Science.gov

Sample records for accident investigation summaries

  1. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerton, R.E.

    1997-08-07

    This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).

  2. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  3. Manned space programs accident/incident summaries (1963 - 1969)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This summary is a compilation of 508 mishaps assembled from company and NASA records which cover several years of manned space flight activity. The purpose is to provide information to be applied towards accident prevention. The accident/incident summaries are categorized by the following ten systems: cryogenic; electrical; facility/GSE; fuel and propellant; life support; ordnance; pressure; propulsion; structural; and transport/handling. Each accident/incident summary has been summarized by description, cause and recommended preventive action.

  4. Investigation of the Challenger Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The work of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (hereafter referred to as the Rogers Commission) and the work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in investigating the causes of the accident were reviewed. In addition to reviewing the five volumes of the Rogers Commission, the entire direct on-line Rogers Commission data base, which included full-text and document retrieval capability was also reviewed. The findings and recommendations contained also include materials submitted for the record, staff investigations, interviews, and trips.

  5. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  6. A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

  7. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  8. Manned Space Programs Accident/Incident Summaries (1970 - 1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of 223 mishaps assembled from company and NASA records covering the Accident/Incident experience in 1970-1971 in the Manned Space Flight Programs is presented. It is the companion volume to NASA-CR-120998 which covered the years 1963-1969. The objectives of this summary is to make available to Government agencies and industrial firms the lessons learned from these mishaps. Each accident/incident summary has been reviewed by description, cause and recommended preventive action. The summaries have been categorized by the following ten systems: (1) Cryogenic; (2) Electrical; (3) Facility/GSE; (4) Fuel and Propellant; (5) Life Support; (6) Ordnance; (7) Pressure; (8) Propulsion; (9) Structural; and (10) Transport/Handling.

  9. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  10. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

  11. Skylab EREP Investigations Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The problems in the areas of agriculture, range and forestry; land use and cartography; geology and hydrology; oceans atmosphere, and data analysis techniques were investigated and summarized using Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) data.

  12. Lockout/tagout accident investigation.

    PubMed

    White, James R

    2014-08-01

    When I was in boot camp, our drill instructor told us that assume makes an ass out of u and me. It was true then, and it is true today. In this instance, assumptions came into play several times, both by the worker and by the companies involved. The good news is that it did not result in a fatality, but that does not relieve the pain and suffering that the employee had to endure. This same type of scenario is likely repeated at many job sites throughout the United States. Multiple contractors, dozens--maybe hundreds--of workers, power system equipment and devices; all of these have to be taken into consideration when performing maintenance activities. It can become a blur. People are people, and people make mistakes. That is why we have OSHA regulations, NFPA 70E, company procedures, policies, etc. Most if not all of us have either been involved in accidents or know people who have been. It's not like it's a secret that people make mistakes, but talk to some and they seem to think only others have that failing. Safety is not about just any one procedure or rule. It's about slowing down, making a plan, and executing that plan. There are plenty of tools available to help us: policies, procedures, codes, standards, federal regulations, and state and local laws. I am not about to say that the worker involved in this incident was not taking safety seriously, but he failed to follow some fundamental safety rules like test-before-touch. If he had taken just that one step, there would be nothing to write about. PMID:25188988

  13. Investigating accident causation through information network modelling.

    PubMed

    Griffin, T G C; Young, M S; Stanton, N A

    2010-02-01

    Management of risk in complex domains such as aviation relies heavily on post-event investigations, requiring complex approaches to fully understand the integration of multi-causal, multi-agent and multi-linear accident sequences. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork methodology (EAST; Stanton et al. 2008) offers such an approach based on network models. In this paper, we apply EAST to a well-known aviation accident case study, highlighting communication between agents as a central theme and investigating the potential for finding agents who were key to the accident. Ultimately, this work aims to develop a new model based on distributed situation awareness (DSA) to demonstrate that the risk inherent in a complex system is dependent on the information flowing within it. By identifying key agents and information elements, we can propose proactive design strategies to optimize the flow of information and help work towards avoiding aviation accidents. Statement of Relevance: This paper introduces a novel application of an holistic methodology for understanding aviation accidents. Furthermore, it introduces an ongoing project developing a nonlinear and prospective method that centralises distributed situation awareness and communication as themes. The relevance of findings are discussed in the context of current ergonomic and aviation issues of design, training and human-system interaction. PMID:20099174

  14. Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Volume One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board's independent investigation into the February 1, 2003, loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its seven-member crew lasted nearly seven months. A staff of more than 120, along with some 400 NASA engineers, supported the Board's 13 members. Investigators examined more than 30,000 documents, conducted more than 200 formal interviews, heard testimony from dozens of expert witnesses, and reviewed more than 3,000 inputs from the general public. In addition, more than 25,000 searchers combed vast stretches of the Western United States to retrieve the spacecraft's debris. In the process, Columbia's tragedy was compounded when two debris searchers with the U.S. Forest Service perished in a helicopter accident. This report concludes with recommendations, some of which are specifically identified and prefaced as 'before return to flight.' These recommendations are largely related to the physical cause of the accident, and include preventing the loss of foam, improved imaging of the Space Shuttle stack from liftoff through separation of the External Tank, and on-orbit inspection and repair of the Thermal Protection System. The remaining recommendations, for the most part, stem from the Board's findings on organizational cause factors. While they are not 'before return to flight' recommendations, they can be viewed as 'continuing to fly' recommendations, as they capture the Board's thinking on what changes are necessary to operate the Shuttle and future spacecraft safely in the mid- to long-term. These recommendations reflect both the Board's strong support for return to flight at the earliest date consistent with the overriding objective of safety, and the Board's conviction that operation of the Space Shuttle, and all human space-flight, is a developmental activity with high inherent risks.

  15. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Donald J. (Editor); Goodman, Patrick A. (Editor); Reingold, Lester A. (Editor); Kirchhoff, Christopher M. (Editor); Simon, Ariel H. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results of an investigative analysis performed by the Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate at th the specific request of the Defense Columbia Investigation Support Team (DCIST) who was supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB). The work was performed during the period February 20, 2003 through 20 July 2003. An interim release of measurement findings was provided the CAIB on 24 April 2003, and the information was released in public testimony to the CAIB on May 6, 2003 at the Hilton Hotel, Houston, Texas. The overall assessment and conclusions of this report are consistent with the CAIB 6 May 2003 testimony, with one notable exception discussed in Section VI. This report has been reviewed by the AFRL/SN Flight Day Two DCIST appointed assessment team, and is hereby released to the CAIB and DCIST for final disposition.

  16. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....29 of this subchapter: (a) Military Police at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA Form 3975 (Military Police Report). (b) All privately owned motor vehicle accidents on Fort Stewart...

  17. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....29 of this subchapter: (a) Military Police at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA Form 3975 (Military Police Report). (b) All privately owned motor vehicle accidents on Fort Stewart...

  18. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    In the course of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted a series of public hearings at Houston, Texas; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Washington, DC. Testimony from these hearings was recorded and then transcribed. This appendix, Volume VI of the Report, is a compilation of those transcripts. Contents: Transcripts of Board Public Hearings; Appendix H.1 March 6, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.2 March 17, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.3 March 18, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H. 4 March 25, 2003 Cape Canaveral, Florida; Appendix H.5 March 26, 2003 Cape Canaveral, Florida; Appendix H.6 April 7, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.7 April 8, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.8 April 23, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.9 May 6, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.10 June 12, 2003 Washington, DC.

  19. Eyewitness testimony in occupational accident investigations: towards a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Stinson, Veronica; MacLean, Carla

    2004-02-01

    Accident investigation is frequently cited as the cornerstone of an effective occupational health and safety program. We suggest that the literature on accident investigation is based on a model of witnesses as neutral and accurate recording devices. The literature on eyewitness testimony and criminal investigation offers strikingly different conclusions. We review these findings and point to their implication for research on accident investigation in occupational health and safety contexts. PMID:15055344

  20. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. PMID:22269530

  1. 32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In addition to the requirements in § 634.28...

  2. 32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In addition to the requirements in § 634.28...

  3. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic... records. Installation law enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on...

  4. Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an update on the Columbia accident response presented in 2005 with additional information that was not available at that time. It will provide information on the following topics: (1) medical response and Search and Rescue, (2) medico-legal issues associated with the accident, (3) the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team Report published in 2008, and (4) future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training.

  5. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

  6. Nuclear Accident Crisis and Liver Disease: A Summary on Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2013-01-01

    The present global concern is on the adverse effect due to exposure to nuclides expelled from the disrupted nuclear power plant accident in Japan. The exposure can induce several adverse effects. In this specific brief review, the author summarizes the evidences on the effect on liver. Discussion is focused on several liver diseases. PMID:25125994

  7. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic... accidents described in this section: (a) Accidents involving Government vehicles or Government property on the installation involving a fatality, personal injury, or estimated property damage in the...

  8. The German Investigation of the Accident at Meopham (England)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann; Hertel, Heinrich; Thalau, Karl

    1932-01-01

    This report is a recounting of the German investigation of the crash of a commercial Junkers F 13 ge in England. The English report is examined and compared with the German interpretation of the accident.

  9. The use of flight test techniques in aircraft accident investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.; Wingrove, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Wind shear is a serious safety hazard to commercial aviation. Low level wind shear (downburst) was the cause of the takeoff accident in New Orleans, July 9, 1982, and the landing accident in Dallas, Aug. 2, 1985. Shear layer instability is a common cause of clear air turbulence (CAT) at cruising altitudes. A number of encounters with severe CAT, in which passengers were injured, have recently occurred (Hannibal, MO, April 1981; Morton, WY, July 1982; etc.). Improved accident investigation techniques can lead to a better understanding of the nature of the wind environment associated with downbursts and CAT and to better detection and avoidance procedures. For the past several years, NASA-Ames has worked closely with the National Transportation Safety Board in the investigation of wind related accidents.

  10. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for material contained in the NTSB's...

  11. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for material contained in the NTSB's...

  12. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for material contained in the NTSB's...

  13. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for material contained in the NTSB's...

  14. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for material contained in the NTSB's...

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 18: Accident Investigation and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 18 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on accident investigation and reporting. The purpose and objectives of an investigation and reporting program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies…

  16. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28...

  17. Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

  18. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resulted in a fatality, personal injury, or estimated damage to Government vehicles or property in excess... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic... vehicle involved in an accident, as described in § 634.28, on the installation, must immediately...

  19. Introduction of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident, Investigation Details, Findings and Crew Survival Investigation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle Program comes to an end, it is important that the lessons learned from the Columbia accident be captured and understood by those who will be developing future aerospace programs and supporting current programs. Aeromedical lessons learned from the Accident were presented at AsMA in 2005. This Panel will update that information, closeout the lessons learned, provide additional information on the accident and provide suggestions for the future. To set the stage, an overview of the accident is required. The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts on 1Feb, 2003. It disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana and observers along part of the track filmed the breakup of Columbia. Debris was recovered from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana, along a 567 statute mile track; the largest ever recorded debris field. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded its investigation in August 2003, and released their findings in a report published in February 2004. NASA recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew and the Space Shuttle Program managers commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT) to accomplish this. Their task was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training and procedures intended to protect the crew. NASA released the Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report in December 2008. Key personnel have been assembled to give you an overview of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the medical response, the medico-legal issues, the SCSIIT findings and recommendations and future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training. Educational Objectives: Set the stage for the Panel to address the

  20. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  1. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  2. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. ); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  3. Experimental Aerothermodynamics In Support Of The Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The technical foundation for the most probable damage scenario reported in the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's final report was largely derived from synergistic aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic wind tunnel measurements and inviscid predictions made at NASA Langley Research Center and later corroborated with engineering analysis, high fidelity numerical viscous simulations, and foam impact testing near the close of the investigation. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley and illustrates how the ground-based heating measurements provided early insight that guided the direction and utilization of agency resources in support of the investigation. Global surface heat transfer mappings, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.0075 scale models of the Orbiter configuration with and without postulated damage to the thermal protection system. Test parametrics include angle of attack from 38 to 42 degs, sideslip angles of 38 to 42 degs, sideslip angles of plus or minus 1 deg, Reynolds numbers based upon model length from 0.05 x 10(exp 6) to 6.5 x 10(exp 6), and normal shock density ratios of 5 (Mach 6 Air) and 12 (Mach 6 CF4). The primary objective of the testing was to provide surface heating characteristics on scaled Orbiter models with outer mold line perturbations to simulate various forms of localized surface damage to the thermal protection system. Initial experimental testing conducted within two weeks of the accident simulated a broad spectrum of thermal protection system damage to the Orbiter windward surface and was used to refute several hypothesized forms of thermal protection system damage, which included gouges in the windward thermal protection system tiles, breaches through the wing new the main landing gear door, and protuberances along the wing leading edge that produced asymmetric boundary layer transition. As the forensic phase of the investigation

  4. Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

  5. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.30 Use of traffic accident investigation report data. (a) Data derived from traffic...

  6. Joint Committee on Aviation Pathology: VIII. Medical investigator preparedness for aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M M

    1977-10-01

    The statutory authority and responsibility of the National Transportation Safety Board in the investigation and determination of the probable cause of aviation accidents is described. The Independent Safety Board Act of 1974 acknowledges the importance of obtaining data regarding trauma sustained in an accident by survivors, as well as those persons injured fatally. Information regarding occupant injuries, coupled with extensive examination of the aircraft wreckage, is necessary in order to identify hazards which inflicted the injuries. The human factors investigator is responsible for reporting the facts, conditions, and circumstances relating to first, the accident causation and, second, the injury causation. These two areas, of necessity, rely quite heavily upon the postmortem examination and laboratory analyses of the cras victims. The Safety Board's investigation must determine if a crewmember suffered from a preexisting disease, whether the crew had ingested drugs contraindicated with their flying duties, as well as a description of all injuries and all toxicological and histological findings for crew and passengers. During Safety Board investigations conducted in densely populated cites, over oceans, and in remote areas, both in the United States and overseas, many situations have developed which have caused musch investigative effort due to less than complete postmortem examinations. These situations, in most instances, could have been averted by advance planning by local authorities.

  7. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  8. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  9. Direct investigations of supersymmetry: subgroup summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P Martin et al.

    2003-01-02

    A recurring element of the discussions in the Snowmass study is that there is a need and opportunity for improved theoretical tools in preparation for the discovery of Supersymmetry (SUSY). In order to be competitive with mass measurements at the LHC and a linear collider (LC), predictions of sparticle and Higgs masses from given model parameters need to be improved by an order of magnitude in some cases. There is also room for growth and improvement in (Monte Carlo) SUSY event generators. It seems injudicious to discuss priorities in the field of direct SUSY detection independently of having established directly the existence and mass of the Higgs since it is the particle that led to the founding of SUSY models. But under the hypothesis that a light Higgs exists with mass compatible with SUSY, then they should discuss such priorities. As outlined in section III in the context of the flavor-respecting minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), there is no fundamental symmetry to tie, e.g., squark masses to slepton masses, or the gluino mass to the chargino mass or the chargino mass to the neutralino mass. However, models such as mSUGRA do lead to such relationships and LHC studies show that the heaviest super-partners, the squarks and the gluino should be observable for masses up to about 2.5 TeV at the LHC in such models. Depending on the actual decay chains, some other superpartners may be identifiable in the cascade decays of the quarks and the gluino. On the other hand a LC with CM energy of 1 TeV could comprehensively explore and discover superpartners with masses less than 0.5 TeV largely independently of their nature (neutral, charged, strong, electroweak) and decay modes. In most supersymmetric models, the chargino and neutralino and often the sleptons are much lighter than the squarks and gluino. A VLHC could extend the mass reach for squarks and the gluino but would not necessarily add much value if these had already been seen at the LHC. In summary

  10. Summary of the SRS Severe Accident Analysis Program, 1987--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Hyder, M.L.; Britt, T.E.; Allison, D.K.; Chow, S.; Graves, R.D.; DeWald, A.B. Jr.; Monson, P.R. Jr.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) is a program of experimental and analytical studies aimed at characterizing severe accidents that might occur in the Savannah River Site Production Reactors. The goals of the Severe Accident Analysis Program are: To develop an understanding of severe accidents in SRS reactors that is adequate to support safety documentation for these reactors, including the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and other studies evaluating the safety of reactor operation; To provide tools and bases for the evaluation of existing or proposed safety related equipment in the SRS reactors; To provide bases for the development of accident management procedures for the SRS reactors; To develop and maintain on the site a sufficient body of knowledge, including documents, computer codes, and cognizant engineers and scientists, that can be used to authoritatively resolve questions or issues related to reactor accidents. The Severe Accident Analysis Program was instituted in 1987 and has already produced a substantial amount of information, and specialized calculational tools. Products of the Severe Accident Analysis Program (listed in Section 9 of this report) have been used in the development of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and in the development of technical specifications for the SRS reactors. A staff of about seven people is currently involved directly in the program and in providing input on severe accidents to other SRS activities.

  11. Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shou-Ren; Li, Chin-Shang; Lee, Chi-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway–railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumption was violated while fitting cumulative logit modeled by the proportional odds models with stepwise variable selection to ordinal accident severity data collected at 592 RGCs in Taiwan, as suggested by Strokes et al. (2000, p. 249) a generalized logit model with stepwise variable selection was used instead to identify explanatory variables (factors or covariates) that were significantly associated with the severity of collisions. Hence, the fitted model was used to predict the level of accident severity, given a set of values in the explanatory variables. Number of daily trains, highway separation, number of daily trucks, obstacle detection device, and approaching crossing markings significantly affected levels of accident severity at an RGC (p-value = 0.0009, 0.0008, 0.0112, 0.0017, and 0.0003, respectively). Finally, marginal effect analysis on the number of daily trains and law enforcement camera was conducted to evaluate the effect of the number of daily trains and presence of a law enforcement camera on the potential accident severity. PMID:20161414

  12. Application of a human error framework to conduct train accident/incident investigations.

    PubMed

    Reinach, Stephen; Viale, Alex

    2006-03-01

    Accident/incident investigations are an important qualitative approach to understanding and managing transportation safety. To better understand potential safety implications of recently introduced remote control locomotive (RCL) operations in railroad yard switching, researchers investigated six railroad accidents/incidents. To conduct the investigations, researchers first modified the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) to optimize its applicability to the railroad industry (HFACS-RR) and then developed accident/incident data collection and analysis tools based on HFACS-RR. A total of 36 probable contributing factors were identified among the six accidents/incidents investigated. Each accident/incident was associated with multiple contributing factors, and, for each accident/incident, active failures and latent conditions were identified. The application of HFACS-RR and a theoretically driven approach to investigating accidents/incidents involving human error ensured that all levels of the system were considered during data collection and analysis phases of the investigation and that investigations were systematic and thorough. Future work is underway to develop a handheld software tool that incorporates these data collection and analysis tools.

  13. GRC Payload Hazard Assessment: Supporting the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoren, William R.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    A hazard assessment was conducted on the GRC managed payloads in support of a NASA Headquarters Code Q request to examine STS-107 payloads and determine if they were credible contributors to the Columbia accident. This assessment utilized each payload's Final Flight Safety Data Package for hazard identification. An applicability assessment was performed and most of the hazards were eliminated because they dealt with payload operations or crew interactions. A Fault Tree was developed for all the hazards deemed applicable and the safety verification documentation was reviewed for these applicable hazards. At the completion of this hazard assessment, it was concluded that none of the GRC managed payloads were credible contributors to the Columbia accident.

  14. Report Summary, Final Hells Canyon Environmental Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-01-01

    The Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 provided for the establishment of a Regional Power Planning Council (Regional Council) and mandated the development of a Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (F&W Program). The F&W Program was adopted by the Regional Council in November 1982. and is intended to mitigate fish and wildlife losses resulting from the development of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. One element of the FLW Program is the Water Budget. It calls for additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of juvenile salmon and steelhead migrating downstream. The Snake River's contribution to the Water Budget is 20,000 cubic feet per second-months (A volume of water equal to a flow of 20.000 cubic feet per second, 24 hours per day, for a period of a month) over and above water that would normally flow for power production. The water for the Water Budget would come out of Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells Canyon Complex and the Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Dvorshak Reservoir. IPCo's Hells Canyon Complex consists of three dams, Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon. Brownlee, at the upstream end, contains a large reservoir and controls flow to the lower dams. IPCo's participation in the Water Budget could affect the level of the Brownlee Reservoir and flows downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex on the Snake River. In light of this, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and IPCo contracted with the consulting firm of CH2!4 Hill to study the potential changes that could occur to the environment. The Environmental Investigation (EI) takes into account concerns that were expressed by the public at a series of public meetings held in the Snake River area during June 1983 and again during September 1984. Existing information and consultations with agencies which have management responsibilities in the project area formed the basis for the data used in the EI

  15. Second Workshop on the Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Accidents, IRIA 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at the Second Workshop on the Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Accidents, IRIA 2003, sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the University of Virginia.

  16. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Lutz, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  17. Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

    2011-05-01

    Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. PMID:21376918

  18. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerton, R.E.

    1997-07-25

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

  19. Comparing the Identification of Recommendations by Different Accident Investigators Using a Common Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Oltedal, H. A.; Holloway, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accident reports play a key role in the safety of complex systems. These reports present the recommendations that are intended to help avoid any recurrence of past failures. However, the value of these findings depends upon the causal analysis that helps to identify the reasons why an accident occurred. Various techniques have been developed to help investigators distinguish root causes from contributory factors and contextual information. This paper presents the results from a study into the individual differences that can arise when a group of investigators independently apply the same technique to identify the causes of an accident. This work is important if we are to increase the consistency and coherence of investigations following major accidents.

  20. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

  1. Summary of miscellaneous hazard environments for hypothetical Space Shuttle and Titan IV launch abort accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The various analyses described here were aimed at obtaining a more comprehensive understanding and definition of the environments in the vicinity of the Radioisotope Thermal Generator (RTG) during certain Space Transportation System (STS) and Titan IV launch abort accidents. Addressed here are a number of issues covering explosion environments and General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) responses to those environments.

  2. Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Garrett, J.O.; Tyler, R.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.

  3. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision.... Army Safety Center, Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5363. These boards investigate Class A, on-duty, non-POV... regulatory responsibilities that apply to the investigation of accidents for a determination of...

  4. Investigation of technology needs for avoiding helicopter pilot error related accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chais, R. I.; Simpson, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot error which is cited as a cause or related factor in most rotorcraft accidents was examined. Pilot error related accidents in helicopters to identify areas in which new technology could reduce or eliminate the underlying causes of these human errors were investigated. The aircraft accident data base at the U.S. Army Safety Center was studied as the source of data on helicopter accidents. A randomly selected sample of 110 aircraft records were analyzed on a case-by-case basis to assess the nature of problems which need to be resolved and applicable technology implications. Six technology areas in which there appears to be a need for new or increased emphasis are identified.

  5. Meteorological Investigation of an Accident on December 2001 with a Britten Norman / BN-2B-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, U.; Sturm, K.; Leykauf, H.; Lorenzen, E.

    2003-04-01

    In Germany the BFU (German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation) is authorized to investigate accidents and serious incidents to civil aircraft in Germany, to determine the causes of the occurrences. The German National Meteorological Service (DWD) is responsible for the meteorological part of the investigation. The results of these determinations form the basis for safety recommendations and advisory notices, statistical analyses, research, safety studies and ultimately accident prevention programs. In this work the authors would like to present the meteorological investigation of an accident on 26 December 2001. The accident took place just a few seconds after take-off from the regional airport Bremerhaven near the German North Sea coast. This day the temperature was arround 0^o C, the wind was weak and several snow, snow/rain and rain showers were observed. Approximate half an hour before take-off a snow shower results in 1-4 cm snow at the airport area of Bremerhaven. The pilot attemped to brush some of the snow from the top of the aircraft wings, but was unable to get all of it. He decided to go. Once airborne, the aircraft stalled and crashed into a river approximate 1 km behind the runway. The question of the meteorological investigation was, could a snow or ice cover adhere on top of the wings of the aircraft after take-off.

  6. Forensic kinesiology: foundations of an interdiscipline for accident/crime investigation.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Thomas W; Holt, Laurence E; Holt, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Kinesiology is the study of human movement, and comprises several disciplines, each devoted to a specific aspect of human activity, each with its own set of principles and methods to assess and analyze movement. Forensic kinesiology is the application of kinesiological techniques to accident/crime investigation; specialists in this field can use various tools and procedures to measure, analyze, model, and determine the movement sequences involved in events under investigation. This article will highlight major subdisciplines of kinesiology most relevant to forensics, present the key assessment and analytical tools used by kinesiologists, and demonstrate how both the principles and the practices of kinesiology can be applied to accident/crime investigation.

  7. Modern accident investigation and analysis - An executive guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, T. S.

    The first part of the book primes the reader for mishap investigation. Three chapters lead into the serious business of investigation through a discussion of the need for and examination of who has a stake in investigation. This is followed by coverage of the preparation that makes an efficient investigation possible. Finally a description is presented of the first important steps in the investigation, conducted at the scene of a mishap. The interacting roles of man, environment, and systems are examined, taking into account unsafe acts, human limitations, the various types of environments, different types of materials, and aspects of systems investigation. Attention is also given to analytical techniques, the mishap report, information collection, and legal aspects of investigation.

  8. Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

    2004-01-01

    InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

  9. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 1960.70 Reporting of serious... and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

  10. Beam diagnostics, collimation, injection/extraction, targetry, accidents and commissioning: Working group C&G summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Hasegawa, K.; Henderson, S.; Schmidt, R.; Tomizawa, M.; Wittenburg, K.; /DESY

    2006-11-01

    The performance of accelerators with high beam power or high stored beam energy is strongly dependent on the way the beam is handled, how beam parameters are measured and how the machine is commissioned. Two corresponding working groups have been organized for the Workshop: group C ''Beam diagnostics, collimation, injection/extraction and targetry'' and group G ''Commissioning strategies and procedures''. It has been realized that the issues to be discussed in these groups are interlaced with the participants involved and interested in the above topics, with an extremely important subject of beam-induced accidents as additional topic. Therefore, we have decided to combine the group sessions as well as this summary report. Status, performance and outstanding issues of each the topic are described in the sections below, with additional observations and proposals by the joint group at the end.

  11. Mine accident investigations: Does the press have a right to be present?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The fundamental goal of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977 (Mine Act) is {open_quotes}to promote safety and health in the mining industry, [and] to prevent recurring disasters in the mining industry.{close_quotes} To that end, the Mine Act authorized the creation of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) as part of the Department of Labor. One of MSHA`s primary responsibilities, as an authorized representative of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, is to conduct mine accident investigations {open_quotes}for the purpose of . . . obtaining, utilizing, and disseminating information relating to health and safety conditions, the causes of accidents, and the causes of diseases and physical impairments originating in such mines.{close_quotes} First, this Note discusses the general right of access granted by the Freedom of the Press Clause in the First Amendment. The historical case law interpreting the press` right of access begins in a series of cases dealing with the right to conduct interviews with prison inmates. Second, this Note discusses the courts expansion of the Freedom of the Press Clause to include access to trial proceedings. Third, this Note examines both the historical and current right of access granted to the press at the scenes of accidents or disasters. Fourth, the Note discusses the leading case on the press` right of access to mine accident investigations. Finally, a suggestion is offered as to the role the press should be allowed to play in mine accident investigations.

  12. Office of Inspector General report on inspection of selected issues regarding the Department of Energy accident investigation program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    One method used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to promote worker safety is through the Department`s accident investigation program. The objectives of the program are, among other things, to enhance safety and health of employees, to prevent the recurrence of accidents, and to reduce accident fatality rates and promote a downward trend in the number and severity of accidents. The Assistant Secretary, Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH), through the EH Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oversight, is responsible for implementation of the Department`s accident investigation program. As part of the inspection, the authors reviewed an April 1997 EH accident investigation report regarding an accident involving a Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) welder, who suffered fatal burns when his clothing caught fire while he was using a cutting torch at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. They also reviewed reports of other accident investigations conducted by EH and DOE field organizations. Based on the review of these reports, the authors identified issues concerning the adequacy of the examination and reporting by accident investigation boards of specific management systems and organizations as a possible accident root cause. The inspection also identified issues concerning worker safety that they determined required immediate management attention, such as whether occurrences were being reported in the appropriate management systems and whether prompt consideration was being given to implementing revisions of national standards when the revisions increased worker safety.

  13. Supplemental Technical Data Summary M-Area Groundwater Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I.W., Bledsoe, H.W.

    1995-10-01

    This supplement to the Preliminary Technical Data Summary (TDS) (Gordon, 1982) presents the state of knowledge on the hydrogeology and contaminant plume characteristics in the vicinity of M Area as of October 1984. As discussed in the previous TDS, the contaminants consist of organic solvents used for metal degreasing, namely trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Since the issuance of the previous TDS, the groundwater consulting firm of Geraghty & Miller, Inc. has been retained to assist with program strategy, planning, and investigative techniques

  14. Military Curricula for Vocational and Technical Education. Traffic Management and Accident Investigation, 17-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force, Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide and student workbook for a postsecondary level course in traffic management and accident investigation is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the 132-hour course is to expose students to…

  15. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d.

  16. NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia: Synopsis of the Report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's space shuttle Columbia broke apart on February 1, 2003 as it returned to Earth from a 16-day science mission. All seven astronauts aboard were killed. NASA created the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), chaired by Adm. (Ret.) Harold Gehman, to investigate the accident. The Board released its report (available at [http://www.caib.us]) on August 26, 2003, concluding that the tragedy was caused by technical and organizational failures. The CAIB report included 29 recommendations, 15 of which the Board specified must be completed before the shuttle returns to flight status. This report provides a brief synopsis of the Board's conclusions, recommendations, and observations. Further information on Columbia and issues for Congress are available in CRS Report RS21408. This report will not be updated.

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  18. Structural Analysis for the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident Investigation: Global Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Moore, David F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) supported the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the American Airlines Flight 587 accident investigation due to LaRC's expertise in high-fidelity structural analysis and testing of composite structures and materials. A Global Analysis Team from LaRC reviewed the manufacturer s design and certification procedures, developed finite element models and conducted structural analyses, and participated jointly with the NTSB and Airbus in subcomponent tests conducted at Airbus in Hamburg, Germany. The Global Analysis Team identified no significant or obvious deficiencies in the Airbus certification and design methods. Analysis results from the LaRC team indicated that the most-likely failure scenario was failure initiation at the right rear main attachment fitting (lug), followed by an unstable progression of failure of all fin-to-fuselage attachments and separation of the VTP from the aircraft. Additionally, analysis results indicated that failure initiates at the final observed maximum fin loading condition in the accident, when the VTP was subjected to loads that were at minimum 1.92 times the design limit load condition for certification. For certification, the VTP is only required to support loads of 1.5 times design limit load without catastrophic failure. The maximum loading during the accident was shown to significantly exceed the certification requirement. Thus, the structure appeared to perform in a manner consistent with its design and certification, and failure is attributed to VTP loads greater than expected.

  19. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  20. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario.

  1. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario. PMID:22317482

  2. A guide to advance preparation for accident investigation. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    SciTech Connect

    Nertney, R J; Fielding, J R

    1992-08-01

    This report is an aid for DOE/DOE contractor organizations for evaluating the state of operational readiness for performance of accident investigations according to DOE requirements. The methods described are primarily related to type A/B investigations as required by DOE Order 5484.1. However, the generic considerations are applicable to any investigatory process. The material is useful for evaluating the state of readiness before, during, or after an accident.

  3. The Use of LS-DYNA in the Columbia Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrys, Jonathan; Schatz, Josh; Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia on January 16, 2003, foam originating from the external tank impacted the shuttle's left wing 81 seconds after lift-off. Then on February 1st, Space Shuttle Columbia broke-up during re-entry. In the weeks that followed, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board had formed various teams to investigate every aspect of the tragedy. One of these teams was the Impact Analysis Team, which was asked to investigate the foam impact on the wing leading edge. This paper will describe the approach and methodology used by the team to support the accident investigation, and more specifically the use of LS-DYNA for analyzing the foam impact event. Due to the success of the analytical predictions, the impact analysis team has also been asked to support Return to Flight activities. These activities will analyze a far broader range of impact events, but not with just foam and not only on the wing leading edge. The debris list has expanded and so have the possible impact locations. This paper will discuss the Return to Flight activities and the use of LS-DYNA to support them.

  4. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal... investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. As prescribed in 228.370(d), use the following clause: Accident Reporting and Investigation Involving Aircraft, Missiles, and Space...

  5. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A series of brief summaries of the results of individual investigations of LANDSAT 4 image data characteristics are presented. Topics are divided into MSS and TM investigations, and applications of the imaging techniques. Radiometric and geometric accuracy are emphasized.

  6. The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction: Two Years Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was lost during re-entry over two years ago. Since the release of the official materials-related findings in August of 2003, additional testing and analysis of select pieces of debris has continued. Microanalytical techniques, including EMPA, ESCA, and x-ray elemental dot mapping, were employed during the initial investigation; the results related the microstructural characteristics of deposit layers to the breach location in the leading edge of the left wing. Such characteristics included deposition order, composition, and distribution. Subsequent to the original efforts, new analytical data and information, not available at the time of the primary investigation, has been generated. This data was obtained via a low-vacuum SEM, fitted not only with a light-element EDS detector, but an XRF tube as well. Essentially, for elements up to sodium, classic EDS was utilized; above sodium, XRF was used. Predominantly, the elements of interest were aluminum, titanium, chromium, iron, nickel, and copper. The findings of both old and new data are compared, and their application to the overall accident investigation detailed.

  7. Overview of the Aerothermodynamics Analysis Conducted in Support of the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    A graphic presentation of the aerothermodynamics analysis conducted in support of the STS-107 accident investigation. Investigation efforts were conducted as part of an integrated AATS team (Aero, Aerothermal, Thermal, Stress) directed by OVEWG. Graphics presented are: STS-107 Entry trajectory and timeline (1st off-nominal event to Post-LOS); Indications from OI telemetry data; Aero/aerothermo/thermal analysis process; Selected STS-107 side fuselage/OMS pod off-nominal temperatures; Leading edge structural subsystem; Relevant forensics evidence; External aerothermal environments; STS-107 Pre-entry EOM3 heating profile; Surface heating and temperatures; Orbiter wing leading edge damage survey; Internal aerothermal environments; Orbiter wing CAD model; Aerodynamic flight reconstruction; Chronology of aerodynamic/aerothermoydynamic contributions; Acreage TPS tile damage; Larger OML perturbations; Missing RCC panel(s); Localized damage to RCC panel/missing T-seal; RCC breach with flow ingestion; and Aero-aerothermal closure. NAIT served as the interface between the CAIB and NASA investigation teams; and CAIB requests for study were addressed.

  8. Summary of 1991--1992 misadministration event investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, L.T.; Leahy, T.J.; Novack, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    Investigation team composed of representatives of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and subcontracts investigated and analyzed seven misadministration events selected by the NRC concerning medical radioisotopes. Each team was led by an INEL member and depending on the nature of the event, included three or more team members with appropriate expertise in radiation oncology, medical physics, nuclear medicine technology, risk analysis, and human factors. The investigations focused on causes of the event, consequences, mitigating actions, and corrective actions. The major findings are described in this report.

  9. The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

  10. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  11. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  12. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  13. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005 Section 252.228-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  14. Summary of Seepage Investigations in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, C.S.; Julich, R.J.; Welch, W.B.; Curran, C.R.; Mastin, M.C.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Yakama Nation for seepage investigations in the Yakima River basin are made available as downloadable Microsoft Excel files. These data were collected for more than a century at various times for several different studies and are now available in one location to facilitate future analysis by interested parties.

  15. Investigations on Hydrogen Distribution and Mitigation Measures in the Containment Under Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Jun Xiao; Zhi-Wei Zhou; Xing-Qing Jing

    2006-07-01

    During severe accident oxidation of the metallic components of the reactor core and the core-concrete interaction will produce hydrogen which may threaten the integrity of the containment. It is important to predict hydrogen transport and mixing in the containment, in order to determine whether the mixture can locally reach flammability limits, and install the hydrogen mitigation devices at a reasonable and suitable position. Several turbulence models in FLUENT and GASFLOW were adopted in this paper to investigate hydrogen transport and mixing in the containment, and the results were compared. The study indicates that RNG k -- {epsilon} model can obtain better simulation in parameter fluctuation, velocity field, and hydrogen concentration field than the other models'. The results calculated by algebraic model in GASFLOW are largely different from the other results in the simulation of mass diffusion, momentum diffusion, and parameter fluctuation. The results of k -- {epsilon} model in GASFLOW have the similar trend as the results of FLUENT in velocity field and concentration field. Three hydrogen mitigation measures were also studied in a simple closed room using the code GASFLOW. The results indicate that the combination of recombiners and igniters is a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of hydrogen combustion. (authors)

  16. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C. ); Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H. ); Chen, Y.S. . Div. of Systems Research)

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Summary of Investigations of Mark 25 Aerial-Torpedo Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Whitney, Warren J.; Buckner, Howard A., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    The power plant from a Mark 25 aerial torpedo was investigated both as a two-stage turbine and as a single-stage modified turbine to determine the effect on overall performance of nozzle size and shape, first-stage rotor-blade configuration, and axial nozzle-rotor running clearance. Performance was evaluated in terms of brake, rotor, and blade efficiencies. All the performance data were obtained for inlet total to outlet static pressure ratios of 8, 15 (design), and 20 with inlet conditions maintained constant at 95 pounds per square inch gage and 1000 F for rotor speeds from approximately 6000 to 18,000 rpm.

  18. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  19. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  20. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  1. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  2. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  3. Seismic investigations of the HDR Safety Program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Kot, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the seismic investigations, performed at the HDR facility in Kahl/Main, FRG was to validate calculational methods for the seismic evaluation of nuclear-reactor systems, using experimental data from an actual nuclear plant. Using eccentric mass shaker excitation the HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure, exhibiting highly nonlinear response and demonstrating that structures not seismically designed can sustain loads equivalent to a design basin earthquake (DBE). Load transmission from the structure to piping/equipment indicated significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies, while the response of tanks/vessels depended mainly on their support conditions. The evaluation of various piping support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is important to limiting pipe greens. Piping at loads exceeding the DBE eightfold still had significant margins and failure is improbable inspite of multiple support failures. The mean value for pipe damping, even under extreme loads, was found to be about 4%. Comparison of linear and nonlinear computational results with piping response measurements showed that predictions have a wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces. For the soil/structure system the quality of the predictions did not depend so much on the complexity of the modeling, but rather on whether the model captured the salient features and nonlinearities of the system.

  4. Computational Aerodynamics of Shuttle Orbiter Damage Scenarios in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    2004-01-01

    In support of the Columbia Accident Investigation, inviscid computations of the aerodynamic characteristics for various Shuttle Orbiter damage scenarios were performed using the FELISA unstructured CFD solver. Computed delta aerodynamics were compared with the reconstructed delta aerodynamics in order to postulate a progression of damage through the flight trajectory. By performing computations at hypervelocity flight and CF4 tunnel conditions, a bridge was provided between wind tunnel testing in Langley's 20-Inch CF4 facility and the flight environment experienced by Columbia during re-entry. The rapid modeling capability of the unstructured methodology allowed the computational effort to keep pace with the wind tunnel and, at times, guide the wind tunnel efforts. These computations provided a detailed view of the flowfield characteristics and the contribution of orbiter components (such as the vertical tail and wing) to aerodynamic forces and moments that were unavailable from wind tunnel testing. The damage scenarios are grouped into three categories. Initially, single and multiple missing full RCC panels were analyzed to determine the effect of damage location and magnitude on the aerodynamics. Next is a series of cases with progressive damage, increasing in severity, in the region of RCC panel 9. The final group is a set of wing leading edge and windward surface deformations that model possible structural deformation of the wing skin due to internal heating of the wing structure. By matching the aerodynamics from selected damage scenarios to the reconstructed flight aerodynamics, a progression of damage that is consistent with the flight data, debris forensics, and wind tunnel data is postulated.

  5. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and

  6. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  7. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 1: Summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, E. E.; Bloomquist, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the KSC program for investigating the reliability aspects of the ground support activities is presented. An analysis of unsatisfactory condition reports (RC), and the generation of reliability assessment of components based on the URC are discussed along with the design considerations for attaining reliable real time hardware/software configurations.

  8. Microcoding of communications in accident investigation - Crew coordination in United 811 and United 232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predmore, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    Two recent airline accidents that underscored the value of cockpit resource management (CRM) to line operations, especially under stressful, high workload conditions are reviewed. An analysis of the verbal behavior of each crew was conducted to explore how catastrophic events impact upon the dynamics of crew interaction. In both cases the Captain stated that training in CRM contributed significantly to the overall effectiveness of the crews.

  9. Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

  10. Three Mile Island technical information and examination program instrumentation and electrical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Meininger, R.D.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the investigations on instrumentation and electrical systems that were subjected to a loss-of-coolant accident environment during and following the accident at Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979. The report is a summary of information previously published in GEND-INF reports, plus current knowledge of the investigators.

  11. Microscopic and Metallurgical Aspects of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was descending for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on February 1, 2003. Approximately 20 minutes prior to touchdown, the Columbia began disintegrating over the western United States; the majority of debris eventually impacted in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. A monumental effort eventually recovered approximately 84,000 pieces of debris, approximately 38% of the Orbiter's original dry weight. The debris was transported to KSC, where the items were catalogued and evaluated. Critical areas of interest, such as the left and right leading edge surfaces and the underside of the ship, were placed upon a grid to aid in the reconstruction. Items of interest included metallic structures, reinforced carbon-carbon composites, and ceramic heat insulation tiles. Many of the leading edge elements had re-solidified metallic deposits spattered on them. These deposits became known as slag and were one of the main focuses of the investigation. In order to help determine the sequence of events inside the left wing during the accident, the slag's composition, layering order, and directionality of deposition were studied. A myriad of analytical tests were performed in an attempt to ascertain the compositional and depositional characteristics of selected slag deposits, including the ordering of deposited layers within each individual slag deposit harvested. Initially, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) were performed to quickly characterize the overall composition of individual slag deposits: SEM utilizes a narrowlyfocused high-energy electron beam impinging upon a specimen. The incident beam excites and liberates lower energy secondary electrons, which are detected and analyzed, providing a visual representation of the sample's surface topography. EDX also relies on an incident electron beam, except an EDX unit measures X-ray energies generated by the impinging beam. Each element generates a

  12. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.W.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  13. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  14. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirov, F A; Shcheglov, A I

    1994-12-11

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, beta-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed.

  15. Type A behavior pattern, accident optimism and fatalism: an investigation into non-compliance with safety work behaviors among hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, Fabian O; Onyishi, Ike E; Ugwu, Chidi; Onyishi, Charity N

    2015-01-01

    Safety work behavior has continued to attract the interest of organizational researchers and practitioners especially in the health sector. The goal of the study was to investigate whether personality type A, accident optimism and fatalism could predict non-compliance with safety work behaviors among hospital nurses. One hundred and fifty-nine nursing staff sampled from three government-owned hospitals in a state in southeast Nigeria, participated in the study. Data were collected through Type A Behavior Scale (TABS), Accident Optimism, Fatalism and Compliance with Safety Behavior (CSB) Scales. Our results showed that personality type A, accident optimism and fatalism were all related to non-compliance with safety work behaviors. Personality type A individuals tend to comply less with safety work behaviors than personality type B individuals. In addition, optimistic and fatalistic views about accidents and existing safety rules also have implications for compliance with safety work behaviors.

  16. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1979 to June 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    This annual report contains summaries of more than 1,200 reading research studies that appeared in print between July 1, 1979 and June 30, 1980. The summaries are arranged into six major categories. The first category lists other general bibliographies offering summaries of reading research, while the second category presents summaries of studies…

  17. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with

  18. A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

  19. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1978 to June 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    This annual publication contains summaries of more than 1,100 reading research reports that appeared in print between July 1, 1978 and June 30, 1979. The summaries are arranged into six major categories. The first category contains a listing of other general bibliographies offering summaries of reading research, while the second category presents…

  20. Two fatal cases of immersion pulmonary oedema - using dive accident investigation to assist the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R; Sage, Martin; Davis, F Michael

    2014-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is being increasingly recognized in swimmers, snorkellers and scuba divers presenting with acute symptoms of respiratory distress following immersion, but fatal case reports are uncommon. We report two fatal cases of probable IPE in middle-aged women, one whilst snorkelling and the other associated with a scuba dive. In the snorkeller's case, an episode of exercise-related chest tightness and shortness of breath that occurred 10 months previously was investigated but this proved negative, and she was on no medications. However, at autopsy, moderate left ventricular hypertrophy was noted. The scuba diver had suffered several previous episodes of severe shortness of breath following dives, one being so severe it led to cyanosis and impaired consciousness. At inquest, the pathologist's diagnosis was given as drowning and IPE was not mentioned. Expert input from doctors trained in diving medicine should be compulsory in the investigation of diving deaths, and forensic pathologists should be properly trained in and have guidelines for the conduct of post-immersion and post-diving autopsies. PMID:24986728

  1. Two fatal cases of immersion pulmonary oedema - using dive accident investigation to assist the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R; Sage, Martin; Davis, F Michael

    2014-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is being increasingly recognized in swimmers, snorkellers and scuba divers presenting with acute symptoms of respiratory distress following immersion, but fatal case reports are uncommon. We report two fatal cases of probable IPE in middle-aged women, one whilst snorkelling and the other associated with a scuba dive. In the snorkeller's case, an episode of exercise-related chest tightness and shortness of breath that occurred 10 months previously was investigated but this proved negative, and she was on no medications. However, at autopsy, moderate left ventricular hypertrophy was noted. The scuba diver had suffered several previous episodes of severe shortness of breath following dives, one being so severe it led to cyanosis and impaired consciousness. At inquest, the pathologist's diagnosis was given as drowning and IPE was not mentioned. Expert input from doctors trained in diving medicine should be compulsory in the investigation of diving deaths, and forensic pathologists should be properly trained in and have guidelines for the conduct of post-immersion and post-diving autopsies.

  2. The Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Jerman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning from a 16-day research mission, STS- 107, with nominal system performance prior to the beginning of the entry interface into earth's upper atmosphere. Approximately one minute and twenty four seconds into the peak heating region of the entry interface, an off-nominal temperature rise was observed in the left main landing gear brake line. Nearly seven minutes later, all contact was lost with Columbia. Debris was observed periodically exiting the Shuttle's flight path throughout the reentry profile over California, Nevada, and New Mexico, until its final breakup over Texas. During the subsequent investigation, electron microscopy techniques were crucial in revealing the location of the fatal damage that resulted in the loss of Columbia and her crew.

  3. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams

  4. Neutron Imaging Investigations of the Secondary Hydriding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Alloys during Loss of Coolant Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Stuckert, J.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Schillinger, B.

    The hydrogen concentration and distribution at both sides of the burst opening of cladding tubes used in three QUENCH-LOCA simulation bundle experiments were investigated by means of neutron radiography and tomography. The quantitative correlation between the total macroscopic neutron cross-section and the atomic number density ratio between hydrogen and zirconium was determined by testing calibration specimens with known hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen enrichments located at the end of the ballooning zone of the tested tubes were detected in the inner rods of the test bundles. Nearly all of the peripheral claddings exposed to lower temperatures do not show such enrichments. This implies that under the conditions investigated a threshold temperature exists below which no hydrogen enrichments can be formed. In order to understand the hydrogen distribution a model was developed describing the processes occurring during loss of coolant accidents after rod burst. The general shape of the hydrogen distributions with a peak each side of the ballooning region is well predicted by this model whereas the absolute concentrations are underestimated compared to the results of the neutron tomography investigations. The model was also used to discuss the influence of the alloy composition on the secondary hydrogenation. Whereas the relations for the maximal hydrogen concentrations agree well for one and the same alloy, the agreement for tests with different alloys is less satisfying, showing that material parameters such as oxidation kinetics, phase transition temperature for the zirconium oxide, and yield strength and ductility at high temperature have to be taken into account to reproduce the results of neutron imaging investigations correctly.

  5. DSMC simulations in support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter accident investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Boyles, Katie A.; LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2004-06-01

    Three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo simulations of Columbia Shuttle Orbiter flight STS-107 are presented. The aim of this work is to determine the aerodynamic and heating behavior of the Orbiter during aerobraking maneuvers and to provide piecewise integration of key scenario events to assess the plausibility of the candidate failure scenarios. The flight of the Orbiter is examined at two altitudes: 350-kft and 300-kft. The flowfield around the Orbiter and the heat transfer to it are calculated for the undamaged configuration. The flow inside the wing for an assumed damage to the leading edge in the form of a 10- inch hole is studied. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her seven-member crew was followed by an investigation that lasted almost 7 months covering numerous failure scenarios. Due to the lack of physical data about flight STS-107 (especially in the high altitude part of it), numerical simulations were employed to help with the interpretation of the forensic evidence and the evaluation of the plausibility of the candidate scenarios. The conclusion of the investigation was that the physical cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the Thermal Protection System. To protect the aluminum structure of the Orbiter during re-entry, the Orbiter is covered with various materials collectively referred to as the Thermal Protection System. The three major components of the system are various types of heat-resistant tiles, blankets, and the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. The RCC panels are layers of graphite molded to the desired shape at very high temperatures. RCC is used for the Orbiter nose cap, chin panel, forward external tank attachment point, and wing leading edge panels and T-seals. RCC is a material capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2,000 K. Each wing leading edge consists of 22 RCC panels numbered from 1 to 22 moving outward on each wing. Because the shape of the wing changes from inboard to

  6. Investigating Montara platform oil spill accident by implementing RST-OIL approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, Valeria; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Oil Spills represent one of the most harmful events to marine ecosystems and their timely detection is crucial for their mitigation and management. The potential of satellite data for their detection and monitoring has been largely investigated. Traditional satellite techniques usually identify oil spill presence applying a fixed threshold scheme only after the occurrence of an event, which make them not well suited for their prompt identification. The Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach, in its oil spill detection version (RST-OIL), being based on the comparison of the latest satellite acquisition with its historical value, previously identified, allows the automatic and near real-time detection of events. Such a technique has been already successfully applied on data from different sources (AVHRR-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and MODIS-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) showing excellent performance in detecting oil spills both during day- and night-time conditions, with an high level of sensitivity (detection also of low intensity events) and reliability (no false alarm on scene). In this paper, RST-OIL has been implemented on MODIS thermal infrared data for the analysis of the Montara Platform (Timor Sea - Australia) oil spill disaster occurred in August 2009. Preliminary achievements are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  8. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  9. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended

  10. A summary of porous tube plant nutrient delivery system investigations from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is a research effort to evaluate biological processes at a one person scale to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This program focuses currently on the use of conventional crop plants and the use of hydroponic systems to grow them. Because conventional hydroponic systems are dependent on gravity to conduct solution flow, they cannot be used in the microgravity of space. Thus, there is a need for a system that will deliver water and nutrients to plant roots under microgravity conditions. The Plant Space Biology Program is interested in investigating the effect that the space environment has on the growth and development of plants. Thus, there is also a need to have a standard nutrient delivery method for growing plants in space for research into plant responses to microgravity. The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) utilizes a hydrophilic, microporous material to control water and nutrient delivery to plant roots. It has been designed and analyzed to support plant growth independent of gravity and plans are progressing to test it in microgravity. It has been used successfully to grow food crops to maturity in an earth-bound laboratory. This document includes a bibliography and summary reports from the growth trials performed utilizing the PTPNDS.

  11. Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2006-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom

  12. Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

  13. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened.

  14. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened. PMID:27406628

  15. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  16. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  17. [An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment: there are more accidents than expected].

    PubMed

    Doi, Tsukasa; Yamatani, Yuya; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kumashiro, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (e.g. stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials.

  18. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1982 to June 30, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    More than 1,000 studies of reading research published between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983 are summarized in this report. The studies are arranged into six categories: (1) Summaries of Reading Research, (2) Teacher Preparation and Practice, (3) The Sociolgy of Reading, (4) Physiology and Psychology of Reading, (5) The Teaching of Reading, and…

  19. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1983 to June 30, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    Intended to help professionals remain knowledgeable about current research in reading and to serve as a relatively accessible bibliographic source of research on a specific topic, this annual report summarizes approximately 1,150 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1983, and June 30, 1984. The summaries are arranged into six…

  20. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1971, to June 30, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Samuel, Comp.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The 302 reports of reading research summarized here were published between July 1, 1971, and June 30, 1972. The research has been categorized under six headings. The first category includes other summaries of research, classified as general or under specific titles. The second category consists of research literature related to teacher preparation…

  1. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1985 to June 30, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    Intended to help professionals remain knowledgeable about current research in reading and to serve as a relatively accessible bibliographic source of research on a specific topic, this annual report summarizes approximately 800 reading research reports identified between July 1, 1985, and June 30, 1986. The summaries are arranged into six major…

  2. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    Intended to help professionals remain knowledgeable about current research in reading and to serve as a relatively accessible bibliographic source of research on a specific topic, this annual report summarizes approximately 1,000 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1984, and June 30, 1985. The summaries are arranged into six…

  3. A summary of investigations of severe turbulence incidents using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, P. F.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Work done on the NASA-Ames data base of digital flight records from airliners involved in severe turbulence incidences is summarized. The summary includes descriptions of the archived cases, data processing procedures, estimated errors, analysis procedures, and significant results to date. Thirteen severe turbulence cases are listed.

  4. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California: Summary of Fieldwork and Data Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical field investigations have been carried out at the Hidden Dam in Raymond, California for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology and seepage-related conditions at the site. Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam are documented by Cedergren. Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a subdrain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain within the downstream portion of the dam. The purpose of the current geophysical work is to (1) identify present-day seepage areas that may not be evident due to the effectiveness of the drainage blanket in redirecting seepage water, and (2) provide information about subsurface geologic structures that may control subsurface flow and seepage. These tasks are accomplished through the use of two complementary electrical geophysical methods, self-potentials (SP) and direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity, which have been commonly utilized in dam-seepage studies. SP is a passive method that is primarily sensitive to active subsurface groundwater flow and seepage, whereas DC resistivity is an active-source method that is sensitive to changes in subsurface lithology and groundwater saturation. The focus of this field campaign was on the downstream area on the right abutment, or northwest side of the dam, as this is the main area of interest regarding seepage. Two exploratory self-potential lines were also collected on the downstream left abutment of the dam to identify

  5. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  6. Radiotherapy Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckenzie, Alan

    A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

  7. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The criteria, guidelines, and an organized approach for use in the space station and space shuttle program definition phase are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) background information and evolution of the studies, (2) definition of terms used, (3) concepts of the space shuttle, space station, experiment modules, shuttle-sortie operations and modular space station, and (4) summary of functional program element (FPE) requirements. Diagrams of the various configurations and the experimental equipment to be installed in the structures are included.

  8. Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-09

    Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures.

  9. Summary and review of Materials Special Investigation Group evaluations of hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Funk, Joan; Pippin, H. Gary; Dursch, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Major materials findings obtained during LDEF post-flight investigations over the past three and one-half years are reported. The summary of findings to date includes results for thermal control coatings, thin polymeric films, composites, metals, adhesives, contamination, and environments definitions. Reaction rates of selected materials exposed to atomic oxygen are presented. Results useful for model verification and comparison with ground based facility data are specifically highlighted. Potential areas for future work are described. In conclusion, a rationale for a second long term flight experiment is presented.

  10. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process` components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process` usefulness.

  11. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  12. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  13. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey investigations and hydrologic conditions in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutilla, Robert Lloyd; Rollins, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes water-resources investigations in the Southwest Florida Water Management District performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, for fiscal year 1978. The investigations are part of the Federal program of appraising the nation 's water resources. The cooperative program for fiscal year 1978 included 37 interpretive investigations. Abstracts of 30 reports released during 1978 and a bibliography of reports released since 1933 are included. The hydrologic setting of southwest Florida and discussions of surface-water, ground-water, and quality-of-water conditions are given. Hydrologic conditions in southwest Florida are described and illustrated by hydrographs of selected surface-water, ground-water and lake-stage data collection sites. In addition, summaries of water-use data and data on the regional observation monitor-well program are provided. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  15. Investigation of Alleged Scientific Misconduct on Grants MH-32206 and MH-37449. Final Report and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    The report presents results of a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) investigation into alleged scientific misconduct by Dr. Stephen Bruening in relation to two federally supported projects concerning tardive dyskinesia in retarded populations and stimulant drug use with mentally retarded children. The investigative panel of scientists…

  16. An investigation of transitional management problems for the NSTS at NASA, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the work of the University of Houston research team for the third quarter of effort in a yearly grant for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). As such it serves as a resting place for the ideas and concepts developed this quarter with the collaboration of the Management Integration Offices of NASA. Another objective is the hope that the report will help to stimulate the healthy problem solving process already present at NASA. The main goal of the contractual work is to help NASA to find ways and means of moving into a truly operational era with the shuttle program. This work is a continuation of early work and the reader is encouraged to read the final reports of earlier years. Chapter One of the report is an introduction. Chapter Two deals with industrial adaptation and is in two parts: theory and application. In the theory section, impressions of the management system immediately after reflight are discussed. A key issue, in the author's opinion is the seeming lack of purpose of the program. The application section has six appendices: 1988 Demographic Survey, Field Notes of Interview with HL/P South Texas Nuclear Project, a comparison of the Agendas of the current manager with that of a previous manager, a note on compartmentalization to assist in manifesting, a study on launch prediction for STS-26, and a discussion of a statistical decision-making course for upper level managers. Chapter Three deals with theoretical results returned on flow shop scheduling which will be of use downstream. Chapter Four deals with a statistical model developed to predict the flight rate in future years and indicates the program will have trouble making its schedule. Chapter Five covers the constructural effort and shows the work to be on schedule.

  17. NRRI summary of New York Public Service Commission: Staff investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In June 1995, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) released a Staff investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. (O&R). The primary focus of the Staffs investigation was the Corporate Policy and External Affairs Department, a restricted disbursements account, the Internal Auditing Department, and O&R officer malfeasance. The Staffs` investigation uncovered widespread, alleged instances of lax internal controls, unethical and illegal actions, and lavish officer behavior. In addition, the Staff investigated O&R`s internal control and purchasing functions. The Staff proposed a series of recommendations to improve the Company`s internal control, purchasing, ethical, climate and addressed the issue of a New York ratepayer reimbursement. The Staffs findings and recommendations were presented in the form of a report, entitled Staff Investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. This article summarizes the Report.

  18. Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C. H.; Sung, J. J.; Chung, Y. W.

    2012-07-01

    The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

  19. Summary of investigations of the use of modified turbine inlet conditions in a binary power plant

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Mines

    2000-09-24

    Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter the two-phase region, a mode of operation typically avoided because of concern that condensate would form and damage the turbine, degrading performance. INEEL investigators postulated that initially a supersaturated vapor would be supported, and that no turbine damage would occur. This paper summarizes the investigation of these expansions that began with testing of their condensation behavior, and culminated with the incorporation of these expansions into the operation of several commercial binary plant turbines.

  20. Summary of Investigations of the Use of Modified Turbine Inlet Conditions in a Binary Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, Gregory Lee

    2000-09-01

    Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter the two-phase region, a mode of operation typically avoided because of concern that condensate would form and damage the turbine, degrading performance. INEEL investigators postulated that initially a supersaturated vapor would be supported, and that no turbine damage would occur. This paper summarizes the investigation of these expansions that began with testing of their condensation behavior, and culminated with the incorporation of these expansions into the operation of several commercial binary plant turbines.

  1. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  2. [Injury pattern and identification after airplane catastrophies. Cooperation between forensic medicine and federal criminal investigations. An airplane accident in Mühlheim/Ruhr 8 February 1988].

    PubMed

    Weiler, G; Risse, M

    1989-01-01

    On February 8th 1988, a two-motor passenger aircraft of Metroliner type with 21 people on board entered a front of heavy weather at an altitude of 900 m and crashed after being struck by lightning which led to complete breakdown of the electrical systems on board. The site of the crash was in the marshy Ruhr meadows. The formation of the terrain enabled a subdivision into plan squares for rescue. The identification of the 21 bodies was carried out in the Essen Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the identification commission of the Federal Criminal Investigation Office. The experience and recommendations for future (possibly larger-scale) disasters derived from this are described. Furthermore, the accident pattern in the casualties typical for this air crash is discussed. PMID:2818481

  3. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A general overview of the LANDSAT 4 system with emphasis on the Thematic Mapper (TM) is presented. A variety of topics on the design, calibration, capabilities, and image processing techniques of the TM sensor are discussed in detail. The comparison of TM data with other MSS data is also investigated.

  4. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds: Phase 1: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structural response to aerodynamic buffet during moderate to high-g maneuvers at subsonic and transonic speeds was investigated. The investigation is reported in three volumes. This volume presents a summary of the investigation with a complete description of the technical approach, description of the aircraft, its instrumentation, the data reduction procedures, results and conclusion.

  5. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  6. Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Jon Carmack; Frank Goldner

    2014-10-01

    The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). Accident tolerance became a focus within advanced LWR research upon direction from Congress following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The U.S. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behavior in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory beginning in Summer 2014 with additional concepts being

  7. Lidar measurements from space for tropospheric chemistry investigations: Summary of workshop overview presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA has played a lead role in defining the scientific objectives and technology requirements for spaceborne lidar investigations of the atmosphere. An assessment of the potential for conducting lidar measurements from space for investigations that pertain specifically to tropospheric chemistry is presented. A description of potential lidar measurement techniques is given, and the scientific requirements for tropospheric chemistry are reviewed. The current status of airborne lidar measurements of aerosols, O3, and H2O is discussed, and a brief description of the evolution of lidar technology to space is given. Also, the measurement of tropospheric gases with a spaceborne lidar system is evaluated for a wide range of gas species. From this general assessment, it appears feasible to measure aerosols, H2O, O3, NH3, CO, CH4, NO2, atmospheric pressure and temperature, and wind with a lidar from space provided that the appropriate laser and receiver technology is available. For the mid-1990's, it is expected that lidar technology will be available for the measurement of aerosols, H2O, and O3 from a space platform.

  8. Surface water investigations in Afghanistan: a summary of activities from 1952 to 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, Arthur O.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize briefly the history of the Surface Water Research project since its inception in 1952, the work accomplished, and the problems encountered. In general, each topic is discussed under two periods of time: 1952-1963, when projects were confined to the Helmand River Valley and was entitled Helmand Surface Water Investigations (306-12-021, 306-M-12-AD and 306-AC-12-AD5), and 1963-1969 when activities were expanded to cover most of Afghanistan and title was changed to Surface Water Research (306-11-190-002). Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Water and Soil Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Royal Government of Afghanistan under the auspices of the United States Agency for International Development.

  9. NASA geodynamics program investigations summaries: A supplement to the NASA geodynamics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of a time series of global atmospheric motion and mass fields through April 1984 to compare with changes in length of day and polar motion was investigated. Earth rotation was studied and the following topics are discussed: (1) computation of atmospheric angular momentum through April 1984; (2) comparisons of psi sub values with variations in length of day obtained by several groups utilizing B.I.H., lunar laser ranging, VLBI, or Lageos measurements; (3) computation of atmospheric excitation of polar motion using daily fields of atmospheric winds and pressures for a short test period. Daily calculations may be extended over a longer period to examine the forcing of the annual and Chandler wobbles, in addition to higher frequency nutations.

  10. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes.

  11. Scientific Objectives for UV/Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  12. Scientific Objectives for UV-Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  13. Scientific Objectives for UV-Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  14. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes. PMID:26578424

  15. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues.

  16. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  17. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  19. Accident Case Study of Organizational Silence Communication Breakdown: Shuttle Columbia, Mission STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocha, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    This report has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ESMD Risk and Knowledge Management team. This document provides a point-in-time, cumulative, summary of key lessons learned derived from the official Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB). Lessons learned invariably address challenges and risks and the way in which these areas have been addressed. Accordingly the risk management thread is woven throughout the document. This report is accompanied by a video that will be sent at request

  20. Investigations of Aluminum-Doped Self-Healing Zircaloy Surfaces in Context of Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul; Snead, Lance; Hinderliter, Brian; Massey, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    We present here some important results investigating aluminum as an effective surface dopant for increased oxidation resistance of zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding. At first, the transport behavior of aluminum into reactor grade zircaloy was studied using simple diffusion couples at temperatures greater than 770 K. The experiments revealed the formation of tens of microns thick graded Zr-Al layers. The activation energy of aluminum in zircaloy was found to be ~175 kJ/mol (~1.8 eV), indicating the high mobility of aluminum in zircaloy. Subsequently, aluminum sputter-coated zircaloy coupons were heat-treated to achieve surface doping and form compositionally graded layers. These coupons were then tested in steam environments at 1073 and 1273 K. The microstructure of the as-fabricated and steam-corroded specimens was compared to those of pure zircaloy control specimens. Analysis of data revealed that aluminum effectively competed with zircaloy for oxygen up until 1073 K blocking oxygen penetration, with no traces of large scale spalling, indicating mechanically stable interfaces and surfaces. At the highest steam test temperatures, aluminum was observed to segregate from the Zr-Al alloy under layers and migrate to the surface forming discrete clusters. Although this is perceived as an extremely desirable phenomenon, in the current experiments, oxygen was observed to penetrate into the zirconium-rich under layers, which could be attributed to formation of surface defects such as cracks in the surface alumina layers.

  1. Ground based impact testing of Orbiter thermal protection system materials in support of the Columbia accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Justin Hamilton

    On January 16, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) was launched for a nominal 16-day mission of microgravity research. Fifteen days and 20 hours after launch, and just 16 minutes before its scheduled landing, the OV-102 vehicle disintegrated during its descent. The entire crew was lost. Film and video cameras located around the launch complex captured images of the vehicle during its ascent. Of note were data that showed a piece of debris strike the port wing at approximately 82 sec after lift-off (T+82). As resulting analysis would show, the source of the debris was the left bipod ramp of the Shuttle external tank. This foam debris struck the Orbiter leading edge at sufficient velocity to breech the thermal protection system (TPS). During reentry at the end of the mission, the hot plasma impinged inside the Orbiter wing and aerodynamic forces ultimately failed the wing structure. This thesis documents the activities conducted to evaluate the effects of foam impact on Orbiter TPS. These efforts were focused on, to the greatest extent practical, replicating the impact event during the STS-107 mission ascent. This thesis fully documents the test program development, methodology, results, analysis, and conclusions to the degree that future investigators can reproduce the tests and understand the basis for decisions made during the development of the tests.

  2. World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  3. A trial product of a new safety belt for a wheelchair user and its evaluation based on the actual investigation of fall accidents related to wheelchairs in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Teuko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    Old-aged patients, especially when they cannot keep stable sitting postures on wheelchairs, may get hurts seriously by falls. Preventing fall accidents is one of the most important subjects for keeping ADL of old-aged persons. We investigated the fall accidents related to from wheelchairs that occurred in a hospital (Asao General Hospital of Rehabilitation), and tried to make a new type of safety belts for old-aged wheelchair users based on the investigation. The results of trials using the product was evaluated by the care givers. The number of fall accidents in the hospital amounted to 226 cases within a year. It is noticed that the patients removed their belts by themselves intentionally or unintentionally, which is the most important point of the accidents. The evaluators of new belts were 91 care givers. The evaluation items were (1) the convenience for caregivers to fasten and remove the belts, (2) the ability of holding the patient on the wheelchair, (3) the safeness to prevent the fall from wheelchair (including the disability of removing a belt by the user), (4) the appearance when the usually used belts and the new belts were used, and only for the new belts, (5) the hygienic aspect and (6) the utility of the pocket. The new belts got better marks than the usually used belts. We intend to further improve the trial product (new belt) to be safer, more effective and more comfortable, based on the evaluation.

  4. [Orofacial injuries in skateboard accidents].

    PubMed

    Frohberg, U; Bonsmann, M

    1992-04-01

    In a clinical study, 25 accidents involving injuries by a fall with a skateboard were investigated and classified in respect of epidemiology, accident mechanism and injury patterns in the facial region. Accident victims are predominantly boys between 7 and 9 years of age. A multiple trauma involving the teeth and the dental system in general and the soft parts of the face is defined as a characteristic orofacial injury pattern in skateboard accidents. The high proportion of damage to the front teeth poses problems of functional and aesthetic rehabilitation necessitating long-term treatment courses in children and adolescents. Effective prevention of facial injuries may be possible by evolving better facial protection systems and by creating areas of playgrounds where skateboarders can practise safely.

  5. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway: a long-term investigation.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna; Meyer, Sunniva Frislid

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (Fridstrøm, 2000; Elvik and Kaminska, 2011) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose-response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points.

  6. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway: a long-term investigation.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna; Meyer, Sunniva Frislid

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (Fridstrøm, 2000; Elvik and Kaminska, 2011) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose-response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points. PMID:23474233

  7. Contribution to the description of the absorber rod behavior in severe accident conditions: An experimental investigation of the Ag-Zr phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decreton, A.; Benigni, P.; Rogez, J.; Mikaelian, G.; Barrachin, M.; Lomello-Tafin, M.; Antion, C.; Janghorban, A.; Fischer, E.

    2015-10-01

    Most pressurized water reactor (PWR) absorber rods are composed of an Ag-In-Cd (SIC) alloy inside a stainless steel (SS) cladding, themselves inserted into a Zircaloy tube. During a severe accident, the SIC alloy which melts at 800 °C does not practically interact with SS. However, the cladding failure results from its internal pressurization and its eutectic interaction with Zircaloy and occurs at temperatures greater than 1200 °C. The subsequent interaction between the SIC melt and the Zircaloy has a strong impact on the quantities of aerosols released into the primary circuit and finally on the iodine chemistry. Accurate knowledge of the Ag-Zr system is a prerequisite to address this issue. Within this concern, our experimental work is focused both on the investigation of the Ag-Zr phase diagram and on the determination of the thermodynamic properties of the intermetallic compounds in the system. Two intermetallic compounds (AgZr and AgZr2) were identified. Ag-Zr cast alloys with a Ag/Zr ratio of 1:1 elaborated using an arc-melting furnace, once annealed, contained only a single phase AgZr. From metallographic observations, it appears that AgZr2 likely forms by the peritectic reaction from liquid and the bcc (βZr) phase. The partial enthalpies of solution of silver and zirconium in aluminum were experimentally determined at 723 °C in order to determine the enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds. For silver solution calorimetry in aluminum bath, our measurements were successful and in agreement with the previous data. Yet, this study shows that liquid aluminum should not be used as a solvent for zirconium below 1000 °C.

  8. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  9. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Arcilesi, David J.; Ham, Tae Kyu; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Oh, Chang H.

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner...

  12. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner...

  13. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner...

  14. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner...

  15. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  16. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  17. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  18. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  19. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  20. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  1. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  2. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  4. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  5. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  6. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Cashwell, C. E.; McClure, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions.

  7. 78 FR 48224 - Lac-Mégantic Railroad Accident Discussion and DOT Safety Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway (MMA). While the accident is still being investigated by Canadian... accident. Further, Canadian authorities have not yet determined the cause of this accident. As such... Canada Emergency Directive In response to this accident, Transport Canada (the Canadian...

  8. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  9. ALS beamlines for independent investigators: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of beamlines at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    There are two mods of conducting research at the ALS: To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT). To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT); to work as an independent investigator; PRTs are responsible for building beamlines, end stations, and, in some cases, insertion devices. Thus, PRT members have privileged access to the ALS. Independent investigators will use beamline facilities made available by PRTs. The purpose of this handbook is to describe these facilities.

  10. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  11. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192

  12. Analytical and experimental investigation of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of the shuttle orbiter. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, P. W.; Harris, H. G.; Zalesak, J.; Bernstein, M.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/8-scale structural dynamics model of the space shuttle orbiter was analyzed using the NASA Structural Analysis System (NASTRAN). Comparison of the calculated eigenvalues with preliminary test data for the unrestrained condition indicate that the analytical model was consistently stiffer, being about 20% higher in the first mode. The eigenvectors show reasonably good agreement with test data. A series of analytical and experimental investigations undertaken to resolve the discrepancy are described. Modifications in the NASTRAN model based upon these investigations resulted in close agreement for both eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  13. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  14. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  16. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  17. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  18. Calcific aortic valve disease: A consensus summary from the Alliance of Investigators on Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, Katherine E.; Demer, Linda L.; Body, Simon C.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Towler, Dwight A.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Hofmann-Bowman, Marion A.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options beyond surgical valve replacement are currently limited. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute assembled a working group on aortic stenosis. This group identified CAVD as an actively regulated disease process in need of further study. As a result, the Alliance of Investigators on CAVD was formed to coordinate and promote CAVD research, with the goals of identifying individuals at risk, developing new therapeutic approaches, and improving diagnostic methods. The group is composed of cardiologists, geneticists, imaging specialists, and basic science researchers. This report reviews the current status of CAVD research and treatment strategies with identification of areas in need of additional investigation for optimal management of this patient population. PMID:25189570

  19. Summary of Results Obtained in Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of the Ryan Flex-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Hassell, James L., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The performance and static stability and control characteristics of the Ryan Flex-Wing airplane were determined in an investigation conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel through an angle-of-attack range of the keel from about 14 to 44 deg. for power-on and -off conditions. Comparisons of the wind-tunnel data with flight-test data obtained with the same airplane by the Ryan Aeronautical Company were made in a number of cases.

  20. Phase 1 Data Summary Report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health Risk and Ecological Risk Screening Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address The transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The receiving river-reservoir system encompasses 140 river miles in length and 44,000 acres in surface area and is used for municipal water supply, sport fishing, navigation, boating, swimming, tourism, and residential development. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. A phased remedial investigation of the CR/WBR system is underway to (1) define the nature and extent of the off-site contamination, (2) evaluate associated environmental and human health risks, and (3) preliminarily identify and evaluate potential remediation alternatives. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI.

  1. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  2. Pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify older Malaysian people at risk of falls

    PubMed Central

    Romli, Muhammad Hibatullah; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between home hazards and falls in older Malaysian people is not yet fully understood. No tools to evaluate the Malaysian home environment currently exist. Therefore, this study aimed to pilot the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify hazards in Malaysian homes, to evaluate the feasibility of using the HOME FAST in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study and to gather preliminary data about the experience of falls among a small sample of Malaysian older people. Design A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted. Setting An urban setting in Kuala Lumpur. Participants 26 older people aged 60 and over were recruited from the control group of a related research project in Malaysia, in addition to older people known to the researchers. Primary outcome measure The HOME FAST was applied with the baseline survey for the MELoR study via a face-to-face interview and observation of the home by research staff. Results The majority of the participants were female, of Malay or Chinese ethnicity and living with others in a double-storeyed house. Falls were reported in the previous year by 19% and 80% of falls occurred at home. Gender and fear of falling had the strongest associations with home hazards. Most hazards were detected in the bathroom area. A small number of errors were detected in the HOME FAST ratings by researchers. Conclusions The HOME FAST is feasible as a research and clinical tool for the Malaysian context and is appropriate for use in the MELoR study. Home hazards were prevalent in the homes of older people and further research with the larger MELoR sample is needed to confirm the validity of using the HOME FAST in Malaysia. Training in the use of the HOME FAST is needed to ensure accurate use by researchers. PMID:27531736

  3. A STOL airworthiness investigation using a simulation of an augmentor wing transport. Volume 1: Summary of results and airworthiness implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleford, R. L.; Heffley, R. K.; Hynes, C. S.; Scott, B. C.

    1974-01-01

    A simulator study of STOL airworthiness criteria was conducted using a model of an augmentor wing transport. The approach, flare and landing, go-around, and takeoff phases of flight were investigated. The results are summarized and possible implications with regard to airworthiness criteria are discussed. The results provide a data base for future STOL airworthiness requirements and a preliminary indication of potential problem areas. The results are also compared to the results from an earlier simulation of the Breguet 941S. Where possible, airworthiness criteria are proposed for consideration.

  4. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  5. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  6. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Group 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  7. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  8. A Summary of the Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from Nasa's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  9. A summary of the lateral cutoff analysis and results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliatt, Larry J.; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  10. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey investigations and hydrologic conditions in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, A.; Causseaux, K.W.; Moore, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Southwest Florida Subdistrict of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division for fiscal year 1977. The organization and mission of the subdistrict office are described. The cooperative program for fiscal year 1977 included 41 interpretive investigations. Abstracts of twenty reports released by the subdistrict during 1977 and an extensive bibliography of reports released from 1933 to 1977 are included. The hydrologic setting of southwest Florida is outlined followed by discussions of surface-water, ground-water, and quality-of-water conditions. Hydrologic conditions in southwest Florida in 1977 are shown by the presentation of hydrographs from selected surface-water, ground-water, and lake-stage data collection sites.

  11. Quality assurance/quality control summary report for Phase 1 of the Clinch River remedial investigation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.

    1994-07-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. Phase 1 of the CRRI was a preliminary study in selected areas of the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir. Fish, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radiological parameters. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels; (2) determine the range of contaminant concentrations present in the river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants. Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase I were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for field sampling, chain-of-custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; and (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy. These objectives were met through the development and implementation of (1) a QA oversight program of audits and surveillances; (2) standard operating procedures accompanied by a training program; (3) field sampling and analytical laboratory quality control requirements; (4) data and records management systems; and (5) validation of the data by an independent reviewer. Approximately 1700 inorganic samples, 1500 organic samples, and 2200 radiological samples were analyzed and validated. The QA completeness objective for the project was to obtain valid analytical results for at least 95% of the samples collected.

  12. U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents, 1963 through 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.; Kasper, Eugene F.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has recorded 8,436 rotorcraft accidents during the period mid - 1963 through the end of 1997. Review and analysis of the NTSB summary narrative for each accident has been completed. In addition, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) counts of the growing registered rotorcraft fleet over this period has obtained. Taken together, a large and informative data base is now available, which indicates that the accident rate (on a per airframe basis) has changed very little since the mid 1970s. The data base, even in the summary form provided by this paper, offers suggestions for safer designs and improved flight operations. For analysis purposes, each accident has been placed in one of 21 top level categories as defined by the NTSB. Analysis of this grouping shows that 70 percent of rotorcraft accidents are associated with four categories. The accident count in these top four categories are: (1) 2,408 Loss of engine power (2) 1,322 In flight collision with object (3) 1,114 Loss of control (4) 1,083 Airframe/component/system failure or malfunction. Single engine rotorcraft dominate these accident statistics because of their sheer numbers over the study period. One-third of the loss of engine power accidents with these aircraft is fuel/air mixture related and fuel exhaustion is a common event. This appears to be the case whether a piston or turbine engine is installed. This paper provides similar study results in the other major mishap categories. It shows that both minor and major design and flight operations changes can -- and should -- be made to reduce rotorcraft accidents in the future. The paper outlines these changes and suggests how they may be made.

  13. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  14. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  15. Safety Is No Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    1985-01-01

    Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)

  16. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  17. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  18. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. )

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Quality assurance/quality control summary report on phase 2 of the Clinch River remedial investigation at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Anderson, H.M.; Benson, S.B.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.; Chavannes, C.M.; Cook, R.B.; Evans, D.A.; Ford, C.J.; Harris, R.A.; Horwedel, B.M.; Jackson, B.L.

    1996-12-01

    Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase 2 were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific and legal scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for sample collection, sample handling and security, chain of custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy; and (4) data would meet data quality objectives defined in the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan. A review of the QA systems and quality control (QC) data associated with the Phase 2 investigation is presented to evaluate whether the data were of sufficient quality to satisfy Phase 2 objectives. The data quality indicators of precision, accuracy, representativeness, comparability, completeness, and sensitivity were evaluated to determine any limitations associated with the data. Data were flagged with qualifiers that were associated with appropriate reason codes and documentation relating the qualifiers to the reviewer of the data. These qualifiers were then consolidated into an overall final qualifier to represent the quality of the data to the end user. In summary, reproducible, precise, and accurate measurements consistent with CRRI objectives and the limitations of the sampling and analytical procedures used were obtained for the data collected in support of the Phase 2 Remedial Investigation.

  20. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  1. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  2. Accident prevention manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-05-01

    Among the many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of families, ourselves, fellow employees, and the continuing success of this organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. In the event of conflicting judgments, the more conservative interpretation shall prevail pending review and resolution by management.

  3. [Accidents of fulguration].

    PubMed

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  4. An experimental investigation of shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions with and without boundary layer suction: A data summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. C.; Childs, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Tabulated data from a series of experimental studies of the interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer in axisymmetric flow configurations is presented. The studies were conducted at the walls of circular wind tunnels and on the cylindrical centerbody of an annular flow channel. Detailed pitot pressure profiles and wall static pressure profiles upstream of, within and downstream of the interaction region are given. Results are presented for flows at nominal freestream Mach Numbers of 2, 3 and 4. For studies at the tunnel sidewalls, the shock waves were produced by conical shock generators mounted on the centerline of the wind tunnel at zero angle of attack. The annular ring generator was used to produce the shock wave at the centerbody of the annular flow channel. The effects of boundary layer bleed were examined in the investigation. Both bleed rate and bleed location were studied. Most of the bleed studies were conducted with bleed holes drilled normal to the wall surface but the effects of slot suction were also examined. A summary of the principal results and conclusions is given.

  5. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  6. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  7. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Summary of Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity Program to January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Scouting and monitoring techniques peculiar to geopressured-geothermal wells and legal problems are presented. The following are tabulated: priority wells actively monitored, industry contacts, and the summary of industry responses to well-or-opportunity solicitation. (MHR)

  8. An Analysis of U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents by Cost and Injury (1990-1996)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A study of rotorcraft accidents was conducted to identify safety issues and research areas that might lead to a reduction in rotorcraft accidents and fatalities. The primary source of data was summaries of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident reports. From 1990 to 1996, the NTSB documented 1396 civil rotorcraft accidents in the United States in which 491 people were killed. The rotorcraft data were compared to airline and general aviation data to determine the relative safety of rotorcraft compared to other segments of the aviation industry. In depth analysis of the rotorcraft data addressed demographics, mission, and operational factors. Rotorcraft were found to have an accident rate about ten times that of commercial airliners and about the same as that of general aviation. The likelihood that an accident would be fatal was about equal for all three classes of operation. The most dramatic division in rotorcraft accidents is between flights flown by private pilots versus professional pilots. Private pilots, flying low cost aircraft in benign environments, have accidents that are due, in large part, to their own errors. Professional pilots, in contrast, are more likely to have accidents that are a result of exacting missions or use of specialized equipment. For both groups judgement error is more likely to lead to a fatal accident than are other types of causes. Several approaches to improving the rotorcraft accident rate are recommended. These mostly address improvement in the training of new pilots and improving the safety awareness of private pilots.

  9. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  10. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  11. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was $11.9 million; $1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per $100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than $50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports.

  12. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  13. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  14. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  15. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders…

  16. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  17. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  19. A high-speed hydroplane accident.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, G N

    1975-03-29

    This report records the investigation into a high-speed hydroplane accident in which the driver died. He was ejected head first into the water at 117 to 126 ft/sec (80 to 85 mph), suffering brain damage and a fractured skull. Suggestions are made to minimize the effects of these inevitable crashes. PMID:1143139

  20. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  1. The effectiveness of double hulls in reducing vessel-accident oil spillage.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Talley, Wayne K; Jin, Di

    2011-11-01

    While much work has been done in investigating determinants of oil spillage attributed to vessel accidents, little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of ship hull design in reducing marine pollution. This paper addresses whether the double-hull requirement reduces vessel-accident oil spillage. The volume of oil spillage due to oil-cargo vessel accidents was investigated using tobit regressions and an empirical data set of individual vessel accident pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard from 2001 to 2008. The results indicate that the double hull design on average reduces the size of oil spills by 20% and 62% in tank barge and tanker ship accidents, respectively.

  2. Project Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    A top level summary of activities conducted throughout the course of the EDOMP in response to initial concerns at the outset of the program is provided. Significant findings from the investigations are summarized, together with resulting countermeasures that were implemented and flight rules that were developed in response to these findings. Subsequent paragraphs provide more information; details will be found in the referenced sections.

  3. Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

  4. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. 831.13 Section 831.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow and dissemination of accident or...

  5. [Skateboard and rollerskate accidents].

    PubMed

    Lohmann, M; Petersen, A O; Pedersen, O D

    1990-05-28

    The increasing popularity of skateboards and rollerskates has resulted in an increased number of contacts with the casualty department in Denmark after accidents. As part of the Danish share in the EHLASS project (European Home and Leisure Surveillance System), 120,000 consecutive contacts with the casualty departments were reviewed. Out of these 516 were due to accidents with skateboards and rollerskates (181/335). A total of 194 of these injuries (38%) were fractures and 80% of these were in the upper limbs. Twenty fractures required reposition under general anaesthesia and two required osteosynthesis. Nine patients were admitted for observation for concussion. One patient had sustained rupture of the spleen and splenectomy was necessary. A total of 44 patients were admitted. None of the 516 patients had employed protective equipment on the injured region. Considerable reduction in the number of injuries could probably be produced by employment of suitable protective equipment.

  6. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    PubMed

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  7. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  8. Civil helicopter wire strike assessment study. Volume 2: Accident analysis briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuomela, C. H.; Brennan, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    A description and analysis of each of the 208 civil helicopter wire strike accidents reported to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) for the ten year period 1970-1979 is given. The accident analysis briefs were based on pilot reports, FAA investigation reports, and such accident photographs as were made available. Briefs were grouped by year and, within year, by NTSB accident report number.

  9. The investigation of the impacts of major disasters, on the basis of the Van earthquake (October 23, 2011, Turkey), on the profile of the injuries due to occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Dursun, Recep; Karadas, Sevdegul; Asirdizer, Mahmut

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the impacts of major disasters, on the basis of the Van earthquake (October 23, 2011, Turkey), on the profile of the injuries due to occupational accidents. In this study, we evaluated 245 patients of occupational accidents who were admitted to emergency services of Van city hospitals in the 1-year periods including pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. We determined that there was a 63.4% (P < 0.05) increase in work-related accidents in the post-earthquake period compared to the pre-earthquake period. Also, injuries due to occupational accidents increased 211% (P < 0.05) in the construction industry, the rate of injuries due to falls from height increased 168% (P < 0.05), and the rate of traumas to the head and upper limbs increased 200% (P < 0.05) and 130% (P < 0.05), respectively, in the post-earthquake period compared to the pre-earthquake period. We determined that the ignoring of measures for occupational health and safety by employers and employees during conducted rapid construction activities and post-earthquake restoration works in order to remove the effects of the earthquake increased the number of work accidents. In this study, the impact of disasters such as earthquakes on the accidents at work was evaluated as we have not seen in literature. This study emphasizes that governments should make regulations and process relating to the post-disaster business before the emergence of disaster by taking into account factors that may increase their work-related accidents.

  10. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  11. South African underwater diving accidents, 1969-1976.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, P G

    1976-12-25

    Since 1969 a survey of diving accidents involving South African amateur divers was undertaken. The South African Underwater Union diving accident report form was used, and various State agents (SA Police and inquest courts) and individual divers and club instructors were questioned. This survey covers the period up to the end of June 1976. Data acquired during the 8-year period 1969 - 1976 are compared. A conservative estimate from the number of certificates issued to club divers indicates a 25% increase in diver population, while the number of fatilities has decreased from 0,1% in 1971 to 0,016% in 1976, indicating the importance of accident reporting in determining safety trends. In general, a change in pattern is observed during the last 4 years, showing more SCUBA than breath-hold fatalities. The formation of the Decompression Sickness and Diving Accidents Investigation Panel as a further measure to decrease fatal diving accidents is discussed.

  12. TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project integration report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, J. R.; Rempe, J. L.; Stickler, L. A.; Korth, G. E.; Diercks, D. R.; Neimark, L. A.; Akers, D W; Schuetz, B. K.; Shearer, T L; Chavez, S. A.; Thinnes, G. L.; Witt, R. J.; Corradini, M L; Kos, J. A.

    1994-03-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) was an international effort that was sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The primary objectives of the VIP were to extract and examine samples from the lower head and to evaluate the potential modes of failure and the margin of structural integrity that remained in the TMI-2 reactor vessel during the accident. This report presents a summary of the major findings and conclusions that were developed from research during the VIP. Results from the various elements of the project are integrated to form a cohesive understanding of the vessel`s condition after the accident.

  13. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  14. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  15. Profile summary.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    All drugs appearing in the Adis Profile Summary table have been selected based on information contained in R&D Insight trade mark, a proprietary product of Adis International. The information in the profiles is gathered from the world's medical and scientific literature, at international conferences and symposia, and directly from the developing companies themselves. The emphasis of Drugs in R&D is on the clinical potential of new drugs, and selection of agents for inclusion is based on products in late-phase clinical development that have recently had a significant change in status.

  16. Childhood accidents. Three epidemiological studies on the etiology.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, L H

    1977-01-01

    Three studies on childhood accidents are presented. The aim was to study the importance of different factors regarding the accidents in question. The following factors have then been taken into consideration: the enviromental hazard, the accident proneness, the supervision and the education. Methodologically the investigations were carried out with an epidemiological technique. One is of a descriptive nature and the other two more analytically oriented. The studies are based on two different 1-year-materials consisting of accidents among children recorded in the emergency departments of Ostersund Hospital and the University Hospital in Uppsala. The results indicate that risk factors in the children's physical milieu played an important role in the occurrence of the accidents: clearly identifiable risk factors in the environment could be connected with 52% of the accidents, whereas some deficiency in supervision was noted in 20%. The investigators could identify a number of specific risk factors. Attempts were made to examine how frequency and type of childhood accidents vary with the population structure and social structure in well-defined housing areas, but the results were hard to evaluate because of methodological problems. The results are presented against the background of a detailed discussion on central methodological problems in epidemiological accident research. It is pointed out in particular that epidemiological methods have clear limitations in attempts at studying the low-frequency events that each individual type of accident in fact comprises. It is of great importance that in future research, side by side with the traditional epidemiological methods, other techniques are tested with the aim of obtaining maximal usable information from a detailed study of individual accidents and their backgrounds. PMID:857307

  17. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayon, Juan A.

    1992-08-01

    The Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop was held in Pasadena, California on March 6-8, 1991. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the state of Optical Systems Technology at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), and in industry and academia, in view of the potential Astrophysics mission set currently being considered for the late 1990's through the first quarter of the 21st century. The principal result of the workshop is this publication, which contains an assessment of the current state of the technology, and specific technology advances in six critical areas of optics, all necessary for the mission set. The workshop was divided into six panels, each of about a dozen experts in specific fields, representing NASA, industry, and academia. In addition, each panel contained expertise that spanned the spectrum from x-ray to submillimeter wavelengths. This executive summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel. The six technology panels and their chairs were: (1) Wavefront Sensing, Control, and Pointing, Thomas Pitts, Itek Optical Systems, A Division of Litton; (2) Fabrication, Roger Angel, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; (3) Materials and Structures, Theodore Saito, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (4) Optical Testing, James Wyant, WYKO Corporation; (5) Optical Systems Integrated Modeling, Robert R. Shannon, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona; and (6) Advanced Optical Instruments Technology, Michael Shao, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. This Executive Summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel.

  18. Aircraft accident survivors as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Dodge, R E

    1983-02-01

    This is a study of the reliability of aircrash survivors as witnesses. Some of their statements are compared to known facts at the time of the crash, including the time of the accident and the weather conditions. Other facts are compared between the survivors, such as the mood of the passengers immediately post-crash. The KLM-Pan Am accident in the Canary Islands is used as the study accident. A suggestion for future use of survivors' statements is tendered.

  19. Estimates of early containment loads from core melt accidents. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-01

    The thermal-hydraulic processes and corium debris-material interactions that can result from core melting in a severe accident have been studied to evaluate the potential effect of such phenomena on containment integrity. Pressure and temperature loads associated with representative accident sequences have been estimated for the six various LWR containment types used within the United States. Summaries distilling the analyses are presented and an interpretation of the results provided. 13 refs., 68 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident.

    PubMed Central

    Sehmer, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians regularly treat victims of rear-end vehicle accidents. This article describes how taking a detailed history of the accident and understanding the significance of the physical events is helpful in understanding and anticipating patients' morbidity and clinical course. Eight questions to ask patients are suggested to help physicians understand the severity of injury. PMID:8495140

  1. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1987-11-20

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SNAKEBITE ACCIDENTS IN A METROPOLITAN AREA OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Lima, Caroline B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  3. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs.

  4. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  5. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  6. 78 FR 64026 - Investigative Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... factual information for the ongoing investigation into two Metro-North Railroad accidents that occurred in... passengers on each train at the time of the accident. Metro-North estimated damage at $18.5 million. On..., Subdivision 7, in West Haven, CT. The accident occurred at milepost 69.58 on main track 1. The track...

  7. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  8. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  9. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  10. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

  11. Accident profile of older people in Antalya City Center, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Levent; Gokkoca, Zuhal

    2003-01-01

    Accidents are major health problems leading to deaths and injuries among older people. The present study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the accidents experienced within the last 1 year in people aged 60 years and older living in Antalya City Center. The study was planned as a cross-sectional research. A total of 840 individuals selected from the study population with cluster-sampling method were used in questionnaires. A number of 163 (19.4%) individuals had at least one accident in the last year. A total of 178 accidents were reported within the last 1-year; 124 (69.7%) falls, 22 (12.4%) traffic accidents and 12 (6.7%) dropping of objects to head. The accidents occurred mostly at home (40.4%), at avenue-street etc. (31.5%), and in garden (8.4%). The result of logistic regression analysis revealed that accident frequency was positively related with female gender (odds=1.79, P<0.05), disability of lower extremities (odds=1.63, P<0.05) and hearing impairment (odds=2.01, P<0.05) whereas it was negatively related with living in detached house (odds=0.41, P<0.05). It was found that accidents caused health (82.0%) and financial (38.2%) problems in elderly and also the disabilities in daily activities (66.3%). Average numbers of days with disability in daily activities were 21.1 in 1 year per accident and 5.7 in 1 year per individual. Occurrence of health problems and disability in daily activities were more frequent among women compared to men (P<0.05). Methods like environmental measures or educational programs to prevent accidents and accident-related injuries must be focused on defined risk groups and places where the accidents occur more frequently. Future researches about the effectiveness of prevention in elderly on accident frequency, mortality and morbidity are needed to deal with this current problem. PMID:12888223

  12. Severe Accident Scoping Simulations of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R.

    2015-08-01

    Accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs) are fuels and/or cladding that, in comparison with the standard uranium dioxide Zircaloy system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations [1]. It is important to note that the currently used uranium dioxide Zircaloy fuel system tolerates design basis accidents (and anticipated operational occurrences and normal operation) as prescribed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Previously, preliminary simulations of the plant response have been performed under a range of accident scenarios using various ATF cladding concepts and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel. Design basis loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO) severe accidents were analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for boiling water reactors (BWRs) [2]. Researchers have investigated the effects of thermal conductivity on design basis accidents [3], investigated silicon carbide (SiC) cladding [4], as well as the effects of ATF concepts on the late stage accident progression [5]. These preliminary analyses were performed to provide initial insight into the possible improvements that ATF concepts could provide and to identify issues with respect to modeling ATF concepts. More recently, preliminary analyses for a range of ATF concepts have been evaluated internationally for LOCA and severe accident scenarios for the Chinese CPR1000 [6] and the South Korean OPR-1000 [7] pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In addition to these scoping studies, a common methodology and set of performance metrics were developed to compare and support prioritizing ATF concepts [8]. A proposed ATF concept is based on iron-chromium-aluminum alloys (FeCrAl) [9]. With respect to enhancing accident tolerance, FeCrAl alloys have substantially slower oxidation kinetics compared to the zirconium alloys typically employed. During a severe accident, Fe

  13. Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, Doug

    2004-06-16

    On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

  14. Characterization of a nuclear accident dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 23rd nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison was held during the week of June 12--16, 1995 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report presents the results of this event, referred to as NAD 23, as related to the performance of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). Two separate critical assemblies, SHEBA and Godiva, were used to generate seven separate neutron spectra for use in dose comparisons. SNL`s PNAD measured absorbed doses that were within +16 to +26% of the reference doses. In addition, a preliminary investigation was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using the data obtained from an irradiated PNAD to correct for body orientation. This portion of the experiment was performed with a TRIGA reactor at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A and M University.

  15. A review of criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

  17. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads.

  18. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  19. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  20. N Reactor operational safety summary

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, G.R.; Quapp, W.J.; Ogden, D.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a safety summary of the N Reactor. Beginning with its conceptual design in the mid-1950`s, and throughout its 23 years of operation, continuous efforts have been made to ensure safe N Reactor operation and protection of the public health and safety. The N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, completed in 1978(UNC1978), and its subsequent amendments document the safety bases of N Reactor. Following the April 1986 Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union, a major effort to confirm N Reactor safety and further increase its safety margin was initiated. This effort, called the Safety Enhancement Program, reassessed the N Reactor using the latest accepted analysis techniques and commercial light-water reactor guidelines, where applicable. 122 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. An analysis of pilot error-related aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalsky, N. B.; Masters, R. L.; Stone, R. B.; Babcock, G. L.; Rypka, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach to pilot error-related U.S. air carrier jet aircraft accident investigation records successfully reclaimed hidden human error information not shown in statistical studies. New analytic techniques were developed and applied to the data to discover and identify multiple elements of commonality and shared characteristics within this group of accidents. Three techniques of analysis were used: Critical element analysis, which demonstrated the importance of a subjective qualitative approach to raw accident data and surfaced information heretofore unavailable. Cluster analysis, which was an exploratory research tool that will lead to increased understanding and improved organization of facts, the discovery of new meaning in large data sets, and the generation of explanatory hypotheses. Pattern recognition, by which accidents can be categorized by pattern conformity after critical element identification by cluster analysis.

  2. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft

  3. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  4. Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  6. U.S. Civil Rotorcraft Accidents, 1963 Through 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.; Kasper, Eugene F.; Iseler, Laura E.

    2000-01-01

    Narrative summary data produced by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has been obtained and analyzed for all 8,436 U.S. civil registered rotorcraft accidents which occurred from mid-1963 through 1997. This analysis was based on the NTSB's assignment of each mishap into one of 21 "first event" categories. The number of U.S. civil registered rotorcraft as recorded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the same period has also been obtained. Taken together, these data indicate the civil rotorcraft accident rate (on a per 1,000 registered rotorcraft basis) has decreased by almost a factor of 10 (i.e., from 130 accidents per 1,000 rotorcraft in 1964 to 13.4 per 1,000 in 1997). Analysis of the mishap data indicates over 70% of the rotorcraft accidents were associated with one of the following four NTSB "first event" categories: 2408 Loss of engine power (28.5%); 1,322 In-flight collisions with objects (15.7%); 1,114 Loss of control (13.2%); 1,083 Airframe/component/system failure or malfunction (12.8%).

  7. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  8. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed. PMID:4096796

  9. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  10. [Analisys of work-related accidents and incidents in an oil refinery in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2003-01-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry can have serious consequences for workers, communities, and the environment and are thus highly relevant to public health. This article is the result of an occupational surveillance project involving several public institutions. We analyze 800 work-related accidents that resulted in injuries, environmental damage, or loss of production in 1997 in an oil refinery located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology was based on managerial and organizational approaches to accident investigation, with the European Union reporting system as the reference. The results highlight various limitations in the process of reporting and investigating accidents, as well as a certain hierarchy of accidents, with more attention given to accidents involving loss of production and less to those resulting in injuries, particularly among outsourced workers. PMID:14666211

  11. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  12. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  13. The Epidemiology and Prevention of Traffic Accidents Involving Child Pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Read, John H.; Bradley, Eleanor J.; Morison, Joan D.; Lewall, David; Clarke, David A.

    1963-01-01

    A study of 713 motor vehicle accidents involving 749 children in the city of Vancouver is reported. A control group of 110 children who did not have accidents was included in the concurrent study. Factors investigated were the driver, the vehicle, the weather, the time of day, the day of week, the month, the width of roadway, the location of the accident, the child's age, sex, personality, school record, and family background, the type of injury, and the ambulance and hospital service received. Boys were more commonly involved than girls, and most accidents occurred in the 3 to 7 year age group. Head injuries prevailed in the younger age groups and decreased steadily with the age of the child. Specific epidemic areas in the city were identified and selective enforcement was suggested as a possible countermeasure. Hospital records seldom provided a detailed history of the events leading up to the accident. In order to apply the preventive techniques of education and enforcement it was suggested that in each pedestrian traffic accident the driver should be required to accompany the victim to the site of medical care. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:14055829

  14. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  15. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1985-05-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed both with and without air present during the exposures. (3) Sequential accident irradiations were performed both at 28/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (4) Age preconditioning was performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (5) Sequential aging irradiations were performed both at 27/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C. (6) Sequential aging exposures were performed using two sequences: (1) thermal followed by irradiation and (2) irradiation followed by thermal. We report both general trends applicable to a majority of the tested materials as well as specific results for each polymer. Our data base consists of ultimate tensile properties at the completion of the accident exposure for three XLPO and XLPE, five EPR and EPDM, two CSPE (HYPALON), one CPE, one VAMAC, one polydiallylphtalate, and one PPS material. We also report bend test results at completion of the accident exposures for two TEFZEL materials and permanent set after compression results for three EPR, one VAMAC, one BUNA N, one SILICONE, and one VITON material.

  16. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  17. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

    2011-01-01

    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth.

  18. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  19. Identification of severe accident uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, J.B.; Behr, V.L.; Easterling, R.G.; Griesmeyer, J.M.; Haskin, F.E.; Hatch, S.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lipinski, R.J.; Sherman, M.P.; Taig, A.R.

    1984-09-01

    Understanding of severe accidents in light-water reactors is currently beset with uncertainty. Because the uncertainties that are present limit the capability to analyze the progression and possible consequences of such accidents, they restrict the technical basis for regulatory actions by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is thus necessary to attempt to identify the sources and quantify the influence of these uncertainties. As a part of ongoing NRC severe-accident programs at Sandia National Laboratories, a working group was formed to pool relevant knowledge and experience in assessing the uncertainties attending present (1983) knowledge of severe accidents. This initial report of the Severe Accident Uncertainty Analysis (SAUNA) working group has as its main goal the identification of a consolidated list of uncertainties that affect in-plant processes and systems. Many uncertainties have been identified. A set of key uncertainties summarizes many of the identified uncertainties. Quantification of the influence of these uncertainties, a necessary second step, is not attempted in the present report, although attempts are made qualitatively to demonstrate the relevance of the identified uncertainties.

  20. Conference summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    ``Brown dwarfs come of age" was a stimulating conference attended by a large number of very active researchers, including many young students and post-docs who were largely responsible for the lively atmosphere that we enjoyed during the full meeting. Major theoretical and observational challenges currently faced in the study of brown dwarfs were reviewed. Key spectroscopic work is being conducted to determine atmospheric temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities, essential to understand the evolution of substellar objects. Research on ultracool atmospheres is extended down to temperatures typical of the atmosphere of the Earth. Characterisation of brown dwarfs at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio is ongoing and investigation of time domain phenomena reveal interesting new processes in cool atmospheres. In addition to talks on these topics, a large number of presentations addressed the formation and evolution of brown dwarfs, the lower end of the Initial Mass Function, the properties of substellar binaries, the angular momentum and disk evolution in very low-mass systems, results of large scale surveys aimed to find the lowest luminosity and coolest brown dwarfs, searches in star clusters delineating the evolution with age of the properties of brown dwarfs, binary searches and subsequent follow-up work enabling dynamical mass determinations. The excellent level of the review talks, oral and poster presentations and the work of the enthusiastic researchers that attended the meeting ensure a brilliant future for substellar research 18 years after the discovery of the first brown dwarfs.

  1. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  2. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

  3. Clinical analysis of thyroid cancer in adult patients exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident: 5-year comparative investigations based on the results of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Cherenko, Sergiy M; Larin, Oleksandr S; Gorobeyko, Maksim B; Sichynava, Rivaz M

    2004-11-01

    The aim of study was to compare clinical and pathologic findings of surgically removed thyroid tumors in adults with or without history of irradiation due to the Chernobyl accident. From 1990 to 2003, 2363 adults with no evidence of radiation influence in their history (group A) have undergone operation for thyroid nodules. During the same period, 311 patients (born before 1969) with strict evidence of Chernobyl irradiation also underwent operation (group B). Both groups were similar in age, sex, and preoperative examination. Group B represented three of the four official categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident: 1-recovery operation workers; 2-people evacuated from the restricted area; 3-inhabitants of contaminated areas. The rate of thyroid carcinoma among all cases of thyroid nodules was significantly higher in group B--32.8% (102 patients) versus 27.2% (644 patients) in group A (p < 0.05). But a more distinct difference was observed in 1 and 2 categories of group B patients (the rate of cancer was, correspondingly, 54.8% and 47.8%;p < 0.01). The percentage of the invasive form of cancer (T4) was significantly higher in irradiated patients-39% versus 23% (p < 0.05) as were regional metastases (N1a,1b)--41% versus 19% (p < 0.01) and frequency of multifocality (33% versus 24%; p < 0.05). The most distinguished features were found in 1 category of group B: T4--in 47%, N1a-1b--in 62%, multifocality--in 41%. Our results suggest the irradiation as a cause of thyroid cancer in adult victims of Chernobyl and confirm the increasing aggressiveness of such tumors.

  4. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    SciTech Connect

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T.; Cliff Po, L.C.

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  5. Analysis of Convair 990 rejected-takeoff accident with emphasis on decision making, training and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batthauer, Byron E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes a NASA Convair 990 (CV-990) accident with emphasis on rejected-takeoff (RTO) decision making, training, procedures, and accident statistics. The NASA Aircraft Accident Investigation Board was somewhat perplexed that an aircraft could be destroyed as a result of blown tires during the takeoff roll. To provide a better understanding of tire failure RTO's, The Board obtained accident reports, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) studies, and other pertinent information related to the elements of this accident. This material enhanced the analysis process and convinced the Accident Board that high-speed RTO's in transport aircraft should be given more emphasis during pilot training. Pilots should be made aware of various RTO situations and statistics with emphasis on failed-tire RTO's. This background information could enhance the split-second decision-making process that is required prior to initiating an RTO.

  6. The child accident repeater: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  7. The Viking project. [summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Viking project launched two unmanned spacecraft to Mars in 1975 for scientific exploration with special emphasis on the search for life. Each spacecraft consisted of an orbiter and a lander. The landing sites were finally selected after the spacecraft were in orbit. Thirteen investigations were performed: three mapping experiments from the orbiter, one atmospheric investigation during the lander entry phase, eight experiments on the surface of the planet, and one using the spacecraft radio and radar systems. The experiments on the surface dealt principally with biology, chemistry, geology, and meteorology. Seventy-eight scientists have participated in the 13 teams performing these experiments. This paper is a summary of the project and an introduction to the articles that follow.

  8. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Evaluation, interpretation, and data summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions.

  9. The amount of consolation compensation in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the amount of consolation compensation that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay victims. It used 2010 statistics for general road accidents from Taiwan's National Police Agency (NPA) for further sampling and to mail questionnaires. In investigating consolation compensation, the framework of the contingent valuation method was used, and the data were collected through the design of different scenarios. In this study, five injury levels were designed to further analyse the consolation compensation price the perpetrators were willing to pay: minor injury, moderate injury, serious injury, disability, and death. The results revealed the price that many perpetrators were willing to pay was zero; however, we overcame this issue by using the Spike model. The estimated results showed that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay more consolation compensation with increased injury severity.

  10. The amount of consolation compensation in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the amount of consolation compensation that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay victims. It used 2010 statistics for general road accidents from Taiwan's National Police Agency (NPA) for further sampling and to mail questionnaires. In investigating consolation compensation, the framework of the contingent valuation method was used, and the data were collected through the design of different scenarios. In this study, five injury levels were designed to further analyse the consolation compensation price the perpetrators were willing to pay: minor injury, moderate injury, serious injury, disability, and death. The results revealed the price that many perpetrators were willing to pay was zero; however, we overcame this issue by using the Spike model. The estimated results showed that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay more consolation compensation with increased injury severity. PMID:24598034

  11. Summary of biological and contaminant investigations related to stream water quality and environmental setting in the Upper Colorado River basin, 1938-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, an inventory of the biological and contaminant investigations for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was conducted. To enhance the sampling design for the biological component of the program, previous studies about the ecology of aquatic organisms and contaminants were compiled from computerized literature searches of biological data bases and by contacting other Federal, State, and local agencies. Biological and contaminant investigations that have been conducted throughout the basin since 1938 were categorized according to four general categories of biological investigations and two categories of contaminant investigations: algal communities, macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, habitat characterization, contaminants in organism tissue, and contaminants in bed sediment. The studies were identified by their locations in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, and by the predominant land use in the area of the investigation. Studies on algal communities and contaminants in organism tissue and in bed sediment are limited throughout the basin. Studies on macroinvertebrate and fish communities and habitat characterization are the most abundant in the study unit. Natural and human factors can affect biological communities and their composition. Natural factors that affect background water-quality conditions are physiography, climate, geology, and soils. Algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish that are present in the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces vary with altitude and physical environment. Green algae and diatoms are predominant in the higher altitude streams, and blue-green, golden-brown, and green algae are predominant in the lower altitude streams. Caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies are the dominant macroinvertebrates in the higher altitudes, whereas aquatic worms, leeches

  12. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    PubMed

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial.

  13. Westinghouse Accident Tolerant Fuel Program

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng

    2013-08-21

    The PowerPoint presentation includes a timeline for the program implementation, the technical approach taken, a summary of testing results, a status of task 2, what has been done to share the results so far, and a summary of upcoming work.

  14. 19 CFR 210.18 - Summary determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Summary determinations. 210.18 Section 210.18 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.18 Summary determinations. (a) Motions for...

  15. 19 CFR 210.18 - Summary determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Summary determinations. 210.18 Section 210.18 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.18 Summary determinations. (a) Motions for...

  16. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2 -- Appendix A: Characterization methods and data summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5. This appendix presents background regulatory and technical information regarding the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at WAG 5 to address requirements established by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The US Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to conduct remedial investigations (RIs) under the FFA at various sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including SWMUs and other areas of concern on WAG 5. The appendix gives an overview of the regulatory background to provide the context in which the WAG 5 RI was planned and implemented and documents how historical sources of data, many of which are SWMU-specific, were evaluated and used.

  17. The effectiveness of double hulls in reducing vessel-accident oil spillage.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Talley, Wayne K; Jin, Di

    2011-11-01

    While much work has been done in investigating determinants of oil spillage attributed to vessel accidents, little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of ship hull design in reducing marine pollution. This paper addresses whether the double-hull requirement reduces vessel-accident oil spillage. The volume of oil spillage due to oil-cargo vessel accidents was investigated using tobit regressions and an empirical data set of individual vessel accident pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard from 2001 to 2008. The results indicate that the double hull design on average reduces the size of oil spills by 20% and 62% in tank barge and tanker ship accidents, respectively. PMID:21924747

  18. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  19. The Quantitative Study of Communicational Success: Politeness and Accidents in Aviation Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Charlotte

    Part of a larger research program studying communication in the cockpit, this study investigated the occurrence of mitigation, that is, the use of linguistic forms that convey propositional content without giving offense, and its relationship to aviation accidents. The data were from flight-recorder accident transcripts containing observable…

  20. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. 831.13 Section 831.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow...

  1. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. 831.13 Section 831.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow...

  2. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. 831.13 Section 831.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow...

  3. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. 831.13 Section 831.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow...

  4. 22 CFR 102.10 - Rendering assistance at the scene of the accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... airline representative, the Foreign Service representative should lend the competent local authorities all... investigation. If an airline representative is already at the scene of the accident or if one arrives shortly... cause of the accident. Any attempt on the part of the airline representative to exceed his...

  5. 22 CFR 102.10 - Rendering assistance at the scene of the accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... airline representative, the Foreign Service representative should lend the competent local authorities all... investigation. If an airline representative is already at the scene of the accident or if one arrives shortly... cause of the accident. Any attempt on the part of the airline representative to exceed his...

  6. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam locomotive boiler or any part or appurtenance thereof, resulting in serious injury or death to one or...

  7. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  8. Summary of investigations on the morphometry of the cisco, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), in the lakes of the northeastern highlands, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    The morphometric studies on the cisco or lake herring, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), which are briefly summarized in this paper are part of a program of investigation of the fishes of the lakes in the northeastern highland district, Wisconsin. For the morphometric studies, 1,548 specimens were employed, all of them collected in the summers of 1931 and 1932 from four 'type' lakes, selected on the basis of their size, depth, and physicochemical and biological characteristics. Of this number 753 individuals were used to determine the general nature of the morphological variations in the Trout Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Silver Lake, and Clear Lakes cisco populations, while 795, collected from Muskellunge Lake in 1932 were employed in a detailed examination of certain morphological differences between the 1928 and 1929 year classes of that population. An attempt is made in this paper to present all the important conculsions, together with a small amount of illustrative material.

  9. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds. Phase 2: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Traylor, S., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the flight buffeting response of the F-111A was performed in two phases. In Phase 1 stochastic analysis techniques were applied to wing and fuselage responses for maneuvers flown at subsonic speeds and wing leading edge sweep of 26 degrees. Power spectra and rms values were obtained. This report gives results of Phase 2 where the analyses were extended to include maneuvers flown at wing leading edge sweep values of 50 and 75.5 degrees at subsonic and supersonic speeds and the responses examined were expanded to include vertical shear, bending moment, and hingeline torque of the left and right horizontal tails. Power spectra, response time histories, variations of rms response with angle of attack and effects of wing sweep and Mach number are presented and discussed. Some Phase 1 results are given for comparison purposes.

  10. Summary of Tertiary investigations in western Saudi Arabia, current work by the U.S. Geological Survey and recommended future studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, Donald G.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Coleman, Robert Griffin

    1983-01-01

    In 1936, geologic work related to the Tertiary System in western Saudi Arabia began with a study of the Umm Gerad barite deposit by K. S. Twitchell. In 1944, a study focusing specifically on Tertiary rocks was conducted by Steineke and others near Jiddah. Small-scale mapping of Tertiary sequences began in 1950 in southwestern Saudi Arabia and later in northern 3audi Arabia as part of the Kingdom's early mapping program. These studies were part of a larger program being directed by the Government of Saudi Arabia in connection with mineral resource investigations. In the mid- to late-1960's, the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres discovered mineralized Tertiary rocks al Jabal Dhaylan and began a study, which continues to the present, of both the Tertiary rocks and the mineralization. Following a number of early local studies, in 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey began detailed study of the Tertiary layered rocks along the Red Sea coastal plain south of Jiddah. More recently, Riofinex and Seltrust have been exploring for selected commodities in Tertiary sequences of northwestern Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea coastal plain. Results of these studies, including work by the Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources and the Saudi government agency preceding it, are summarized in this report. Characteristics of the Tertiary rocks south of lat 23? N. and the Tertiary mineral deposits of western Saudi Arabia are also summarized. Recommendations are made for future geologic studies and mineral assessment of the Tertiary rocks of western Saudi Arabia.

  11. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides: Extract reproductive outcomes. Executive summary, introduction, and conclusions. Interim report, 1985-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Rahe, A.J.

    1992-08-31

    The Air Force is conducting a 20-year prospective study of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same period who were not occupationally exposed to herbicides was selected. The study, called the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), is in its tenth year and is designed to determine whether exposure to the herbicides or their contaminant, 2,3,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has adversely affected the health, survival or reproductive outcomes of Ranch Hands. This report summarizes the findings of an investigation of reproductive outcomes of the 791 Ranch Hands and 942 Comparisons for whom a dioxin level had been determined by August, 1991. These men have fathered 5,489 pregnancies including 4,514 live births. These men are a subset of all Ranch Hands (n=1,098) and Comparisons (n=1,549) who have fathered 8,263 pregnancies and 6,792 live births. All data in this report have been verified by review of birth certificates, newborn clinic records, health records and death certificates. The birth defect status of each child was verified through the age of 18.

  12. Animal Investigation Program (AIP), A.I.P. summary report on and around the Nevada Test Site from 1982--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the Animal Investigation Program conducted from 1982--1995 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R and IE), formerly Radiation Sciences Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The surveillance program was designed to measure levels and trends of radionuclides in animals on and around the Nevada Test Site to ascertain whether world-wide fallout, current radiation levels, and associated doses, to the general public were in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally had the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well-being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results indicated that no significant amounts of biological radionuclides had been detected in the near offsite areas or on the NTS, except in animals drinking water that drains from tunnels in Area 12.

  13. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. The third year of the study finished the oil recovery coreflood studies and evaluated different techniques to improve alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution economics. The final series of corefloods compared the oil recovery efficiency of the alkali gradient in Berea sandstone and J Sand sandstone. Oil recovery efficiency was essentially the same in both types of core, 13 to 15% PV of oil. Cost of chemical per incremental barrel of oil with 30% pore volume of alkaline-surfactant- polymer solution injected were $3.20 for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}- Petrostep B-100-Flopaam 3330S solution in both types of core.

  14. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  15. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  16. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  17. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  18. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  19. GIRAFFE test results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H.

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  20. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types.

  1. A comparative study of nuclear accident consequences for Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Yeung, Mankit Ray )

    1993-02-01

    A two-dimensional dispersion and consequence model called RADIS has been developed and used to perform a site-specific investigation of the consequences and risks for Hong Kong as a result of a potential accident at the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The study uses the 1986 Hong Kong weather and demographic data to determine the accident consequences for Hong Kong. The overall cumulative occurrence frequency distributions of early fatality, early injury, latent cancer, and thyroid nodule are compared with those of WASH-1400 and a United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) study. This study is generally consistent with the WASH-1400 results and exhibits less conservatism than the UKAEA study.

  2. Analysis of the temporal properties in car accident time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele

    2008-05-01

    In this paper we study the time-clustering behavior of sequences of car accidents, using data from a freely available database in the internet. The Allan Factor analysis, which is a well-suited method to investigate time-dynamical behaviors in point processes, has revealed that the car accident sequences are characterized by a general time-scaling behavior, with the presence of cyclic components. These results indicate that the time dynamics of the events are not Poissonian but long range correlated with periodicities ranging from 12 h to 1 year.

  3. A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

  4. Perception of risk and the attribution of responsibility for accidents.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Laura N

    2014-03-01

    Accidents, one often hears, "happen"; we accept, and even expect, that they will be part of daily life. But in situations in which injury or death result, judgments of responsibility become critical. How might our perceptions of risk influence the ways in which we allocate responsibility for an accident? Drawing from attribution and risk perception theory, this study investigates how perceived controllability and desirability of risk, in addition to perceived danger and recreational risk-taking, relate to attributions of responsibility for the cause of unintentional injury in a unique setting: U.S. national parks. Three parks, Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Delaware Water Gap, provide the setting for this survey-based study, which considers how park visitors (N = 447) attribute responsibility for the cause of a hypothetical visitor accident. Results suggest that respondents tended to make more internal (i.e., related to characteristics of the victim), rather than external (i.e., related to characteristics of the park, or park management) attributions. As respondents viewed park-related risk as controllable, they were more likely to attribute the cause of the accident to the victim. Moreover, among other significant variables, having experienced a similar accident predicted lower internal causal attribution. Opportunities for future research linking risk perception and attribution variables, as well as practical implications for the management of public outdoor settings, are presented.

  5. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence.

  6. Marital Disruption and Accidents/Injuries Among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hango, Darcy W.; Houseknecht, Sharon K.

    2005-01-01

    A vast literature has examined the effects of marital disruption on child well-being, however medically attended childhood accidents/injuries have not been considered as an outcome. This article investigates this association as well as possible intervening pathways using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-linked mother-child file.…

  7. Theoretical Perspectives on Fishing Vessel Accidents and Their Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    Fishing vessel accidents occur because of complex interactions of human, technical, and environmental factors. Although they usually occur because of human actions, thoughts, or behavior, investigators and prevention educators are preoccupied with technical matters and equipment. Equipment, machinery, weather, and other objective facts are…

  8. Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, K. A.; Hales, J. D.; Yu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Bai, X.; Andersson, D.; Patra, A.; Wen, W.; Tome, C.; Baskes, M.; Martinez, E.; Stanek, C. R.; Miao, Y.; Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Liu, W.

    2015-09-01

    U3Si2 and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy’s Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U3Si2 and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.

  9. [Recreational boating accidents--Part 1: Catamnestic study].

    PubMed

    Lignitz, Eberhard; Lustig, Martina; Scheibe, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Deaths on the water are common in the autopsy material of medicolegal institutes situated on the coast or big rivers and lakes (illustrated by the example of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Greifswald University). They mostly occur during recreational boating activities. Apart from hydro-meteorological influences, human error is the main cause of accidents. Often it is not sufficiently kept in mind whether the boat crew is fit for sailing and proper seamanship is ensured. Drowning (following initial hypothermia) is the most frequent cause of death. Medicolegal aspects are not decisive for ordering a forensic autopsy. As statistics are not compiled in a uniform way, a comparison of the data of different institutions engaged in investigating deaths at sea and during water sports activities is hardly possible, neither on a national nor an international basis--and the reconstruction of aquatic accidents is generally difficult. Fatal accidents can only be prevented by completely clarifying their causes.

  10. School sports accidents: analysis of causes, modes, and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pape, D; Pitsch, W; Engel, C

    2001-01-01

    About 5% of all school children are seriously injured during physical education every year. Because of its influence on children's attitude toward sports and the economic aspects, an evaluation of causes and medical consequences is necessary. In this study, 213 school sports accidents were investigated. Besides diagnosis, the localization of injuries, as well as the duration of the sick leave were documented. Average age of injured students was 13 years. Most of the injured students blamed themselves for the accident. The most common injuries were sprains, contusions, and fractures. Main reasons for the accidents were faults in basic motion training. Playing soccer and basketball were the most frequent reasons for injuries. The upper extremity was more frequently involved than the lower extremity. Sports physicians and teachers should work out a program outlining the individual needs and capabilities of the injured students to reintegrate them into physical education.

  11. Medical management principles for radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; van Beuningen, Dirk; Sohns, Torsten; Fliedner, Theodor M

    2003-03-01

    The medical management of radiation accidents requires intensive planning and action. This article looks at the medical management of recent radiation accidents to derive principles for structuring and organizing the treatment of patients who may have radiation-induced health impairments. Although the radiation accidents in Tokai-mura, Japan and Lilo, Georgia were small-scale accidents, they illustrate important and characteristic symptoms and clinical developments. There are lessons to be learned and conclusions to be drawn for the military medical officers concerned with problems of medical management after radiation accidents.

  12. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  13. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

  14. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry. PMID:22721539

  15. The Concept of Accident Proneness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Froggatt, Peter; Smiley, James A.

    1964-01-01

    The term accident proneness was coined by psychological research workers in 1926. Since then its concept—that certain individuals are always more likely than others to sustain accidents, even though exposed to equal risk—has been questioned but seldom seriously challenged. This article describes much of the work and theory on which this concept is based, details the difficulties encountered in obtaining valid information and the interpretative errors that can arise from the examination of imperfect data, and explains why accident proneness became so readily accepted as an explanation of the facts. A recent hypothesis of accident causation, namely that a person's accident liability may vary from time to time, is outlined, and the respective abilities of this and of accident proneness to accord with data from the more reliable literature are examined. The authors conclude that the hypothesis of individual variation in liability is more realistic and in better agreement with the data than is accident proneness. PMID:14106130

  16. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  17. Service experience, structural integrity, severe accidents, and erosion in nuclear and fossil plants. PVP-Volume 303

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, S.R.; Bamford, W.H; Geraets, L.H.; Okazaki, M.; Cipolla, R.C.; Cowfer, C.D.; Means, K.H.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this symposium was to disseminate information on service degradation and its prevention. Papers have been divided into the following topical sections: Service experience in nuclear plants; DOE high-level waste tank structural integrity panel--Summary reports; Severe accidents; Service experience in operating fossil power plants; and Erosion. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  19. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  20. A traffic accident caused by fatigue failure of axle.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Seong; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Kyu-Jung

    2007-09-01

    An investigation of a traffic accident involving a tractor-trailer and a passenger car that were traveling at high speed is presented. The cause was the fracture of a trailer axle. The investigation showed that the fracture was because of the fatigue failure. In addition, cracks were found in the remaining three trailer wheels. Hardness measurements showed that, because of inadequate heat treatment of the metal, they were prone to failure.

  1. Summary of work completed under the Environmental and Dynamic Equipment Qualification research program (EDQP)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Bramwell, D.L.; Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the results of the main projects undertaken under the Environmental and Dynamic Equipment Qualification Research Program (EDQP) sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under FIN A6322. Lasting from fiscal year 1983 to 1987, the program dealt with environmental and dynamic (including seismic) equipment qualification issues for mechanical and electromechanical components and systems used in nuclear power plants. The research results have since been used by both the NRC and industry. The program included seven major research projects that addressed the following issues: (a) containment purge and vent valves performing under design basis loss of coolant accident loads, (b) containment piping penetrations and isolation valves performing under seismic loadings and design basis and severe accident containment wall displacements, (c) shaft seals for primary coolant pumps performing under station blackout conditions, (d) electrical cabinet internals responding to in-structure generated motion (rattling), and (e) in situ piping and valves responding to seismic loadings. Another project investigating whether certain containment isolation valves will close under design basis conditions was also started under this program. This report includes eight main section, each of which provides a brief description of one of the projects, a summary of the findings, and an overview of the application of the results. A bibliography lists the journal articles, papers, and reports that document the research.

  2. [Molecular and cellular consequences of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Pelevina, I I; Afanas'ev, G G; Aleshchenko, A V; Antoshchina, M M; Gotlib, V Ia; Konradov, A A; Kudriashova, O V; Lizunova, E Iu; Osipov, A N; Riabchenko, N I; Serebrianyĭ, A M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results of the Chernobyl accident investigation 5-10 and 24 years after are summarized. The genomic instability, adaptive response formation, genome damage and oxidative status have been investigated. The studies were performed on cells in culture, mice, children and adults living in contaminated areas and liquidators. On cells in culture after exposition in the accident zone and culturing thereafter in laboratory conditions the cell proliferative activity decrease; the late cell death, the frequency of cells with micronuclei and giant cells increasing have been observed. In the progeny of exposed cells the enhancement of radiosensitivity has been noticed. So we can suppose that in cultured cells exposition in the zone of the accident the genomic instability is induced which results in many disturbances. At the organism level in mice exposed in the Chernobyl zone the radiosensitivity increase and the decrease of endotheliocytes density in brain tissue has been observed. On the stimulated by PHA blood lymphocytes of children the increase of the frequency of cells with micronuclei more than 2 time have been noticed. In all groups investigated, the decrease of individuals with significant adaptive response was observed. In children and adults inhabitants the increase of radiosensitivity after low dose of irradiation has been noticed. 24-year after the accident it was discovered that in liquidators lymphocytes the frequency of cells with micronuclei, with chromosome type aberrations, with DNA double strand breaks have been increased; the reactive oxygen species (ROS) were decreased in comparison with the control population. We can suppose that genomic instability induced in residents of contaminated regions and liquidators long after the accident results in the genetic apparatus damage, radiosensitivity enhancement, hypoxia that represent risk factors and increase the probability of tumour and non-tumour diseases. The development of these pathological

  3. NFSMI Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    The NFSMI Research Summary is a continuing series of summaries reporting recently completed research and research-based resources funded by the National Food Service Management Institute. The following research studies are summarized in this article: (1) Succession Planning for Management Level Staff in School Nutrition Programs; (2)…

  4. NASA Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, May 1987, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of 11 "NASA Information Summaries" grouped together: (1) "Our Planets at a Glance" (PMS-010); (2) "Space Shuttle Mission Summary: 1985-1986" (PMS-005); (3) "Astronaut Selection and Training" (PMS-019); (4) "Space Station" (PMS-008); (5) "Materials Processing in Space" (PMS-026); (6) "Countdown!: NASA Launch Vehicles and…

  5. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. [Medical opinions on fatal auto-erotic accidents for insurance purposes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Naeve, W

    1975-01-01

    The problematic nature of medico-legal opinions on fatal auto-erotic accidents made for private accident insurance companies is outlined in a survey based on our own records. Taking the "General Insuranc Terms for Accident Insurance" (AUB) into consideration, guidelines for the forming of such opinions are given. One is warned not to form summary opinions. Decisive is the insured's state of conciousness when the accident was triggered. Only in exceptional cases can an insurance covered accident be rejected because of a body injury inflicted by the insured on himself (see article). These actions do not usually result in external injury to the body. Experience proves that "ideal conditions" for forming an opinion are rarely given. Also, the nature of the death situation is such that often the corpse is discovered only days after death. From the outset, forming a medical opinion is beset with varying degrees of difficulty depending upon which category of auto-erotic activities the accident falls into: 1. direct stimulation of the erotic regions, 2. stimulation of sexual centers in the central nervous system, 3. the creation of fear and anguish in the context of masochistic perversion. According the presently valid insurance terms (AUB), cases of auto-erotic electrocution are to be regarded as covered. A disturbance of consciousness--with the exception of such disturbances following the influence of alcohol, medicines or narcotics--cannot be assumed for the moment in which the accident was triggered. At this moment body "integrity" was also intact. Accidents through strangulation, respectively asphyxiation (plastic bags etc.), usually occur during a disturbance of consciousness of the victim. This disturbance is the result of cerebral hypoxia, that is a result of strangulation, respectively external respiratory obstruction. The forming of a medical opinion for insurance purposes on auto-erotic accidents with clearly recognizable masochistic tendency is particularly

  7. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  8. Cardiac damage presenting late after road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Mackintosh, A F; Fleming, H A

    1981-01-01

    Six examples of cardiac damage secondary to non-penetrating trauma in road accidents are described. In all six cases the lesion was not recognised at the time of the accident but became clinically important two days to 17 years later. As the patients were young or had unusual lesions, the damage could be attributed to the accident. In older patients with common cardiac problems the trauma might not be recognised as the underlying cause. PMID:7330802

  9. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  10. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  11. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  12. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  13. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking.

  14. Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

  15. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  16. [SAFETY IN THE ELDERLY: HOME ACCIDENTS].

    PubMed

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia M; Píriz-Campos, Rosa Ma; Cordeiro, Raú; Muñoz Bermejo, Laura; Casado Verdjo, Inés; Postigo Mota, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    Home accidents are more common in the elderly and they can have serious consequences to the injured person's health. At home, chances to suffer accidents of any type are higher, because it's the place where old people spend most of their daily time. It is important to point out that a high percentage of domestic accidents could be easily avoided by taking some simple cautions. The main aim of this paper is to know how we can prevent most common domestic accidents in the aged population: falls, burnings, poisonings and fire prevention. PMID:27405149

  17. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  18. Biorhythmic Cycles and the Incidence of Industrial Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvey, Davis W.; Nibler, Roger G.

    1977-01-01

    The biorhythm theory of accident explanation that has been increasingly popularized in the business press was empirically examined. Municipal employees involved in work-related vehicular accidents and in on-the-job accidents provided the data. Each accident was analyzed to determine whether or not the accident occurred on a biorhythmically…

  19. Severe accident natural circulation studies at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, P.D.; Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Jones, K.R.; O`Brien, J.E.; Pafford, D.J.; Schlenker, L.D.; Tung, V.X.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accident natural circulation flows have been investigated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to better understand these flows and their potential impacts on the progression of a pressurized water reactor severe accident. Parameters affecting natural circulation in the reactor vessel and hot legs were identified and ranked based on their perceived importance. Reviews of the scaling of the 1/7-scale experiments performed by Westinghouse were undertaken. RELAP5/MOD3 calculations of two of the experiments showed generally good agreement between the calculated and observed behavior. Analyses of hydrogen behavior in the reactor vessel showed that hydrogen stratification is not likely to occur, and that an initially stratified layer of hydrogen would quickly mix with a recirculating steam flow. An analysis of the upper plenum behavior in the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor concluded that vapor temperatures could have been significantly higher than the temperatures seen by the control rod drive lead screws, supporting the premise that a strong natural circulation flow was likely present during the accident. SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations of a commercial pressurized water reactor severe accident without operator actions showed that the natural circulation flows enhance the likelihood of ex-vessel piping failures long before failure of the reactor vessel lower head.

  20. Quantifying safety benefit of winter road maintenance: accident frequency modeling.

    PubMed

    Usman, Taimur; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2010-11-01

    This research presents a modeling approach to investigate the association of the accident frequency during a snow storm event with road surface conditions, visibility and other influencing factors controlling for traffic exposure. The results have the premise to be applied for evaluating different maintenance strategies using safety as a performance measure. As part of this approach, this research introduces a road surface condition index as a surrogate measure of the commonly used friction measure to capture different road surface conditions. Data from various data sources, such as weather, road condition observations, traffic counts and accidents, are integrated and used to test three event-based models including the Negative Binomial model, the generalized NB model and the zero inflated NB model. These models are compared for their capability to explain differences in accident frequencies between individual snow storms. It was found that the generalized NB model best fits the data, and is most capable of capturing heterogeneity other than excess zeros. Among the main results, it was found that the road surface condition index was statistically significant influencing the accident occurrence. This research is the first showing the empirical relationship between safety and road surface conditions at a disaggregate level (event-based), making it feasible to quantify the safety benefits of alternative maintenance goals and methods.

  1. Summaries of FY 1985 engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Following an overview of the Engineering Research program, brief summaries are given for each of the 100 individual projects. Each summary gives the name of the institution carrying out the work, names of the investigators, project title, brief description, funding level for fiscal year 1985, year in which the project began, expected duration, and a budget activity number. The technical areas addressed by the program are, broadly, mechanical sciences, systems sciences, and engineering analysis. (LEW)

  2. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  3. Biofuels: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  4. Consequence analysis of a hypothetical contained criticality accident in the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Strenge, D.L.; Mishima, J.

    1984-12-01

    The original hazards summary report (i.e., SAR) for the CML addressed the consequences of a hypothetical accidential critical excursion occurring with the experimental assembly room open. That report indicated that the public would receive insignificant radiation exposure regardless of the type of atmospheric condition, while plant personnel could possibly receive exposures greater than the annual exposure limits for radiation workers, when a strong inversion existed. This analysis investigates the consequencs of a hypothetical accident criticality occurring with the experimental assembly room sealed. Due to the containment capabilities designed and built into the critical assembly room, the consequences are greatly reduced below those presented in HW-66266. Despite the incorporation of many extremely conservative assumptions to simplify the analysis, the radiation doses predicted for personnel 100 meters or more distant from the CML are found to be smaller than the annual radiation dose limit for members of the public in uncontrolled areas during routine, nonaccident operations. Therefore, the results of this analysis demonstrate that the occurrence of a hypothetical critical excursion within the sealed experimental assembly room at the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory presents only a small, acceptable risk to personnel and facilities in the area and no additional safety systems or controls are needed for the continued safe operation of the CML. 11 references, 4 tables. (ACR)

  5. Angular dependence of a simple accident dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, R. T.; Romero, L. L.; Olsher, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    A simple dosimeter made of a sulfur tablet, bare and cadmium covered indium foils and a cadmium covered copper foil has been modeled using MCNP5. Studies of the model without phantom or other confounding factors have shown that the cross sections and fluence-to-dose factors generated by the Monte Carlo method agree with those generated by analytic expressions for the high energy component. The threshold cross sections for the detectors on a phantom were calculated. The resulting doses assigned agree well with exposures made to three critical assemblies. In this study the angular dependence on a phantom is studied and compared with measurements taken on the GODIVA reactor. The dosimeter positions on the phantom are facing the source, on the back and the side. In previous papers the modeling of a simple dosimeter made of a sulfur tablet, bare and cadmium covered indium foils and a cadmium covered copper foil has been modeled using MCNP5. The conclusion made was that most of the neutron dose from criticality assemblies results from the high energy neutron fluences determined by the sulfur and indium detectors. The results using doses measured from the GODIVA, SHEBA, and bare and lead shielded SILENE reactors confirmed this. The angular dependence of an accident dosemeter is of interest in evaluating the exposure of personnel. To investigate this effect accident dosemeters were placed on a phantom and exposed to the GODIVA reactor at phantom orientations of 0{sup o}, 45{sup o}, 90{sup o}, 135{sup o}, and 180{sup o} to the assembly center line.

  6. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  7. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  8. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  9. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  10. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will... promptly to the nearest office of the airline concerned and to the nearest office of the Civil...

  11. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will... promptly to the nearest office of the airline concerned and to the nearest office of the Civil...

  12. Aircraft accidents.method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1937-01-01

    This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.

  13. Site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment.

  14. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  15. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F

    1999-11-01

    About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately

  16. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  17. Pattern of ophthalmological accidents and emergencies presenting to hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R S; Parkin, D W; Gillie, R F; Han, K H

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate the numbers and characteristics of patients with ophthalmological accidents and emergencies presenting to hospitals. DESIGN--Prospective survey over eight weeks. SETTING--Two general and one ophthalmic accident and emergency departments, two general outpatient departments, and an eye hospital ward consulting room (all in two teaching hospitals) in Newcastle upon Tyne. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Consultation numbers by age, sex, health district of residence, source of referral, diagnosis, and disposal were determined. An average of 37 ophthalmological emergency patients were seen daily. The all cause consultation rate per 1000 population for Newcastle residents was 2.64 (17.2 per year); for injuries it was 1.10 (7.2 per year) and for inflammations the rate was 0.91 (5.9 per year). Consultation rates per 1000 were 3.5 for males and 1.8 for females, the excess being explained by the higher risk of injury to men. Most patients were self-referred (58%), consulted during office hours (79.6%), were attended by senior house officers working alone (83.9%), and were asked to return for follow up (66.1%). Patients in an accident and emergency department seldom saw a consultant in their initial management. The diagnoses of patients from outside Newcastle were little different from those who lived within the city. The 10 commonest problems accounted for 68% of all cases. Injuries were the commonest problem (40.9% of all diagnoses). CONCLUSION--Ophthalmological accident and emergencies are an important component of an accident and emergency department workload. These patients are usually seen by junior doctors, some untrained in ophthalmology. The wide range of presenting problems poses a challenge for training and the organisation of effective referral chains, while the gender difference in injury rates points to the potential for prevention. PMID:8289039

  18. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998. PMID:9670490

  19. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence. PMID:23246707

  20. Sprain of the neck in clinically treated patients in The Netherlands: an inventory of different categories of car accidents.

    PubMed

    Versteegen, G J; Kingma, J; ten Duis, H J

    2001-06-01

    Different categories of car accidents of victims with sprain of the neck were investigated for both drivers and passengers. The predominant category of the car crash was a collision with another car for drivers as well as for passengers. The second cause was unknown. The distribution of the accidents was statistically significantly different for drivers and passengers.

  1. [Poisoning accidents with household chemicals among children].

    PubMed

    Johannsen, H G; Mikkelsen, J B

    1994-10-01

    A review is presented of the registration of all poisoning accidents among children aged 0-6 years treated at the University Hospital, Odense, Denmark during the period 1.1.1980-31.12.1992. There were 1751 poisoning accidents of which 482 were accidents with household chemicals. There were 69 accidents with lamp oil (Petroleum) of which 67 were in the age group 0-3 years. A peak incidence in the age group 0-3 years old is seen in 1986. In 1992 the incidence is at about the same level as in 1980. The incidence in the age group 4-6 years is at almost the same level throughout the entire period. We conclude that it is necessary to continue with campaigns to prevent accidents with household chemicals among children.

  2. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  3. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn St. Germain; Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a description of The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal. The Information Portal was created by the Idaho National Laboratory as part of joint NRC and DOE project to assess the severe accident modeling capability of the MELCOR analysis code. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal was created to collect, store, retrieve and validate information and data for use in reconstructing the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In addition to supporting the MELCOR simulations, the Portal will be the main DOE repository for all data, studies and reports related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and accessible to researchers at diverse locations.

  4. Accident prevention: the health visitor's role.

    PubMed

    Levene, S

    1992-10-01

    The health of the nation white paper sets targets in five key areas for reductions in both mortality and morbidity: coronary heart disease and stroke, cancers, mental illness, HIV/Aids and sexual health and accidents. In a series of articles in Health visitor, experts will be considering the opportunities the white paper offers for community nurses in each of the key areas. Here Dr Sara Levene, medical consultant to the Child Accident Prevention Trust, considers accidents, a major problem which health visitors can do much to control. She reviews how accidents are presented in the white paper, what health visitors can do and what resources are available to help them. She offers particular advice on special accident prevention initiatives and discusses some of the opportunities created by the white paper.

  5. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables.

  6. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  7. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  8. [Cerebral vascular accidents in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Gras, C; Papouin, G; Prigent, D; Beaugendre, E; Lionet, P; Brodin, S; Legall, R; Marjou, F; Spiegel, A; Gendron, Y

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the results of a survey on cardiovascular accidents hospitalized between 01 April 1990 and 31 January 1991 carried out in the Services of Medicine and Cardiology in the Territorial Hospital Center of Papeete. This survey was: 56 cardiovascular accidents: 1/4 (hemorrhagic and 3/4 (42) ischemic. Mean age 59 (extremes 23-86). 36 males (64%); 20 females (36%). 50 Polynesians; 6 Chinese people. Among the risk factors recorded, 38 (68%) were hypertensed patients; 17 (30%) were due to tabagism and 15 (25%) to diabetes; 3 (5%) are known to be carriers of a hypercholesterolemia. 59% of the patients had no case history; 25% the cardiovascular accidents have been observed in patients with cardiopathy; 12.5% are recurrent cardiovascular accidents. Clinically, 5 transient ischemic accidents (12%) out of 42 cardiovascular ischemic accidents. High arterial tension was recognized in 12/14 (86%) of hemorrhagic cardiovascular accidents and in 26/42 (62%) of ischemic cardiovascular accidents. In 42 ischemic cardiovascular accidents, 31 patients suffered from cardiopathy (74%) of which 15 (36%) presented an embolic cardiopathy. Interest of echography and electrocardiogram are discussed. Ultrasonic exam of carotid vessels was found abnormal in almost half of the cases when utilized (12/26). Finally, etiological diagnosis was certain in 17 cases, of presumption in 16 cases, and in 9 cases, it was not possible to precise any cardiovascular etiology. Tomodensitometric tests are discussed. 86% of the ischemic cardiovascular accident were treated with anticoagulants/thrombocyte antiagglutination. 24% of the patients died, 50% recovered incompletely and 26% completely. PMID:1602953

  9. Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study. PMID:23878423

  10. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies.

  11. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  12. [A study on fall accident].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, M J

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35

  13. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Seventh Session. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A summary of discussions on agenda items is presented in this report. Besides the financial, administrative, and constitutional aspects, the topics concentrate on long-term and expanded oceanic exploration programs, conduct and follow-up of cooperative investigations, legal problems in the scientific investigations of the oceans, and education and…

  14. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry. PMID:17680126

  15. 41 CFR 101-39.403 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 101-39.403 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.403 Investigation. (a) Every accident involving a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle shall be investigated and a report furnished to the...

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.403 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 101-39.403 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.403 Investigation. (a) Every accident involving a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle shall be investigated and a report furnished to the...

  17. 41 CFR 101-39.403 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 101-39.403 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.403 Investigation. (a) Every accident involving a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle shall be investigated and a report furnished to the...

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.403 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 101-39.403 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.403 Investigation. (a) Every accident involving a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle shall be investigated and a report furnished to the...

  19. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  20. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  1. Childhood accidents: epidemiology, trends, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Sibert, J

    1997-01-01

    Accidents are the most common cause of death in children over one year of age. Prevention remains a high priority. We have reviewed the current epidemiology of childhood accidents and their prevention, and made recommendations for the future. In 1992, 559 children died in United Kingdom as a result of an accidents--240 from road traffic accidents and 100 from burns and scalds. Every year 50 children drown. Accidents cause significant disability to children. Many children, up to one in four of the population in urban areas, attend accident and emergency departments, and 5-10% of these are admitted to hospital. Accident risk factors include low social class, psychosocial stress, an unsafe environment, and child developmental disorders. Research has shown that prevention is best achieved by making the child's environment safer, often through legislation. Insufficient resources have been put into both research into childhood injuries and preventive work in communities. Collaboration between health authorities, NHS trusts, local authorities and community networks is vital if success is to be achieved. A national safety agenda for children would focus the attention that this problem deserves. PMID:9315935

  2. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  3. Biofuels program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The Federal government has supported research on biomass technology and energy from municipal waste since 1975. Separate research programs were conducted until 1985 when the two were merged into biofuels and municipal waste technology to take advantage of their many similarities in conversion requirements and research needs. The purpose of the biofuels program is to provide focus, direction, coordination, and funding for the development of technologies that produce tailored energy crops and convert these crops and wastes to fuels. The FY 1989 program includes research on the production (growth) of biomass and its conversion to fuels. Research on biomass production involves the development and use of genetically improved trees and grasses specifically for their energy conversion characteristics (terrestrial energy crops). The Biofuels Program Summary is prepared each year and consists of a two-volume reference set describing the technological advances, current projects, and future research and development (R and D) directions of the program. This volume (Volume 2-Research Summaries) is a compilation of detailed descriptions of the R and D projects performed by the national laboratories and their subcontractors from industry, universities, and nonprofit research institutions.

  4. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  5. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    PubMed

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents.

  6. Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Kress, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study.

  7. Impact of nuclear accidents on marine biota.

    PubMed

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, precipitated by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck the northeastern coast of Japan in March 2011, has raised concerns about the potential impact to marine biota posed by the release of radioactive water and radionuclide particles into the environment. The Fukushima accident is the only major nuclear accident that has resulted in the direct discharge of radioactive materials into a coastal environment. This article briefly summarizes what is currently understood about the effects of radioactive wastewaters and radionuclides to marine life.

  8. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Ludewig, Hans; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Serre, Frederic

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  9. The Implications of Handling Qualities in Civil Helicopter Accidents Involving Hover and Low Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.; Delamer, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of increasing accident rates in Army helicopters in hover and low speed flight, a study was made in 1999 of accidents which could be attributed to inadequate stability augmentation. A study of civil helicopter accidents from 1993-2004 was then undertaken to pursue the issue of poor handling qualities in helicopters which, in almost all cases, had no stability augmentation. The vast majority of the mishaps studied occurred during daylight in visual meteorological condition, reducing the impact of degraded visual environments (DVE) on the results. Based on the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale, the handling qualities of many of the helicopters studied could be described as having from "very objectionable" to "major" deficiencies. These costly deficiencies have resulted in unnecessary loss of life, injury, and high dollar damage. Low cost and lightweight augmentation systems for helicopters have been developed in the past and are still being investigated. They offer the potential for significant reductions in the accident rate.

  10. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  11. Orbiter Payload Bay Bucket Hoist Mishap...An Accident We Should Never Forget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the accident that occurred in 1985 when a bay bucket hoist fell from its stowed position. This accident damaged the orbiter, injured a technician, and delayed the launch. The accident was investigated, and the cause of the accident was determined to be the practice of two-blocking. Two-blocking is the result of hoisting beyond the intended safe upper limit of hook travel to the point of solid contact between the load block and the upper block or hoist/trolley structure. The usual result is immediate failure of the wire rope, due to the ropes being cut by the grooves of the drum or sheaves. The design of the hoist, the inspection, and the operator training were all in part responsible for this failure.

  12. Simulation study of traffic car accidents at a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we numerically investigate the probability Pac of entering/circulating car accidents to occur at single-lane roundabout under the expanded open boundary. The roundabout consists of N on-ramps (respectively, off-ramps). The boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β. The simulation results show that, depending on the injecting rates, the car accidents are more likely to happen when the capacity of the rotary is set to its maximum. Moreover, we found that the large values of rotary size L and the probability of preferential Pexit are reliable to improve safety and reduce accidents. However, the usage of indicator, the increase of β and/or N provokes an increase of car accident probability.

  13. Impact of gender, age and experience of pilots on general aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Massoud; Guzhva, Vitaly S

    2011-05-01

    General aviation (GA) accounts for more than 82% of all air transport-related accidents and air transport-related fatalities in the U.S. In this study, we conduct a series of statistical analyses to investigate the significance of a pilot's gender, age and experience in influencing the risk for pilot errors and fatalities in GA accidents. There is no evidence from the Chi-square tests and logistic regression models that support the likelihood of an accident caused by pilot error to be related to pilot gender. However, evidence is found that male pilots, those older than 60 years of age, and with more experience, are more likely to be involved in a fatal accident.

  14. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  15. Coordinability and consistency in accident causation and prevention: formal system theoretic concepts for safety in multilevel systems.

    PubMed

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V; Saleh, Joseph H

    2013-03-01

    Although a "system approach" to accidents in sociotechnical systems has been frequently advocated, formal system theoretic concepts remain absent in the literature on accident analysis and system safety. To address this gap, we introduce the notions of coordinability and consistency from the hierarchical and multilevel systems theory literature. We then investigate the applicability and the importance of these concepts to accident causation and safety. Using illustrative examples, including the worst disaster in aviation history, and recent incidents in the United States of aircraft clipping each other on the tarmac, we propose that the lack of coordinability is a fundamental failure mechanism causing or contributing to accidents in multilevel systems. We make a similar case for the lack of consistency. Coordinability and consistency become ingredients for accident prevention, and their absence fundamental failure mechanisms that can lead to system accidents. Finally, using the concepts introduced in this work, we identify several venues for further research, including the development of a theory of coordination in multilevel systems, the investigation of potential synergies between coordinability, consistency, and the high reliability organizations paradigm, and the possibility of reframing the view that "sloppy management is the root cause of many industrial accidents" as one of lack of coordinability and/or consistency between management and operations. By introducing and expanding on the concepts of coordinability and consistency, we hope to contribute to the thinking about, and the to language of, accident causation, and prevention and to add to the intellectual toolkit of safety professionals and academics. PMID:22967134

  16. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  17. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  18. NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Everett, Chris; Hall, Anthony; Insley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic accidents are usually preceded by precursory events that, although observable, are not recognized as harbingers of a tragedy until after the fact. In the nuclear industry, the Three Mile Island accident was preceded by at least two events portending the potential for severe consequences from an underappreciated causal mechanism. Anomalies whose failure mechanisms were integral to the losses of Space Transportation Systems (STS) Challenger and Columbia had been occurring within the STS fleet prior to those accidents. Both the Rogers Commission Report and the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report found that processes in place at the time did not respond to the prior anomalies in a way that shed light on their true risk implications. This includes the concern that, in the words of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), "no process addresses the need to update a hazard analysis when anomalies occur" At a broader level, the ASAP noted in 2007 that NASA "could better gauge the likelihood of losses by developing leading indicators, rather than continue to depend on lagging indicators". These observations suggest a need to revalidate prior assumptions and conclusions of existing safety (and reliability) analyses, as well as to consider the potential for previously unrecognized accident scenarios, when unexpected or otherwise undesired behaviors of the system are observed. This need is also discussed in NASA's system safety handbook, which advocates a view of safety assurance as driving a program to take steps that are necessary to establish and maintain a valid and credible argument for the safety of its missions. It is the premise of this handbook that making cases for safety more experience-based allows NASA to be better informed about the safety performance of its systems, and will ultimately help it to manage safety in a more effective manner. The APA process described in this handbook provides a systematic means of analyzing candidate

  19. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

  20. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  1. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-11-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  2. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  3. Summaries of FY 1995 engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The individual engineering project summaries follow the program overview. The summaries are ordered alphabetically by name of institution and so the table of contents lists all the institutions at which projects were sponsored in fiscal year 1995. Each project entry begins with an institutional-departmental heading. The names of investigators are listed immediately below the title. The funding level for fiscal year 1995 appears to the right of title; it is followed by the budget activity number. These numbers categorize the projects for budgetary purposes and the categories are described in the budget number index. A separate index of Principal Investigators includes phone number, fax number and e-mail address, where available. The fiscal year in which either the project began or was renewed and the anticipated duration in years are indicated respectively by the first two and last digits of the sequence directly below the budget activity number. The summary description of the project completes the entry.

  4. 50 CFR 25.72 - Reporting of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than 24 hours after the accident, by the persons involved, to the refuge manager... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of accidents. 25.72 Section 25... Reporting of accidents. Accidents involving damage to property, injury to the public or injury to...

  5. 50 CFR 25.72 - Reporting of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than 24 hours after the accident, by the persons involved, to the refuge manager... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of accidents. 25.72 Section 25... Reporting of accidents. Accidents involving damage to property, injury to the public or injury to...

  6. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  7. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  8. Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

    1996-01-01

    Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where users…

  9. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  10. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  11. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  12. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  13. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  14. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  15. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  16. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  17. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  18. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  19. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  20. Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility.

  1. [Dysbaric accident in deep sea fishing].

    PubMed

    López Oblaré, B; Campos Pascual, F

    1995-05-20

    The case of a dysbaric accident with occurred in a professional athlete during a national competition is herein reported. The clinical symptoms and response to treatment in a depressurization chamber in addition to CT controls should alert physicians in coastal areas in which this sport is carried out in order to take into consideration neurologic disorders which may be due to dysbaric accidents such as those which occur in scuba divers.

  2. MELCOR analyses for accident progression issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Shaffer, C.J.; Payne, A.C.; Carmel, M.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Results of calculations performed with MELCOR and HECTR in support of the NUREG-1150 study are presented in this report. The analyses examined a wide range of issues. The analyses included integral calculations covering an entire accident sequence, as well as calculations that addressed specific issues that could affect several accident sequences. The results of the analyses for Grand Gulf, Peach Bottom, LaSalle, and Sequoyah are described, and the major conclusions are summarized. 23 refs., 69 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  4. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  5. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  6. Remarkable Retellings, Super Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Retelling and summarizing are great ways to get children involved in what they're reading--and thinking about what they understand in texts. Summarizing is a more complex task than retelling. Creating a formal summary usually involves reducing a text by about a third, writing a topic statement, eliminating redundant and unimportant details, and…

  7. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  8. The Chernobyl accident--an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M

    2011-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to the exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer-particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes-that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with the risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer end points. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers ('liquidators') have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other haematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation.

  9. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-09-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as >100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥1473 K (1200 °C) for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases, and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low-mass losses for Mo in steam at 1073 K (800 °C) could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti2AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1473 K (1200 °C) in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore, Ti2AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1748 K (1475 °C), while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α' formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at >1673 K (1400 °C) are still being evaluated.

  10. Material selection for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-09-14

    Alternative cladding materials are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as >100X improvement (compared to current Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance in steam environments at ≥1200°C for short (≤4 h) times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. Therefore, commercial Ti2AlC that is not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steammore » and significant TiO2, and therefore may be challenging to use as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation assisted Cr-rich α’ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at >1400°C are still being evaluated.« less

  11. Material selection for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-09-14

    Alternative cladding materials are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as >100X improvement (compared to current Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance in steam environments at ≥1200°C for short (≤4 h) times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. Therefore, commercial Ti2AlC that is not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore may be challenging to use as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation assisted Cr-rich α’ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at >1400°C are still being evaluated.

  12. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as > 100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥ 1200°C for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti2AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore Ti2AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α´ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at > 1400°C are still being evaluated.

  13. High Temperature Chemistry in the Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Tallant, David; Simpson, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Initial estimates on the temperature and conditions of the breach in Columbia's wing focused on analyses of the slag deposits. These deposits are complex mixtures of the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) constituents, insulation material, and wing structural materials. However it was possible to clearly discern melted/solidified Cerachrome(R) insulation, indicating the temperatures had exceeded 1760 C. Current research focuses on the carbon/carbon in the path from the breach. Carbon morphology indicates heavy oxidation and erosion. Raman spectroscopy yielded further temperature estimates. A technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories is based on crystallite size in carbon chars. Lower temperatures yield nanocrystalline graphite; whereas higher temperatures yield larger graphite crystals. By comparison to standards the temperatures on the recovered RCC fragments were estimated to have been greater than 2700 C.

  14. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... written report cannot be used in criminal proceedings against the person submitting it unless it was originally categorized a hit and run and the violator is the person submitting the report. Rights advisement..., pedestrians, and passengers involved. (iii) Identification of vehicles involved. (iv) Speed and direction...

  15. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... written report cannot be used in criminal proceedings against the person submitting it unless it was originally categorized a hit and run and the violator is the person submitting the report. Rights advisement..., pedestrians, and passengers involved. (iii) Identification of vehicles involved. (iv) Speed and direction...

  16. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... written report cannot be used in criminal proceedings against the person submitting it unless it was originally categorized a hit and run and the violator is the person submitting the report. Rights advisement..., pedestrians, and passengers involved. (iii) Identification of vehicles involved. (iv) Speed and direction...

  17. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300{degrees}F and 1800{degrees}F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  18. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300[degrees]F and 1800[degrees]F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk.

  19. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  20. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288