg, B A; Mootha, R K; Lindsey, R W

1998-04-01

In the United States, train-related accidents account for more than 18,000 injuries and 1,200 fatalities annually, yet there is a paucity of literature pertaining to this unique injury. We reviewed the medical records of 98 of 135 cases of train-related trauma treated at Ben Taub General Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, from 1990 to 1995. There were 50 train-pedestrian accidents, 47 train-automobile accidents, and 1 train-motorcycle accident, with a mean patient age of 30.1 years (range, 2 to 66 years). Eighteen patients (18%) were pronounced dead on arrival or died shortly after admission. Of the other 80 patients, 27 (34%) were discharged from the emergency department after minor medical treatment, while 53 (66%) were hospitalized, of whom 10 (13%) later expired. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 11.9 (discharged, 1.8; hospitalized, 14.3; expired, 29.2). Forty-five patients (56%) sustained 57 extremity fractures, and 30 patients (38%) required 40 amputations. Mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) for all injured extremities was 5.2 (amputation, 7.7; no amputation, 2.8). On average, the hospitalization cost per patient was greater than \$18,698, while the reimbursement from the patients was \$2,261, leaving the hospital with a net deficit of approximately 2 million dollars. Surprisingly, train accidents do not always result in serious injury. However, when serious injury is sustained, it is often of high morbidity (amputation) and mortality, which appears to correlate well with the initial MESS and ISS. Extrapolating our cost data to include all train-related accident injuries and deaths indicates that the direct costs to society may exceed 300 million dollars annually. Greater public awareness and preventive measures may reduce the tremendous human and financial costs of train-related accidents.

7. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

8. Diving Accidents. Analyses of Underlying Variables.

DTIC Science & Technology

1984-05-01

Nitrogen narcosis 3 0.3 bad gas 3 0.3 Total 1,036 100.1 1,033 100.2 Another factor of potential relevance in mishap occurrence was the time of day...exposure air, and nitrogen -oxygen equivalent air were all at relatively high risk of terminating in a mishap. Accident rates for the other variables

9. Estimating The Rate of Technology Adoption for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kauffmann, Paul; Stough, H. P.

2000-01-01

In February 1997, President Clinton announced a national goal to reduce the weather related fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% in ten years. To support that goal, NASA established an Aviation Weather Information Distribution and Presentation Project to develop technologies that will provide timely and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. This information should enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards and support an improvement in the fatal accident rate related to weather. A critical issue in the success of NASA's weather information program is the rate at which the market place will adopt this new weather information technology. This paper examines that question by developing estimated adoption curves for weather information systems in five critical aviation segments: commercial, commuter, business, general aviation, and rotorcraft. The paper begins with development of general product descriptions. Using this data, key adopters are surveyed and estimates of adoption rates are obtained. These estimates are regressed to develop adoption curves and equations for weather related information systems. The paper demonstrates the use of adoption rate curves in product development and research planning to improve managerial decision processes and resource allocation.

10. Fatal intoxication with tianeptine (Stablon).

PubMed

Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

2007-08-06

Tianeptine (Stablon), although structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants, acts by enhancing the reuptake of serotonin. A fatal case is presented involving a 26-year-old man, found lying in bed with a "mushroom of foam" around his mouth. Empty blister packs of Stablon and a suicide note were found next to the body. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure with n-hexane: ethyl acetate and n-hexane: 2-propanol, followed by LC-DAD-MS analysis, using positive mode electrospray ionization was performed. The detection limit was 0.001 microg/mL. The toxicological results revealed the following tianeptine concentrations in the post-mortem samples: blood 5.1 microg/mL; urine 2.0 microg/mL; liver 23 microg/g; stomach contents 22 mg. Femoral blood analyses also revealed an ethanol concentration of 0.53 g/L. The present method was also developed and validated for the other post-mortem specimens, since no previous published data had confirmed the post-mortem distribution of tianeptine. The absence of other suitable direct causes of death (macroscopic or histological) and the positive results achieved with the toxicological analysis led the pathologist to rule that death was due to an intoxication caused by the suicidal ingestion of tianeptine in combination with alcohol.

11. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

PubMed

Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

2016-02-01

12. Indonesian railway accidents--utilizing Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in determining potential contributing factors.

PubMed

2012-01-01

The prevalence of Indonesian railway accidents has not been declining, with hundreds of fatalities reported in the past decade. As an effort to help the National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC), this study was conducted that aimed at understanding factors that might have contributed to the accidents. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was utilized for this purpose. A total of nine accident reports (provided by the Indonesian NTSC) involving fatalities were studied using the technique. Results of this study indicated 72 factors that were closely related to the accidents. Of these, roughly 22% were considered as operator acts while about 39% were related to preconditions for operator acts. Supervisory represented 14% of the factors, and the remaining (about 25%) were associated with organizational factors. It was concluded that, while train drivers indeed played an important role in the accidents, interventions solely directed toward train drivers may not be adequate. A more comprehensive approach in minimizing the accidents should be conducted that addresses all the four aspects of HFACS.

13. Young driver accidents in the UK: the influence of age, experience, and time of day.

PubMed

Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

2006-09-01

Young drivers, especially males, have relatively more accidents than other drivers. Young driver accidents also have somewhat different characteristics to those of other drivers; they include single vehicle accidents involving loss of control; excess speed for conditions; accidents during darkness; accidents on single carriageway rural roads; and accidents while making cross-flow turns (i.e. turning right in the UK, equivalent to a left turn in the US and continental Europe). A sample of over 3000 accident cases was considered from midland British police forces, involving drivers aged 17-25 years, and covering a two year period. Four types of accident were analysed: right-turns; rear-end shunts; loss of control on curves; and accidents in darkness. Loss of control on curves and accidents in darkness were found to be a particular problem for younger drivers. It was found that cross-flow turn accidents showed the quickest improvement with increasing driver experience, whereas accidents occurring in darkness with no street lighting showed the slowest rate of improvement. 'Time of day' analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility, but a consequence of the way young drivers use the roads at night. There appears to be a large number of accidents associated with voluntary risk-taking behaviours of young drivers in 'recreational' driving.

14. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

15. The effect of infrastructure and demographic change on traffic-related fatalities and crashes: a case study of Illinois county-level data.

PubMed

Noland, Robert B; Oh, Lyoong

2004-07-01

This paper presents analyses of data from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the State of Illinois. Our analyses focuses on whether various changes in road network infrastructure and geometric design can be associated with changes in road fatalities and reported accidents. We also evaluate models that control for demographic changes. County-level time-series data is used and fixed effect negative binomial models are estimated. Results cannot confirm the hypothesis that changes in road infrastructure and geometric design have been beneficial for safety. Increases in the number of lanes appears to be associated with both increased traffic-related accidents and fatalities. Increased lane widths appears to be associated with increased fatalities. Increases in outside shoulder width appear to be associated with a decrease in accidents. Inclusion of demographic results does not significantly change these results but does capture much of the residual time trend in the models. Potentially mis-leading results are found when the time trend is not included. In this case a negative association between vertical curvature and both accidents and fatalities. No statistical association with changes in safety is found for median widths, inside shoulder widths, and horizontal and vertical curvature.

16. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident.

PubMed

Burns, Peter C; Ewing, Rodney C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

2012-03-09

Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models.

17. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

SciTech Connect

Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

1984-03-01

The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 \$/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

18. Effects on accidents of periodic motor vehicle inspection in Norway.

PubMed

Christensen, Peter; Elvik, Rune

2007-01-01

An extensive programme of periodic motor vehicle inspection was introduced in Norway after 1995, when the treaty between Norway and the European Union (EU) granting Norway (not a member of the EU) access to the EU inner market took effect (The EEA treaty). This paper evaluates the effects on accidents of periodic inspections of cars. Trucks and buses were not included in the study. Negative binomial regression models were fitted to data on accidents and inspections created by merging data files provided by a major insurance company and by the Public Roads Administration. Technical defects prior to inspection were associated with an increased accident rate. Inspections were found to strongly reduce the number of technical defects in cars. Despite this, no effect of inspections on accident rate were found. This finding is inconsistent with the fact that technical defects appear to increase the accident rate; one would expect the repair of such defects to reduce the accident rate. Potential explanations of the findings in terms of behavioural adaptation among car owners are discussed. It is suggested that car owners adapt driving behaviour to the technical condition of the car and that the effect attributed to technical defects before inspection may in part be the result of a tendency for owners who are less concerned about safety to neglect the technical condition of their cars. These car owners might have had a higher accident rate than other car owners irrespective of the technical condition of the car.

19. Rise in landing-related skydiving fatalities.

PubMed

Hart, Christian L; Griffith, James D

2003-10-01

The purpose was to assess whether adoption of potentially dangerous skydiving gear and skydiving practices has led to an increase in fatalities. Beginning in the early 1990s, civilian skydivers began to utilize high performance parachutes that fly much faster and are much more responsive than older style parachutes. Also, skydivers began to fly these parachutes in a more aggressive manner. An analysis of data from the 507 skydiving fatalities in the USA between 1986 and 2001 indicated that this shift toward high performance parachutes and aggressive flying techniques was temporally associated with an increase in parachute-landing deaths. During the same time period, the total number of fatalities remained fairly stable.

20. Ten-year fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction incidence in elderly populations in Spain: the EPICARDIAN cohort study

PubMed Central

Gabriel, Rafael; Alonso, Margarita; Reviriego, Blanca; Muñiz, Javier; Vega, Saturio; López, Isidro; Novella, Blanca; Suárez, Carmen; Rodríguez-Salvanés, Francisco

2009-01-01

Background In Spain, more than 85% of coronary heart disease deaths occur in adults older than 65 years. However, coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in the Spanish elderly have been poorly described. The aim of this study is to estimate the ten-year incidence and mortality rates of myocardial infarction in a population-based large cohort of Spanish elders. Methods A population-based cohort of 3729 people older than 64 years old, free of previous myocardial infarction, was established in 1995 in three geographical areas of Spain. Any case of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction was investigated until December 2004 using the "cold pursuit method", previously used and validated by the the WHO-MONICA project. Results Men showed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher cumulative incidence of myocardial infarction (7.2%; 95%CI: 5.94-8.54) than women (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.06-4.74). Although cumulative incidence increased with age (p < 0.05), gender-differences tended to narrow. Adjusted incidence rates were higher in men (957 per 100 000 person-years) than in women (546 per 100 000 person-years) (p < 0.001) and increased with age (p < 0.001). The increase was progressive in women but not in men. Adjusted mortality rates were also higher in men than in women (p < 0.001), being three times higher in the age group of ≥ 85 years old than in the age group of 65-74 years old (p < 0.001). Conclusion Incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction is high in the Spanish elderly population. Men show higher rates than women, but gender differences diminish with age. PMID:19778417

1. The extent of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities in social science textbooks.

PubMed

Douglas, Emily M; Serino, Patricia J

2013-10-01

Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed.

2. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress among child welfare workers who experience a maltreatment fatality on their caseload.

PubMed

Douglas, Emily M

2013-01-01

Annually, 1,000-2,000 child welfare workers experience the death of a child client. The child welfare field has paid increasing attention to the impact of workplace trauma events on the psychological distress of child welfare workers. In this article the author assesses the relationship between experiencing a maltreatment fatality and workers' posttraumatic stress among a multi-state sample of 385 child welfare workers. Results indicate that a maltreatment fatality is not associated with higher rates of posttraumatic stress. Among child welfare workers who experienced a fatality, those who feel greater culpability for the death report higher levels of posttraumatic stress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

3. Epidemiologic Pattern of Fatal Traffic Injuries among Iranian Drivers; 2004–2010

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

Background: Due to their specific nature, such as high incidence, high intensity and direct involvement of all members of society, traffic injuries are of particular importance. Through a mega data, this study investigated the epidemiological aspects and depict current situation of road traffic injuries in Iran. Methods: Using legal medicine and traffic police data, deaths from road traffic injuries in men were predicted through determining the most appropriate model for death using time series statistical models; and then most important human factors associated with it in a period of 6 yr in Iran was analyzed using multi-nominal regression model. Results: The frequency of deaths from traffic injuries in the last seven years was 172,834 cases and the number of deaths at the accident scene was 42798 cases, of which 24.24% (41,971 cases) were recorded by the Traffic Police experts. Death rate from traffic injuries has been declined from 38 cases per 100,000 people in 2004 to 31 cases per 100,000 people between 2009 and 2010. Fatigue and sleepiness (AOR=10.36, 95% CI: 8.41–13.3) was the most significant human risk factors for death outcome in the urban and suburban traffic injuries. According to the predictions, the death rate is about 16488 (CI 95%, 8531–24364) for the year 2012. Conclusion: Despite all measures to prevent such injuries, even fatal injuries have still a high incidence. Intervention in the human risk factors field would be more effective due to their important roles in traffic injuries in Iran. PMID:27252920

4. The Epidemiology of Fatal road traffic Collisions in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (2000–2011)

PubMed Central

Gopaul, Chavin D.; Singh-Gopaul, Aruna; Sutherland, Joan M.; Rostant, Luke; Ebi, Kristie L.; Chadee, Dave D.

2016-01-01

5. Fatal lightning strikes in Malaysia.

PubMed

Murty, O P; Kian, Chong Kah; Ari Husin, Mohammed Husrul; Nanta Kumar, Ranjeev Kumar; Mohammed Yusuf, Wan Yuhana W

2009-09-01

Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the important causes of deaths from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be affected as lightning current passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. A 10 years retrospective study (1996-2005) was conducted at University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (20 cases) also including cases during last 3 years from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang (7 cases) from the autopsy reports at Forensic Pathology Units of these 2 hospitals. Both these hospitals are attached to University of Malaya. There were 27 fatal cases of lightning strike with male preponderance(92.59%) and male to female ratio of 12.5:1. Majority of victims of lightning strike were from the age group between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the victims were foreign workers. Indonesians workers contributed to 59.26% of overall cases. Majority of them were construction workers who attributed i.e.11 of 27 cases (40.74%). Most of the victims were brought in dead (37.04%). In majority of the cases the lightning incidence occurred in the evenings, with the frequency of 15 of 27 cases (62.5%). The month of December represented with the highest number of cases (5 cases of 23 cases); 2004 had the highest incidence of lightning strike which was 5 (19.23%). Lightning strike incidence occurred when victims had taken shelter (25.9%) under trees or shades. Lightning strike in open areas occurred in 10 of 27 cases (37.0%). Head and neck were the most commonly affected sites with the incidence of 77.78% and 74% respectively in all the victims. Only 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleeding.

6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

SciTech Connect

Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

1995-01-01

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion.

7. Effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on accidents: a review of empirical evidence.

PubMed

Erke, Alena

2008-01-01

This study summarizes evidence from empirical studies on the effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on accidents in a meta-analysis. Large reductions of single vehicle accidents have been found (-49%; 95% confidence interval: [-55%; -42%]), and smaller but still significant reductions of head-on collisions (-13%; 95% confidence interval: [-17%; -8%]). Multi-vehicle fatal accidents are also significantly reduced (-32%; 95% confidence interval: [-43%; -20%]). The effects can be explained with the potential of ESC to improve driving dynamics and to reduce the probability of loss of control. However, there are significant amounts of heterogeneity in the results, especially for single vehicle accidents, and a sensitivity analysis shows that the results for single vehicle accidents are likely to be affected by publication bias. The results for single vehicle accidents are in excess of what might be expected based on studies that have estimated the total amount of accidents that may be affected by ESC. Consequently, the proportions of accidents that can be avoided by ESC is assumed to be somewhat smaller than suggested by most empirical studies. Properties of the vehicles, time trends, and driver behaviour may have contributed to the large empirical effects.

8. International transferability of accident modification functions for horizontal curves.

PubMed

Elvik, Rune

2013-10-01

Studies of the relationship between characteristics of horizontal curves and accident rate have been reported in several countries. The characteristic most often studied is the radius of a horizontal curve. Functions describing the relationship between the radius of horizontal curves and accident rate have been developed in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States. Other characteristics of horizontal curves that have been studied include deflection angle, curve length, the presence of transition curves, super-elevation in curves and distance to adjacent curves. This paper assesses the international transferability of mathematical functions (accident modification functions) that have been developed to relate the radius of horizontal curves to their accident rate. The main research problem is whether these functions are similar, which enhances international transferability, or dissimilar, which reduces international transferability. Accident modification functions for horizontal curve radius developed in the countries listed above are synthesised. The sensitivity of the functions to other characteristics of curves than radius is examined. Accident modification functions developed in different countries have important similarities. The functions diverge with respect to accident rate in the sharpest curves.

9. State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

MedlinePlus

... York City) - Archived CFOI State Tables New York City CFOI Darlene Kelley Phone: 646-632-6729 Fax: ... Research Unit 3017 North Stiles, Suite 100 Oklahoma City, OK 73105 Fatal occupational injuries (CFOI) data (Please ...

10. Some features of traffic accidents

PubMed Central

Mackay, G. M.

1969-01-01

Some aspects of urban and rural traffic accidents have been studied at the scene of some accidents in Birmingham and the county of Worcestershire. Accidents to pedestrians are essentially an urban problem, occur mainly at low speed, and most of the serious injury comes from the initial contact with the vehicle, rather than from secondary impacts with the road surface. The characteristics of motor-cycle accidents are more varied; in urban areas there are many side impacts, with consequent injury to the lower limbs, while rural collisions are predominantly front on, with a high incidence of head injury. Accidents to car occupants vary according to the environment. PMID:5359948

11. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1931-01-01

The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

12. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

2003-01-01

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

13. Car size or car mass: which has greater influence on fatality risk?

PubMed Central

Evans, L; Frick, M C

1992-01-01

OBJECTIVES. Proposed increases in corporate average fuel economy standards would probably lead to lighter cars. Well-established relationships between occupant risk and car mass predict consequent additional casualties. However, if size, not mass, is the causative factor in these relationships, then decreasing car mass need not increase risk. This study examines whether mass or size is the causative factor. METHODS. Data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System are used to explore relationships between car mass, car size (as represented by wheelbase), and driver fatality risk in two-car crashes. RESULTS. When cars of identical (or similar) wheelbase but different mass crash into each other, driver fatality risk depends strongly on mass; the relationship is quantitatively similar to that found in studies that ignore wheelbase. On the other hand, when cars of similar mass but different wheelbase crash into each other, the data reveal no dependence of driver fatality risk on wheelbase. CONCLUSIONS. Mass is the dominant causative factor in relationships between driver risk and car size in two-car crashes, with size, as such, playing at most a secondary role. Reducing car mass increases occupant risk. PMID:1636830

14. Fatal acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-08-01

Fatal Acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee Yugendar R. Bommineni1, Edward J. Dick Jr.1, J. Scot Estep2, John L. Van de Berg1, and Gene B. Hubbard1...species and several insect vectors demonstrating a wide host distribution and low host specificity. Methods—A 23 year old male chimpanzee died acutely and... chimpanzee . Keywords Ape; nonhuman primate; protozoa; fatal case; Trypanosoma cruzi Introduction CD or American trypanosomiasis is caused by TC, a

15. A Time Series Model for Assessing the Trend and Forecasting the Road Traffic Accident Mortality

PubMed Central

Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh; Ranjbar-Taklimie, Fatemeh; Malekpouri, Reza; Razzaghi, Alireza

2016-01-01

Background Road traffic accident (RTA) is one of the main causes of trauma and known as a growing public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. Assessing the trend of fatalities in the past years and forecasting it enables us to make the appropriate planning for prevention and control. Objectives This study aimed to assess the trend of RTAs and forecast it in the next years by using time series modeling. Materials and Methods In this historical analytical study, the RTA mortalities in Zanjan Province, Iran, were evaluated during 2007 - 2013. The time series analyses including Box-Jenkins models were used to assess the trend of accident fatalities in previous years and forecast it for the next 4 years. Results The mean age of the victims was 37.22 years (SD = 20.01). From a total of 2571 deaths, 77.5% (n = 1992) were males and 22.5% (n = 579) were females. The study models showed a descending trend of fatalities in the study years. The SARIMA (1, 1, 3) (0, 1, 0) 12 model was recognized as a best fit model in forecasting the trend of fatalities. Forecasting model also showed a descending trend of traffic accident mortalities in the next 4 years. Conclusions There was a decreasing trend in the study and the future years. It seems that implementation of some interventions in the recent decade has had a positive effect on the decline of RTA fatalities. Nevertheless, there is still a need to pay more attention in order to prevent the occurrence and the mortalities related to traffic accidents. PMID:27800467

16. 76 FR 73008 - Technical Report on Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint of Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2011-11-28

... Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... is: Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars... pedestrians. The analyses comprised MY 2000-2007 cars and LTVs in CY 2002-2008 crashes. Fatality rates...

17. Australian scuba diving fatalities and decompression sickness: erratum and further analysis.

PubMed

Lippmann, John

2009-03-01

Dear Editor, I am writing to clarify some points made in my recent article on Australian scuba diving fatalities and decompression sickness in Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine.¹ First, I wish to point out a publishing error in Table 4. The rate for DAN America Members was 11-18 deaths per 100,000 Members and not per 100,000 dives as shown in Table 4. A corrected version of these data is shown in Table 1. When assessing the risk of death of divers in Australia, I used the combined results of two different survey modes, one for Australian residents and the other for overseas visitors, to yield a total number of dives for Australia. Although this was the only way I could see of trying to roughly estimate a general rate for Australia, I am aware, and should have stated in the Discussion, that this method can sometimes provide unreliable results due to the different methods of data collection. A more reliable result, albeit not a general rate, can be achieved by calculating the incident rate separately for residents and visitors rather than combining them. This would have given estimates of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 dives for residents (95% CI 0.3, 1.5) and 0.4 per 100,000 dives for visitors (95% CI 0.1, 1.2), rather than the combined 0.57 per 100,000 dives reported. As pointed out to me by some colleagues at DAN America, given that some of the visitors may have dived elsewhere during the period and died in a dive accident outside Australia, it would have been more appropriate, when reporting a per person rate, not to combine visitors with Australian divers and to use deaths per visitor rather than deaths per diver for the international data. The same observation applies to the data previously reported from Stoney Cove, where the authors reported a rate per diver rather than a rate per visitor.² In this case, the estimates would better have been reported as 8.5 per 100,000 resident divers (95% CI 4.2, 17.5) and 1.5 per 100,000 visitors (95% CI 0.5, 4.3). Where I separately

18. Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Background Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour to the UK’s Yellow Card Scheme from 1998 to 2011. Methods We obtained Yellow Card data from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency for the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression and suicidal behaviour from 1964 onwards. Prescribing data were obtained from the NHS Information Centre and the Department of Health. We examined the frequency of reports for drugs and estimated rates of reporting of psychiatric ADRs using prescribing data as proxy denominators from 1998 to 2011, as prescribing data were not available prior to 1998. Results There were 110 different drugs with ≥ 20 reports of depression, 58 with ≥10 reports of non-fatal suicidal behaviour and 33 with ≥5 reports of fatal suicidal behaviour in the time period. The top five drugs with the most frequent reports of depression were the smoking cessation medicines varenicline and bupropion, followed by paroxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), isotretinoin (used in acne treatment) and rimonabant (a weight loss drug). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, varenicline and the antipsychotic medicine clozapine were included in the top five medicines with the most frequent reports of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Medicines with the highest reliably measured reporting rates of psychiatric ADRs per million prescriptions dispensed in the community included rimonabant, isotretinoin, mefloquine (an antimalarial), varenicline and bupropion. Robust denominators for community prescribing were not available for two drugs with five or more suicide reports, efavirenz (an antiretroviral medicine) and clozapine. Conclusions Depression and suicide-related ADRs are reported for many nervous system and non

19. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

20. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

1. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

2. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

3. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

4. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

SciTech Connect

Majumdar, S.

1996-09-01

Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents.

5. Review of global menace of road accidents with special reference to malaysia- a social perspective.

PubMed

Kareem, Abdul

2003-07-01

6. A critical review of macro models for road accidents.

PubMed

Hakim, S; Shefer, D; Hakkert, A S; Hocherman, I

1991-10-01

This paper presents a critical review of state-of-the-art macro models for road accidents. Such a review is meant to identify and establish the significance of policy and socioeconomic variables affecting the level of road accidents. The aim is to identify those variables associated with effective policies and interventions to enable decision makers to improve the level of road safety. The variables that appear to affect the number of fatalities or injuries are: vehicle miles travelled (VMT), vehicle population, income (in its various forms), percentage of young drivers, intervention policies such as speed limits, periodic vehicle inspection, and minimum alcohol-drinking age. Viewed critically, the state-of-the-art models being used to explain and predict road accidents are still deficient. One possible approach to correcting this deficiency draws from consumer utility theory, using analytical models built on a newly constructed theoretical framework. Success in estimating such models may improve predictions of road accidents, thus demonstrating the comparative cost effectiveness of alternative intervention policies.

7. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-03-01

pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

8. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

Anderson, Carolina Lenz

The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

9. Occupational Carbon Monoxide Fatalities in the US From Unintentional Non-Fire Related Exposures, 1992–2008

PubMed Central

Henn, Scott A.; Bell, Jennifer L.; Sussell, Aaron L.; Konda, Srinivas

2015-01-01

Objective To analyze characteristics of, and trends in, work-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities in the US. Methods Records of unintentional, non-fire related fatalities from CO exposure were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Integrated Management Information System for years 1992–2008 and analyzed separately. Results The average number of annual CO fatalities was 22 (standard deviation = 8). Fatality rates were highest among workers aged ≥65, males, Hispanics, winter months, the Midwest, and the Fishing, Hunting, and Trapping industry subsector. Self-employed workers accounted for 28% of all fatalities. Motor vehicles were the most frequent source of fatal CO exposure, followed by heating systems and generators. Conclusions CO has been the most frequent cause of occupational fatality due to acute inhalation, and has shown no significant decreasing trend since 1992. The high number of fatalities from motor vehicles warrants further investigation. PMID:23868822

10. A Statistical Description of the Types and Severities of Accidents Involving Tractor Semi-Trailers, Updated Results for 1992-1996

SciTech Connect

BLOWER,DANIEL F.; CLAUSS,DAVID B.

1999-10-01

This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. A previous study (SAND93-2580) reviewed the availability of accident data, identified the TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) as the best source of accident data for accidents involving heavy trucks, and provided statistics on accident data collected between 1980 and 1990. The current study is an extension of the previous work and describes data collected for heavy truck accidents occurring between 1992 and 1996. The TIFA database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports and interviewing responders and witnesses for selected TEA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, effective fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

11. THE USE OF ACCIDENT DATA FOR EVALUATING THE SAFETY OF URBAN TRANSPORTATION,

DTIC Science & Technology

TRANSPORTATION, SAFETY), (*URBAN AREAS, TRANSPORTATION), MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, MORTALITY RATES , RANGE(DISTANCE), STATISTICAL PROCESSES, REPORTS, PASSENGER VEHICLES, RAILROADS

12. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

PubMed

Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

2007-11-01

In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

13. Fire fighter fatalities 1998–2001: overview with an emphasis on structure related traumatic fatalities

PubMed Central

Hodous, T; Pizatella, T; Braddee, R; Castillo, D

2004-01-01

Objective: To review the causes of all fire fighter line-of-duty-deaths from 1998 through 2001, and present recommendations for preventing fatalities within the specific subgroup of structure related events. Methods: Fire fighter fatality data from the United States Fire Administration were reviewed and classified into three main categories of injury. Investigations conducted through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program provided the basis for the recommendations presented in this paper. Results: During the time period from 1998–2001, there were 410 line-of-duty deaths among fire fighters in the United States, excluding the 343 fire fighters who died at the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001. The 410 fatalities included 191 medical (non-traumatic) deaths (47%), 75 motor vehicle related fatalities (18%), and 144 other traumatic fatalities (35%). The latter group included 68 fatalities that were associated with structures which commonly involved structural collapse, rapid fire progression, and trapped fire fighters. Conclusions: Structural fires pose particular hazards to fire fighters. Additional efforts must be directed to more effectively use what we have learned through the NIOSH investigations and recommendations from published experts in the safety community, consensus standards, and national fire safety organizations to reduce fire fighter fatalities during structural fire fighting. PMID:15314049

14. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

PubMed

2012-03-01

It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

15. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

PubMed

Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

2015-08-01

The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning.

16. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

PubMed

Barillo, D J; Goode, R

1996-03-01

Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

17. Fatal Events in Cancer Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

PubMed Central

Farge, Dominique; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Debourdeau, Philippe; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Rodriguez-Beltrán, Eva Maria; Nieto, Jose Antonio; Peris, Maria Luisa; Zeltser, David; Mazzolai, Lucia; Hij, Adrian; Monreal, Manuel

2015-01-01

Abstract In cancer patients treated for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), analyzing mortality associated with recurrent VTE or major bleeding is needed to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation. This was a cohort study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry database to compare rates of fatal recurrent PE and fatal bleeding in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation for VTE. As of January 2013, 44,794 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 7911 (18%) had active cancer. During the course of anticoagulant therapy (mean, 181 ± 210 days), 178 cancer patients (4.3%) developed recurrent PE (5.5 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 4.8–6.4), 194 (4.7%) had recurrent DVT (6.2 per 100 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–7.1), and 367 (8.9%) bled (11.3 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 10.2–12.5). Of 4125 patients initially presenting with PE, 43 (1.0%) died of recurrent PE and 45 (1.1%) of bleeding; of 3786 patients with DVT, 19 (0.5%) died of PE, and 55 (1.3%) of bleeding. During the first 3 months of anticoagulation, there were 59 (1.4%) fatal PE recurrences and 77 (1.9%) fatal bleeds. Beyond the third month, there were 3 fatal PE recurrences and 23 fatal bleeds. In RIETE cancer patients, the rate of fatal recurrent PE or fatal bleeding was much higher within the first 3 months of anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26266353

18. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

SciTech Connect

Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

2015-06-01

Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

19. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

PubMed

Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

2013-05-01

Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases.

20. Accidents associated with equipment.

PubMed

Heath, M L

1984-01-01

Serious accidents in which the possibility of equipment-related hazards are raised have been reported to the Scientific and Technical Branch of the Department of Health and Social Security. The author has examined anonymous summaries of 23 such reports of events which occurred over a 5-year period. The principle cause of catastrophe in seventeen of the incidents was user error involving disconnexion or misconnexion. Faulty systems of equipment management combined in some cases with inadequate pre-anaesthetic checking of apparatus were responsible for the other instances. Appropriate systems of equipment management and checking together with meticulous basic clinical monitoring are recommended as the best safeguards in anaesthetic practice.

1. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities

PubMed Central

Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

2015-01-01

Objective The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. Methods A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19 403) included children <21 years of age who had a diagnosis code for near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ2 and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100 000 population. Results Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0–4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Conclusions Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. PMID:26671950

2. Total costs of injury from accidents in the home and during education, sports and leisure activities: estimates for Norway with assessment of uncertainty.

PubMed

Veisten, Knut; Nossum, Ase; Akhtar, Juned

2009-07-01

Injury accidents occurring in the home, during educational, sports or leisure activities were estimated from samples of hospital data, combined with fatality data from vital statistics. Uncertainty of estimated figures was assessed in simulation-based analysis. Total economic costs to society from injuries and fatalities due to such accidents were estimated at approximately NOK 150 billion per year. The estimated costs reveal the scale of the public health problem and lead to arguments for the establishment of a proper injury register for the identification of preventive measures to reduce the costs to society.

3. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

1986-01-01

Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

4. Forensic Nursing Provides Closure in Workplace Fatality.

PubMed

Harris, Colin

The Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia in Canada is the provincial agency mandated to investigate workplace injuries and fatalities. In 2012, the Fatal and Serious Injuries Investigation section of this organization initiated the integration of forensic nursing expertise into the investigation of workplace incidents. The goals were to improve investigative outcomes and aid in prevention initiatives by achieving a more accurate understanding of incident causation through the application of forensic nursing science. An unexpected outcome of the use of forensic nursing expertise was providing closure for families through a deeper understanding of their loved one's tragic workplace incident.

5. Epidemiology of Occupational Accidents in Iran Based on Social Security Organization Database

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Background: Background: Today, occupational accidents are one of the most important problems in industrial world. Due to lack of appropriate system for registration and reporting, there is no accurate statistics of occupational accidents all over the world especially in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is epidemiological assessment of occupational accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Information of available occupational accidents in Social Security Organization was extracted from accident reporting and registration forms. In this cross-sectional study, gender, age, economic activity, type of accident and injured body part in 22158 registered accidents during 2008 were described. Results: The occupational accidents rate was 253 in 100,000 workers in 2008. 98.2% of injured workers were men. The mean age of injured workers was 32.07 ± 9.12 years. The highest percentage belonged to age group of 25-34 years old. In our study, most of the accidents occurred in basic metals industry, electrical and non-electrical machines and construction industry. Falling down from height and crush injury were the most prevalent accidents. Upper and lower extremities were the most common injured body parts. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of accidents in metal and construction industries, engineering controls, the use of appropriate protective equipment and safety worker training seems necessary. PMID:24719699

6. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

PubMed

Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

2014-04-01

The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia.

7. Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden.

PubMed

Ahlm, Kristin; Björnstig, Ulf; Oström, Mats

2009-01-01

Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

SciTech Connect

Roberts, L.

1987-11-20

On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for \$25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

9. Toxicological Findings in 889 Fatally Injured Obese Pilots Involved in Aviation Accidents

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-05-01

thomas a, eds . obesity and cardiovascular dis- ease . new York: taylor & Francis; 2006:381–402 . 23 . li Z, Maglione M , tu W, Mojica W, arterburn d...DC 20591 OK-10-0077-JAH Sabra R. Botch Marc S. Davidson Eduard M . Ricaurte Arvind K. Chaturvedi Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Federal Aviation...with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg∙ m −2 are considered obese (9, 26), and BMI is a generally accepted practical approach for assessing fat (21

10. The Identification and Quantitation of Triamterene in Blood and Urine from a Fatal Aircraft Accident

DTIC Science & Technology

1992-07-01

high performance liquid chromatography were used to identify and quantitate triamterene in blood and urine. Triamterene is a strong absorber in the ultraviolet region and has an unusual UV spectrum, which simplifies the identification and quantitation of this substance by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

11. Increased Cannabinoids Concentrations Found in Specimens From Fatal Aviation Accidents Between 1997 and 2006

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-06-01

routine analysis of pilot specimens, the laboratory tests all cases for the presence of marijuana ( cannabis ). The National Institute on Drug Abuse... cannabis seizures from1997-2001 to 2002-2006. This study was conducted to compare the changes, over those years, in blood and urine cannabinoid...concentrations with the potency of THC reported in the cannabis plant. In our laboratory, cannabinoids are screened using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for

12. K-S Test for Goodness of Fit and Waiting Times for Fatal Plane Accidents

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gwanyama, Philip Wagala

2005-01-01

The Kolmogorov?Smirnov (K-S) test for goodness of fit was developed by Kolmogorov in 1933 [1] and Smirnov in 1939 [2]. Its procedures are suitable for testing the goodness of fit of a data set for most probability distributions regardless of sample size [3-5]. These procedures, modified for the exponential distribution by Lilliefors [5] and…

13. Unreported Medications Used in Incapacitating Medical Conditions Found in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents

DTIC Science & Technology

1994-08-01

Carbamazepine 62 = Verapamil 21 = Diazepam 13 = Lidocaine 96 = Fluoxetine 72 = Propranolol 113 = Trazodone 30 = Metoprolol 116 = Sertraline 41 = Procainamid...examined by an aviation medi- Lopressor ( Metoprolol ) for the treatment of high cal examiner, the majority of the cardiovascular drugs blood pressure. In

14. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Medical History of Fatally Injured Aviation Accident Pilots

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-07-01

Civil Aviation Safety Authority; 2005 Sep. 13. Silberman WS. Medications in civil aviation: what is acceptable and what is not? Aviat Space Environ Med...2003; 74:85–6. 14. Silberman WS. SSRI policy reminder. Fed Air Surg Med Bull 2005; 43(2):9. 15. Sweetman SC, ed. Martindale: the complete drug

15. Drugs and Alcohol in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities from 2004-2008

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-09-01

1989 Doxylamine 8 0.4 15 0.9 19 1.2 12 0.9 FDA 򒾅 Ephedrine 1 0.1 47 2.8 74 4.7 29 2.1 FDA 򒾅 Guaiphenesin 0 0.0 1 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 FDA...Dextromethorphan/Metabolites 4 0.2 26 1.5 20 1.3 16 1.2 FDA 򒾅 Doxylamine 8 0.4 15 0.9 19 1.2 12 0.9 FDA 򒾅 Ephedrine 1 0.1 47 2.8 74 4.7 29 2.1 FDA

16. Epidemiology of Toxicological Factors in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1999-2003

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-11-01

central nervous system (5−7). For example, fi rst-generation antihistaminics—brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, and doxylamine — cause...11 18 31 Dextromethorphan/Metabolite(s) 1 7 9 20 Doxylamine 0 8 11 19 Ephedrine 9 24 41 74 Meclizine 0 0 1 1 (–)-Methamphetamine 1 4 3 8

17. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

PubMed

2015-05-01

The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US\$0.019 to US\$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community.

18. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum septicemia in a South Indian adult.

PubMed

Karthik, Rajiv; Pancharatnam, Padmaja; Balaji, Veeraraghavan

2012-10-19

Chromobacterium violaceum is a rare human pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections especially in the tropical regions. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy are some of the factors contributing to the high mortality rate. To date there have been only eight cases reported from India of which only one is an adult. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of a 40-year-old man from South India with septicemic C. Violaceum infection and septic arthritis.

19. Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices

PubMed Central

Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

2013-01-01

Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

20. Fatal injuries in offshore oil and gas operations - United States, 2003-2010.

PubMed

2013-04-26

During 2003-2010, the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry (onshore and offshore, combined) had a collective fatality rate seven times higher than for all U.S. workers (27.1 versus 3.8 deaths per 100,000 workers). The 11 lives lost in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion provide a reminder of the hazards involved in offshore drilling. To identify risk factors to offshore oil and gas extraction workers, CDC analyzed data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), a comprehensive database of fatal work injuries, for the period 2003-2010. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that 128 fatalities in activities related to offshore oil and gas operations occurred during this period. Transportation events were the leading cause (65 [51%]); the majority of these involved aircraft (49 [75%]). Nearly one fourth (31 [24%]) of the fatalities occurred among workers whose occupations were classified as "transportation and material moving." To reduce fatalities in offshore oil and gas operations, employers should ensure that the most stringent applicable transportation safety guidelines are followed.

1. Fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers--United States, 2003-2006.

PubMed

2008-04-25

Oil and gas extraction (i.e., removing oil and natural gas from the ground) is a growing industry in the United States, employing approximately 380,000 workers in 2006. In recent years, activity in this industry has increased substantially, from an average of 800 actively drilling rigs in the United States during the 1990s to approximately 1,300 during 2003-2006. In August 2005, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) asked CDC to investigate a 15% increase in fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers (from 85 fatalities in 2003 to 98 in 2004). CDC analyzed data from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the period 2003-2006. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that increases in oil and gas extraction activity were correlated with an increase in the rate of fatal occupational injuries in this industry, with an annual fatality rate of 30.5 per 100,000 workers (404 fatalities) during 2003-2006, approximately seven times the rate for all workers (4.0 per 100,000 workers). Nearly half of all fatal injuries among these workers were attributed to highway motor-vehicle crashes and workers being struck by machinery or equipment. Employers should work with existing industry groups and federal, state, and local government agencies to promote seatbelt use. In addition, researchers and public health officials should collaborate with industry groups to establish engineering and process controls that remove workers from potentially dangerous machinery while drilling and servicing oil and gas wells.

2. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

PubMed

Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

2014-04-01

This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

3. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weitzmann, Ludwig

1932-01-01

The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

4. Weather types and traffic accidents.

PubMed

Klaić, Z B

2001-06-01

Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents.

5. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

SciTech Connect

Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

2005-11-01

Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

6. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

7. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

8. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with fatal outcome.

PubMed

2009-01-01

Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign and self-limited disease which usually appears in the skin of children. Visceral involvement has been rarely reported, as has fatal outcome in some affected individuals. We report a case of systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma in a female newborn with mainly skin, bone marrow, and liver involvement, leading to death at the age of 2 months.

9. Fatal Case of Listeria innocua Bacteremia

PubMed Central

Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

2003-01-01

Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191

10. Fatal case of Listeria innocua bacteremia.

PubMed

Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

2003-11-01

Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.

11. Fatal fat embolism during ritual initiation.

PubMed Central

Todd, N.

1975-01-01

A young Coast Salish Indian woman became fatally ill during ritual Initiation into the Native Winter Spirit Dancing Society. She died from massive fat emboli associated with subcutaneous bruises that appeared clinically unimportant and were not associated with fractures or other underlying injury. The liver showed extreme fatty metamorphosis. PMID:1139497

12. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

PubMed Central

Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

2016-01-01

Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

13. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

14. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

15. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013.

PubMed

Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe

2016-05-01

Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels.

16. Electrical fatalities among U.S. construction workers.

PubMed

Ore, T; Casini, V

1996-06-01

Over 2000 electrocution deaths were identified among U.S. construction workers from 1980 to 1991, with the highest mean annual crude mortality rate (2.5 per 100,000 people), and second highest mean age-adjusted rate (2.7 per 100,000 people) of all industries. Although the crude fatality rates showed a downward trend, construction workers are still about four times more likely to be electrocuted at work than are workers in all industries combined. Nearly 40% of the 5083 fatal electrocutions in all industries combined occurred in construction, and 80% were associated with industrial wiring, appliances, and transmission lines. Electrocutions ranked as the second leading cause of death among construction workers, accounting for an average of 15% of traumatic deaths in the industry from 1980 to 1991. The study indicates that the workers most at risk of electrical injury are male, young, nonwhite, and electricians, structural metal workers, and laborers. The most likely time of injury is 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. from June to August. Focusing prevention on these populations and characteristics through better methods of worker and supervisor electrical safety training, use of adequate protective clothing, and compliance with established procedures could minimize the average annual loss of 168 U.S. construction workers.

17. Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane Drowning Study

PubMed Central

Pearn, John H; Nixon, James

1997-01-01

An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is fives times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool accidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site, and outcome are presented. PMID:9493630

18. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

PubMed

Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

2010-12-15

Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

19. State-Level Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries - United States, 2014.

PubMed

Luo, Feijun; Florence, Curtis

2017-01-13

Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences in the United States. The total estimated lifetime medical and work-loss costs associated with fatal injuries in 2013 were \$214 billion (1). In 2014, unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide (the fourth, tenth, and seventeenth leading causes of death, respectively) accounted for 194,635 deaths in the United States (2). In 2014, a total of 199,756 fatal injuries occurred in the United States, and the associated lifetime medical and work-loss costs were \$227 billion (3). This report examines the state-level economic burdens of fatal injuries by extending a previous national-level study (1). Numbers and rates of fatal injuries, lifetime costs, and lifetime costs per capita were calculated for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for four injury intent categories (all intents, unintentional, suicide, and homicide). During 2014, injury mortality rates and economic burdens varied widely among the states and DC. Among fatal injuries of all intents, the mortality rate and lifetime costs per capita ranged from 101.9 per 100,000 and \$1,233, respectively (New Mexico) to 40.2 per 100,000 and \$491 (New York). States can engage more effectively and efficiently in injury prevention if they are aware of the economic burden of injuries, identify areas for immediate improvement, and devote necessary resources to those areas.

20. Trends of Occupational Fatalities Involving Machines, United States, 1992–2010

PubMed Central

Marsh, Suzanne M.; Fosbroke, David E.

2016-01-01

Background This paper describes trends of occupational machine-related fatalities from 1992–2010. We examine temporal patterns by worker demographics, machine types (e.g., stationary, mobile), and industries. Methods We analyzed fatalities from Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We used injury source to identify machine-related incidents and Poisson regression to assess trends over the 19-year period. Results There was an average annual decrease of 2.8% in overall machine-related fatality rates from 1992 through 2010. Mobile machine-related fatality rates decreased an average of 2.6% annually and stationary machine-related rates decreased an average of 3.5% annually. Groups that continued to be at high risk included older workers; self-employed; and workers in agriculture/forestry/fishing, construction, and mining. Conclusion Addressing dangers posed by tractors, excavators, and other mobile machines needs to continue. High-risk worker groups should receive targeted information on machine safety. PMID:26358658

1. Patterns of Drug Use in Fatal Crashes

PubMed Central

Romano, Eduardo; Pollini, Robin A.

2013-01-01

Aims To characterize drug prevalence among fatally injured drivers, identify significant associations (i.e., day of week, time of day, age, gender), and compare findings with those for alcohol. Design Descriptive and logistic mixed-model regression analyses of Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Setting U.S. states with drug test results for >80% of fatally injured drivers, 1998-2010. Participants Drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes on public roads who died at the scene of the crash (N=16,942). Measurements Drug test results, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and day and time of crash. Findings Overall, 45.1% of fatally injured drivers tested positive for alcohol (39.9% BAC>0.08) and 25.9% for drugs. The most common drugs present were stimulants (7.2%) and cannabinols (7.1%), followed by “other” drugs (4.1%), multiple drugs (4.1%), narcotics (2.1%), and depressants (1.5%). Drug-involved crashes occurred with relative uniformity throughout the day while alcohol-involved crashes were more common at night (p<.01). The odds of testing positive for drugs varied depending upon drug class, driver characteristics, time of day, and the presence of alcohol. Conclusions Fatal single vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol and the characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Concerns about drug-impaired driving should not detract from the current law enforcement focus on alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:23600629

2. Mountaineering fatalities on Mount Rainier, Washington, 1977-1997: autopsy and investigative findings.

PubMed

Christensen, E D; Lacsina, E Q

1999-06-01

Mountain climbing is a popular recreational activity with a growing number of participants and associated fatalities. To define the characteristics of these fatal incidents and the typical autopsy findings in the victims, we reviewed the autopsy and investigative findings of all fatalities that occurred on Mount Rainier from 1977 through 1997. A total of 50 deaths occurred in 29 separate incidents. Fifty-eight percent of accident victims died as the result of a fall; another 34% died as a result of an avalanche. The incidents leading to death occurred at an average altitude of 3652 m (11,977 feet); range, 2073 to 4389 m (6800-14,400 feet). The average age of the victims was 31.2 years (range, 17-55 years), and 47 of the 50 were men (94%). Bodies were not recovered in 13 cases (26%). Autopsies were performed in 30 of the remaining 37 cases. At autopsy, the cause of death was ascribed to multiple injuries in 12 cases (40%), isolated head and neck injuries in 7 cases (23%), and chest injuries in 1 case (3%). Asphyxia and hypothermia were the cause of death in 8 cases (27%) and 2 cases (7%), respectively. The frequency of specific injuries is presented by anatomic region. The unique autopsy and investigative features of mountaineering deaths are discussed.

3. Acute forces required for fatal compression asphyxia: A biomechanical model and historical comparisons.

PubMed

Kroll, Mark W; Still, G Keith; Neuman, Tom S; Graham, Michael A; Griffin, Lanny V

2017-01-01

Background Fatalities from acute compression have been reported with soft-drink vending machine tipping, motor vehicle accidents, and trench cave-ins. A major mechanism of such deaths is flail chest but the amount of force required is unclear. Between the range of a safe static chest compression force of 1000 N (102 kg with earth gravity) and a lethal dynamic force of 10-20 kN (falling 450 kg vending machines), there are limited quantitative human data on the force required to cause flail chest, which is a major correlate of acute fatal compression asphyxia. Methods We modeled flail chest as bilateral fractures of six adjacent ribs. The static and dynamic forces required to cause such a ribcage failure were estimated using a biomechanical model of the thorax. The results were then compared with published historical records of judicial "pressing," vending machine fatalities, and automobile safety cadaver testing. Results and conclusion The modeling results suggest that an adult male requires 2550 ± 250 N of chest-applied distributed static force (260 ± 26 kg with earth gravity) or 4050 ± 320 N of dynamic force to cause flail chest from short-term chest compression.

4. Serious Injury and Fatality Investigations Involving Pneumatic Nail Guns, 1985-2012

PubMed Central

Lowe, Brian D.; Albers, James T.; Hudock, Stephen D.; Krieg, Edward F.

2016-01-01

Background This paper examines serious and fatal pneumatic nail gun (PNG) injury investigations for workplace, tool design, and human factors relevant to causation and resulting OS&H authorities’ responses in terms of citations and penalties. Methods The U.S. OSHA database of Fatality and Catastrophe Investigation Summaries (F&CIS) were reviewed (1985 - 2012) to identify n=258 PNG accidents. Results 79.8% of investigations, and 100% of fatalities, occurred in the Construction industry. Between 53-71% of injuries appear preventable had a safer sequential trigger tool been used. Citations and monetary penalties were related to injury severity, body part injured, disabling of safety devices, and insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusions Differences may exist between Construction and other industries in investigators interpretations of PNG injury causation and resulting citations/penalties. Violations of PPE standards were penalized most severely, yet the preventive effect of PPE would likely have been less than that of a safer sequential trigger. PMID:26725335

5. U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents, 1963 through 1997

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harris, Franklin D.; Kasper, Eugene F.

1998-01-01

The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has recorded 8,436 rotorcraft accidents during the period mid - 1963 through the end of 1997. Review and analysis of the NTSB summary narrative for each accident has been completed. In addition, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) counts of the growing registered rotorcraft fleet over this period has obtained. Taken together, a large and informative data base is now available, which indicates that the accident rate (on a per airframe basis) has changed very little since the mid 1970s. The data base, even in the summary form provided by this paper, offers suggestions for safer designs and improved flight operations. For analysis purposes, each accident has been placed in one of 21 top level categories as defined by the NTSB. Analysis of this grouping shows that 70 percent of rotorcraft accidents are associated with four categories. The accident count in these top four categories are: (1) 2,408 Loss of engine power (2) 1,322 In flight collision with object (3) 1,114 Loss of control (4) 1,083 Airframe/component/system failure or malfunction. Single engine rotorcraft dominate these accident statistics because of their sheer numbers over the study period. One-third of the loss of engine power accidents with these aircraft is fuel/air mixture related and fuel exhaustion is a common event. This appears to be the case whether a piston or turbine engine is installed. This paper provides similar study results in the other major mishap categories. It shows that both minor and major design and flight operations changes can -- and should -- be made to reduce rotorcraft accidents in the future. The paper outlines these changes and suggests how they may be made.

6. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cominsky, A.

1982-01-01

A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

7. Tradition and a fatal virus.

PubMed

Richardson, M

1996-10-01

Though the statistics on the extent of HIV infection and the number of AIDS cases in Kenya are inaccurate, the World Bank estimates that about 7% of the country's population is infected with HIV. Kisumu, the capital of Western Province, is a small city with one of the highest rates of HIV infection in Kenya. Researchers believe that at least 10% of the city's general population and about 25% of the sexually active are infected with HIV. More than 20% of patients at New Nyanza General Hospital are HIV positive. HIV/AIDS have spread throughout Kenya because most people do not practice safer sex, the majority of infected people do not know that they are infected, a fear of people to obtain condoms, the practice of wife inheritance, and a combination of conservatism, ignorance, and denial about prevailing sexual behavior and the true threat of the epidemic. Although Kenyans have a range of beliefs about the cause of and local treatments for AIDS, they have recently begun to accept HIV for the deadly virus that it is. AIDS is a common cause of death in Kisumu and the villages of the province, but people don't discuss AIDS, and the person with AIDS typically dies at home among family members who do not know what the sickness was. Since no cure has been discovered for AIDS, people need to take the necessary measures to prevent initial infection with HIV.

8. Modeling fault among accident--involved pedestrians and motorists in Hawaii.

PubMed

Kim, Karl; Brunner, I Made; Yamashita, Eric

2008-11-01

Using a comprehensive database of police-reported accidents in Hawaii, we describe the nature of pedestrian accidents over the period 2002-2005. Approximately 36% of the accidents occur in residential areas, while another 34% occur in business areas. Only 41.7% of the pedestrian accidents occur at intersections. More pedestrian crashes occur at non-intersection locations-including midblock locations, driveways, parking lots, and other off roadway locations. Approximately 38.2% of the crashes occur at crosswalk locations, while proportionately more (61.8%) of the pedestrian accidents occur at non-crosswalk locations. Using this database the human, temporal, roadway, and environmental factors associated with being "at-fault" for both pedestrians and drivers are also examined. Using techniques of logistic regression, several different explanatory models are constructed, to identify the factors associated with crashes producing fatalities and serious injuries. Finally, two pedestrian models (drunk males and young boys) and one driver model (male commuters) are developed to provide further understanding of pedestrian accident causation. Drunk male pedestrians who were jaywalking were in excess of 10x more likely than other groups to be at-fault in pedestrian accidents. Young boys in residential areas were also more likely to be at-fault. Male commuters in business areas in the morning were also found to have higher odds of being classified at-fault when involved in pedestrian accidents. The results of this study indicate that there should be a combination of enforcement and educational programs implemented for both the pedestrian and drivers to show those at-fault the consequences of their actions, and to reduce the overall number of accidents.

9. Evaluation of injury and fatality risk in rock and ice climbing.

PubMed

Schöffl, Volker; Morrison, Audry; Schwarz, Ulrich; Schöffl, Isabelle; Küpper, Thomas

2010-08-01

Rock and ice climbing are widely considered to be 'high-risk' sporting activities that are associated with a high incidence of severe injury and even death, compared with more mainstream sports. However, objective scientific data to support this perception are questionable. Accordingly, >400 sport-specific injury studies were analysed and compared by quantifying the injury incidence and objectively grading the injury severity (using the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics score) per 1000 hours of sporting participation. Fatalities were also analysed. The analysis revealed that fatalities occurred in all sports, but it was not always clear whether the sport itself or pre-existing health conditions contributed or caused the deaths. Bouldering (ropeless climbing to low heights), sport climbing (mostly bolt protected lead climbing with little objective danger) and indoor climbing (climbing indoors on artificial rock structures), showed a small injury rate, minor injury severity and few fatalities. As more objective/external dangers exist for alpine and ice climbing, the injury rate, injury severity and fatality were all higher. Overall, climbing sports had a lower injury incidence and severity score than many popular sports, including basketball, sailing or soccer; indoor climbing ranked the lowest in terms of injuries of all sports assessed. Nevertheless, a fatality risk remains, especially in alpine and ice climbing. In the absence of a standard definition for a 'high-risk' sport, categorizing climbing as a high-risk sport was found to be either subjective or dependent on the definition used. In conclusion, this analysis showed that retrospective data on sport-specific injuries and fatalities are not reported in a standardized manner. To improve preventative injury measures for climbing sports, it is recommended that a standardized, robust and comprehensive sport-specific scoring model should be developed to report and fully evaluate the injury risk, severity

10. Rogue waves in crossing seas: The Louis Majesty accident

Cavaleri, L.; Bertotti, L.; Torrisi, L.; Bitner-Gregersen, E.; Serio, M.; Onorato, M.

2012-11-01

We analyze the sea state conditions during which the accident of the cruise ship Louis Majesty took place. The ship was hit by a large wave that destroyed some windows at deck number five and caused two fatalities. Using the wave model (WAM), driven by the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO-ME) winds, we perform a detailed hindcast of the local wave conditions. The results reveal the presence of two comparable wave systems characterized almost by the same frequency. We discuss such sea state conditions in the framework of a system of two coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, each of which describe the dynamics of a single spectral peak. For some specific parameters, we discuss the breather solutions of the CNLS equations and estimate the maximum wave amplitude. Even though, due to the lack of measurements, it is impossible to establish the nature of the wave that caused the accident, we show that the angle between the two wave systems during the accident was close to the condition for which the maximum amplitude of the breather solution is observed.

11. 78 FR 38096 - Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-06-25

... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection... Reporting System (FARS) is a major system that acquires national fatality information directly from existing...: Request for public comment on proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency...

12. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

PubMed Central

Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

2015-01-01

Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

13. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

PubMed

Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

2015-03-24

Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure.

14. Severe Accident Scoping Simulations of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for BWRs

SciTech Connect

Robb, Kevin R.

2015-08-01

CrAl would tend to generate heat and hydrogen from oxidation at a slower rate compared to the zirconium-based alloys in use today. The previous study, [2], of the FeCrAl ATF concept during station blackout (SBO) severe accident scenarios in BWRs was based on simulating short term SBO (STSBO), long term SBO (LTSBO), and modified SBO scenarios occurring in a BWR-4 reactor with MARK-I containment. The analysis indicated that FeCrAl had the potential to delay the onset of fuel failure by a few hours depending on the scenario, and it could delay lower head failure by several hours. The analysis demonstrated reduced in-vessel hydrogen production. However, the work was preliminary and was based on limited knowledge of material properties for FeCrAl. Limitations of the MELCOR code were identified for direct use in modeling ATF concepts. This effort used an older version of MELCOR (1.8.5). Since these analyses, the BWR model has been updated for use in MELCOR 1.8.6 [10], and more representative material properties for FeCrAl have been modeled. Sections 2 4 present updated analyses for the FeCrAl ATF concept response during severe accidents in a BWR. The purpose of the study is to estimate the potential gains afforded by the FeCrAl ATF concept during BWR SBO scenarios.

15. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

16. Highway accident severities and the mixed logit model: an exploratory empirical analysis.

PubMed

Milton, John C; Shankar, Venky N; Mannering, Fred L

2008-01-01

Many transportation agencies use accident frequencies, and statistical models of accidents frequencies, as a basis for prioritizing highway safety improvements. However, the use of accident severities in safety programming has been often been limited to the locational assessment of accident fatalities, with little or no emphasis being placed on the full severity distribution of accidents (property damage only, possible injury, injury)-which is needed to fully assess the benefits of competing safety-improvement projects. In this paper we demonstrate a modeling approach that can be used to better understand the injury-severity distributions of accidents on highway segments, and the effect that traffic, highway and weather characteristics have on these distributions. The approach we use allows for the possibility that estimated model parameters can vary randomly across roadway segments to account for unobserved effects potentially relating to roadway characteristics, environmental factors, and driver behavior. Using highway-injury data from Washington State, a mixed (random parameters) logit model is estimated. Estimation findings indicate that volume-related variables such as average daily traffic per lane, average daily truck traffic, truck percentage, interchanges per mile and weather effects such as snowfall are best modeled as random-parameters-while roadway characteristics such as the number of horizontal curves, number of grade breaks per mile and pavement friction are best modeled as fixed parameters. Our results show that the mixed logit model has considerable promise as a methodological tool in highway safety programming.

17. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

PubMed Central

Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

2015-01-01

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185

18. Bear attack--A unique fatality in Finland.

PubMed

De Giorgio, Fabio; Rainio, Juha; Pascali, Vincenzo; Lalu, Kaisa

2007-11-15

Fatalities due to animal bites, the vast majority of which are associated with dogs and big cats, are relatively uncommon and rarely described in the literature. Especially rare are fatal bear attacks on humans. We herein present a forensic investigation of a fatal assault, involving numerous bites on a 42-year-old man in Finland by an European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos).

19. A review of criticality accidents

SciTech Connect

Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

1989-03-01

Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

20. Mobile computed tomography for mass fatality investigations.

PubMed

Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire; Jeffery, Amanda; Morgan, Bruno

2007-06-01

The use of computed tomography (CT) has received growing interest within the forensic world. To date, most publications have been related to the use of clinical or institutional sited scanners with few publications reporting on the actual, as opposed to the theoretical, use of mobile CT scanners in forensic practice. This review paper considers the use of mobile CT scanning for forensic investigations. It reviews the literature and presents the experience gained from a 6-month trial undertaken by the Forensic Pathology Unit, at the University of Leicester, UK of the use of CT for mass fatality investigation. Protocols for the use of mobile CT are discussed to assist other centres contemplating the use of mobile CT for mass fatality investigations.

1. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

PubMed

2013-03-01

Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

2. Fatal Israeli spotted fever in children.

PubMed

Yagupsky, P; Wolach, B

1993-11-01

We describe three Israeli children with fatal spotted fever. Clinical disease was characterized by irreversible shock, encephalopathy, renal failure, bleeding tendency, and death within 24 hours of admission. None of the patients had a history of tick bite, and no tache noire was noted. One child presented without rash, and the other two did not have antibodies to spotted-fever-group rickettsiae. The disease was confirmed by isolation of Rickettsia conorii from the patients' blood and tissues in cell cultures or from susceptible laboratory animals inoculated with human specimens. The present cases demonstrate the existence of a severe form of Israeli spotted fever in this population that resembles Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Because Israeli spotted fever may follow a quick, unpredictable, rapidly fatal clinical course, specific antimicrobial therapy should be promptly administered whenever the diagnosis is suspected.

3. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland.

PubMed

Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Kjerulf, Anne; Gelvan, Allan

2015-03-01

Botulism commonly occurs when the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum, under suitable conditions, produces botulinum neurotoxins. Named A-F, these toxins are the immediate causative agent of the clinical symptoms of symmetrical, descending neurological deficits, including respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases recovery was complete. Microbiological assays, including toxin neutralization bioassay, demonstrated the presence of neurotoxin E in two survivors. The third survivor was shown by PCR to have the BoNT type E gene in faeces. This is the first report of cases of fatal botulism in Greenland. It underscores the importance of prompt coordinated case management effort in a geographically isolated area such as Greenland.

4. Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage during dental treatment.

PubMed

Massalha, R; Valdman, S; Farkash, P; Merkin, L; Herishanu, Y

1996-09-01

Although chronic arterial hypertension is the leading cause of intracranial hemorrhage, an abrupt rise in systemic arterial pressure in normotensive people may sometimes induce a hemorrhagic stroke. Dental treatment is rarely associated with such an event. We report here on two middle-aged women, apparently healthy, who suffered from a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage following a dental treatment. On admission, high levels of arterial hypertension were found. It seems that trigeminal manipulation during dental treatment as well as increased serum levels of induced epinephrine mainly by stress and pain, and the small amounts absorbed from the site of local anesthesia might produce abrupt elevation of blood pressure, subsequent increase in cerebral blood flow and severe, even fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. The addition of catecholamines to local anesthetics should be considered. We recommend the use of benzodiazepin as a premedication drug to reduce stress during dental treatment.

5. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

PubMed

Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

2014-01-01

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

6. Industrial accidents triggered by flood events: analysis of past accidents.

PubMed

Cozzani, Valerio; Campedel, Michela; Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

2010-03-15

Industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NaTech accidents) are a significant category of industrial accidents. Several specific elements that characterize NaTech events still need to be investigated. In particular, the damage mode of equipment and the specific final scenarios that may take place in NaTech accidents are key elements for the assessment of hazard and risk due to these events. In the present study, data on 272 NaTech events triggered by floods were retrieved from some of the major industrial accident databases. Data on final scenarios highlighted the presence of specific events, as those due to substances reacting with water, and the importance of scenarios involving consequences for the environment. This is mainly due to the contamination of floodwater with the hazardous substances released. The analysis of process equipment damage modes allowed the identification of the expected release extents due to different water impact types during floods. The results obtained were used to generate substance-specific event trees for the quantitative assessment of the consequences of accidents triggered by floods.

7. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

PubMed

Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

2011-11-01

Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis.

8. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

PubMed

Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

2007-03-01

Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

9. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis

PubMed Central

Min, Jin-na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P.; Raddassi, Khadir; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Shaw, Albert C.; Araújo, Guilherme C.; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2016-01-01

Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10–50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis. PMID:27812211

10. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

PubMed

Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

1997-12-01

We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis.

11. Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

2014-01-01

Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

12. Aluminum phosphide fatalities, new local experience.

PubMed

Abder-Rahman, H A; Battah, A H; Ibraheem, Y M; Shomaf, M S; el-Batainch, N

2000-04-01

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) pesticide is a highly toxic, low cost, and easily accessible rodenticidal agent. Its toxicity results from the liberation of phosphine gas upon exposure to moisture, which leads to multisystem involvement, resulting in serious consequences. The highly toxic parathion insecticide was a common cause of mortality in pesticide fatalities, prior to its banning. Its toxicity was familiar to the public as well as to physicians. Recently, ten fatalities due to AlP were encountered within a three-month period during spring, when it was used as a rodenticide in the vicinity of grain stores. The victims' ages ranged from 1-34 years. The circumstances of death were accidental in six cases, suicidal in two and possibly homicidal in two cases. Retrospectively, the clinical manifestations, scene investigation, autopsy, histological and toxicological findings supported the diagnosis of AlP intoxication. Immediate recognition was difficult due to unfamiliarity of the agent to the physicians. The occurrence of these fatalities might suggest changes of pattern in pesticide poisoning. This should raise the attention of the physician to the problem of AlP poisoning and also necessitates the awareness of the public to the hazards of this poison. Education, proper handling, strict observation and abiding by the regulations controlling this material are good protective measures against AlP poisoning.

13. Graduated driver licensing and teen traffic fatalities.

PubMed

Dee, Thomas S; Grabowski, David C; Morrisey, Michael A

2005-05-01

Over the last 8 years, nearly every state has introduced graduated driver licensing (GDL) for teens. These new licensing procedures require teen drivers to advance through distinct stages where they are subject to a variety of restrictions (e.g., adult supervision, daytime driving, passenger limits). In this study, we present evidence on whether these restrictions have been effective in reducing traffic fatalities among teens. These evaluations are based on state-by-year panel data from 1992 to 2002. We assess the reliability of our basic inferences in several ways including an examination of contemporaneous data for older cohorts who were not directly affected by these policies. Our results indicate that GDL regulations reduced traffic fatalities among 15-17-year-olds by at least 5.6%. We also find that the life-saving benefits of these regulations were plausibly related to their restrictiveness. And we find no evidence that these benefits were attenuated by an increase in fatality risks during the full-licensure period available to older teens.

14. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

15. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified...

16. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

17. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

18. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 must, as soon...

19. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified...

20. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...