Science.gov

Sample records for accident prevention measures

  1. Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Pajari, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty. PMID:3928364

  2. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  3. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, O

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer. PMID:21614274

  4. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    PubMed Central

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  5. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  6. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    PubMed

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions.

  7. Review of aviation safety measures which have application to aviation accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Doughtery, J D

    1975-01-01

    Introduction of certain human-factors techniques has been followed by market reduction in military and airline accident rates. In this study, these safety measures are analyzed to determine the value of their application to general aviation activity. Some techniques are already in use. They are: 1. medical evaluation of iarcrews; 2. aeronautical innovations which tailor the machine to the man; 3. imporvement of precision navigational air traffic control and flight procedures; 4. standardization of flight training and flight procedures. A remaining field of interest, and one which appears to be underused, is that of supervision. After ending his association with the flight instructor, the general aviation pilot is essentially unsupervised. Accident data gathered over several years show that with increases in the proportion of pilots who have not maintained an association with a flight instructor, the general aviation fatal accident rate is increased. Current regulations, which require revalidation of airman's certificates, provide a method by which this association can be maintained. The flight instructor, or some similar aviation professional, can maintain an element of supervision with otherwise independent general aviation pilots. Data from previous years supports the hypothesis that such a program would make a substantial improvement in general aviation safety.

  8. Does periodic vehicle inspection prevent accidents?

    PubMed

    White, W T

    1986-02-01

    The hypothesis that periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) has no safety effect was tested using accident involvement rates analysed by "vehicle age" and "time since the most recent inspection." The alternative of interest was that the probability of accident is lowest (ceteris paribus) immediately after an inspection, and subsequently increases over time. Two types of adjustment for exposure variations by time since last inspection were made, yielding two kinds of accident involvement rate. The first accident rate was the proportion of accident-involved vehicles having "preventable" defects which could possibly have helped to cause the accident. The second accident rate was the number of accident-involved vehicles divided by the number of inspected vehicles, and amounted to an adjustment for premature re-inspection. The observed probability of accident involvement (as measured by either rate) was found to increase with time since last inspection. This result supports the alternative hypothesis that a mandatory safety inspection has an immediate safety benefit which decreases over time. In neither analysis was there an interaction between vehicle age group and "week since inspection."

  9. Chemical Accident Prevention Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include chemical safety alerts, emergency preparedness and prevention advisories, and topical backgrounders. Excess flow valves, protecting workers in ethylene oxide sterilization facilities, reactivity hazards, and delayed coker units are covered.

  10. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  11. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  12. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  13. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  14. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  15. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  16. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention,...

  17. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  18. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  19. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  20. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  1. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  2. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention,...

  3. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention,...

  4. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  5. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  6. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  7. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  8. The three essentials for accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Crystal

    2014-11-01

    This article was written by Crystal Eastman when she was Secretary of the New York Commission on Employers' Liability and Causes of Industrial Accidents, Unemployment, and Lack of Farm Labor. It was published in July of 1911, in Volume 38, Number 1 of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pages 98-107. The issue title was "Risks in Modern Industry." Eastman calls for the prevention of workplace accidents through three essentials: injury surveillance/reporting (with annual public reporting of the data); government enforcement of accident prevention laws, via departments with well-paid and well-trained officials and inspectors, fines that are high enough to be a deterrence to employers, and the power to have police shut down a factory if preventive measures are not installed; and a workers' compensation system-"a system of liability by which an employer can reduce his accident costs, not by hiring a more unscrupulous attorney and a more hard-hearted claim agent, but only by reducing his accidents."

  9. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  10. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926... § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart.... (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident prevention tags shall be used as a temporary means...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926... § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart..., incorporated by reference in § 1926.6. (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident prevention tags shall be...

  13. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  14. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926... § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart.... (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident prevention tags shall be used as a temporary means...

  16. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  17. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926... § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart.... (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident prevention tags shall be used as a temporary means...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926... § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart.... (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident prevention tags shall be used as a temporary means...

  20. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  1. Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Benton K.

    1976-01-01

    Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

  2. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  3. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  4. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  5. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  6. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  7. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  8. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  10. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  11. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  12. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    , insufficient attention was paid to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region, i.e., AD 869 Jogan and 1677 Empo Boso-oki tsunamis, and the 1896 Sanriku tsunami maximum height in eastern Japan whose maximum runup was 38m. Two, the design safety conditions were different in Onagawa, Fukushima and Tokai NPPs. It is inconceivable to have had different earthquake scenarios for the NPPs at such close distance from each other. Three, studying the sub-standard TEPCO analysis performed only months before the accident shows that it is not the accuracy of numerical computations or the veracity of the computational model that doomed the NPP, but the lack of familiarity with the context of numerical predictions. Inundation projections, even if correct for one particular scenario, need to always be put in context of similar studies and events elsewhere. To put it in colloquial terms, following a recipe from a great cookbook and having great cookware does not always result in great food, if the cook is an amateur. The Fukushima accident was preventable. Had the plant's owner TEPCO and NISA followed international best practices and standards, they would had predicted the possibility of the plant being struck by the size of tsunami that materialized in 2011. If the EDGs had been relocated inland or higher, there would have been no loss of power. A clear chance to have reduced the impact of the tsunami at Fukushima was lost after the 2010 Chilean tsunami. Standards are not only needed for evaluating the vulnerability of NPPs against tsunami attack, but also for evaluating the competence of modelers and evaluators. Acknowledgment: This work is partially supported by the project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe) FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839 to the Technical University of Crete and the Middle East Technical University.

  13. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  14. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  15. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section 1915.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section 1915.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to...

  18. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  19. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section 1915.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to...

  1. The work of the Child Accident Prevention Trust.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R H; Cooper, S; Hayes, H R

    1988-01-01

    In 1983 an article was published in this Journal describing the work of the Child Accident Prevention Trust. Since that time many developments have taken place in the field of child accident prevention. There has been an increased recognition of the role of accidents and injuries in child health and the importance of accident prevention at an international, national, and local level. This has, in part, been a result of work undertaken by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. Much remains to be done, however, and doctors and other health workers involved with children must recognise the part that they can play in reducing this epidemic. Mortality and morbidity from accidents is the largest single problem in the health of children after the first year of life. The aim of this article is to stimulate interest in the problem of accidents in childhood especially among community paediatricians and clinical medical officers. Hospital doctors and general practitioners also have a particular part to play in drawing the attention of appropriate authorities to factors which have led to accidents that may have been preventable (see Annotation in this issue). PMID:3355217

  2. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In the performance of each project, the Cooperator shall comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local...

  3. Rate of occupational accidents in the mining industry since 1950--a successful approach to prevention policy.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Joachim; Höffer, Eva-Marie; Hummitzsch, Walter

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the decrease in the rate of accident insurance claims in the German mining industry over the last five decades. It intends to show that this process is above all the result of a prevention policy where companies and the body responsible for the legal accident insurance in the mining industry, the Bergbau-Berufsgenossenschaft (BBG), work hand in hand. A system like the German accident insurance scheme, combining prevention, rehabilitation, and compensation, enables successful and modern safety and health measures.

  4. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  5. The Preventive Approaches of the Statutory Accident Insurance System and Their Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Wilfried; Meffert, Karlheinz

    1996-01-01

    For decades, prevention has been an integral and important part of the German statutory accident insurance system. The very close link between prevention, rehabilitation, and compensation, which is so typical for the German system, had an extremely positive effect on the frequency of notifiable occupational accidents. What is more, if we compare benefits and costs of the system, it appears that prevention has also been successful in a strictly monetary sense. After a short outline of the basic principles of the German accident insurance system, the authors take stock of the last 33 years. The period between 1960 and 1993 also covers the repercussions of the German reunification in 1990. The trends in accident and disease frequency are presented together with the trends in costs and benefits. To allow a realistic comparison, all figures are indicated in terms of 1960. It can be shown that the average contribution rate to accident insurance decreased in the period under consideration. This is particularly remarkable if we look at the enormous increase in contribution rates that took place in all other branches of social insurance. It is also noted that the contribution rates of the different industrial branches are immediately dependent on the accident risks in those industries. The last part of the article contains a qualitative and quantitative description of the prevention measures available to the German accident insurance institutions.

  6. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  7. Theoretical Perspectives on Fishing Vessel Accidents and Their Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    Fishing vessel accidents occur because of complex interactions of human, technical, and environmental factors. Although they usually occur because of human actions, thoughts, or behavior, investigators and prevention educators are preoccupied with technical matters and equipment. Equipment, machinery, weather, and other objective facts are…

  8. Theoretical Perspectives on Learning for the Prevention of Fishing Vessel Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical model for accident prevention education that includes four paradigms: humanism, radical humanism, functionalism, and radical functionalism. Applies the model to fishing boat accidents and derives implications for changing the content and processes of prevention education. (SK)

  9. Accident Prevention Through Effective Safety Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    to a 1.4 percent savings on total job costs. This is a conservative figure and 3 some companies have done substantially better. Exxon Corporation ...three categories in order to establish a favorable atmosphere for safe construction. 4.1.1 Communicatine Safety Goals to Employees A chief executive may...CopisFoESSCCO, 3. :al comte Inspetion I-u,, ofmeigCopies to ECMt, JF arid Meeting Note: AN or1igiis go to the corporate loss-prevention end/or safety

  10. [Road vehicle accidents during travel and their prevention].

    PubMed

    Murat, J E

    1997-01-01

    The number of road vehicle accidents during travel outside Europe and/or under difficult conditions increases about 5% every year. Road accidents account for a third to half of medical evacuations as well as for the most serious injuries. The risk of accidents and their potential gravity may be enhanced by the poor condition of roads and vehicles. Personal factors including fatigue, speed, alcohol, drugs, and poor vision also play a major role. Physicians should warn travelers planning road trips of all these hazards and of any specific local conditions prevailing in certain destinations. Prevention depends on the age of the traveler and on any disabilities that he/she might have. Packing a first aid kit and inspecting safety equipment before the trip and at regular intervals during the trip are indispensable. Knowledge of emergency first aid procedures is highly recommendable. While avoiding excessiveness of any kind, the physician should encourage suitable psychological and material preparation in function of travel plans. This preparation should be aimed at reducing the risk of road accident particularly in developing countries. Counseling can be useful in reducing the risk of road accidents particularly in developing countries.

  11. 78 FR 66641 - Incorporation by Reference; Accident Prevention Signs and Tags; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Reference; Accident Prevention Signs and Tags; Correction AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... for accident prevention signs and tags. DATES: Effective on November 6, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... use accident prevention signs and tags under the specified standards. Need for Correction As...

  12. The Maurice Ellis lecture for 1986. The responsibility of emergency medicine towards the prevention of road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, W H

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that doctors who work in accident and emergency departments should play their part in road accident prevention. It is suggested that this might be done in the field of research, by direct action, through education of the public and by influencing legislation. Examples are given of both small and simple, and major national research projects based in accident and emergency departments. The type of direct action envisaged is modelled on the work of Dr Hayle Hadeson in preventing accidents to children. Examples of the education of the public are drawn from publicity work in the seat-belt campaign, and experiences of lobbying members of parliament in relation to seat-belt legislation are described. The relative under-funding of trauma research compared with cancer of heart disease research is seen as a measure of society's lack of interest in accident prevention, and colleagues unchallenged to do more to alter this situation. PMID:3768120

  13. A graph model for preventing railway accidents based on the maximal information coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fubo; Li, Keping

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors influences railway safety. It is an important work to identify important influencing factors and to build the relationship between railway accident and its influencing factors. The maximal information coefficient (MIC) is a good measure of dependence for two-variable relationships which can capture a wide range of associations. Employing MIC, a graph model is proposed for preventing railway accidents which avoids complex mathematical computation. In the graph, nodes denote influencing factors of railway accidents and edges represent dependence of the two linked factors. With the increasing of dependence level, the graph changes from a globally coupled graph to isolated points. Moreover, the important influencing factors are identified from many factors which are the monitor key. Then the relationship between railway accident and important influencing factors is obtained by employing the artificial neural networks. With the relationship, a warning mechanism is built by giving the dangerous zone. If the related factors fall into the dangerous zone in railway operations, the warning level should be raised. The built warning mechanism can prevent railway accidents and can promote railway safety.

  14. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  15. [With the introduction of Infection Control Committees in mid-sized private hospitals, cutting-edge accident prevention methods and solutions will be utilized to reduce the impact of needlestick accidents].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Yoshiji

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to medical equipment, such as needles and other sharp objects, can accidentally cause injury or transmit an infectious blood-borne disease. Because the risk of infection due to needlestick injury accidents is always a possibility it is important to inform medical staff of the best ways to reduce the possible risks and the appropriate measures to take when an accident occurs, in order to reduce the frequency or seriousness of an accident; however, it is extremely difficult to completely prevent accidents. Therefore, when needlestick accidents do occur, steps need to be taken to ease the psychological burden and reduce the severity of accidents. Contingency measures for needlestick and related injuries will be introduced in private and mid-sized hospital facilities. This will be accomplished by taking measure against exposure and emergent accidents. Introducing an Infection Committee will change administrative procedures.

  16. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 2. Accident Prevention for Faculty and Administrators, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…

  17. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  18. Enforcement Alert: EPA Enforcement Efforts Focus on Prevention of Chemical Accidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Alert is intended to inform the industry that companies must take responsibility to prevent accidental releases of dangerous chemicals like anhydrous ammonia through compliance with CAA’s Chemical Accident Prevention Program.

  19. [Accident cause masculinity?--Gender-related issues of accident victims between prevention and coping in Kaiserreich and Weimarer Republik].

    PubMed

    Knoll-Jung, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Occupational accidents in industrial workplaces are a specific health problem for man. Therefore it seems adequate to use masculinities as a category of research in this field. For the Kaiserreich and the Weimarer Republik it shows that male workers relating to their danger awareness and behavior, prevention, accident causes and coping strategies are settled in an area of conflict between a hard workplace environment and the family. On the basis of health practices of the accident victims it appears that there are different forms of labor masculinities. They have an important influence on all levels of an occupational accident from the endangerment to the success of the treatment. Through a critical use of the category academic void can be shown and alternative explanatory models can be offered.

  20. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  2. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  7. Monitoring driver's sleepiness on-board for preventing road accidents.

    PubMed

    Papadelis, Christos; Lithari, Chrysa; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Portouli, Evangelia; Bekiaris, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Driver sleepiness due to sleep deprivation is a causative factor of many road accidents. Reducing the extent of the sleepy driving problem by developing a countermeasure device that will monitor the sleepiness level of the driver is crucial to improve the safety of the roads. Among numerous physiological measurements, the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal seems to be the most sensitive to detect sleepiness. Previous studies in the field have found consistent alterations of EEG signal during sleepy driving, though they face methodological limitations. We present here preliminary results from a real-driving experiment in which a more complete experimental setup was followed. The subjects were exposed to driving conditions twice: once after they had a normal sleep during the previous night, and once after they remained awake for at least 24 hours prior to the experiment. Significant alterations were observed in the alpha and beta EEG frequencies bands between the two sessions. Electroopthalmographic (EOG) measurements revealed an increased number of eye blinking during the sleep-deprived session in comparison to the control condition. Both measurements can be used for the successful design of a sleepiness detection countermeasure device.

  8. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

  9. Recommendations for Injury Prevention in Transport Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grierson, Anita E.; Jones, Lisa E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, a national objective was established to reduce the rate of fatal accidents in aviation. To assist in determining the best methods for improving aircraft crash survivability, a combined approach was used involving database research and the examination of case studies of transport aviation accidents. The results of the study include recommendations for maintaining occupiable space, enhancing occupant restraint, managing energy transferred to the occupant, improving egress, and increasing post-crash survival.

  10. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.).

  11. [Occupational physician's role in the prevention of the accidents in construction industry].

    PubMed

    Mosconi, G; Riva, M M; Apostoli, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the role of the occupational physician in the prevention of the accidents in construction industry. Using the experience of 12 years of surveillance of workers in Bergamo province, the authors analyse the "human factors" which may influence the risk to have an accident, and the role of the physicians not only for the early diagnosis of work-related diseases, but also for the formulation of correct fitness to work, which consider accidents' prevention. Health conditions, psychological elements, fatigue and life style are some of the most important "human factors" which can amplify the accident phenomenon in construction industry. Our experience demonstrates that the occupational physicians can operate in preventive way on these factors, formulating correct fitness to work, giving their collaboration in the risk evaluation and management, suggesting runs of rehabilitation and recovery for the workers who need it, promoting information meetings related to the correct life habits.

  12. Childhood accident prevention; program and statistical survey by a county medical society.

    PubMed

    COBB, B O; WILLIAMS, J H; CORSA, L

    1959-08-01

    A study of childhood accidents was begun by the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association to determine the incidence of various kinds of accidents, the causes and possible means of prevention. Hospitals, the State Department of Public Health and county and city health departments gave willing assistance when their aid was sought. Data gathered thus far have served to better identify the problems and can be used to set priorities for various phases of future study.

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? 102-74.355 Section 102-74.355 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To...

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? 102-74.355 Section 102-74.355 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To...

  15. [Injuries, accidents and mortality in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence risk factors and prevention].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco; Nguyen, Rita; Hernádez-Ronquillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based in non selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increase frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include are more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. This article reviews information about specific type of injuries such as fractures, burns, concussions, dislocations, etc. Finally this article review in a comprehensive way information of mortality in patients with epilepsy. Aspects of mortality discussed in this review are: epidemiology, causes of mortality, sudden death in epilepsy and prevention measures.

  16. Improvement of relief algorithm to prevent inpatient's downfall accident with night-vision CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miwa, Masafumi; Nukumi, Shinobu; Mori, Kumiko; Kuinose, Yuko; Maeda, Etuko; Miura, Hirokazu; Taki, Hirokazu; Hori, Satoshi; Abe, Norihiro

    2005-12-01

    "ROSAI" hospital, Wakayama City in Japan, reported that inpatient's bed-downfall is one of the most serious accidents in hospital at night. Many inpatients have been having serious damages from downfall accidents from a bed. To prevent accidents, the hospital tested several sensors in a sickroom to send warning-signal of inpatient's downfall accidents to a nurse. However, it sent too much inadequate wrong warning about inpatients' sleeping situation. To send a nurse useful information, precise automatic detection for an inpatient's sleeping situation is necessary. In this paper, we focus on a clustering-algorithm which evaluates inpatient's situation from multiple angles by several kinds of sensor including night-vision CCD camera. This paper indicates new relief algorithm to improve the weakness about exceptional cases.

  17. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  18. Radioecological indexes of fallout measurements from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolopoulou, Metaxia; Stoulos, Stylianos; Ioannidou, Alexandra; Vagena, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    Fallout from the Fukushima nuclear accident has been monitored for about 1 month in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Three different radionuclides, one short-lived, one relatively long-lived and one long- lived fission product were identified in air, grass and milk samples. The 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in air reached 497, 145 and 126 μBqm-3, respectively on 4 April, 2011. These radionuclides are of particular concern regarding their transfer from the environment to population through the ingestion pathways for the assessment of the Fukushima accident consequences. Radioecological indexes (eco-indexes) of fallout measurements in the air-grass-cow-milk-man pathway for 131I were determined, as they are related to radiological impact of the Fukushima derived radionuclides on the public and environment.

  19. Children's views of accident risks and prevention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Green, J.; Hart, L.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To examine children's accounts of injury risks and opportunities for prevention. Setting—Schools, youth clubs, and a holiday activity scheme in the south east of England. Methods—Sixteen focus groups were held with 7–11 year old children. Transcripts of the discussions were analysed using qualitative methods. Results—Children were knowledgeable about injury risks and how to reduce them. They also saw injury prevention as primarily their own responsibility. However, they were also sophisticated in their criticisms of generalised prevention advice, and evaluated safety messages in the light of local environmental and social knowledge. Personal experience was more often reported as a reason for risk reduction than formal prevention advice. Risks for injury were not isolated from other risks faced. Conclusions—Effective educational interventions aimed at changing children's risk behaviour should build more on children's own competence and knowledge of their local environment, and stress the need to manage risks rather than avoid dangers. PMID:9595326

  20. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 1. Accident Prevention for College and University Students, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…

  1. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  2. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  3. 79 FR 13006 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-03-07

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN No. 1218-AC82 Process Safety Management and... Request for Information on Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents. DATES... Federal e- Rulemaking Portal. Click on the ``COMMENT NOW!'' box next to the title ``Process...

  4. 77 FR 74662 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Accident Prevention Plans and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and ways in which we can... INFORMATION: A. Purpose The FAR clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, requires Federal construction..., traumatic injury, occupational disease or damage to property, materials, supplies or equipment. Records...

  5. [Model of Analysis and Prevention of Accidents - MAPA: tool for operational health surveillance].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; da Silva, Alessandro José Nunes; Beltran, Sandra Lorena

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of work-related accidents is important for accident surveillance and prevention. Current methods of analysis seek to overcome reductionist views that see these occurrences as simple events explained by operator error. The objective of this paper is to analyze the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Accidents (MAPA) and its use in monitoring interventions, duly highlighting aspects experienced in the use of the tool. The descriptive analytical method was used, introducing the steps of the model. To illustrate contributions and or difficulties, cases where the tool was used in the context of service were selected. MAPA integrates theoretical approaches that have already been tried in studies of accidents by providing useful conceptual support from the data collection stage until conclusion and intervention stages. Besides revealing weaknesses of the traditional approach, it helps identify organizational determinants, such as management failings, system design and safety management involved in the accident. The main challenges lie in the grasp of concepts by users, in exploring organizational aspects upstream in the chain of decisions or at higher levels of the hierarchy, as well as the intervention to change the determinants of these events.

  6. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    PubMed

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  7. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  8. The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (p<0.05). After the educational intervention, there seemed to be a significant difference with the questions regarding the knowledge on preventing fall (p=0.000), drowning (p=0.000), and intoxication (p=0.007). The authors concluded that the educational intervention performed in this study increased the subjects’ knowledge on prevention of accidents in childhood. PMID:27583061

  9. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  10. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    PubMed Central

    P, Gokulakrishnan; P, Ganeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU’s coverage area or outside RSU’s coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  12. Forum: social network for the surveillance and prevention of workplace accidents.

    PubMed

    Vilela, R A G; Almeida, I M; Nunes da Silva, A; Gomes, M H P; Prado, H; Buoso, E; Dias, M D; Cavalcante, S; Lacorte, L E

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, academic researchers and public service officials created a university extension studies platform based on online and on-site meetings denominated "Work-Related Accidents Forum: Analysis, Prevention, and Other Relevant Aspects. Its aim was to help public agents and social partners to propagate a systemic approach that would be helpful in the surveillance and prevention of work-related accidents. This article describes and analyses such a platform. Online access is free and structured to: support dissemination of updated concepts; support on-site meetings and capacity to build educational activities; and keep a permanent space for debate among the registered participants. The desired result is the propagation of a social-technical-systemic view of work-related accidents that replaces the current traditional view that emphasizes human error and results in blaming the victims. The Forum uses an educational approach known as permanent health education, which is based on the experience and needs of workers and encourages debate among participants. The forum adopts a problematizing pedagogy that starts from the requirements and experiences of the social actors and stimulates support and discussions among them in line with an ongoing health educational approach. The current challenge is to turn the platform into a social networking website in order to broaden its links with society.

  13. Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, K. Gus (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Second NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Annual Project Review held June 5-7, 2001, in Cleveland, Ohio, presented the NASA technical plans and accomplishments to the aviation community. NASA-developed technologies presented included an Aviation Weather Information System with associated digital communications links, electronic atmospheric reporting technologies, forward-looking turbulence warning systems, and turbulence mitigation procedures. The meeting provided feedback and insight from the aviation community of diverse backgrounds and assisted NASA in steering its plans in the direction needed to meet the national safety goal of 80-percent reduction of aircraft accidents by 2007. The proceedings of the review are enclosed.

  14. Current controversies in child accident prevention. An analysis of some areas of dispute in the prevention of child trauma.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J H

    1985-12-01

    The rate of serious child trauma has not been significantly reduced in the last two decades. During this time, both infant mortality rates and the total child death rate have fallen by 30%. Child trauma, as a relative contributor to child mortality in general, continues to increase. Effective prevention depends on a detailed understanding of causes, an appraisal of options, and cost-benefit audit of intervention programmes. Controversial themes are common in accident prevention work; controversies relating to child safety result from both an absence of data about detailed causes, and from philosophical conflicts about whose responsibility it is to prevent child trauma, and who will bear the cost. Five controversial areas have been selected and are discussed to illustrate these current problems. These are the inevitability of accidents, the loss of personal freedom that occurs in the regulation of a safe environment, "drownproofing" of infants, questions of sporting injuries involving children and the progressive upgrading of rules to make sports safer, and problems relating to the assessment of true exposure risks.

  15. The German Berufsgenossenschaften (institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention): organisation, mandate and activities in the area of mental health.

    PubMed

    Paridon, Hiltraut M; Paridon, Christoph M; Bindzius, Fritz A

    2007-01-01

    The present article first describes the institution of the German Berufsgenossenschaften (BGs, the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention) and their mandate. Besides rehabilitation and compensation, these comprise the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, and work-related hazards. The main focus within the area of mental health is the prevention work, but rehabilitation and compensation within the German social insurance system in general, and with respect to mental health, will also be explained. Furthermore, the prevention-rehabilitation interface will be illustrated and the cooperation with the health insurance institutions will be described. In the second part, selected results of a survey regarding mental health and stress will be presented.

  16. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  17. Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets in Preventing Facial Injuries in Road Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Rebecca; Otte, Dietmar; Müller, Christian; Petri, Maximilian; Gaulke, Ralph; Krettek, Christian; Brand, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries is well- documented. Recent studies differ regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing facial injuries, especially those of the mid-face and the mandible. Objectives The present study was conducted to determine the protective effect of a bicycle helmet in preventing mid-face and mandibular fractures. Patients and Methods Data from an accident research unit were analyzed to collect technical collision details (relative collision speed, type of collision, collision partner, and use of a helmet) and clinical data (type of fracture). Results Between 1999 and 2011, 5,350 bicycle crashes were included in the study. Of these, 175 (3.3%) had fractures of the mid-face or mandible. In total, 228 mid-face or mandibular fractures were identified. A significant correlation was found between age and relative collision speed, and the incidence of a fracture. While no significant correlation was found between the use of a helmet and the incidence of mid-facial fractures, the use of a helmet was correlated with a significantly increased incidence of mandibular fractures. Conclusions Higher age of cyclists and increasing speed of the accident opponent significantly increase the likelihood of sustaining facial fractures. The use of bicycle helmets does not significantly reduce the incidence of mid-facial fractures, while being correlated with an even increased incidence of mandibular fractures. PMID:27800459

  18. Rapid demountable platform (RDP)--a device for preventing fall from height accidents.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Esther; Chan, Albert P C

    2012-09-01

    The prevention of fall from height accidents has long been a popular topic in the field of construction safety. Previous research has indicated one of the potential hazards was induced by the use of steel bracket as scaffold support. While researchers are focusing to improve the existing scaffolding system, this research introduces a newly developed device to minimize fall accidents. The working platform, namely Rapid Demountable Platform (RDP) can be applied across window frames without fixing anchor bolts. Emphasizing on the rapid installation/dismantling, the RDP provides another safer option for working at height. The development of the RDP has incorporated modular concept and aesthetic factor into the design, achieving a more user-friendly platform. Although the RDP is not intended to totally replace the traditional bamboo truss-out scaffold, it is designed to act as an alternative or a supplement to the existing bamboo truss-out scaffold. The RDP is the first of this kind to minimize fall from height accidents especially in cities similar to Hong Kong where external working at height is frequently encountered.

  19. [Domestic, leisure activity and sports-related accidents in an active population: perspectives for prevention by health education].

    PubMed

    Godard, C; Chevalier, A; Lahon, G

    2002-09-01

    Resulting from the findings of epidemiological surveys on non-work-related accidents conducted in 1996 and 1997 among employees covered by a special health insurance programme for gas and electric company workers, this article identifies avoidable and recurrent accidents that may be targeted by health education interventions. It also emphasizes the importance of considering the needs expressed by the population at large when developing the themes for information campaigns. Finally, it proposes a sequel to the "survey-action plan" released in 1996. The proposed follow-up takes into account the occupational setting and its professionally-related barriers, and includes delivering prevention messages, conducting in-house experimental health promotion activities (and evaluating them), and disseminating intermediary external campaigns aimed at impeding avoidable accidents among adults. The preventable accidents identified in this study are not specific to the employed population group studied here; they may also be targeted by more general health promotion programmes and interventions.

  20. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  1. Surgical videos for accident analysis, performance improvement, and complication prevention: time for a surgical black box?

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Magos, Adam

    2012-03-01

    Conventional audit of surgical records through review of surgical results provides useful knowledge but hardly helps identify the technical reasons lying behind specific outcomes or complications. Surgical teams not only need to know that a complication might happen but also how and when it is most likely to happen. Functional awareness is therefore needed to prevent complications, know how to deal with them, and improve overall surgical performance. The authors wish to argue that the systematic recording and reviewing of surgical videos, a "surgical black box," might improve surgical care, help prevent complications, and allow accident analysis. A possible strategy to test this hypothesis is presented and discussed. Recording and reviewing surgical interventions, apart from helping us achieve functional awareness and increasing the safety profile of our performance, allows us also to effectively share our experience with colleagues. The authors believe that those potential implications make this hypothesis worth testing.

  2. Technical preventive measures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Y

    1994-05-01

    Technical preventive measures against vibration syndrome in the field of industrial health are reviewed in the present paper. The first technical prevention measure is to reduce vibration transmission from the tools to the operators. This measure employs vibration isolators between the handles and vibration sources of machine tools. Handles of tools using Neidhalt dampers, shear type rubber mounts and springs have reduced frequency-weighted acceleration levels (Lh,w) from 2 dB to 10 dB (Lh,w (dB) = 20 log a/ao; a: frequency-weighted acceleration (rms), ao = 10(-5) m/s2) in Z direction, while no reduction was found in X, Y directions. The second measure is to reduce vibration at the source; New chain saws have been developed to reduce vibration with twin cylinder instead of a single cylinder engines. This cancels unbalanced movements inside the internal combustion engine. Such chain saws reduced Lh,w values more than 10 dB in both front and rear handles except in Z direction of the front handle. A new type of impact wrench has been devised with an oil pulse device to avoid direct metal contact inside the power source. This new impact wrench lowered Lh,w values more than 10 dB in three directions. The third measure is to use a remote control system or to substitute another machine generating less vibration. Vibration reduction at the handle lever of the remote control chain saw was more than 20 dB. A more effective means is to substitute other machines for conventional tools: a hydraulic wheel jumbo instead of a leg-type rock drill; a hydraulic breaker instead of a hand-held breaker. However, these heavy machines produce whole-body vibration which might give rise to other problems such as back pain.

  3. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    . This paper addresses simulation modeling requirements that are unique to turboprop transport aircraft and highlights the growing need for aerodynamic models suitable for stall training for these configurations. A review of prominent accidents that involved aerodynamic stall is used to illustrate various modeling features unique to turboprop configurations and the impact of stall behavior on susceptibility to loss of control that has led to new training requirements. This is followed by an overview of stability and control behavior of straight-wing turboprops, the related aerodynamic characteristics, and a summary of recent experimental studies on icing effects. In addition, differences in flight dynamics behavior between swept-wing jets and straight-wing turboprop configurations are discussed to compare and contrast modeling requirements. Specific recommendations for aerodynamic models along with further research needs and data measurements are also provided. 1

  4. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  5. Self-administered written prompts to teach home accident prevention skills to adults with brain injuries.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, M F; Green, G; Braunling-McMorrow, D

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of written checklists and task analyses as self-administered prompts to teach home accident prevention skills to 4 adults with brain injuries. Subsequent to baseline, participants used written checklists that identified potential in-home hazards but did not prompt behaviors necessary for hazard remediation. Written individualized task analyses, incorporating specific behavioral steps for correcting hazards that participants had failed to remediate during the checklist phase, were used to prompt appropriate responding when necessary. These were subsequently faded to transfer stimulus control to the natural conditions. A multiple probe technique across participants and settings was used. Results indicated that the checklist alone was sufficient to increase appropriate responses to many of the potential hazards. Individualized task analyses, when needed, resulted in appropriate remediation of all potential hazards. Generalization to untrained potential hazards occurred to some degree for all participants. Follow-up results showed that most skills trained were maintained over a 1-month period. PMID:2074235

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... agencies must— (a) Comply with the occupational safety and health standards established in the...

  7. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  8. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  9. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    PubMed

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  10. Accident prevention and Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 with particular reference to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, G.D. )

    1993-07-01

    The sections of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 that refer to accident prevention are to be found in Title III. Two significant requirements of the CAAA in this respect relate to the responsibilities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which has promulgated a new Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which at the time of writing, is developing Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations. The focus of this paper is on how the requirements of the CAAA may affect the reasons for performing a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) or may affect the results of QRA. In order to limit the discussion, this paper focuses on HF. First, the CAAA requires that the EPA assess the hazards associated with HF; the EPA's current draft report is discussed. Second, a generic assessment of the risks associated with the use of HF is given, with emphasis on alkylation units in refineries. The principal contributors to risk are listed. Finally, an assessment of OSHA's PSM standard 29 CFR 1910.119, the related requirements of state laws such as California's Risk Management and Prevention Program and the potential requirement of EPA's Risk Management Program are given, including an assessment of how these requirements may influence quantitative estimates of risk. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Systems of safety and active worker-participation strategies for a safe workplace: the philosophical and structural underpinnings of the labor institute, and the Paper, Allied-industrial, Chemical And Energy Workers International Union, Accident Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Renner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    For the last ten years, The Labor Institute, in cooperation with the Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union (PACE) and several other international unions, has been training workers and managers to prevent accidents in the workplace using what we call a Systems of Safety (SOS) approach. We teach workers to identify major categories of safety systems and sub-systems in the workplace and to assign a hierarchical prevention value to each category. The SOS approach enables workers to look beyond the simplest explanations for an accident to identify the full range of factors that contributed to the event. As a result, Systems of Safety training provides workers with an unparalleled opportunity to reduce the frequency and severity of in-plant accidents. Unfortunately, the full benefits of an SOS system cannot be realized in most workplaces as they are now organized. Our decades of experience--and a review of relevant literature--tell us that worker participation is the key to preventing accidents. Maximum accident prevention is only achievable through maximum worker participation. In most workplaces, hierarchical structures--and workers' internalization of that hierarchy--prevent full worker participation. This article will explore barriers to achieving maximum worker participation, and strategies for providing workers with some measure of control over the systems of safety that determine the level of safety at their work sites.

  12. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  13. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    PubMed

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  14. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  15. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  16. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  17. Assessment of Spatial Unevenness of Road Accidents Severity as Instrument of Preventive Protection from Emergency Situations in Road Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2016-08-01

    Emergency situations in road complex are road traffic accidents (RA) with severe consequences. These are incidents connected with the death and injury of large number of people. The most common reasons for this are the collision of three or more cars, the collision of buses with trains at railroad crossings, the fall of the buses in the mountain gorge, and other similar cases. Is it possible to predict such events? How to build a preventive protection against such emergencies? We have to understand that emergencies in a road complex are qualitative expression of the quantitative processes that characterize the general state of road safety in the region. In this regard, at the level of state monitoring of emergency situations it is important to understand in general - in which region the situation is more complicated and in which is more favorable. This knowledge helps to more efficiently reallocate resources intended to solve the problems of road safety provision. The consequence of this is improvement of the quality of preventive protection from the emergencies in the road complex. The article presents quantitative values of severity of accidents in the Russian Federation regions and the Pareto chart distribution of cumulates of the accident severity for the Russian Federation. On the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial non-uniformity of the accident severity results it offers two important recommendations, implementation of which will alleviate the issue of formation of emergency situations in the road of the Russian Federation on the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial nonuniformity of the accident severity results.

  18. [Hands well - all's well : Prevention campaign of the Austrian General Accident Insurance Institution (AUVA) to reduce hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Leixnering, M; Pezzei, C; Schenk, C; Szolarz, C; Jurkowitsch, J; Quadlbauer, S

    2017-03-03

    Overall, 41% of all work-related accidents lead to a hand injury. In the younger generation, the incidence rate even rises to 50%. In Austria, these accidents result in approximately half a million sick leave days per annum, an average of 12.5 days per accident. In comparison, leisure-time hand injuries show a significantly higher accident rate: 60% of hand injuries occur during leisure time. Far fewer safety measures are taken and a lack of adequate training and a disregard for safety recommendations are observed.This large number of hand injuries led to the launch of a campaign in Austria in 2014-2015 called "Hände gut - Alles Gut", (Hands well - all's well). This campaign was aimed at reducing the costs, a sum of 309 million Euros, incurred solely from work-related hand accidents, by at least 5-10%.These exorbitantly high costs are not only due to severe hand trauma, most result from a multitude of slight and superficial wounds.

  19. LOA-1: prevent accidents. Quarterly technical progress report, FRSP program - July through September 1981. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Information related to LMFBR reactor safety is presented concerning common cause failures; shutdown by self-activated system; shutdown heat removal system operation; sodium burning; core catcher material interactions; accident release of sodium oxide aerosol; and LMFBR risk assessment.

  20. RECENT LASER ACCIDENTS AT DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect

    ODOM, CONNON R.

    2007-02-02

    Recent laser accidents and incidents at research laboratories across the Department of Energy complex are reviewed in this paper. Factors that contributed to the accidents are examined. Conclusions drawn from the accident reports are summarized and compared. Control measures that could have been implemented to prevent the accidents will be summarized and compared. Recommendations for improving laser safety programs are outlined and progress toward achieving them are summarized.

  1. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  2. [Evaluation of regulatory policies: the prevention of traffic accidents in Spain].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Pérez, Catherine

    2006-03-01

    Traffic accident injuries may be reduced with public policies. We review regulatory policies extending beyond the health sector by studying the case of traffic accident injuries. They have been the object of other analyses in Spain by both health professionals and professionals from other sectors, but we have not found a previous thorough review including regulatory aspects. We analyze the evolution of fatal victims of traffic accidents as collected by the Dirección General de Tráfico, stratifying for pedestrians, two-wheel vehicle occupants and occupants of other vehicles, and breaking down accidents between those occurring in roads and in urban settings. Despite the increase in exposure factors between 1970 and 2003, we observe a strong impact of regulatory policies in accident mortality. A favorable impact is seen for regulations and enforcement actions on motorcycle helmets, speed limits and the control of alcohol use, and a lower impact for safety belts, perhaps because its actual effective implementation was not equally sharp. The adoption of comprehensive plans or complex legislation packages seems to have had a positive impact, perhaps attributable to its triggering of more effective enforcement of already existing regulations. Although the existence of legal norms is not enough in itself, as its impact is low without active enforcement, compliance improves over time. In any case, the existence of specific initiatives to influence this field is important to obtain the best results of regulatory policies in public health.

  3. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  4. [Radiation measures and trend after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2014-02-01

    The radioactive materials spread by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in March, 2011 caused NPP workers to be exposed to radiation above ordinance limits. The number of workers exposed to radiation within ordinance limits is increasing. Decontamination began at many places in Fukushima, although new laws were enforced in the decontamination work, in the current situation, medical examinations for radiation are limited due to a shortage of doctors. In this paper, I introduce the ordinances on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards and the revised points about radiation exposure doses of the NPP workers, as well as the new ordinance for decontamination.

  5. Concept of Operations for the NASA Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Walter S.; Tsoucalas, George; Tanger, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Weather Accident Prevention Concept of Operations (CONOPS) serves as a decision-making framework for research and technology development planning. It is intended for use by the WxAP members and other related programs in NASA and the FAA that support aircraft accident reduction initiatives. The concept outlines the project overview for program level 3 elements-such as AWIN, WINCOMM, and TPAWS (Turbulence)-that develop the technologies and operating capabilities to form the building blocks for WxAP. Those building blocks include both retrofit of equipment and systems and development of new aircraft, training technologies, and operating infrastructure systems and capabilities. This Concept of operations document provides the basis for the WxAP project to develop requirements based on the operational needs ofthe system users. It provides the scenarios that the flight crews, airline operations centers (AOCs), air traffic control (ATC), and flight service stations (FSS) utilize to reduce weather related accidents. The provision to the flight crew of timely weather information provides awareness of weather situations that allows replanning to avoid weather hazards. The ability of the flight crew to locate and avoid weather hazards, such as turbulence and hail, contributes to safer flight practices.

  6. Isovolemic hemodilution-red cell exchange for prevention of cerebrovascular accident in sickle cell anemia: the standard operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, Karén; Anderson, Christina; Sarode, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cell exchange is an accepted superior therapy to simple chronic transfusion, due to minimal risk of iron overload, for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular accidents in selected patients with sickle cell anemia. Recently, we described our experience of Isovolemic Hemodilution-Red Blood Cell Exchange (IHD-RBCx), a two-step modification of the conventional RBCx with several advantages, including cost reduction. We are describing our standard operating procedure for IHD-RBCx with COBE Spectra apheresis system to make it widely available to the apheresis centers interested in implementing this procedure.

  7. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn’s disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care. PMID:27678347

  8. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-09-14

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn's disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care.

  9. [Nurses in leading positions and measures to prevent occupational exposure: facilities and barriers].

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Silmara Elaine; Hayashida, Miyeko; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Gir, Elucir

    2008-09-01

    This descriptive study aimed to assess the facilities and barriers that nurses in leading positions endure with respect to the nursing team's compliance to measures for preventing occupational exposure involving biological materials, based on Rosenstock's Health Belief Model. The study was carried out with 87 nurses of a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2006. Data were collected through a semistructured form with open and closed questions and analyzed through Content Analysis. Individual protection equipment was mentioned as the greatest form for preventing accidents, but lack of compliance to usage and incorrect use were indicated as barriers to accident prevention and as the main reasons for their occurrence. It is important for these nurses to be prepared to develop individualized and motivating strategies focused on compliance to the use of individual protection equipment in their work sectors.

  10. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Inherent Prevention and Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Roald A. Wigeland; James E. Cahalan

    2011-04-01

    Safety challenges for sodium-cooled fast reactors include maintaining core temperatures within design limits and assuring the geometry and integrity of the reactor core. Due to the high power density in the reactor core, heat removal requirements encourage the use of high-heat-transfer coolants such as liquid sodium. The variation of power across the core requires ducted assemblies to control fuel and coolant temperatures, which are also used to constrain core geometry. In a fast reactor, the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation. Accidents leading to fuel melting, fuel pin failure, and fuel relocation can result in positive reactivity, increasing power, and possibly resulting in severe accident consequences including recriticalities that could threaten reactor and containment integrity. Inherent safety concepts, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, can be used to increase the level of safety to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not credible, for such severe accident consequences to occur.

  12. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    PubMed

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  13. On-line measurements of RuO{sub 4} during a PWR severe accident

    SciTech Connect

    Reymond-Laruinaz, S.; Doizi, D.; Boudon, V.; Ducros, G.

    2015-07-01

    After the Fukushima accident, it became essential to have a way to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident, in order to react efficiently and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of the accident. Among gaseous fission products, the tetroxide of ruthenium RuO{sub 4} is of prime importance since it has a significant radiological impact. Ruthenium is a low volatile fission product but in case of the rupture of the vessel lower head by the molten corium, the air entering into the vessel oxidizes Ru into gaseous RuO{sub 4}, which is not trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems. To monitor the presence of RuO{sub 4} allows making a diagnosis of the core degradation and quantifying the release into the atmosphere. To determine the presence of RuO{sub 4}, FTIR spectrometry was selected. To study the feasibility of the monitoring, high-resolution IR measurements were realized at the French synchrotron facility SOLEIL on the infrared beam line AILES. Thereafter, theoretical calculations were done to simulate the FTIR spectrum to describe the specific IR fingerprint of the molecule for each isotope and based on its partial pressure in the air. (authors)

  14. [Dynamic and plastic expression as a method of accident prevention during infancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Romero Ibarra, C; Santos Serrano, L; Arbeloa, P; Watt, A; Delgado, A

    1979-11-01

    Authors review the importance of fostering suitable methods at infancy, as a prophylaxis of accidents at such stage in life. They propose the use of plastic expression handed-out as a sequence of pictures, ordered in the form of a story or tale, rigorously studied from the psychological point of view and which limelights the most frequent risks. Likewise they value the importance of dynamic methods of expression and summarise their experience with puppet theatres. A prototype show is described and psychological result evaluation analized.

  15. Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program

    SciTech Connect

    Additon, S.L.; Blanchard, D.P.; Leaver, D.E.; Persinko, D. |

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a systematic evaluation of the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design requirements which address severe accident mitigation. This evaluation was performed concurrent with completion of the ALWR Requirements Document to assure the adequacy of these mitigation requirements. The passive plant approach to containment integrity assurance reflects an expansion of the approach established earlier for evolutionary ALWRs. The report identifies containment challenges that might occur coincident with or result from a core damage event, compiles the set of passive ALWR design requirements which addresses each challenge, and evaluates each set of requirements on an integrated basis to confirm that the requirements provide substantial assurance that coincident core damage and containment failure are precluded. Based on past PRAs, a review of pertinent safety functions, severe accident analyses, current regulatory requirements, and reviews by ALWR design personnel, twenty-three (23) potential containment challenges were identified. The report concludes that the relevant ALWR requirements severe to limit the likelihood and magnitude of the challenges, and to assure the capability of the containment to accommodate all challenges which remain potentially risk-significant.

  16. Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Bernstein, R S; Buist, A S

    1986-01-01

    Medical treatment has only a small role in severe volcanic eruptions and so preventive measures are paramount if injuries and loss of life are to be reduced. The health team must be incorporated in emergency planning and response at the earliest stage. Guidance on the interpretation of geological information about a volcano and the appropriate health measures that should be adopted before and after an eruption are summarized for the benefit of health workers. PMID:3946731

  17. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  18. Functional Safety of Hybrid Laser Safety Systems - How can a Combination between Passive and Active Components Prevent Accidents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, F. P.; Stiehl, T. H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Modern laser systems are widely used in industry due to their excellent flexibility and high beam intensities. This leads to an increased hazard potential, because conventional laser safety barriers only offer a short protection time when illuminated with high laser powers. For that reason active systems are used more and more to prevent accidents with laser machines. These systems must fulfil the requirements of functional safety, e.g. according to IEC 61508, which causes high costs. The safety provided by common passive barriers is usually unconsidered in this context. In the presented approach, active and passive systems are evaluated from a holistic perspective. To assess the functional safety of hybrid safety systems, the failure probability of passive barriers is analysed and added to the failure probability of the active system.

  19. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  20. INSIGHTS INTO PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. The etiology of erosion is related to different behavioral, biological and chemical factors. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of the preventive strategies relevant for patients suffering from dental erosion. Behavioral factors, such as special drinking habits, unhealthy lifestyle factors or occupational acid exposure, might modify the extent of dental erosion. Thus, preventive strategies have to include measures to reduce the frequency and duration of acid exposure as well as adequate oral hygiene measures, as it is known that eroded surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion. Biological factors, such as saliva or acquired pellicle, act protectively against erosive demineralization. Therefore, the production of saliva should be enhanced, especially in patients with hyposalivation or xerostomia. With regard to chemical factors, the modification of acidic solutions with ions, especially calcium, was shown to reduce the demineralization, but the efficacy depends on the other chemical factors, such as the type of acid. To enhance the remineralization of eroded surfaces and to prevent further progression of dental wear, high-concentrated fluoride applications are recommended. Currently, little information is available about the efficacy of other preventive strategies, such as calcium and laser application, as well as the use of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Further studies considering these factors are required. In conclusion, preventive strategies for patients suffering from erosion are mainly obtained from in vitro and in situ studies and include dietary counseling, stimulation of salivary flow, optimization of fluoride regimens, modification of erosive beverages and adequate oral hygiene measures. PMID:19274390

  1. Establishing protective long term measures after severe nuclear accidents using multiple criteria.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, I A; Kollas, J G

    1997-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents and demonstrates its use. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is adopted where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. All feasible solutions are implicitly considered and evaluated in the chosen criteria. Technically inferior solutions are excluded. Only the non-dominated or efficient solutions forming the "efficient frontier" are retained and presented to the decision makers. Implementation of inefficient solutions is in this way avoided. A choice among the efficient solutions, although it implies value tradeoffs among the multiple criteria, avoids the direct and apriori assessment of preferences. An interactive computer package has been developed with which the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the corresponding alternative in the decision space. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident using as criteria the collective effective life-time dose received by the population and the cost associated with each possible decision.

  2. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  3. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James

    2002-10-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  4. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  5. Childhood injury prevention: time for tougher measures.

    PubMed Central

    Pless, I B

    1996-01-01

    The publication in this issue of an article describing the fatal strangulation of two children on clothing drawstrings (see pages 1417 to 1419) coincides with National Child Day. This juxtaposition prompts the author to examine Canadian child health policy and practices in relation to injury prevention and product safety. The absence of a central body in Canada responsible for injury prevention may reflect the absence of advocacy groups concerned exclusively with the prevention of childhood injuries and stands in sharp contrast to the attention given to various "high-profile" but comparatively rare childhood diseases. In Canada, taking a firm regulatory or legislative approach to product safety appears to be the exception rather than the rule. Instead, we rely on product safety bulletins, the effectiveness of which has never been evaluated. The adoption of tougher measures would be facilitated by the establishment of a national centre for injury prevention and control. Such centres in the United States and Sweden have been successful and demonstrate that the creation of a Canadian body responsible for addressing the epidemic of accidental injury is long overdue. PMID:8943931

  6. Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

    1994-02-01

    The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here.

  7. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-03-31

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. "PPRT"] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough 2-4 billions euro, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies.

  8. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Avalanche and Nonavalanche Snow Burial Accidents.

    PubMed

    Van Tilburg, Christopher; Grissom, Colin K; Zafren, Ken; McIntosh, Scott; Radwin, Martin I; Paal, Peter; Haegeli, Pascal; Smith, William Will R; Wheeler, Albert R; Weber, David; Tremper, Bruce; Brugger, Hermann

    2017-03-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians and avalanche professionals about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the prevention, rescue, and medical management of avalanche and nonavalanche snow burial victims. Recommendations are graded on the basis of quality of supporting evidence according to the classification scheme of the American College of Chest Physicians.

  9. The role of insurance in the prevention of work-related accidents in France in the first half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ruffat, M

    1998-01-01

    Insurance has played a role in the develoment of prevention of work-related accidents in several ways in France since the industrical revolution. The first attempts at prevention were taken at the initiative of manufacturers' associations, but it remained a matter of goodwill for manufacturers. The 1898 law gave systematic, if partial, financial responsability for occupational hazards to employers, who turned to insurance companies to carry the risks. As a result a new branch of insurance (assurance-loi) appeared, which accounted for 40% of general accident revenue for companies at the time of World War II. But the new law made no mention of prevention and even had a negative impact, since compensation was taken care of by insurance. However, after World War I, insurance companies created an association for the prevention of work-related accidents and illnesses and started to adjust rates according to the prevention efforts of corporations. When social insurance was generalized in 1946, insurance of occupational hazards went under state control and became compulsory. But the experience accumulated in the field of prevention by insurance companies was put to use in this new context, both on the technical side and the financial side.

  10. [Prevention and accidents in Italian popular car magazines during the second postwar years].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro; Colombo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of the fifties and the second half of the sixties the Italian car industry was one of the few in Europe to introduce technical changes for car safety. Some Italian popular magazines took part in this plan not only by an information and prevention campaign, but also by promoting experimental safety car projects. Among them Quattroruote, rivista mensile per gli automobilisti di oggi e di domani stands out.

  11. European Stroke Prevention Study 2: A study of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid and of high dose dipyridamole in secondary prevention of cerebro-vascular accidents.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    In spite of some data being added to our knowledge of the effect of antiplatelets in secondary prevention of brain ischemic lesion in recent years, the main reasons to perform a second European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS 2), which started in 1987-1988, were: (a) clarify the relative roles of aspirin (ASA) and dipyridamole (DP) alone or in combination; (b) confirm the efficacy of small doses of ASA and, so doing, decrease the number of drop-outs due to ASA side effects; (c) join information to the effect of antiplatelets in complete stroke. General characteristics of the sample of 6602 patients are presented and compared with other major trials and series. The patients in the four treatment arms (aspirin, dipyridamole, aspirin + dipyridamole and placebo) are compared. The more relevant features and risk factors known to influence long term prognosis are described and discussed. The small proportion of patients included with TIA (23.7%) and the comparability among treatment groups are stressed. No relevant differences have been found, among groups, on the sex or age distribution, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, previous vascular events or atrial fibrillation, nor in the characteristics of the accident leading to the inclusion in trial.

  12. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.

  13. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  14. Childhood burns in camping and outdoor cooking accidents: a focus for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R L; Hoey, M E; Daley, W M; Lybarger, P M

    1997-01-01

    We have seen increasing numbers of children who present with serious burns related to camping and outdoor cooking, prompting this 5-year review. Of 34 children (21 boys and 13 girls), with an average age of 5.2 years (4 months to 17 years) and average burn size of 15% (1% to 98%) cared for (4 as outpatients and 30 as inpatients), there was one fatality (3%). Mechanisms of injury included falling into free pits, throwing flammables into grills or pits, placing hands on hot objects in or near a fire, walking or falling into hot embers from an extinguished fire, spills from insect repellant candies, tent fires, burning of paper eating utensils, and cooking scalds. We have initiated a directed prevention program with the regional state park systems.

  15. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  16. [Evaluation of the strategy for identification and measurement of the fatal accidents at work].

    PubMed

    Drumond, Eliane de Freitas; Silva, Jussara de Medeiros

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate the strategy used by the Municipal Health Department of Belo Horizonte (SMSA/BH) for reducing the under-reporting of deaths from work-related accidents during the years of 2008 to 2010, a deterministic comparison of data on deaths from work-related accidents as reported in SINAN and SIM was conducted. As a complementary strategy to the deterministic comparison, the Investigation Data Sheets and Death Certificates were analyzed, which although not clearly declared, were suspected of involving death by work-related accident. Death from work accident was confirmed when the same victim, same accident, with a temporal connection between accident and death, were matched. The complementary strategy used by SMSA reduced the under-reporting identified by deterministic linking, with an increase of 45 deaths. Higher rates of under-reporting of deaths in the SINAN (n = 117) were found than in the SIM (n = 70). Although data linkage between SIM/SINAN is a necessary strategy to reduce the under-reporting of deaths from accidents, it is still insufficient, considering the limitations still present in both systems. The complementary strategy adopted by SMSA/BH, which is simple and easy to perform, yields good results.

  17. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  18. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  19. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  20. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  1. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  2. [Estimation of radiation exposed area by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village using ESR measurements of household sugar].

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, M; Kondo, S; Ito, K; Sawa, T

    2001-04-01

    The area of radiation exposure by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village in 1999 was estimated by the ESR measurement of 95 household sugar samples collected from the accident area. These samples were roughly classified into three types of sugar, fine white sugar, fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar. The control fine white sugar showed no radical in the ESR spectrum, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar showed the presence of a small amount of radicals. It was also shown that, among these three kinds of sugar, the radical concentration of fine white sugar sampled from wooden houses at the area similar to each other did not vary much with the samples, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar varied to a considerable extent. Thus, the fine white sugar is considered to be more suitable for the estimation of the level of radiation exposure. The radical concentration of each fine white sugar sample was plotted against the distance from the site of the nuclear accident with a correction of the difference in the shielding effect between concrete houses and wooden houses. The samples obtained at more than 2 km north of the site of nuclear accident showed no ESR spectral signal to a detectable extent. On the other hand, the ESR spectra were observed from the samples obtained within 10 km south and 4 km west of the accident site. These results suggest that the radiation exposure by the contaminant blown by the northeast wind blowing on the day of the accident may occur at the south and west areas.

  3. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    PubMed

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  4. DATABASE OF METEOROLOGICAL AND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MADE IN BELARUS DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow’s milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow’s milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:23103580

  5. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-02-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry.

  6. [Low-intensity laser radiation in preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Ushkova, I N; Nal'kova, N Yu; Chernushevich, N I; Popov, A V; Kochetova, O A

    2013-01-01

    Results of preventive measures introduction in 524 PC users, 98 jewelry polishers and 64 metallic ship hull assemblers are given. The use of preventive measures, based on low-intensity laser radiation, was shown to prevent development of visual overfatigue and occupational musculoskeletal system diseases.

  7. Buses as fire hazards: a Swedish problem only? Suggestions for fire-prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Erlandsson, U; Sjöberg, F

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, approximately 6% of all human transportation is made via buses. The Swedish Board of Accident Investigation and the Swedish Rescue Services Agency have pointed out repeatedly that buses are potential fire and burn hazards, not only when involved in collisions but also in other circumstances. The number of fire incidents is increasing, especially in newer buses. In conjunction with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency, we examined some of the recent bus fires in Sweden. We did not find any casualties, but the results of our study suggest that casualties as a result of bus fires are imminent unless preventive measures are taken. We also studied experiences from previous bus fires and suggest preventive measures.

  8. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  9. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  10. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  11. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  12. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  13. Spill prevention using multiple level measurement technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bahner, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that for spill prevention of aboveground storage tanks, a multiple technology system gives the best security in avoiding costly spills. A combination of RF Admittance (Capacitance) switches and Ultrasonic Gap Switches gives the best available combination of high and high-high alarming. RF Admittance switches handle the widest range of process conditions while ultrasonic gap switches feature no calibration for added security. Both of these technologies may be equipped with self-checking diagnostics and full functional testing of the entire spill prevention control loop.

  14. On-line measurement of gaseous iodine species during a PWR severe accident

    SciTech Connect

    Haykal, I.; Doizi, D.; Perrin, A.; Vincent, B.; Manceron, L.; Mejean, G.; Ducros, G.

    2015-07-01

    A long-range remote sensing of severe accidents in nuclear power plants can be obtained by monitoring the online emission of volatile fission products such as xenon, krypton, caesium and iodine. The nuclear accident in Fukushima was ranked at level 7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale by the NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) according to the importance of the radionuclide release and the off-site impact. Among volatile fission products, iodine species are of high concern, since they can be released under aerosols as well as gaseous forms. Four years after the Fukushima accident, the aerosol/gaseous partition is still not clear. Since the iodine gaseous forms are less efficiently trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems than aerosol forms, it is of crucial importance to monitor them on-line during a nuclear accident, in order to improve the source term assessment in such a situation. Therefore, we propose to detect and quantify these iodine gaseous forms by the use of highly sensitive optical methods. (authors)

  15. On-line fission products measurements during a PWR severe accident: the French DECA-PF project

    SciTech Connect

    Ducros, G.; Allinei, P.G.; Roure, C.; Rozel, C.; Blanc De Lanaute, N.; Musoyan, G.

    2015-07-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a lot of recommendations was drawn by international organizations (IAEA, OECD, NUGENIA network...) in order to improve the safety in such accidental conditions and mitigate their consequences. One of these recommendations was to improve the robustness of the instrumentation, which was dramatically lacking at Fukushima, as well as to better determine the Source Term involved in nuclear accident. The DECA-PF project (Diagnosis of a degraded reactor core through Fission Product measurements) was elaborated in this context and selected as one of 21 collaborative R and D projects in the field of nuclear safety and radioprotection, funded in May 2013 by the French National Research Agency. Over the months following the Fukushima accident, a CEA crisis team was held in order to analyze on-line the situation taking into account the data delivered by TEPCO and other organizations. Despite the difficulties encountered concerning the reliability of these data, the work performed showed the high capacity of Fission Products (FP) measurements to get a diagnosis relative to the status of the reactors and the spent fuel pools (SFP). Based on these FP measurements, it was possible to conclude that the main origin of the releases was coming from the cores and not from the SFP, in particular for SFP-4 which was of high concern, and that the degradation level of the reactors was very large, including probably an extensive core melting. To improve the reliability of this kind of diagnosis, the necessity to get such measurements as soon as possible after the accident and as near as possible from the reactor was stressed. In this way the present DECA-PF project intends to develop a new and innovative instrumentation taking into account the design of the French nuclear power plants on which sand bed filters have been implemented for severe accident management. Three complementary techniques, devoted to measure the FP release on-line, are being studied

  16. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users.

  17. The Skandia Report II: Why Are Children Injured in Traffic? Can We Prevent Child Accidents in Traffic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandels, Stina

    This investigation concerns traffic accidents in Sweden during 1968 and 1969 in which children ages 1-10 were active participants. A total of 182 complete police investigations including preliminary investigation records, police reports to the Central Bureau of Statistics, and memorandums, were analyzed. The purpose of this report is to determine…

  18. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors.

  19. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  20. Measurements of 60Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, J; Hult, M; Komura, K; Arnold, D; Holmes, L; Johnston, P N; Laubenstein, M; Neumaier, S; Reyss, J-L; Schillebeeckx, P; Tagziria, H; Van Britsom, G; Vasselli, R

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes gamma-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring (60)Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from (60)Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides (51)Cr and (59)Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with (60)Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using (60)Co activation.

  1. Learning from Accident Analysis: The Dynamics Leading Up to a Rafting Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovelynck, Johan

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of a case study of a whitewater rafting accident reveals that such accidents tend to result from multiple actions. Many events leading up to such accidents include procedural and process factors, suggesting that hard-skills technical training is an insufficient approach to accident prevention. Contains 26 references. (SAS)

  2. Injury Prevention in Aircraft Crashes: Investigative Techniques and Applications (la Prevention des lesions lors des accidents d’ avions: les techniques d’investigation et leurs applications)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    approximately parallel to the long axis of the spine. Similarly, a typical finding in light-aircraft accidents involves blunt trauma applied to...produce minor superficial trauma such as bruises and abrasions which do not incapacitate, injurious forces result in moderate to severe trauma ...spleen can occur from blunt trauma to any part of the abdomen. Studies to delineate tolerance levels to non-penetrating abdominal trauma are limited

  3. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  4. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  5. The impact of vessel speed reduction on port accidents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Tae; Park, Hyosoo

    2016-03-19

    Reduced-speed zones (RSZs) have been designated across the world to control emissions from ships and prevent mammal strikes. While some studies have examined the effectiveness of speed reduction on emissions and mammal preservation, few have analyzed the effects of reduced ship speed on vessel safety. Those few studies have not yet measured the relationship between vessel speed and accidents by using real accident data. To fill this gap in the literature, this study estimates the impact of vessel speed reduction on vessel damages, casualties and frequency of vessel accidents. Accidents in RSZ ports were compared to non-RSZ ports by using U.S. Coast Guard data to capture the speed reduction effects. The results show that speed reduction influenced accident frequency as a result of two factors, the fuel price and the RSZ designation. Every $10 increase in the fuel price led to a 10.3% decrease in the number of accidents, and the RSZ designation reduced vessel accidents by 47.9%. However, the results do not clarify the exact impact of speed reduction on accident casualty.

  6. Reference dosimetry measurements for the international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry SILENE 9-21 June 2002.

    PubMed

    Asselineau, B; Trompier, F; Texier, C; Itié, C; Médioni, R; Tikunov, D; Muller, H; Pelcot, G

    2004-01-01

    An international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using the ROSPEC spectrometer associated with a NE-213 scintillator, ionisation chambers, GM counters, diodes and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). For this intercomparison, a large area was required to irradiate the dosemeters both in free air and on phantoms. Therefore, measurements of the uniformity of the field were performed with activation detectors and TLDs for neutron and gammas, respectively. This paper describes the procedures used and the results obtained.

  7. Bioassay for neutron-dose estimations of three patients in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura by measuring beta-ray emitters.

    PubMed

    Takeda, H; Miyamoto, K; Yukawa, M; Nishimura, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kim, H S; Fuma, S; Kuroda, N; Kouno, F; Joshima, H; Hirama, T; Akashi, M

    2001-09-01

    The measurement of beta-emitters in biological samples (hair, urine and bone) from three patients in the JCO criticality accident was performed to assess the neutron dose to individuals. The result of the measurements of 32P in hair and urine collected immediately after the accident showed that sufficient 32P activities had been induced in the hair by fast neutrons and in the urine by thermal neutrons to know the severity of the exposure to the individuals and to the position. From the measurement of 32P and 45Ca in bone from various anatomical parts of two patients who died 82 and 210 days after the accident, it was suggested that the distribution of the induced beta-emitters activities could prove the position and posture of the patients at the moment of exposure.

  8. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    PubMed Central

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  9. Accidents at work and costs analysis: a field study in a large Italian company.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Massimo; Frey, Marco; Passetti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology.

  10. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Sitakanta; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  11. Measuring Quality of Delivery in a Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions,…

  12. Constructing a consensus-based prevention outcome measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Siegal, H A; Lane, D T; Falck, R S; Wang, J; Carlson, R G; Rahman, A; Chambers, D T

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Ohio's Prevention Evaluation Project (PEP). The purpose of the project was to develop a process and instrument to assess behavioral and attitudinal outcomes in primary drug abuse prevention programs targeting young people aged twelve to seventeen. One of PEP's principal achievements was the inclusion of community prevention program providers from throughout the state in the evaluation instrument development. The effort produced a self-administered questionnaire to capture data on young peoples' drug use practices, attitudes toward drugs, and problematic behaviors. Most significantly, the product produced was the acceptance and endorsement of community-based programs. The forty-one-item questionnaire has good to excellent reliability for virtually all measures, as assessed by the test-retest method. The instrument is a product of a process that brought together a university-based research team, state alcohol and drug abuse prevention administrators, and representatives of public programs. PEP demonstrates how to productively link service providers, administrators, and evaluators to develop a process for assessing the effectiveness of prevention programs. The process and tools described serve as a model for other communities wanting to evaluate their prevention programming.

  13. The pattern of childhood accidents in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1969-01-01

    All childhood accidents treated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, during a 4-year period are analysed. The pattern of childhood injuries in the part of Nigeria served by this hospital does not differ significantly from the pattern reported in studies from other parts of the world. The chain of events leading to an accident appears in large measure to be directly influenced by the mode of life in the community. This in turn is related to the prevailing level of technological development. There is an obvious need for more exhaustive studies of childhood accidents in developing countries. However, these countries need not wait for this information to become available before initiating accident-prevention programmes. PMID:5309535

  14. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  15. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  16. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Deljo, Emsudina; Sijercic, Zinaida; Mulaosmanovic, Amina; Musanovic, Alma; Prses, Nedim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. The research goals are: a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. The examinees and methods: For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The results and conclusions: The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral

  17. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  18. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  19. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  20. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  1. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  2. Radiation Measurement Systems and Experiences in Japan after the Fukushima Accident

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    In the approximately 4 years since the March 2011 earthquake and subsequent Tsunami damaged the three Dai-Ichi nuclear power plants, the AREVA and Canberra team have deployed a variety of different radiation measurement machines in Japan. These measurement projects or instruments include: - Dose-rate mapping of the close-in areas on the damaged reactor site using the stored output of dose rate meters carried by workers planning for the installing of a water processing unit; - Spectroscopic on-line measurements of the first water processing unit on the site, where these nuclide-specific measurements at multiple points allowed remote users to determine the optimum processing parameters - General purpose food measurement units, both high precision HPGe systems and low cost NaI systems, which were used throughout the country for food quality measurements; - In-vivo measurement systems, both fixed and mobile whole body counting units, that were used on at least 500,000 people, demonstrating to them that internal doses were very low; - In-vivo measurements with special high-sensitivity whole body counters on babies and children, demonstrating to the parents of these children that internal doses are very low; - Automatic systems for high throughput assay of bags of rice that are part of the consumer confidence plan to prove to customers that Fukushima Prefecture rice is safe; - High sensitivity automatic system to assay boxes of special semi-dry persimmons and to report the activity of each individual item within the box meets the regulatory limit; - System to assay soil on a conveyor belt and sort the output according to level of radioactivity, which would then reduce the volume of material that must be treated as radioactive; - System to assay a truck loaded with 1 cubic meter sacks of soil and vegetation, and report the results of each individual sack. - On-line water measurement system for SrY90 at levels that are suitable for release to the environment; - Mobile

  3. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  4. Aerial measurements of artificial radionuclides in Germany in case of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, I; Strobl, C; Thomas, M

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric systems carried by helicopters prove to be indispensable for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity. The aerial measurements are an important tool for rapid and large-scale nuclide specific determination of soil contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear facility. Furthermore this technique is also applied for the determination of anomalies of elevated radioactivity of natural radionuclides, the detection of lost radioactive sources and geological mapping. For the measurements the helicopters are equipped with a NaI(Tl)-detector array and a high purity germanium-semiconductor (HPGe) detector. Especially with the HPGe-detector it is possible to clearly identify individual radionuclides. To improve and to guarantee the quality of this method several exercises with different fields of interest have been carried out during the last years. Thereby the main focus is on the improvement of the instrumentation, data handling and data analysis. The results of the airborne radionuclide measurements from the Black Forest which was performed in co-operation with the Swiss National Emergency Operation Centre, are presented here. During this exercise the gamma dose rate, soil contamination due to 137Cs and the specific activities of natural radionuclides in soil were determined.

  5. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future.

  6. Early in situ measurement of radioactive fallout in Fukushima city due to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masashi; Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Using a high-purity germanium detector, both indoor and outdoor radionuclides that had deposited 1.5 d after the radioactive fallout events in the city of Fukushima were experimentally measured. Eleven artificial ((131)I, (132)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (129)Te, (129m)Te, (131m)Te, (132)Te, (140)La and (99m)Tc) and 5 natural radionuclides were identified. Total air kerma rates were mainly due to (132)I, (134)Cs and (136)Cs from 4 to 6 µGy/h at a 7.5-cm height from the ground. Radioactive contamination on the ground was contributed by (132)I and (132)Te, from 330 to 420 Bq/cm(2). In a worst-case scenario, the maximum skin dose rates were estimated to be from 520 to 670 µGy/h. Effective dose rates were evaluated to be 10 to 15 µSv/h and reached 17.9 µSv/h at 4 a.m. on 16 March. In the effective dose rates, (132)I, (134)Cs and (132)Te were the main contributors. Our measurements are useful for estimating dose levels in the public in the city of Fukushima during the days after radioactive fallout contamination.

  7. Criticality accident alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

  8. [Preventive measures and the strife against nosocomial infection].

    PubMed

    Kane, O; Bèye, M D; Diop, Ndoye M; Ndiaye, P I; Diouf, E; Sall, Ka B

    2007-01-01

    The nosocomial Infections are associated to an increase of the morbidity, of the mortality and costs. Their frequency stay on raised in our service of cares. Then it is recommended and broadly admitted what each hospital must dispose of a unity of nosocomial infections prevention and to dispose a staff specially vested in those duties. Of the fact the nosocomial infections frequency in reanimation, an imported part of the activity of this specialized staff will have to run out in services of intensive cares. The principal nosocomial infections feature observed is being directly or indirectly associated to engineerings of acting as invasives deputy used to palliate a vital lapse. Of a general manner, all sharp grave affection, as anything severe traumatism (accidental or surgical) drag a capacities reduction of defense against the infection, component so important factors of nosocomial infections installations. Preventive measures pass by the engineerings respect of hands hygiene, the harbour of clean conformable dress, the measures respect of isolation (septic or preventive), the cares grading, the upkeep of the hardware and the bedroom, the respect of the circuit of the linen salts and lastly the sorting and the losses management of activity of cares. For that it must a policy of strife against nosocomial infections with the placing in place of operational unities of hygiene in all hospitals and the redynamisation of the committee of strife against nosocomial infections already existed in different public establishments of health.

  9. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  10. An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: the crash of Comair Flight 5191.

    PubMed

    Pruchnicki, Shawn A; Wu, Lora J; Belenky, Gregory

    2011-05-01

    On 27 August 2006 at 0606 eastern daylight time (EDT) at Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY (LEX), the flight crew of Comair Flight 5191 inadvertently attempted to take off from a general aviation runway too short for their aircraft. The aircraft crashed killing 49 of the 50 people on board. To better understand this accident and to aid in preventing similar accidents, we applied mathematical modeling predicting fatigue-related degradation in performance for the Air Traffic Controller on-duty at the time of the crash. To provide the necessary input to the model, we attempted to estimate circadian phase and sleep/wake histories for the Captain, First Officer, and Air Traffic Controller. We were able to estimate with confidence the circadian phase for each. We were able to estimate with confidence the sleep/wake history for the Air Traffic Controller, but unable to do this for the Captain and First Officer. Using the sleep/wake history estimates for the Air Traffic Controller as input, the mathematical modeling predicted moderate fatigue-related performance degradation at the time of the crash. This prediction was supported by the presence of what appeared to be fatigue-related behaviors in the Air Traffic Controller during the 30 min prior to and in the minutes after the crash. Our modeling results do not definitively establish fatigue in the Air Traffic Controller as a cause of the accident, rather they suggest that had he been less fatigued he might have detected Comair Flight 5191's lining up on the wrong runway. We were not able to perform a similar analysis for the Captain and First Officer because we were not able to estimate with confidence their sleep/wake histories. Our estimates of sleep/wake history and circadian rhythm phase for the Air Traffic Controller might generalize to other air traffic controllers and to flight crew operating in the early morning hours at LEX. Relative to other times of day, the modeling results suggest an elevated risk of fatigue

  11. Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Ola; Burström, Lage

    2010-11-01

    Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of

  12. Burden, distribution and impact of domestic accidents in a semi-urban area of coastal Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Stalin, P; Senthilvel, V; Kanimozhy, K; Singh, Zile; Rajkamal, R; Purty, Anil J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of domestic accidents, describe the factors associated with domestic accidents and assess the medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-urban area of Tamil Nadu during February 2013. A total of 3947 study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Study variables included were socio-demography, housing conditions, epidemiological factors, medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Means and proportions were calculated. The prevalence of domestic accidents was 12.7%. Out of 500 domestic accidents, falls (54.4%) was the most common type of domestic accident. Females and the respondents in age group of 21-40 years were more commonly affected. About 60% of victims received treatment. Mean duration of hospital stay, mean amount of money spent for treatment and mean number of days away from routine work for falls category were 16 days, US$25 and 8 days, respectively, which are higher than other types of accidents. The burden and impact of domestic accidents was high. Therefore, in order to prevent and control domestic accidents, promotion of house safety measures and creation of awareness among the community using IEC programmes have to be undertaken.

  13. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Chemical Accident Prevention: Site Security

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This chemical safety alert assists facilities that routinely handle extremely hazardous substances, along with SERCs, LEPCs, and emergency responders, in their efforts to reduce criminally caused releases and vulnerability to terrorist activity.

  19. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media.

  20. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress.

  1. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  2. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  3. Commuting accidents in the German chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Zepf, Kirsten Isabel; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Wriede, Ulrich; Husemann, Britta; Escobar Pinzón, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Due to accident severity and the extent of claim payments commuting accidents are a significant expense factor in the German industry. Therefore the aim of the present study was the identification of risk factors for commuting accidents in a German chemical company. A retrospective analysis of commuting accidents recorded between 1990 and 2003 was conducted in a major chemical company in Germany. A logistic regression-model was calculated in order to determine factors influencing the duration of work inability as a result of commuting accidents. The analysed data included 5,484 employees with commuting accidents. Cars (33.1%) and bicycles (30.5%) were the most common types of vehicles used by commuters who had an accident. The highest number of commuting accidents was observed in the age group under 26 yr. Accidents on the route from the work site to the worker's residence were less frequently observed, but they caused longer periods of work inability than accidents on the way to the work site. The longest periods of work inability were found in the groups of motorcyclists and older employees. The present study identifies specific groups at risk for commuting accidents. The data of the present investigation also underline the need for developing group specific prevention strategies.

  4. Analysis of the reasons for accidents and of protective measures against induced voltage on aerial electrical transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Misrikhanov, M. Sh.; Mirzaabdullaev, A. O.

    2009-01-15

    The problem of safety during work on aerial transmission lines under an induced voltage is examined. Results are presented from a study of the causes of accidents over the last 20 years in electrical grids in this country. A determination of different levels of induced voltage on disconnected aerial transmission lines as a function of their grounding scheme is proposed. The order of magnitudes for each level are given, along with approximate expressions for calculating them.

  5. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  6. Preventive measures reducing superficial mycobiotic contamination of grain.

    PubMed

    Steponavičius, Dainius; Raila, Algirdas; Steponavičienė, Aušra; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Search for the preventive measures reducing the accumulation of mycotoxin producers in food raw material was carried out. Active ventilation was used; the impact of the electro-chemically activated air (ozone) and electro-chemically activated water (anolyte) on the micromycetes prevailing in grain raw material for food (GRMF) was determined. The GRMF was dried by active ventilation using the ozone-air mixture. Ozone (concentration 1250 ppb) disinfects the surface of the raw material and creates conditions unfavourable for the increase of mycobiotic contamination in drying upper layers of the grain mound. Within 8 days the contamination of GRMF in a mound decreased by 50%, while in its lower layers - more than 3 times. Ventilation of the mound with the above-mentioned concentration of the ozone-air mixture has ceased the active functioning of Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. solani, F. tricinctum F. sporotrichioides micromycetes and has considerably retarded the development of Alternaria alternata and other fungi. Anolyte (0.05% of chlorine concentration) reduced the mycobiotic contamination of GRMF by almost 2.5 times. The optimal treatment duration is from 0.5 to 1 hour. The optimal technical parameters, allowing the use of these measures for the preparation of grain food safety technologies, were elaborated; they are designed for more efficient protection of human health against micromycetes and their toxic metabolites, which are abundantly produced and released into the environment.

  7. Preventing surgical-site infections: measures other than antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chauveaux, D

    2015-02-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) due to intra-operative contamination are chiefly ascribable to airborne particles carrying microorganisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, which settle on the surgeon's hands and instruments. SSI prevention therefore rests on minimisation of airborne contaminated particle counts, although these have not been demonstrated to correlate significantly with SSI rates. Maintaining clear air in the operating room classically involves the use of ultra clean ventilation systems combining laminar airflow and high-efficiency particulate air filters to create a physical barrier around the surgical table; in addition to a stringent patient preparation protocol, appropriate equipment, and strict operating room discipline on the part of the surgeon and other staff members. SSI rates in clean surgery, although influenced by the type of procedure and by patient-related factors, are consistently very low, of about 1% to 2%. These low rates, together with the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the multiplicity of parameters influencing the SSI risk, are major obstacles to the demonstration that a specific measure is effective in decreasing SSIs. As a result, controversy surrounds the usefulness of many measures, including laminar airflow, body exhaust suits, patient preparation techniques, and specific surgical instruments. Impeccable surgical technique and operating room behaviour, in contrast, are clearly essential.

  8. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  9. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  10. [Accidents of fulguration].

    PubMed

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  11. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries. PMID:718073

  12. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  13. [Accidents of toddlers and youngsters].

    PubMed

    von Nicolai, D

    2002-02-01

    The Public Health Department in Biberach an der Riss developed a questionnaire to investigate the incidence of accidents in children under school-starting age (6 years). This questionnaire was presented to the parents of more than 2,300 prospective first-graders from the town and rural district on the occasion of the pre-school medical examination 2000. As this examination is mandatory for all children starting school, and as the questions were answered by all the parents with very few exceptions (language reasons), a complete survey can be assumed. The investigation confirmed the results of last year: The incidence of children who suffered an accident requiring medical attention before reaching school age is approximately 33 %; boys are predominantly involved. The scene of accidents also changes with increasing age from living quarters to outside areas. The most frequent type of accidents are, of course, falls, resulting especially in injuries to the head and face. Scalds and burns, in particular at the age of 2, occur more frequently in the Biberach district than described in other up-to-date investigations in Germany. For this reason efforts have to be made to reduce this number over the next years. About 11 % of accidents occur in the streets or involve traffic, a result which is also higher in comparison to other investigations. According to the statement of parents, more than two-thirds of accidents are caused by the children themselves, including babies and toddlers. At the time of the accident 40 % of the children were without parental control, and 20 % completely alone.A great number of the accidents could certainly have been prevented. That is why the results of the study should be made available to all those responsible for the care and wellbeing of this age group. The last section of the paper deals with the most urgent needs of action to be implemented in the long run for the sake of the health of our children.

  14. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  15. Investigation of errors by radiological technologists and evaluation of preventive measures: general and mobile X-ray examinations.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shinoda, Naoki; Miyamoto, Akira; Hirata, Masaharu; Ishidate, Miyako; Kuraishi, Masahiko; Doi, Kunio

    2010-07-01

    The first objective in this study was to identify the errors of incidents and accidents that occurred in general and mobile X-ray examinations. Based on the analysis of results, the second purpose in this study was to propose useful measures to prevent such errors. As much as 553 radiological technologists in the Gunma Prefecture were surveyed on their experience with errors related to general and mobile X-ray examinations. The questionnaire asked for descriptions of errors experienced during examinations and the responses given (multiple answers possible), and evaluations of the degree of busyness on a five-point scale. A total of 115 questionnaires were returned. Analysis revealed that there was no significant relationship between errors and degree of busyness for either general or mobile examinations. The most frequent error both in general and in mobile examinations was to X-ray a patient mistakenly, the cause of which was cited as failure to confirm the patient's name. After the use of solution priority number to evaluate proposed preventive measures, such as finger-pointing and call, independent double-checks, and verbal self-confirmation would be the simplest and most easily implemented countermeasure.

  16. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  17. 36 CFR 9.46 - Accidents and fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accidents and fires. 9.46... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.46 Accidents and fires. The operator shall take technologically feasible precautions to prevent accidents and fires, shall notify the Superintendent within...

  18. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  19. 36 CFR 9.46 - Accidents and fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accidents and fires. 9.46... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.46 Accidents and fires. The operator shall take technologically feasible precautions to prevent accidents and fires, shall notify the Superintendent within...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-10 - Accident damage protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident damage protection. 178.337-10 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-10 Accident damage... stop valve and within the accident damage protection to prevent any accidental loss of lading....

  1. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  2. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  3. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  4. 36 CFR 9.46 - Accidents and fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accidents and fires. 9.46... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.46 Accidents and fires. The operator shall take technologically feasible precautions to prevent accidents and fires, shall notify the Superintendent within...

  5. 36 CFR 9.46 - Accidents and fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accidents and fires. 9.46... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.46 Accidents and fires. The operator shall take technologically feasible precautions to prevent accidents and fires, shall notify the Superintendent within...

  6. 36 CFR 9.46 - Accidents and fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accidents and fires. 9.46... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.46 Accidents and fires. The operator shall take technologically feasible precautions to prevent accidents and fires, shall notify the Superintendent within...

  7. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  8. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  9. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  10. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  11. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  12. Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy: etiology and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Kaleagasioglu, Ferda; Olcay, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a serious health problem and its etiology is not fully elucidated. Among intrinsic and extrinsic predisposing factors of tendinopathy, the impact of therapeutic agents, especially fluoroquinolone (FQ) group antibiotics, is recently being recognized. FQs are potent bactericidal agents widely used in various infectious diseases, including community acquired pneumonia and bronchitis, chronic osteomyelitis, traveler's diarrhea, typhoid fever, shigellosis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea and prophylaxis of anthrax. FQs have an acceptable tolerability range. However, many lines of evidence for developing tendinitis and tendon rupture during FQ use have resulted in the addition of a warning in patient information leaflets. FQ-induced tendinopathy presents a challenge for the clinician because healing response is poor due to low metabolic rate in mature tendon tissue and tendinopathy is more likely to develop in patients who are already at high risk, such as elderly, solid organ transplant recipients and concomitant corticosteroid users. FQs become photo-activated under exposure to ultraviolet light, and this process results in formation and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The subsequent FQ-related oxidative stress disturbs mitochondrial functions, leading to apoptosis. ROS overproduction also has direct cytotoxic effects on extracellular matrix components. Understanding the mechanisms of the FQ-associated tendinopathy may enable designing safer therapeutic strategies, hence optimization of clinical response. In this review, we evaluate multi-factorial etiology of the FQ-induced tendinopathy and discuss proposed preventive measures such as antioxidant use and protection from natural sunlight and artificial ultraviolet exposure.

  13. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Coverage includes transfrontier radioactive contamination, deposition of radioactive pollutants from the atmosphere, and radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air and soil contamination, and in vegetation and food. Monthly radioactive monitoring in different countries, possible health hazards caused by the radiation, and estimates of radiation doses to the population from the fallout are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Exposure risks and intervention possibilities in solution criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, F.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    All accidental criticality excursions are accompanied by neutron and gamma radiation that creates two possible types of radiation risk: (1) immediate risk for the personnel directly exposed; and (2) deferred risk in the case where an intervention team is required in the postaccident phase. These aspects, or more specifically dose measurement and the possibility of calling on intervention teams, were carefully examined in the CRAC and SILENE criticality accident experimental study programs carried out at the Valduc criticality laboratory. The resulting data are undeniably valuable as part of a nuclear safety policy that aims to evaluate and prevent the risks of accident situations, to define the consequences of such situations, and to propose an intervention strategy if the need arises. Note, however, that if criticality accident detection systems help to limit the doses to which personnel may be exposed, they provide no information that could contribute to accident diagnosis nor to understanding the postaccident phase, while such information is essential in deciding whether or not to call on an intervention team. This explains why the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique decided to perfect its detection system, which is now capable of monitoring accident evolution, providing valuable information on dose rates.

  15. Train accidents involving pedestrians, motor vehicles, and motorcycles.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, B A; Mootha, R K; Lindsey, R W

    1998-04-01

    In the United States, train-related accidents account for more than 18,000 injuries and 1,200 fatalities annually, yet there is a paucity of literature pertaining to this unique injury. We reviewed the medical records of 98 of 135 cases of train-related trauma treated at Ben Taub General Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, from 1990 to 1995. There were 50 train-pedestrian accidents, 47 train-automobile accidents, and 1 train-motorcycle accident, with a mean patient age of 30.1 years (range, 2 to 66 years). Eighteen patients (18%) were pronounced dead on arrival or died shortly after admission. Of the other 80 patients, 27 (34%) were discharged from the emergency department after minor medical treatment, while 53 (66%) were hospitalized, of whom 10 (13%) later expired. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 11.9 (discharged, 1.8; hospitalized, 14.3; expired, 29.2). Forty-five patients (56%) sustained 57 extremity fractures, and 30 patients (38%) required 40 amputations. Mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) for all injured extremities was 5.2 (amputation, 7.7; no amputation, 2.8). On average, the hospitalization cost per patient was greater than $18,698, while the reimbursement from the patients was $2,261, leaving the hospital with a net deficit of approximately 2 million dollars. Surprisingly, train accidents do not always result in serious injury. However, when serious injury is sustained, it is often of high morbidity (amputation) and mortality, which appears to correlate well with the initial MESS and ISS. Extrapolating our cost data to include all train-related accident injuries and deaths indicates that the direct costs to society may exceed 300 million dollars annually. Greater public awareness and preventive measures may reduce the tremendous human and financial costs of train-related accidents.

  16. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... preventive measures. 549.15 Section 549.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... preventive measures. (a) The HSA will ensure that a qualified health care professional provides training... prevention of work-related exposures and will be offered vaccination for Hepatitis B....

  17. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preventive measures. 549.15 Section 549.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... preventive measures. (a) The HSA will ensure that a qualified health care professional provides training... prevention of work-related exposures and will be offered vaccination for Hepatitis B....

  18. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  19. Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R): a performance-based measure of executive function in people with mild cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M Tracy; Giles, Gordon Muir; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M; Dromerick, Alexander W; Polatajko, Helene J; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes a performance-based measure of executive function, the Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R), and examines its ability to discriminate between people with mild cerebrovascular accident (mCVA) and control participants. METHOD. We compared the MET-R scores and measures of CVA outcome of 25 participants 6 mo post-mCVA and 21 matched control participants. RESULTS. Participants with mCVA showed no to minimal impairment on measures of executive function at hospital discharge but reported difficulty with community integration at 6 mo. The MET-R discriminated between participants with and without mCVA (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSION. The MET-R is a valid and reliable measure of executive functions appropriate for the evaluation of clients with mild executive function deficits who need occupational therapy to fully participate in community living.

  20. Monitoring of effectiveness of some preventive measures against influenza.

    PubMed

    Masaryková, Lucia; Balázi, Tomás; Fulmeková, Magdaléna; Lehocká, L'ubica

    2012-02-01

    In our study we dealt with the frequently occurring influenza virus that infects humans regardless of age or sex. The flu is not of importance only in health problems but also in the economic ones, such as the treatment costs and patients' ability to work. We focused particularly on the most effective preventive measure against the virus, which is vaccination and the risk groups that are the most vulnerable ones to the virus. One of the objectives of this research was to identify the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination against influenza and available risks of vaccination within a group of 390 patients. We studied a group of 195 vaccinated patients and we tried to determine the effect of the vaccines used in these patients, and to compare this group with the same number of unvaccinated patients. The goal of the research was to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the vaccination against influenza, and the potential risks resulting from the vaccination. Based on our results, we found out that out of 195 vaccinated patients, only 4% returned to the doctor with the flu. Unvaccinated patients, however, visited the doctor four times more frequently, regardless of age. The resulting morbidity ratios clearly showed the importance, effectiveness and safety of the vaccination not only in high-risk groups, but also in people that are "out-of-danger", because the current flu virus spreads by droplet infection very quickly. Appropriate education and increased awareness among the population in Slovakia could improve the general attitude towards the vaccination against influenza and the vaccination rate (Slovakia 12%) could raise to a percentage comparable to that of the EU countries (France 30%, England 32%, the Netherlands 28% and Germany 26%).

  1. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Morrissey, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO/sub 2/ and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC/sub 2/ particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO/sub 2/ particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC/sub 2/ particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium.

  2. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  3. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  4. [Characteristics of occupational accidents in the building industry and public works in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Sarr, E H; Ouatara, B; Sow, M L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to appreciate the magnitude of work accidents in a building construction sector, to specify their type and characteristics. A retrospective study was undergone in a big building construction industry in Senegal. Data were collected from records of accidents reported to the Social Security Administration between 1994--1996. We looked for characteristics of accidents as well as workers involved in accident. 244 accidents were collected in a three years period, i e 81.5/year, 132 work injuries involved temporaryworkers. 55.73% occurred in chantiers, and 1/3 in working room. Moving and handle objects generated most accidents (36,47%). Wounds and contusions were the most frequent lesion (51,62.%). Arms and feets were concerned in 51.63%, and ocular lesions were noticed in 13.94%. These accidents generate an overall number of 3055 days lost. Work injuries in the building construction sector in Senegal are identical to those described in othercountries. Prevention measures requires improvement of working conditions, education of workers and availability of personal protective equipment's.

  5. Seizure related accidents and injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Buffo, Thais Helena; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Tai, Peter; Montenegro, Maria Augusta

    2008-09-01

    Several studies show that the risk of accidents involving patients with epilepsy is much higher compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to identify the frequency and type of seizure related injuries in children diagnosed with epilepsy. In addition we also assessed possible risk factors associated with this seizure related accidents in childhood. This study was conducted at the pediatric epilepsy clinic of Unicamp, from January 2005 to August 2006. We evaluated 100 consecutive children with epilepsy. Parents were interviewed by one of the authors using a structured questionnaire that included questions about seizure related accidents and related injuries. Forty-four patients reported seizure related accidents. Eighteen patients needed medical assistance at an emergency room due the severity of their seizure related accident. Forty patients reported having a seizure related accident prevented by a bystander. Another 14 patients reported avoiding a seizure related accident by luck alone. Contusions and lacerations were the most common type of lesion associated with seizures. Patients with symptomatic/probable symptomatic epilepsy and those using higher numbers of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) were at greater risk for seizure related accidents (p<0.05). We conclude that patients with symptomatic/probable symptomatic epilepsy and on multiple AEDs are at increased risk of seizure related accidents. Parents and caretakers should be even more cautious about risk of injury in such patients.

  6. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  7. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  8. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What additional preventive and mitigative measures... STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... those already required by Part 192 to prevent a pipeline failure and to mitigate the consequences of...

  9. Introduction to the Special Series: Current Directions for Measuring Parenting Constructs to Inform Prevention Science.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Parenting behaviors are multifaceted and dynamic and therefore challenging to quantify. Measurement methods have critical implications for study results, particularly for prevention trials designed to modify parenting behaviors. Although multiple approaches can complement one another and contribute to a more complete understanding of prevention trials, the assumptions and implications of each approach are not always clearly addressed. Greater attention to the measurement of complex constructs such as parenting is needed to advance the field of prevention science. This series examines the challenges of measuring changes in parenting behaviors in the context of prevention trials. All manuscripts in the special series address measurement issues and make practical recommendations for prevention researchers. Manuscripts in this special series include (1) empirical studies that demonstrate novel measurement approaches, (2) re-analyses of prevention trial outcome data directly comparing and contrasting two or more methods, and (3) a statistical primer and practical guide to analyzing proportion data.

  10. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  11. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  12. Development of a Measure of Attitude toward Pulmonary Disease Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaghie, William C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Systematic scale-development procedures, reliability analyses on 2,852 medical students (3 samples), and factor analysis were used to develop and refine a scale reflecting attitudes about pulmonary disease prevention. Development and verification samples included 110 and 2,691 students, respectively. The scale is promising for health education and…

  13. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  14. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  15. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  16. Measurement of soil contamination by radionuclides due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and associated estimated cumulative external dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Kimura, S; Takatsuji, T; Nanasawa, K; Imanaka, T; Shizuma, K

    2012-09-01

    Soil sampling was carried out at an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Samples were taken from areas around FDNPP, at four locations northwest of FDNPP, at four schools and in four cities, including Fukushima City. Radioactive contaminants in soil samples were identified and measured by using a Ge detector and included (129 m)Te, (129)Te, (131)I, (132)Te, (132)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (140)Ba and (140)La. The highest soil depositions were measured to the northwest of FDNPP. From this soil deposition data, variations in dose rates over time and the cumulative external doses at the locations for 3 months and 1y after deposition were estimated. At locations northwest of FDNPP, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition was 4.8-98 μSv/h and the cumulative dose for 1 y was 51 to 1.0 × 10(3)mSv; the highest values were at Futaba Yamada. At the four schools, which were used as evacuation shelters, and in the four urban cities, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition ranged from 0.03 to 3.8μSv/h and the cumulative doses for 1 y ranged from 3 to 40 mSv. The cumulative dose at Fukushima Niihama Park was estimated as the highest in the four cities. The estimated external dose rates and cumulative doses show that careful countermeasures and remediation will be needed as a result of the accident, and detailed measurements of radionuclide deposition densities in soil will be important input data to conduct these activities.

  17. Preventative measures for bulimic patients with dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, G; Bartlett, D

    2001-03-01

    The preventative techniques suggested to bulimic patients are frequently undervalued and ignored in favour of restorative treatment, possibly because the dentist may not be aware of the eating disorder. Educating bulimic patients about fluoride application, the use of brushing techniques, antacids, cheese, xylitol chewing gum and the possible use of mouth guards may minimise the effect of acids. Together with attempts at improving patient compliance they can be a valuable adjunct to treatment of bulimic patients with dental problems. Monitoring the wear on teeth by comparing study casts is a good way to maintain control but there are circumstances when restorations are indicated, perhaps when further delay may result in the prognosis of the teeth being compromised. Following a brief introduction to causes of bulimia and the consequences to the dentition, this paper, based on a literature review, considers patient-orientated techniques for prevention and provisional management of erosion of dental hard tissues for patients with bulimia nervosa.

  18. Determination of smoking and drinking and preventive measures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Altay, Naime; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Citak, Ebru Akgun

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9-12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying "no," good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.

  19. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    PubMed

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  20. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    AUBAKIROVA, Alma; KOSSUMOV, Alibek; IGISSINOV, Nurbek

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000), which was higher (P<0.05) than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000). High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30–39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50–59 years old and 70–79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Tdec=−2.4%), men (Tdec=−2.3%) and women (Tdec=−1.4%). When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000), average (between 18.3 and 24.00/0000) and high (from 24.00/0000 and above). Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000), Mangistau region (25.90/0000), Zhambyl region (27.30/0000), Almaty region (29.30/0000) and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000). Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents. PMID:23641400

  1. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  2. Pipeline accident effects for hazardous liquid pipelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfeld, J.; Golub, E.; Dresnack, R.; Griffis, F.H.; Pignataro, L.J.

    1996-08-01

    The project team identified the factors that cause pipeline failures and the factors that effect accidents on hazardous liquid pipelines. Since the normalizing of the data was not possible, the authors of this report used indirect and inferential approaches in the analysis. The databases used for this analysis are LIQUID (accident data for 1968-1985) and LIQLCK (accident data for 1985-present). The main finding of this complete data on hazardous liquid accidents should be collected. Other conclusions are that prevention programs should be more effective, and pipe components such as valves, O-rings, gaskets and nipples are a significant source of potentially reducible accidents.

  3. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  4. Mine accident liabilities: a Pandora's box

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, T.M.

    1985-10-01

    Mine accidents continue to occur despite countless thousands of man-hours devoted to their prevention by company safety professionals, operational personnel and federal and state regulators. They occur because mining is conducted in a hostile environment where there is little margin for error. This article discusses the potential liabilities following a mine accident, including employee or survivor claims, suits by non-employees affected by the accident, losses of production and mining equipment, exposure of the company to federal and state-imposed mine closure, and exposure of the company and its supervisory employees to civil or criminal penalties for violation of federal and state mining laws.

  5. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  6. Clostridium difficile: Changing Epidemiology, Treatment and Infection Prevention Measures.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Jane A

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium difficile was first reported as a cause of antibiotic-associated colitis in 1978. In more recent years we have witnessed disturbing trends associated with C. difficile infection (CDI). CDI has become more common, affecting populations previously considered at low risk, more severe with an associated increase in mortality, and more difficult to treat with some patients experiencing multiple relapses and a reduced responsiveness to previously effective antibiotics. These trends have been coincident with the emergence of a new hypervirulent strain responsible for several outbreaks in the last decade. Fortunately, we have also seen promising developments, particularly with regard to testing and treatment. This review discusses recent changes in the epidemiology of CDI and recent developments in the testing, treatment and prevention of CDI.

  7. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident.

  8. Comparison between modelling and measurement of marine dispersion, environmental half-time and 137Cs inventories after the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Garreau, Pierre; Laguionie, Philippe; Korsakissok, Irène

    2014-03-01

    Contamination of the marine environment following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) represents the most important influx of artificial radioactivity released into the sea ever recorded. The evaluation, in near real time, of the total amount of radionuclide released at sea and of the residence time in coastal waters were ones of challenges for nuclear authorities during this event. In the framework of a crisis situation, a numerical hydrodynamical model has been built and used `as is'. The concomitant use of this numerical model and in situ data allows the comparison of the simulated and measured environmental half-times. A tuning of the wind drag coefficient has been nevertheless necessary to reproduce the evolution of measured inventories of 137Cs and 134Cs between April and June 2011. After tuning, the relative mean absolute error between measured and simulated concentrations for the 849 measurements in the dataset is 69 %, while the relative bias indicates a model underestimation of 4 %. These results confirm the estimates of the source term, i.e. 27 PBq (12-41 PBq) for direct releases and 3 PBq for atmospheric deposition onto the sea. The parameters applied here to simulate atmospheric deposition onto the sea are within the correct order of magnitude for reproducing seawater concentrations. Quantitative inventories of tracers which integrate dispersion and transport processes are useful to test model reliability. It exhausts the model sensibility to meteorological forcing, which remains difficult to appraise to reproduce mid- to long-term transport.

  9. Strategy for Coordinated EPA/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Implementation of the Chemical Accident Prevention Requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) share responsibility for prevention: OSHA has the Process Safety Management Standard to protect workers, and EPA the Risk Management Program to protect the general public and environment.

  10. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  11. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  12. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...

  13. Measuring Performance and Effectiveness in Irregular Warfare: Preventing Dysfunctional Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    behavior, it will also support operational commanders in diagnosing problems, making critical decisions, fostering learning, adjusting strategies , and...the area where Netflix continues to dominate…Blockbuster is doomed.” 11 While bottom line figures such as monthly earnings are important, unless...how to adapt and manage its metrics to better support its strategy . The reality of a measurement failure has grave consequences for the military

  14. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    PubMed

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring.

  15. Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Kandyala, Reena; Raghavendra, Sumanth Phani C; Rajasekharan, Saraswathi T

    2010-01-01

    Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon known for its wide usage in tissue processing, staining and cover slipping in the histology laboratory. The hazards of xylene are well documented, making it a potential occupational hazard for the histopathological technicians. As every other profession became cautious of the occupational hazards, the very speciality that identifies the illnesses became one of the last to become aware and remedy its own hazards. This review article aims to discuss the toxicity of xylene and safety measures to counteract the hazards and enlists the pros and cons of using various substitutes that claim to be much safer, better and faster. PMID:21180450

  16. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  17. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  18. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal.

  19. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    PubMed

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  1. Risk factors in highway traffic accidents: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Hijar, M; Carrillo, C; Flores, M; Anaya, R; Lopez, V

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk factors related to the driver, the vehicle and the environment, that are associated with motor vehicles accidents on highways. A case and control design was used where the case was: the driver of a motor vehicle who was involved in an accident while traveling on the Mexico-Cuernavaca highway; and the control was: the driver or a motor vehicle who, traveling on the highway, completed the trip without being involved in a traffic accident. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of a traffic accident (P > 0.05) were: age under 25 years, frequent travel, traveling to work, alcohol consumption, driving during the daylight, on a week-day, under adverse weather conditions and in the Mexico Cuernavaca direction of road. Risks adjusted by logistic regression were: age under 25 years odds ratio (OR) 3.01, confidence interval (CI) (95%) 1.46-6.18; work as a travel reason OR 1.74, CI 1.06 2.86; alcohol intake OR 4.70, Cl 1.62 13.6; driving under adverse weather conditions OR 5.70, CI 3.66-8.85; traveling on a week-day OR 1.84, CI 1.14-2.94; during daylight hours OR 4.23, CI 2.36-7.58 and in the Mexico Cuernavaca direction of road OR 2.69, CI 1.67 4.32. The identification of factors associated with the risk of being involved in a highway traffic accident allows us to propose primary prevention measures for this important public health problem.

  2. Repository preclosure accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Yook, H.R.; Arbital, J.G.; Keeton, J.M.; Mosier, J.E.; Weaver, B.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waste-handling operations at a spent-fuel repository were investigated to identify operational accidents that could occur. The facility was subdivided, through systems engineering procedures, into individual operations that involve the waste and one specific component of the waste package, in one specific area of the handling facility. From this subdivision approximately 600 potential accidents involving waste package components were identified and then discussed. Supporting descriptive data included for each accident scenario are distance of drop, speed of collision, weight of package component, and weight of equipment involved. The energy of impact associated with each potential accident is calculated to provide a basis for comparison of the relative severities of all the accidents. The results and conclusions suggest approaches to accident consequence mitigation through waste package and facility design. 35 figures, 9 tables.

  3. The role of personality traits and driving experience in self-reported risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers.

    PubMed

    Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions.

  4. A decade of occupational accidents due to direct or indirect electrical contact in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in Spain (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rosa, Juan; Suárez-Cebador, Manuel; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Aguado, Jose Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Occupational accidents caused by electrical contact are a major concern worldwide due to their severe consequences. The study conducted is based on an analysis of the evolution of incidence rates and dependence between variables for 14,022 electrical accidents occurring in Spain between 2003 and 2012. The results show that electrical accidents as a whole are 3.6 times more likely to have severe consequences than the rest of the accidents in the country. This proportion is even nine times greater in the case of fatal accidents. They also confirm a significant relationship between the severity of this type of accidents and the economic sector in which they occur. On the other hand, there is a positive trend in the reduction of the incidence rate, especially in relation to direct contact, although unexpectedly the rate of accidents due to indirect contact is on the rise. Thus, preventing electrical occupational accidents requires efforts to guarantee adequate training adapted to the needs of workers in the various economic sectors. Furthermore, those responsible for safety should work to implement mechanisms to monitor and control compliance with efficient protective measures against electrical contact.

  5. Measurements of air dose rates in and around houses in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Saito, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of air dose rates for 192 houses in a less contaminated area (<0.5 μSv h(-1)) of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan were conducted in both living rooms and/or bedrooms using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and around the houses via a man-borne survey at intervals of several meters. The relation of the two air dose rates (inside and outside) for each house, including the background from natural radionuclides, was divided into several categories, determined by construction materials (light and heavy) and floor number, with the dose reduction factors being expressed as the ratio of the dose inside to that outside the house. For wooden and lightweight steel houses (classed as light), the dose rates inside and outside the houses showed a positive correlation and linear regression with a slope-intercept form due to the natural background, although the degree of correlation was not very high. The regression coefficient, i.e., the average dose reduction factor, was 0.38 on the first floor and 0.49 on the second floor. It was found that the contribution of natural radiation cannot be neglected when we consider dose reduction factors in less contaminated areas. The reductions in indoor dose rates are observed because a patch of ground under each house is not contaminated (this is the so-called uncontaminated effect) since the shielding capability of light construction materials is typically low. For reinforced steel-framed concrete houses (classed as heavy), the dose rates inside the houses did not show a correlation with those outside the houses due to the substantial shielding capability of these materials. The average indoor dose rates were slightly higher than the arithmetic mean value of the outdoor dose rates from the natural background because concrete acts as a source of natural radionuclides. The characteristics of the uncontaminated effect were clarified through Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that there is a great variation

  6. [Hang-gliding accidents in high mountains. Apropos of 200 cases].

    PubMed

    Foray, J; Abrassart, S; Femmy, T; Aldilli, M

    1991-01-01

    A review of 200 cases of "paragliding" accidents in high mountain areas has been completed. The first flights have been murderous, a thesis written in 1987 in Grenoble showing seven dead out of 97 casualties. Since then the statistics seen to be improving as a consequence of the setting of regulations and the establishment of "paragliding" schools. The more frequent accidents happen on landing: in 70% of the cases fractures of the "tibiotarsienne", the wrist and the spinal column prevail. They happen to young adults between 20 and 40 years old, with a variable experience. Preventive measures consist in a greater prudence, a good physical condition and a precise aerological knowledge. The adepts of this sport have understood that wearing a helmet and appropriate shoes could reduce the gravity of the accidents. "Paragliding" if not a dangerous sport is certainly a risky one.

  7. Radioactivity teaching: Environmental consequences of the radiological accident in Goiânia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Facure, A.; Lima, E. L. N.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Santos, M. S.; Brage, J. A. P.; Okuno, E.; Yoshimura, E. M.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation and its effects on human beings, radiation protection, and radiological accident prevention are topics usually not included in the physics courses at the Brazilian universities. As a consequence, high school teachers are not able to enlighten their students when radiological or nuclear accidents occur. This paper presents a teaching program on ionizing radiation physics, to be applied to undergraduate physics students and to physics high school teachers. It is based on the environmental consequences of the 1987 radiological accident in Goiânia. This program was applied to two undergraduate physics students, in 1999, at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Results of the gamma ray spectrometry measurements of samples collected in Goiânia by the students are presented.

  8. [The risk of road traffic accidents among primary school children in Kuala Terengganu].

    PubMed

    Fatimah, M; Osman, A; Masyarakat, J K; Perubatan, F

    1997-12-01

    A case control study was conducted in 1996 among primary school student in Terengganu. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors such as socio-economic status, distance from school, number of siblings, behavioural problems, knowledge and attitudes of pupil and their parents towards road safety and parents' educational status. A total of 140 cases was obtained from 3 urban schools and 3 from rural schools. Cases were matched with control according to age sex and locality of residence. There were significant associations between road traffic accidents and pupils' knowledge regarding road crossing (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.85), parental supervision (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) and parents having driving licences (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.856-0.999). Road safety education for pupils and parental supervision are key measures in preventing road traffic accidents among primary school children.

  9. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  11. Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 μm diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources

  12. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, C; Zvonova, I; Rääf, C; Mattsson, S

    2011-10-15

    A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of (137)Cs (and (134)Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl (137)Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3mSv y(-1). This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl (137)Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Summary of a workshop on severe accident management for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Jae, M.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Xing, L.; Dhir, V.K.; Lim, H.; Okrent, D.; Swider, J.; Yu, D.

    1991-11-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or alternative resources, systems and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of strategies there may be several options available to the operator; and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrument behavior during an accident. During the period September 26--28, 1990, a workshop was held at the University of California, Los Angeles, to address these uncertainties for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This report contains a summary of the workshop proceedings.

  14. BMX compared with ordinary bicycle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, C M

    1985-01-01

    Three hundred new cases of bicycle accidents were seen in the accident and emergency department in 60 consecutive days. Fifty six per cent were related to ordinary cycles and 44% to BMX cycles. Significantly more children on BMX cycles were boys (94% v 76% on ordinary cycles). Those on BMX cycles were somewhat older and more had had previous accidents. By means of a proforma we investigated the nature and causes of the accidents, recorded the type of injury, and compared accidents on the two groups of bicycles. Forty children had fractures and the incidence on BMX machines was almost twice that on conventional bicycles as were serious injuries and admissions to hospital. Twenty one children had concussion, 18 broke teeth, 53 fell head first over handlebars, and 131 had injuries above the neck. Significantly more children on ordinary cycles (53%) had injuries above the neck than those on BMX cycles (31%). Difficulties and methods of preventing the increasing number of cycle accidents are discussed. PMID:4015151

  15. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  16. Measures of Thyroid Function among Belarusian Children and Adolescents Exposed to Iodine-131 from the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rozhko, Alexander; Hatch, Maureen; Furukawa, Kyoji; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert J.; Nadyrov, Eldar; Petrenko, Sergey; Romanov, George; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Prokopovich, Alexander; Savasteeva, Irina; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Brenner, Alina V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thyroid dysfunction after exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning 131I-related risk of these common diseases. Objective: Our goal was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with 131I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based 131I dose estimates in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases. Results: Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated 131I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range, 0.001–26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of 131I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO. Conclusions: The association between 131I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental 131I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes. PMID:23651658

  17. 49 CFR 655.44 - Post-accident testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types... responding to the accident or to obtain necessary emergency medical care. (f) The results of a blood,...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

    2005-09-12

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive.

  19. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  20. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  1. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents.

    PubMed

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-11

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers' health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002-2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies.

  2. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies. PMID:28085067

  3. SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.

    PubMed

    Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

    2001-10-12

    As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study.

  4. Characteristic variation and original analysis of emergent water source pollution accidents in China between 1985 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Ye, Xiuqing; You, Hong

    2016-10-01

    China has suffered various water source pollution incidents in the past decades, which have resulted in severe threats to the safety of the water supply for millions of residents. From the aspects of quantity fluctuation, temporal volatility, regional inequality, pollutant category variation, and accident type differences, this study first characterizes the current status of water source contaminations in China by analyzing 340 pollution events for the period spanning from 1985 to 2013. The results show a general increase in the number of accidents during the period 1985-2006 and then a rapid decline starting in 2007. Spring and summer are high-incidence seasons for pollution, and the accident rate in developed southeastern coastal areas is far higher than that in the northwestern regions. Hazardous chemicals and petroleum are the most frequently occurring pollutants, whereas heavy metals and tailings are becoming emerging contaminants during occasional pollutions. Most of the accidents that occurred before 2005 were blamed on illegal emissions or traffic accidents; however, leakage in production has gradually become a major accident type in the past decade. Then, in combination with government actions and policy constraints, this paper explores the deep inducements and offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to ensure future prevention and mitigation of emergent source water pollution.

  5. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Pt. 274, App. A Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on...

  7. Evaluating a Peer-Led, Theatrical Sexual Assault Prevention Program: How Do We Measure Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Jun, Mi Kyun

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test…

  8. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Handling of Herbicides E Appendix E to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides 1. Follow the label on each container before using the... accidental poisoning to the public or domestic animals. 3. Smoking is not permitted while herbicides...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Handling of Herbicides E Appendix E to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides 1. Follow the label on each container before using the... accidental poisoning to the public or domestic animals. 3. Smoking is not permitted while herbicides...

  10. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Handling of Herbicides E Appendix E to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides 1. Follow the label on each container before using the... accidental poisoning to the public or domestic animals. 3. Smoking is not permitted while herbicides...

  11. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Handling of Herbicides E Appendix E to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides 1. Follow the label on each container before using the... accidental poisoning to the public or domestic animals. 3. Smoking is not permitted while herbicides...

  12. Reliability and Validity of Self-Report Measures to Evaluate Drug and Violence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli; Perry, Cheryl L.; Munson, Karen A.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation plan for the Minnesota D.A.R.E. Plus Project, a drug and violence prevention program for young adolescents, and to present the results of psychometric analyses on the measures that will be used in the assessment of the intervention program. The survey instrument was tested using different…

  13. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Facing a Fundamental Problem in Prevention Science: the Measurement of a Key Construct.

    PubMed

    Eddy, J Mark

    2017-04-01

    While many attempts have been made to measure various aspects of parenting within a variety of theoretical frameworks, there remains much work to do on the development of reliable and valid measures. Common themes across the papers included in a special issue on the measurement of parenting are discussed. Parenting constructs are a vital part of the work of prevention scientists, and more support is needed for researchers to engage in measurement development. Fortunately, there are some bright spots in this regard today, such as the Common Fund Science of Behavior Change Program sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.

  15. [Importance of sanitary-antiepidemic measures in preventing staphylococcal infections in maternity hospitals].

    PubMed

    Kitel', V S; Chumalo, P G; Gorbatiuk, K P

    1980-01-01

    The results of the realization of antistaphylococcal measures in maternity hospitals, carried out under the guidance and control of the sanitary and epidemiological service, are presented. The sanitary and epidemiological station registered each case of staphylococcal infection in nursing mothers and infants and investigated its epidemiological aspects. The exposure of the causes responsible for the disease allowed to take up the necessary antiepidemic measures in due direction, thus preventing the spread of hospital infections.

  16. Dynamics of preventive vs post-diagnostic cancer control using low-impact measures

    PubMed Central

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer poses danger because of its unregulated growth, development of resistance, and metastatic spread to vital organs. We currently lack quantitative theory for how preventive measures and post-diagnostic interventions are predicted to affect risks of a life threatening cancer. Here we evaluate how continuous measures, such as life style changes and traditional treatments, affect both neoplastic growth and the frequency of resistant clones. We then compare and contrast preventive and post-diagnostic interventions assuming that only a single lesion progresses to invasive carcinoma during the life of an individual, and resection either leaves residual cells or metastases are undetected. Whereas prevention generally results in more positive therapeutic outcomes than post-diagnostic interventions, this advantage is substantially lowered should prevention initially fail to arrest tumour growth. We discuss these results and other important mitigating factors that should be taken into consideration in a comparative understanding of preventive and post-diagnostic interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06266.001 PMID:26111339

  17. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  18. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  19. [Assessment of the suitability of workers based on the Swiss Law on Accident Insurance--declaration of unsuitability / declaration of conditional suitability].

    PubMed

    Jost, M; Rast, H

    2007-08-01

    In order to prevent the development or aggravation of an occupational disease or an occupational accident risk lying in an individual employee the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (Suva) based on the Swiss Law on Accident Insurance is entitled to prohibit certain activities that have proven to be hazardous to the individual (declaration of "unsuitability" (DOU) or rarely declaration of conditional suitability). Occupational skin and respiratory diseases are the most frequent disorders, and flour; cement, isocyanates and hairdressing substances the most important occupational factors requiring a DOU. This measure also provides financial security to the employee for up to 4 years by the accident insurer in cooperation with the unemployment insurance. For retraining and occupational rehabilitation a special state insurance, the Invalidity insurance is responsible.

  20. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  1. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  2. How members of the public interpret the word accident

    PubMed Central

    Girasek, D

    1999-01-01

    Objective—To explore what the word accident means to the lay public. This interpretation is of interest because it has been raised by injury control professionals as one justification for discouraging use of that word. Methods—A national telephone survey of 943 adults in the United States was conducted. Respondents were selected at random from households whose phone numbers were generated using random digit dialing techniques. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if respondent characteristics predicted their interpretations of the word accident. Results—Eighty three per cent of respondents associated preventability with the word accident, and only 26% felt that accidents were controlled by fate. However, 71% thought that accidents could not be predicted, and 4% felt that accidents were done on purpose. Age, education, income, and race emerged as independent predictors of various accident interpretations. Conclusions—Only in the case of "unpredictability" does the public's interpretation of the word accident match many experts' expectations. The concept of "unintentionality" is what seems to be communicated most strongly by use of the word accident. Persistent attempts on the part of injury control professionals to eliminate this word from social discourse may result in unintended consequences, which are discussed. PMID:10323565

  3. Measuring Bystander Behavior in the Context of Sexual Violence Prevention: Lessons Learned and New Directions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; Palmer, Jane E; Banyard, Victoria; Murphy, Megan; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-05

    Bystander intervention is receiving increased attention as a potential sexual violence prevention strategy, especially to address campus sexual assault. Rather than focusing on potential perpetrators or victims, the bystander approach engages all members of a community to take action. A growing body of evaluative work demonstrates that bystander intervention education programs yield increased positive attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence and greater willingness to intervene in pro-social ways. Future program outcome studies, however, would benefit from more refined measures of bystander action as it is a key variable that prevention education programs attempt to influence. The purpose of the current article is to present key issues, identified by four different research teams, on the measurement of bystander behavior related to sexual violence in the context of college campuses. Comparisons among the methods are made to suggest both lessons learned and new directions for bystander behavior measurement using self-report surveys in program evaluation.

  4. [Analysis of non-confraternity sports accidents in the surgical department of a former district hospital during the period of 2 years].

    PubMed

    Raschka, Ch; Raschka, S; Peikert, T

    2009-12-01

    This epidemiological study analyses all n = 1,659 outpatient and inpatient non-confraternity sports accidents treated during a 2-year period in a former district hospital. The largest share with 40.6% is soccer, followed by cycling (15%), general fitness sports (7.6%), outdoor sports (6.5%), winter sports (5.5%), and riding (5.2%). Soccer injuries rise steadily until the age of 30. Of 86 horse riding accidents a total of 68 involved women, but only 18 men (ratio 8 : 2). 53% of the horse riding accidents among women concern the age group between 10 and 20 years. 70.6% (79%) of the athletes under (over) 20 years were male, 29.4% (21%) female (p < 0.05). Topographically the lower extremities represent the most affected body region in all sports (runners 84.4%, soccer players 60.2%). Most accidents occur on a Sunday. The most common diagnosis is contusion, most commonly in martial arts (60.8%), followed by horse riding (51%). There is an astonishing dominance of soccer accidents given the fact that this study records all athletes, not just club athletes, unlike insurance studies. Important preventive measures would be a comprehensive biological training prophylaxis and the provision of communication of age-specific accident prevention proposals for the mainly affected sports.

  5. Urinary catheterization from benefits to hapless situations and a call for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Gunjan; Chawla, Naveen; Gogia, Atul; Kakar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated complications are common, expensive, and often preventable by reducing unnecessary catheter usage. These complications range from most common nosocomial infection to uncommon conditions such as urethral diverticula and ischemic necrosis of the penis. Often, removal of a single known essential cause may be sufficient to prevent a disease. This review raises issues associated with urinary catheterization and emphasizes on the need of preventive measures a physician should take to reduce disappointing situations. The main objective of this literature review is to intercept or oppose unwanted catheter use and thereby, the disease processes associated with urinary catheterization. There is well-described literature available on catheter-associated urinary tract infection, but little is known about noninfectious complications resulting from catheter use; therefore, we also tried to draw attention on these unusual complications. PMID:28217579

  6. Prevention of infections in nursing homes: antibiotic prophylaxis versus infection control and antimicrobial stewardship measures.

    PubMed

    Giannella, Maddalena; Tedeschi, Sara; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the lack of structural and human resources for implementing more effective and safe preventive procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis is often used to prevent infections in nursing homes. However, if data on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in nursing homes are null, there is a plenty of evidence that the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in this setting is associated with a high rate of colonization and infection with multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs), and of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Here, we have reviewed the infection epidemiology, the burden of MDROs and CDI, the antibiotic use and some potential infection preventive measures in nursing homes, pointing up the peculiarities of this setting and the absolute need of a more prudential use of antimicrobials.

  7. Parental Bereavement after Suicide and Accident: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Monique; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares differences in the bereavement process for 30 survivors of suicide versus 30 survivors of car accidents. Indicates suicide survivors were more depressed than accident survivors at the first measure but not at the second measure. Survivors of suicide experienced greater feelings of shame and had experienced more life events after the death…

  8. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  9. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  10. Chemical Accident Prevention - Chemicals in your Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This pamphlet summarizes the information you can obtain under Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know and Clean Air Act, how you can use these sources to build a snapshot of chemicals stored and released, and how SERCs and LEPCs can improve safety.

  11. [Interventions for mental health sequelae of accidents].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, J

    2014-06-01

    Emergency psychology and psychotraumatology deal with the psychological sequelae of traumatic experiences, i.e., the prevention and early intervention of posttraumatic mental health disorders. Accidents are the most prevalent traumatic events in the general population that may result in a range of severe trauma and adjustment disorders. Accidents happen suddenly, unexpectedly, and can gravely threaten health, personal integrity, and life. The prevalence of intermittent and chronic psychiatric disorders in the aftermath of severe accidents varies between 5 and 30 %. Victims suffer from unknown and frightening posttraumatic symptoms, often irreversible handicaps as a consequence of their injuries, impairments in everyday functioning, and negative impact on the quality of life. The direct and indirect burden for society is high. Comprehensive secondary prevention, starting with early detection and early intervention of post-accident disorders, is not well established in clinical care. In case of severe accidental injuries, emergency and medical treatment has absolute priority. But all too often, severe mental health problems remain undetected in later treatment phases and therefore cannot be addressed adequately. In primary care, knowledge of specific psychodiagnostic and treatment options is still insufficient. Prejudices, denial, and fear of stigmatization in traumatized victims as well as practical constraints (availability, waiting time) in the referral to special evidence-based interventions limit the access to adequate and effective support. This overview presents the objectives, concepts, and therapeutic tools of a stepped-care model for psychological symptoms after accidental trauma, with reference to clinical guidelines.

  12. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  13. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident further encourages a discussion of the effect of fission products upon the environment, including the resulting contamination of air, water, soil, animals, fish, milk, and crops. Accident-generated radiation levels that caused the evacuation of people 20-30 km from the facility further serve to foster student interest and desire to understand the science associated with the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

  14. [Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in household products].

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, Masa-aki

    2006-01-01

    Chemicals in household products have been paid much attention as main cause of health damage on consumers, such as allergic contact dermatitis. Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in fabric, plastic and rubber products for household uses, are reviewed, focusing on (1) regulation and voluntary control by manufacturers, (2) incidence of health damage from household products, (3) causative product-chemical investigation, (4) case studies on skin damage and respiratory tract damage.

  15. [Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in household products].

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    Chemicals in household products have been paid much attention as the main cause of health damage in consumers, such as allergic contact dermatitis. Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in fabrics, plastics and rubber products for household use, are reviewed, focusing on 1) the incidence of health damage due to household products, 2) causative product-chemical investigation, and 3) case studies on skin damage.

  16. Risk of Occupational Accidents in Workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Sanna, Antonio; Mancardi, Gian Luigi; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the single most important preventable medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and driving accidents. OSA may also adversely affect work performance through a decrease in productivity, and an increase in the injury rate. Nevertheless, no systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between OSA and work accidents has been performed thus far. Methods: PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of an initial list of 1,099 papers, 10 studies (12,553 participants) were eligible for our review, and 7 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effects were measured by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). An assessment was made of the methodological quality of the studies. Moderator analysis and funnel plot analysis were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Results: Compared to controls, the odds of work accident was found to be nearly double in workers with OSA (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.53–3.10). Occupational driving was associated with a higher effect size. Conclusions: OSA is an underdiagnosed nonoccupational disease that has a strong adverse effect on work accidents. The nearly twofold increased odds of work accidents in subjects with OSA calls for workplace screening in selected safety-sensitive occupations. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1171. Citation: Garbarino S, Guglielmi O, Sanna A, Mancardi GL, Magnavita N. Risk of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1211–1218. PMID:26951401

  17. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis.

  18. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    PubMed

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death.

  19. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  20. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  1. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  2. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  3. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D D), and surveillance and maintenance (S M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  4. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), and surveillance and maintenance (S&M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  5. [Preventive measures for the prophylaxis of contractures in geriatric nursing. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Sonja; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2011-06-01

    Contractures constitute a health problem in mobility-restricted geriatric patients. Contractures are clinically important due to their impact on functional outcome. Prophylactic interventions seem to be indispensable. We performed a systematic review studying the interventions used to prevent immobility-related contractures in the geriatric long-term care. The efficacy and safety of preventive methods was assessed. Electronic literature searches covered the databases PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (May 2010). Eligibility criteria for studies were: Investigation of an intervention aimed to prevent contractures, conducted in a geriatric and long-term care setting, inclusion of participants aged>65 years. The primary search focused on RCTs, systematic reviews und meta-analysis published between 1990 and May 2010 in English or German. The included studies were analysed and evaluated by one author while a second author checked the results. Methodological quality was critically evaluated using internationally accepted criteria. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Prophylactic interventions comprise mobility-encouraging and position-supportive interventions. Mobility-encouraging interventions aim to prevent contractures and immobility, for example offering range-of-motion exercises. Position-supportive interventions are transformations of motion and position, which are conducted with nurses' support. Due to limited methodological quality of these studies, the efficacy of certain measures remains unclear. Further studies on contracture prophylaxis investigating patient-relevant outcomes, interventions' adverse effects and costs are required.

  6. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  7. Accidents and repatriation.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Fischer, Philip R

    2006-01-01

    Accidents and injury contribute greatly to the morbidity and mortality of travellers worldwide, with road traffic accidents being a major contributer. Those travelers with serious illness and injury may need specialised medical evacuation services, which may involve an air ambulance and a specialised medical team. Such aeromedical repatriations require considerable organisation and liaison between the sending and receiving medical services and other interested parties. However, the majority of travellers requiring emergency assistance are stable patients requiring referral for medical or dental attention or special requirements for carriage on scheduled aircraft.

  8. Outdoor Hazards & Preventive Measures: West Nile Virus: A Clinical Commentary for the Camp Health Care Community; Poison Ivy: A Primer for Prevention; Lyme Disease Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Ellen; Bauer, Holly; Ratner-Connolly, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Transmitted by mosquitos, West Nile virus may cause serious illness, but the actual likelihood of infection is low. Prevention, implications, and recommendations for camps are discussed. Poison ivy identification, treatment, and complications are presented; a prevention quiz is included. Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are described, as are…

  9. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  10. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Khan, Laura Kettel; Sobush, Kathleen; Keener, Dana; Goodman, Kenneth; Lowry, Amy; Kakietek, Jakub; Zaro, Susan

    2009-07-24

    Approximately two thirds of U.S. adults and one fifth of U.S. children are obese or overweight. During 1980--2004, obesity prevalence among U.S. adults doubled, and recent data indicate an estimated 33% of U.S. adults are overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9), 34% are obese (BMI >or=30.0), including nearly 6% who are extremely obese (BMI >or=40.0). The prevalence of being overweight among children and adolescents increased substantially during 1999-2004, and approximately 17% of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight (defined as at or above the 95% percentile of the sex-specific BMI for age growth charts). Being either obese or overweight increases the risk for many chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and stroke). Reversing the U.S. obesity epidemic requires a comprehensive and coordinated approach that uses policy and environmental change to transform communities into places that support and promote healthy lifestyle choices for all U.S. residents. Environmental factors (including lack of access to full-service grocery stores, increasing costs of healthy foods and the lower cost of unhealthy foods, and lack of access to safe places to play and exercise) all contribute to the increase in obesity rates by inhibiting or preventing healthy eating and active living behaviors. Recommended strategies and appropriate measurements are needed to assess the effectiveness of community initiatives to create environments that promote good nutrition and physical activity. To help communities in this effort, CDC initiated the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention Project (the Measures Project). The objective of the Measures Project was to identify and recommend a set of strategies and associated measurements that communities and local governments can use to plan and monitor environmental and policy-level changes for obesity prevention. This report describes the expert panel process that was used to identify 24

  11. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

  12. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-12-18

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34-0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor.

  13. Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance.

    PubMed

    Derosier, C; Leclercq, S; Rabardel, P; Langa, P

    2008-12-01

    Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the general knowledge required for preventing these accidents; 2) to propose prevention measures to this company. Existing data on company occupational accidents were gathered and analysed to identify a work situation that appeared likely to cause AOL. This work situation was analysed in detail. Several risk factors were identified within this work situation, by way of interviews with 12 operators. These risk factors concerned various dimensions of the work situation, particularly its physical dimension (e.g. templates structure) and organisational dimension (e.g. parts availability). Interviews were conducted, focusing on risk factors perceived by operators and involving allo-confrontations based on accounts of four AOL occurring in this situation. Allo-confrontations were interviews confronting operators with a risk occupational situation that was accidental for one of their colleagues, the latter being absent from the interview. Results highlighted the fact that the work practices implemented are key factors in understanding these accidents. This study underlines the role of work practices in AOL causality and prevention. It also provides explanations associated with various work situation dimensions involving adoption of more or less safe work practices. AOL are serious and frequent in occupational situations. Injury claims analysis and interviews in an industrial company emphasise the specific characteristics of an occupational situation and of prevention actions forming the basis of an intervention. The need for a better understanding of factors affecting work practice is highlighted in relation to research.

  14. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupa R; Liang, Stephen Y; Koolwal, Pooja; Kuhlmann, Frederick Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. PMID:25709464

  15. Fallen conductor accidents: The challenge to improve safety

    SciTech Connect

    Aucoin, B.M.; Russell, B.D.

    1992-02-01

    What is the worst nightmare of an electric utility manager or engineer Many respond that it is an electrocution resulting from a fallen conductor accident. Few subjects in the operation of an electric utility are more emotional and sobering than this. Traditionally, a utility could do little to prevent such accidents, but some answers from research are emerging, calling for a new look at this old problem.

  16. Review of studies on criticality accidents undertaken at CEA/Valduc

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, F.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Since 1977, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has led a program of study on criticality accidents to meet the needs and requirements of a realistic safety policy that, while taking all necessary measures to prevent accidents, must also seek to evaluate and cope with the consequences of such an event. In working to achieve this objective, the IPSN bases its work mainly on the resources available at the Valduc criticality laboratory. In view of the diversity of possible accident configurations at different installations and the fact that the shutdown mechanisms of power excursion are directly related to the medium involved, studies have focused on four major categories of media: liquids, solids, powders, and heterogeneous water-moderated systems. For each one, the most plausible hypothetical accident situation was defined, while trying to maintain a conservative view with respect to other situations. A part of the work consists of acquiring, either by experiments conducted in facilities or by neutronic calculations, a basic set of data or relationships such as temperature coefficient or physical characteristics of fuel to input in a computer code. The final goal is to provide a general calculation code able to predict criticality excursion for safety considerations.

  17. [The dynamics of risk factors in traffic accidents in Iaşi county].

    PubMed

    Manole, M; Duma, Odetta

    2005-01-01

    Injuries caused by traffic accidents represent a major world public health problem, rather neglected up to now, but which can be efficiently dealt with on long term, thanks to joint efforts. The authors present the results of a descriptive study concerning the involvement of various factors in traffic accidents in the county of Iaşi, in 2003. This paper highlights the fact that injuries caused by traffic accidents represent an important morbidity and mortality factor. The incidence was of 29.34 serious road traffic injuries for 100,000 inhabitants, as compared to the 30.61 recorded at the national level, whereas the mortality rate--6.9 deaths for 100,000 inhabitants, illustrates a positive situation, as compared to the 10.28 recorded at the national level (p < 0.01). The most frequent causes involved in traffic events were: pedestrians' carelessness, driving carelessness, inadequate speed, exceeding the legal speed limits, failing to give way, illegal passing. Due to the fact that traffic accidents are avoidable, descriptive epidemiology data may represent the starting point in taking preventive measures.

  18. Utilisation of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and birth outcomes in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in sub Saharan Africa and the extent of utilisation of malaria preventive measures may impact on the burden of malaria in pregnancy. This study sought to determine the association between malaria preventive measures utilized during pregnancy and the birth outcomes of birth weight and preterm delivery. Methods This cross sectional survey involved 800 mothers who delivered at the University College Hospital, and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan. Data obtained included obstetric information, gestational age, birth weight and self reported use of malaria prevention strategies in index pregnancy. Results Most (95.6%) mothers used one or more malaria control measures. The most commonly used vector control measures were window net (84.0%), insecticide spray (71.5%) and insecticide treated bed nets (20.1%), while chemoprophylactic agents were pyrimethamine (23.5%), Intermittent Preventive Treatments with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTsp) (18.5%) and intermittent chloroquine (9.5%) and 21.7% used herbal medications. The mean ± SD birthweight and gestational age of the babies were 3.02 kg ± 0.56 and 37.9 weeks ± 2.5 respectively. Preterm delivery rate was 19.4% and 9% had low birth weight. Comparing babies whose mothers had IPTsp with those who did not, mean birth weight was 3.13 kg ± 0.52 versus 3.0 kg ± 0.56 (p = 0.016) and mean gestational age was 38.5 weeks ± 2.1 versus 37.8 weeks ± 2.5 (p = 0.002). The non-use of IPTsp was associated with increased risk of having low birth weight babies (AOR: 2.27, 95% CI: 0.98; 5.28) and preterm birth (AOR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.44). The non use of herbal preparations (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.85) was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth. The mean ± SD birth weight and gestational ages of babies born to mothers who slept under ITNs were not significantly different from those who did not (p = 0.07 and 0.09 respectively). Conclusions There is a need for

  19. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  20. [Examination of Measures for Preventing Exposure in Nurses Who Handle Cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kaoru; Ono, Yuki; Suzuki, Yumi; Omori, Keiko; Matsuda, Mikiko; Sato, Hiroko; Omoto, Eijiro

    2015-12-01

    Health hazards due to long-term exposure to anticancer drugs have been reported among health care professionals. In Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, constant use of personal protective equipment(gloves and mask with face shield)is mandatory, but there is no clear description of the protective gown. To verify the exposure status of nurses while handling cyclophosphamide and the usefulness of a protective gown as a protective measure, urinary concentration of cyclophosphamide was measured for nurses who handled cyclophosphamide. No cyclophosphamide was detected in the urine samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide while wearing protective gowns or in the samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide without protective gowns. This finding suggests that gloves and a mask with a face shield are sufficient for preventing exposure to cyclophosphamide. However, considering that only experienced nurses were included as subjects in this study, we cannot conclude that a protective gown is unnecessary, because inexperienced nurses may be exposed to cyclophosphamide. Our study's findings may be one reference to examine measures for preventing exposure in nurses.

  1. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    PubMed

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient.

  2. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

  3. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  4. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  5. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent.

  7. Epidemiology of Accidents and Traumas in Qom Province in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Karami Joushin, Moharram; Saghafipour, Abedin; Noroozi, Mehdi; Soori, Hamid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background Accidents are the most important public health challenges in our society. To prevent the accidents, the identification of their epidemiological features seems necessary. Objectives This study was conducted to reveal the epidemiological features of accidents and their casualties in Qom province in 2010. Patients and Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted on 29426 injured people referred to Qom province hospitals in 2010. Information about place, time, type of accidents and traumas and demographic variables had been collected in a veteran hospital. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16) software, using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results The incidence of accidents was about 27/1000 per year. The incidences of traffic accidents, motorcycle accidents, violence, burns, poisoning and suicides were 3, 1.6, 1.2, 0.3, 0.8, 0.37 cases per 1000 people respectively. Strikes (65%) and falls (12%) were the main causes of traumas. Forty-six percent of all injuries had occurred in 16 - 30 years groups. Most frequent accidents were as follows: fall (97%) and strike (50%) in < 12, violence (46%) in 20 - 29, suicide (71%) in 15 - 29, poisoning (34%) and burns (20%) among < 5 years old. Pedestrian and motorcycle accidents among +60 years old people were significantly higher than other (P = 0.000). Odds ratio for suicide among female was about 3.36 and in 16 - 30 age-group was 15.7 more than +60 years old group (P = 0.000). Conclusions Most traumas in Qom province occurred among younger age-groups and strikes and falls are the main causes of such traumas. Therefore, safeties to prevent falls and traffic regulations to reduce strikes can be effective strategies. PMID:24693520

  8. Some features of traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, G. M.

    1969-01-01

    Some aspects of urban and rural traffic accidents have been studied at the scene of some accidents in Birmingham and the county of Worcestershire. Accidents to pedestrians are essentially an urban problem, occur mainly at low speed, and most of the serious injury comes from the initial contact with the vehicle, rather than from secondary impacts with the road surface. The characteristics of motor-cycle accidents are more varied; in urban areas there are many side impacts, with consequent injury to the lower limbs, while rural collisions are predominantly front on, with a high incidence of head injury. Accidents to car occupants vary according to the environment. PMID:5359948

  9. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

  10. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  11. Need for Better Blood Pressure Measurement in Developing Countries to Improve Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Perruolo, Eleonora; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is now the foremost cause of disability and is responsible for the highest percentage of attributable death among risk factors. These global changes are mainly due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a consequence of relevant socioeconomic changes occurring during the last decades. Implementation of global prevention efforts urgently needs to be accelerated because of the increasing incidence of haemorrhagic stroke, renal failure, and hypertensive heart disease in developing countries. Blood pressure (BP) measurement has different implications in epidemiological studies performed in low-resource settings. First, the frequency of blood pressure measurement is a simple but reliable indicator of access to healthcare in epidemiological studies, which may disclose the favourable effects of urbanization; the opportunity to have BP measured increases hypertension awareness, facilitates drug treatment, and leads to better achievement of BP control. Second, BP measurement is a key element in cardiovascular risk stratification, focusing solely on the preferred strategy in low-resource settings where costs of biochemical tests might be less sustainable. Third, the issue of obtaining reliable estimation of BP values is crucial to achieve sound data on the burden of hypertension in LMICs, and some aspects of BP measurement, such as the use of reliable automated devices, the number of measurements/visits to achieve a consistent diagnosis of hypertension, and the possible confounding effect of environmental factors, must be closely considered. PMID:25420484

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Dental Practitioners Pertaining to Preventive Measures in Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Amitkumar; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V; Panchakshari, Bharath Kashetty; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prevention at primary level is of great value in Paediatric Dentistry. Since use of preventive measures can prevent future complications, dental professionals share an important responsibility toward early screening, prompt referral and treatment and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. Aim To evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among dental practitioners in Bhopal city (central part of India) pertaining to sealants, topical fluorides usage and orthodontic consideration in paediatric patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 20-item self-administered, closed ended, structured questionnaire. A total of 200 available private dental practitioners of Bhopal city made up the sampling frame of study. Results Out of 200 practicing dentists, 147 participated with response rate of 73.5% in which 69.4% were males and 30.6% were females. A total of 83% dentists were less than 35 years of age, while 17% were equal to or more than 35 years of age. Qualification distribution revealed 67.3% dental graduate and 32.6% dental specialist. A highly significant difference in knowledge in relation to age was observed. The mean±SD were found for Knowledge as 8.46±1.82, Attitude as 2.65±0.780, and Practice as 1.66±1.57. Statistically significant correlations were found between attitude and practice (r=0.58, p<0.001). Conclusion Dentists in Bhopal city have vast knowledge towards preventive dentistry. The attitude is highly commendable but underutilized in practice, which needs to be improved. PMID:28209009

  13. Measures to prevent and reduce drug abuse among young people in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khant, U

    1985-01-01

    Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  15. Total costs of injury from accidents in the home and during education, sports and leisure activities: estimates for Norway with assessment of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Veisten, Knut; Nossum, Ase; Akhtar, Juned

    2009-07-01

    Injury accidents occurring in the home, during educational, sports or leisure activities were estimated from samples of hospital data, combined with fatality data from vital statistics. Uncertainty of estimated figures was assessed in simulation-based analysis. Total economic costs to society from injuries and fatalities due to such accidents were estimated at approximately NOK 150 billion per year. The estimated costs reveal the scale of the public health problem and lead to arguments for the establishment of a proper injury register for the identification of preventive measures to reduce the costs to society.

  16. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  17. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  18. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  19. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  20. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  1. [Prevention of melanoma by sun protective measures in childhood. Temporal changes in awareness of parents].

    PubMed

    Kölmel, K F; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O

    1997-06-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies on risk factors of malignant melanoma confirm the etiologic role of excessive UV-exposure especially in childhood. Preventive educational campaigns directed to parents of pre-school children have been inaugurated in several countries. In Germany the information was distributed by the "Working group for Preventive Measures in Dermatology" in cooperation with different public health institutions and the media starting in 1993. To evaluate the influence of these efforts on the knowledge and behaviour of the parents, two successive cross-sectional studies at all 56 nursery schools using the same standardised questionnaire were performed. The first interview took place in spring 1993 (before the campaign) with 1341 evaluable questionnaires', the second in fall 1994 (after the campaign) with 1150 evaluable questionnaire. The knowledge of the parents on melanoma risk factors was significantly improved in the second interview. Also the parental behavior regarding sun-protective measures when their children were outdoor at the beach or in the garden definitely changed. In 1993 the best textile sun protection was used by 21% of the parents at the beach and 36% in the garden. These numbers rose to 34% (beach) and 57% (garden) by the second interview. The percentage of children with no sunburn recorded during the preceding summer rose from 39% to 51%. According to the child's gender the parental behavior was different between the sexes; boys were always better protected than girls. The design of this study with two cross-sectional surveys in the same populations does not provide a methodologically sound basis for attributing the observed positive changes to the campaign. Without any doubt it can be stated that the parental knowledge and their attention to sun protection in their children showed substantial improvement in the second survey after the campaign. Thus, these results provide some evidence for the success of the preventive activities

  2. Potentially preventable events: an actionable set of measures for linking quality improvement and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Norbert; Kelly, William P; Patel, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Rising health care costs will result in reduced payments to providers, but across-the-board provider payment reductions are not the answer. Instead, existing payment systems should be reformed to strengthen value for the dollars spent. This can be accomplished by increasing efficiency, improving quality and outcomes, and lowering costs. Payment system reforms must be practical, transparent, identify opportunities for care improvement, and demonstrate material cost savings. Most importantly, because the current growth in health care costs is unsustainable, these reforms must be able to be implemented today. A set of comprehensive measures is being used by state government and private payers in the United States to adjust payment, based on improved outcomes quality. This article details the use of this set of measures, referred to as potentially preventable events, and demonstrates how they are being applied to achieve health care value.

  3. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system

    PubMed Central

    ICHIKAWA, Norimitsu

    2016-01-01

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body’s voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not. PMID:27319403

  4. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  5. Measurements of gamma (γ)-emitting radionuclides with a high-purity germanium detector: the methods and reliability of our environmental assessments on the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Komiyama, Chiyo; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The severe accident of Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant due to the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake in 11 March 2011 caused wide contamination and pollution by radionuclides in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. In the current JPR symposium, a group of plant scientists attempted to examine the impact of the radioactive contamination on wild and cultivated plants. Measurements of gamma (γ) radiation from radionuclides in "Fukushima samples", which we called and collected from natural and agricultural areas in Fukushima prefecture were mostly done with a high-purity Ge detector in the Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University. In this technical note, we describe the methods of sample preparation and measurements of radioactivity of the samples and discuss the reliability of our data in regards to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency test (IAEA proficiency test).

  6. Hang-gliding accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Margreiter, R; Lugger, L J

    1978-01-01

    Seventy-five known hang-gliding accidents causing injury to the pilot occurred in the Tyrol during 1973-6. Most occurred in May, June, or September and between 11 am and 3 pm, when unfavourable thermic conditions are most likely. Thirty-four accidents happened during launching, 13 during flight, and 28 during landing, and most were caused by human errors--especially deficient launching technique; incorrect estimation of wind conditions, altitude, and speed; and choice of unfavourable launching and landing sites. Eight pilots were moderately injured, 60 severely (multiply in 24 cases), and seven fatally; fractures of the spine and arms predominated. Six of the 21 skull injuries were fatal. The risk of hang-gliding seems unjustifiably high, and safety precautions and regulations should be adopted to ensure certain standards of training and equipment and to limit flying to favourable sites and times. Images p401-a PMID:624028

  7. Safety illusion and error trap in a collectively-operated machine accident.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Nobre, Hildeberto; do Amaral Dias, Maria Dionísia; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Workplace accidents involving machines are relevant for their magnitude and their impacts on worker health. Despite consolidated critical statements, explanation centered on errors of operators remains predominant with industry professionals, hampering preventive measures and the improvement of production-system reliability. Several initiatives were adopted by enforcement agencies in partnership with universities to stimulate production and diffusion of analysis methodologies with a systemic approach. Starting from one accident case that occurred with a worker who operated a brake-clutch type mechanical press, the article explores cognitive aspects and the existence of traps in the operation of this machine. It deals with a large-sized press that, despite being endowed with a light curtain in areas of access to the pressing zone, did not meet legal requirements. The safety devices gave rise to an illusion of safety, permitting activation of the machine when a worker was still found within the operational zone. Preventive interventions must stimulate the tailoring of systems to the characteristics of workers, minimizing the creation of traps and encouraging safety policies and practices that replace judgments of behaviors that participate in accidents by analyses of reasons that lead workers to act in that manner.

  8. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  9. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  10. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: participant experiences and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority.

  11. [The tropical traveling child: risks and prevention].

    PubMed

    Alcoba, G; Chappuis, F

    2015-05-06

    Children increasingly travel to the tropics. Compared with adults, the risks of severe malaria, dehydration due to diarrhea, and the number of infectious episodes, are higher. Paradoxically, children receive less pre-travel advice than adults, and some parents are opposed to vaccinations. The consultation must target essential prevention topics. We present the age-related schedules for immunizations against yellow and typhoid fevers, hepatitis A and B, tick-borne and Japanese encephalitis, and rabies. We discuss the preventive measures for malaria, accidents, altitude, and prescriptions for antimalarial drugs, rehydration solutions and standby antibiotics according to weight.

  12. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  13. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed.

  14. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  15. PERIPARTUM DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AS AN INTEGRATIVE CROSS DOMAIN TARGET FOR PSYCHIATRIC PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Jessica A.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Murgatroyd, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24709228

  16. Socioeconomic driving factors of nitrogen load from food consumption and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Fei, Jinling; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2014-09-01

    To diagnose environmental nitrogen (N) load from food consumption and to suggest preventive measures, this study identified relationships between nitrogen load from food consumption and driving factors by examining six representative countries and regions for the period 1970-2009 as an example. The logarithmic mean Divisia index technique was used to disassemble nitrogen load growth into four driving factors: population, economic activity, food intensity of the economy, and nitrogen content of food. In all study areas, increased economic activity was the main factor driving nitrogen load increase. The positive effect of population growth was relatively small but not negligible and changes in food intensity had a decreasing effect on nitrogen load. Changes in nitrogen content of food varied between areas. Broad strategies to reduce and mitigate nitrogen loading and decouple nitrogen load from economic growth in both developed and developing countries are suggested.

  17. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures

    PubMed Central

    Braich, Puneet S.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David RP.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread. PMID:26486112

  18. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  19. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  20. Incorporating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis measures into preventive interventions for adolescent depression: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Sutton, Jonathan M; Doane, Leah D; Mineka, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a robust correlate of major depression in adults, and to a lesser extent, in adolescents. Premorbid differences in HPA axis function have been found to prospectively predict the onset of adolescent depression. To what extent might our knowledge of HPA axis function in adolescents with, or at risk for, depression, help guide efforts to prevent depression in this age group? We review evidence regarding the role of the HPA axis in the development of adolescent depression, and examine whether and which HPA axis measures might be useful in guiding prevention efforts as (a) as a criterion by which to select youth at risk for depression, (b) as a predictor of which youth will be most responsive to prevention efforts, and (c) as an indicator of whether prevention/intervention efforts are working. We conclude that our current understanding of the HPA axis, and its measurement, in adolescent depression are not sufficiently precise to be of immediate practical use in improving prevention efforts. Incorporating HPA axis measures into prevention studies, however, would be immensely useful in clarifying the role of the HPA axis in adolescent depression, such that future prevention efforts might more confidently rely on HPA axis information.

  1. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-08

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  2. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  3. Accidents associated with equipment.

    PubMed

    Heath, M L

    1984-01-01

    Serious accidents in which the possibility of equipment-related hazards are raised have been reported to the Scientific and Technical Branch of the Department of Health and Social Security. The author has examined anonymous summaries of 23 such reports of events which occurred over a 5-year period. The principle cause of catastrophe in seventeen of the incidents was user error involving disconnexion or misconnexion. Faulty systems of equipment management combined in some cases with inadequate pre-anaesthetic checking of apparatus were responsible for the other instances. Appropriate systems of equipment management and checking together with meticulous basic clinical monitoring are recommended as the best safeguards in anaesthetic practice.

  4. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  5. On school violence in Korean middle school, prevention and reaction measures

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study is aiming to explore the practical and realistic measure in more variable way, which enables us to manage the problems about school violence we are currently facing as well as to overcome limitations in the current situation where we react only with punishments, mainly in the form of the law enforcement, supported by the police. This study was conducted on male and female students (n= 424) and teachers (n= 136) attending at the seven middle schools located in Seoul. The frequency analysis, one way ANOVA F-test, t -test, the multiple regression analysis were applied. Students recognize’ harmful environmental cleanup’ as an important variable or factor to reduce school violence. Also, both teachers and students are aware that ‘regular survey on school violence’ could reduce school violence. In conclusion, it is considered that as an effective and viable prevention measure against school violence, more attention and affection efforts need to be activated and addressed, on the part of home, school, and government, which will enable our young generations of students to be brought up, and take up the future of our country. PMID:25830143

  6. [Preventive measures for the control of fungal infections in the clinic].

    PubMed

    Seeliger, H P; Schröter, G

    1984-06-01

    Hospital acquired infections due to fungi are primarily caused by yeast species of the genus Candida and mould species of the genus Aspergillus. Underlying disease with severely impaired defence mechanisms as well as certain forms of immunosuppressive and aggressive chemotherapy are the most important prerequisites for such secondary fungal infections. Aspergillus spec. usually infect man via exogenous routes, whereas Candida spec. mostly originate from the patient's own microbial flora. Under certain circumstances invasion of tissues follows (endomycoses). Exogenous Candida infections may likewise occur through contaminated hands of personnel and medical devices. The density of yeast cell distribution in hospital wards decreases with the distance from the primary source: the Candida infected human patient. Preventive measures protecting the patient at risk include: Permanent surveillance by routine cultural and serological examinations for the detection of an early infection of the skin, mouth, oesophagus, urinary tract, vagina and the bowel. Monitoring of patients is essential for early detection of dissemination and contributes to the control of fungal decontamination measures. Selective local decontamination is effected by the use of nonabsorbable compounds such as nystatin and amphotericin B in the gastrointestinal tract, and in oral and genital mucous membranes. Oral administration of ketoconazole has also been recommended. For the disinfection of skin appropriate chemicals are available. In the control of the environment of the endangered patient special attention must be paid to meticulous management of catheters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Prevention of hand injuries - current situation in Europe].

    PubMed

    Leixnering, M; Quadlbauer, S; Szolarcz, C; Schenk, C; Leixnering, S; Körpert, K

    2013-12-01

    Hand injuries are a frequent occurrence and account for 41% of all occupational injuries. In general such accidents are the result of stress, inattention, tiredness, use of defective or poorly maintained machinery. However, artention must equally be directed at the large number of accidents occurring in leisure time activities since the inability to work due to a leisure time accident is similarly cost-intensive. Throughout Europe attempts have been made in the past 10 years to improve prevention. At the initiative of the Hand Trauma Committee (HTC) of FESSH prevention conferences were stated in 2009. These have in part reduced the number of hand injuries in -Europe. In Austria a special controlling committee was founded by the Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) with the specific objective of reducing the number of hand injuries. Similarly the "Circle for Leisure Time Hand Injury Prevention" was created to specifically deal with hand injuries occurring during leisure time activities. Through the cooperation of these 2 committees and implementation of the thus decided measures, a reduction in the number of accidents involving the hand is to be expected with a concomitant reduction in the associated costs.

  8. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1987-11-20

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  9. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China.

  10. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  11. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  12. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Vertebral fractures in motor vehicle accidents - a medical and technical analysis of 33,015 injured front-seat occupants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian W; Otte, Dietmar; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Panzica, Martin; Krettek, Christian; Brand, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Spinal injuries pose a considerable risk to life and quality of life. In spite of improvements in active and passive safety of motor vehicles, car accidents are regarded as a major cause for vertebral fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current incidence of vertebral fractures among front-seat occupants in motor vehicle accidents, and to identify specific risk factors for sustaining vertebral fractures in motor vehicle accidents. Data from an accident research unit were accessed to collect collision details, preclinical data, and clinical data. We included all data on front-seat occupants. Hospital records were retrieved, and radiological images were evaluated. We analysed 33,015 front-seat occupants involved in motor vehicle accidents over a 24-year period. We identified 126 subjects (0.38%) with cervical spine fractures, 78 (0.24%) with thoracic fractures, and 99 (0.30%) with lumbar fractures. The mean relative collision speeds were 48, 39, and 40 kph in subjects with cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine fractures, respectively, while it was 17.3 kph in the whole cohort. Contrary to the overall cohort, these patients typically sustained multiple hits rather than simple front collisions. Occupants with vertebral fractures frequently showed numerous concomitant injuries; for example, additional vertebral fractures. The incidence of vertebral fractures corresponded with collision speed. Safety belts were highly effective in the prevention of vertebral fractures. Apart from high speed, complex injury mechanisms as multiple collisions or rollovers were associated with vertebral fractures. Additional preventive measures should focus on these collision mechanisms.

  14. [Medication errors with concentrated potassium intravenous solutions: Data of the literature, context and prevention].

    PubMed

    Charpiat, B; Magdinier, C; Leboucher, G; Aubrun, F

    2016-01-01

    Accidental direct intravenous injection of a concentrated solution of potassium often leads to patient death. In France, recommendations of healthcare agencies to prevent such accidents cover only preparation and intravenous infusion conditions. Accidents continue to occur in French hospitals. These facts demonstrate that these recommendations are insufficient and ineffective to prevent such deaths, especially those occurring during a catheter flushing. This article reviews the measures able to reduce the number of accidents. Countries which removed concentrated ampoules from ward stocks observed a decrease of the number of accidental deaths. This withdrawal, recommended by the World Health Organization, is now part of standards in studies aimed at determining the safety of care in hospitals. However, removal alone is insufficient to eliminate the risk. The combination with other measures should be considered. These measures are the provision of a combination of diluted intravenous ready to use solutions, the promotion of the oral route with tablets and oral solutions for potassium replenishment and to make available products with safeguards to prevent single shot intravenous injection. Studies aimed at determining the consequences on preventing concentrated potassium accidents of a widespread distribution of isotonic sodium chloride pre-filled ready-to-use syringes for catheter flushing should be performed.

  15. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  16. Weather types and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Klaić, Z B

    2001-06-01

    Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents.

  17. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  18. [Insurance and preventive medicine].

    PubMed

    Delachaux, A; Stark, E W; von Schroeder, F

    1978-12-01

    Not only do insurance companies have to pay in case of death, injuries or disease, they are also concerned with their prevention. This is particularly true for the "Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund" (Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents--(CNA): for them the prevention of work related accidents and occupational diseases is required by law. Preventive activities in this area are very promising. The progress in the sickness insurance programmes for preventive medicine in the general population has, however, not been as successful. To date, the legislation denies payment for preventive medical care. Why is there this difference? In the case of accidents and occupational diseases, the cause of the pathologies are for the most part exogenous and develop in well known and controlled environments. In the case of disease or invalidity in the general population, the factors are in a large part endogenous and therefore very difficult to supervise, as they develop in much more complex and uncontrolled environments. Nevertheless progress has been done in this field as well. At present, some selected scientifically proven preventive examinations could be included in insurance programmes as part of a general plan and with strict quality control of laboratory findings.

  19. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  20. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  1. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  2. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents.

  3. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.

    2014-10-01

    Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

  4. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended.

  5. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  6. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  7. Simulation of a beyond design-basis-accident with RELAP5/MOD3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses, parametric and sensitivity studies, performed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 computer code for the 4th IAEA Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). The test, conducted on the PMK-2 facility in Budapest, involved simulation of a Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440 type pressurized water reactor. According to the scenario, the unavailability of the high pressure injection system led to a beyond design basis accident. For prevention of core damage, secondary side bleed-and-feed accident management measures were applied. A brief description of the PMK-2 integral type test facility is presented, together with the profile and some key phenomenological aspects of this particular experiment. Emphasis is placed on the ability of the code to predict the main trends observed in the test and thus, an assessment is given for the code capabilities to represent the system transient.

  8. UF6 overfilling prevention at Eurodif production Georges Besse plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reneaud, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    Risk of overfilling exists on different equipments of Georges BESSE Plant: cylinders, desublimers and intermediate tanks. The preventive measures are composed of technical devices: desublimers weighing, load monitoring alarms, automatic controls ... and procedures, training, safety organization. In thirteen years of operation, some incidents have occurred but none of them has caused any personal injuries. They are related and discussed. The main factors involved in the Sequoyah fuel facility accident on 1/4/1986 have been analyzed and taken into account.

  9. [Minor and major work accidents in a Puglia business in the food sector: a 10-year study].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L; Zocchetti, C; Platania, A; De Francesco, G; De Metrio, R; Pirris, A; Gigante, M R

    1998-01-01

    with injuries notified to INAIL ("major" accidents), mostly involved upper limbs; "franchises" were mostly head interested. About 50% of all causes of occupational accidents were mainly associated with unsafe environmental and working situations, whereas the remaining 50% were mainly associated with unsafe behaviour by workers. Heavy smokers showed a higher frequency of "major" accidents. As alcohol consumption rose, she did number of accidents with absence from work. "Minor" accidents, particularly the "medicated" ones, represented the greatest part of occupational injuries. All the considered causes and circumstances contributed to determine the different kinds of accidents. Thereby, it appears necessary for prevention purposes to obtain information about any kind of injury in the different manufacturing sectors. Finally, it seems dutiful to inform workers about the relationships between life habits and occupational accidents.

  10. The five-factor model and driving behavior: personality and involvement in vehicular accidents.

    PubMed

    Cellar, D F; Nelson, Z C; Yorke, C M

    2000-04-01

    Participants completed both the NEO-PI-R personality measure and measures of prior involvement in driving accidents. Significant negative correlations were found between the factor of Agreeableness and the total number of driving tickets received as well as the sum of combined at-fault accidents, not-at-fault accidents, and driving tickets received by participants. Implications and potential future directions for research are discussed.

  11. [Validation of a measurement scale: example of a French Adverse Drug Reactions Preventability Scale].

    PubMed

    Olivier, Pascale; Caron, Jacques; Haramburu, Françoise; Imbs, Jean-Louis; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Lagier, Georges; Sgro, Catherine; Vial, Thierry; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyr-Mestre, Maryse

    2005-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been recognised as an important cause of hospital admission. Most of these drug-related admissions were expected ADRs and, thus, partly preventable. However, as far as we know, the assessment of the preventability of ADRs was addressed in only two studies performed in France. In contrast, several other studies have been performed, mainly in the USA, and using different methods of assessing preventability. None of these methods were clearly evaluated with regard to reproducibility, validity or relevance. The purpose of this study was to initiate the validation of a French preventability scale. Here, we propose the first two phases of validation: the content validity and reliability of the scale. A working group of pharmacovigilance experts has been specifically established for this purpose. The content validity was assessed by collecting items representative of preventability. The choice and the formulation of items and a proposal of a score (global and for each item) were adopted after the consensus of the experts. A definitive version of the ADR preventability scale was used for the assessment of reliability. During the second phase, experts independently tested the new scale from observations of ADRs (49 central nervous system haemorrhages with antivitamine K). The concordance of the experts' judgements was calculated using two statistical methods (Kappa statistic and correlation coefficient). The content validity phase was performed during several workshops where experts discussed the choice and formulation of the best items. We decided to construct a scale with a small number of items, allowing a rapid evaluation of the preventability of ADRs. On the basis of a global score, four categories of preventability of ADRs ("preventable", "potentially preventable", "unclassable", "not preventable" ADRs) were proposed. The agreement of experts regarding the global score was low, with a poor correlation coefficient value (coefficient

  12. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

    2013-04-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted.

  13. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  14. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  15. A review of criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii- measures and proposal for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro; Jesus, Lenize Adriana de; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Lima, Stella Sala Soares; Rezende, Edna Maria; Coutinho, Rosane Luiza; Moreira, Ricardo Luiz Fontes; Neves, Francelli Aparecida Cordeiro; Brás, Nelma de Jesus

    2009-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  17. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  18. Industrial accidents triggered by flood events: analysis of past accidents.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Valerio; Campedel, Michela; Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2010-03-15

    Industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NaTech accidents) are a significant category of industrial accidents. Several specific elements that characterize NaTech events still need to be investigated. In particular, the damage mode of equipment and the specific final scenarios that may take place in NaTech accidents are key elements for the assessment of hazard and risk due to these events. In the present study, data on 272 NaTech events triggered by floods were retrieved from some of the major industrial accident databases. Data on final scenarios highlighted the presence of specific events, as those due to substances reacting with water, and the importance of scenarios involving consequences for the environment. This is mainly due to the contamination of floodwater with the hazardous substances released. The analysis of process equipment damage modes allowed the identification of the expected release extents due to different water impact types during floods. The results obtained were used to generate substance-specific event trees for the quantitative assessment of the consequences of accidents triggered by floods.

  19. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis.

  20. A model of genetic guidance for hemoglobinopathy patients and laboratory diagnosis of family members as educational and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tatiana Dela-Sávia; Freire, Adriana Sousa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; García-Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. Objetive: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. Methods: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. Results: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies(2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. Conclusion: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services. PMID:23125541

  1. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  3. "MARK I" MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS OCCURRING AS A RESULT OF PRODUCT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for assessing progress in pollution prevention resulting from product redesign, reformulation or replacement is described. The method compares the pollution generated by the original product with that from the modified or replacement product, taking into account, if...

  4. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J.; Reyner, L.

    1999-01-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Possible pathological causes of driver sleepiness are discussed, but there is little evidence that this factor contributes greatly to the accident statistics. Sleep does not occur spontaneously without warning. Drivers falling asleep are unlikely to recollect having done so, but will be aware of the precursory state of increasing sleepiness; probably reaching a state of fighting off sleep before an accident. Self awareness of sleepiness is a better method for alerting the driver than automatic sleepiness detectors in the vehicle. None of these have been proved to be reliable and most have shortcomings. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe counter measure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and--for example, take a 30 minute break encompassing a short (< 15 minute) nap or coffee (about 150 mg caffeine), which are very effective particularly if taken together. Exercise is of little use. CONCLUSIONS: More education of employers and employees is needed about planning journeys, the dangers of driving while sleepy, and driving at vulnerable times of the day.   PMID:10472301

  5. The generation of aerosols by accidents which may occur during plant-scale production of micro-organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, J.; Pomeroy, N. P.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to simulate accidents which may occur during large-scale production of micro-organisms. Four types of accident, which were considered to be the most likely to result in the greatest hazard to health, were simulated using a bacterial model. The accidents were all concerned with faults occurring in the operation of the microbial fermenter. Gross contamination of surfaces occurred in all experiments, but only three types of accident produced a measurable aerosol. PMID:6350448

  6. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  7. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified...

  8. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  9. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  10. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 must, as soon...

  11. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified...

  12. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  13. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  14. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  15. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  16. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  17. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 must, as soon...

  18. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  19. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... probably be the first to be informed of the accident, in which event he will be expected to report...

  20. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...