Science.gov

Sample records for accident prevention measures

  1. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  2. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  3. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    PubMed Central

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  4. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  5. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  6. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    PubMed

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. PMID:25939134

  7. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I

    2005-07-01

    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets). PMID:15892934

  8. Accident Prevention in the Cowshed*

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, W.

    1966-01-01

    Work accidents were studied at two agricultural settlements in the Haifa area. Most of the accidents were caused by farm animals, particularly by cattle, a fact which is in agreement with a general statistical survey conducted by the Department for Occupational Health of the General Federation of Labour in Israel. However, in the present investigation it was found that the accident rate in cowsheds was more than 10 times higher among the members of a co-operative smallholders' village (Moshav Ovdim) than it was at a collective settlement (Moshav Shetufi) of the same numerical size. Searching for the basic factors involved, it was discovered that the main reason for this striking difference in accident frequency was the faulty design of the small cowshed at the individual farms of the co-operative settlement, which, lacking adequate protective measures, exposes the farmer to close contact with the animals throughout almost all stages of dealing with them. It is concluded that accidents from handling cattle can be prevented by adhering strictly to the principle of eliminating direct contact between man and animals in the construction of the cowshed and its annexes. Images PMID:5948271

  9. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  10. Review of aviation safety measures which have application to aviation accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Doughtery, J D

    1975-01-01

    Introduction of certain human-factors techniques has been followed by market reduction in military and airline accident rates. In this study, these safety measures are analyzed to determine the value of their application to general aviation activity. Some techniques are already in use. They are: 1. medical evaluation of iarcrews; 2. aeronautical innovations which tailor the machine to the man; 3. imporvement of precision navigational air traffic control and flight procedures; 4. standardization of flight training and flight procedures. A remaining field of interest, and one which appears to be underused, is that of supervision. After ending his association with the flight instructor, the general aviation pilot is essentially unsupervised. Accident data gathered over several years show that with increases in the proportion of pilots who have not maintained an association with a flight instructor, the general aviation fatal accident rate is increased. Current regulations, which require revalidation of airman's certificates, provide a method by which this association can be maintained. The flight instructor, or some similar aviation professional, can maintain an element of supervision with otherwise independent general aviation pilots. Data from previous years supports the hypothesis that such a program would make a substantial improvement in general aviation safety. PMID:1115703

  11. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  12. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention,...

  13. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  14. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  15. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  16. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  17. The three essentials for accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Crystal

    2014-11-01

    This article was written by Crystal Eastman when she was Secretary of the New York Commission on Employers' Liability and Causes of Industrial Accidents, Unemployment, and Lack of Farm Labor. It was published in July of 1911, in Volume 38, Number 1 of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pages 98-107. The issue title was "Risks in Modern Industry." Eastman calls for the prevention of workplace accidents through three essentials: injury surveillance/reporting (with annual public reporting of the data); government enforcement of accident prevention laws, via departments with well-paid and well-trained officials and inspectors, fines that are high enough to be a deterrence to employers, and the power to have police shut down a factory if preventive measures are not installed; and a workers' compensation system-"a system of liability by which an employer can reduce his accident costs, not by hiring a more unscrupulous attorney and a more hard-hearted claim agent, but only by reducing his accidents." PMID:25261022

  18. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  19. On Motor Vehicle Accidents and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents, a modern epidemic, cause sudden unexpected loss and personal disasters. They challenge the physician in many ways but the ultimate challenge is how to prevent them. A rational approach requires good data and analysis together with realistic practical measures aimed at minimizing high risk situations. Physicians can contribute in many ways towards better public awareness of the problem and how to solve it. PMID:21289690

  20. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  1. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... has any questions regarding construction safety issues. ... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... when awarding construction contracts. The contracting officer shall confer with OBO/OM/SHEM if...

  2. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  3. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  4. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  5. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention... the Secretary of Labor at 29 CFR part 1926 and 29 CFR part 1910; and (3) Ensure that any...

  6. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  7. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  8. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor at 29 CFR part 1926 and 29 CFR part 1910; and (3) Ensure that any additional... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  9. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  10. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    , insufficient attention was paid to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region, i.e., AD 869 Jogan and 1677 Empo Boso-oki tsunamis, and the 1896 Sanriku tsunami maximum height in eastern Japan whose maximum runup was 38m. Two, the design safety conditions were different in Onagawa, Fukushima and Tokai NPPs. It is inconceivable to have had different earthquake scenarios for the NPPs at such close distance from each other. Three, studying the sub-standard TEPCO analysis performed only months before the accident shows that it is not the accuracy of numerical computations or the veracity of the computational model that doomed the NPP, but the lack of familiarity with the context of numerical predictions. Inundation projections, even if correct for one particular scenario, need to always be put in context of similar studies and events elsewhere. To put it in colloquial terms, following a recipe from a great cookbook and having great cookware does not always result in great food, if the cook is an amateur. The Fukushima accident was preventable. Had the plant's owner TEPCO and NISA followed international best practices and standards, they would had predicted the possibility of the plant being struck by the size of tsunami that materialized in 2011. If the EDGs had been relocated inland or higher, there would have been no loss of power. A clear chance to have reduced the impact of the tsunami at Fukushima was lost after the 2010 Chilean tsunami. Standards are not only needed for evaluating the vulnerability of NPPs against tsunami attack, but also for evaluating the competence of modelers and evaluators. Acknowledgment: This work is partially supported by the project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe) FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839 to the Technical University of Crete and the Middle East Technical University.

  11. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  12. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to the requirements set forth at 29 CFR 1910.145 of this chapter. ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Signs, Signals, and Barricades § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to the requirements set forth at 29 CFR 1910.145 of this chapter. ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to the requirements set forth at 29 CFR 1910.145 of this chapter. ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section...

  17. 77 FR 56645 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Department of Defense... reinstatement of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Accident Prevention Plans... 9000- 0060, Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping by any of the following methods:...

  18. Investigations on optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident in a VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tusheva, P.; Schaefer, F.; Kliem, S.

    2012-07-01

    The reactor safety issues are of primary importance for preserving the health of the population and ensuring no release of radioactivity and fission products into the environment. A part of the nuclear research focuses on improvement of the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Studies, research and efforts are a continuing process at improving the safety and reliability of existing and newly developed nuclear power plants at prevention of a core melt accident. Station blackout (loss of AC power supply) is one of the dominant accidents taken into consideration at performing accident analysis. In case of multiple failures of safety systems it leads to a severe accident. To prevent an accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences, accident management measures must be performed. The present paper outlines possibilities for application and optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident. Assessed is the behaviour of the nuclear power plant during a station blackout accident without accident management measures and with application of primary/secondary side oriented accident management measures. Discussed are the possibilities for operators ' intervention and the influence of the performed accident management measures on the course of the accident. Special attention has been paid to the effectiveness of the passive feeding and physical phenomena having an influence on the system behaviour. The performed simulations show that the effectiveness of the secondary side feeding procedure can be limited due to an early evaporation or flashing effects in the feed water system. The analyzed cases show that the effectiveness of the accident management measures strongly depends on the initiation criteria applied for depressurization of the reactor coolant system. (authors)

  19. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  20. MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop, "Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress," was held in Salem, MA, March 31 - April 2, 1993. he purpose of this workshop was to present the latest significant research and practical findings related to pollution prevention measurement from ongoing and recently comple...

  1. Theoretical Perspectives on Fishing Vessel Accidents and Their Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    Fishing vessel accidents occur because of complex interactions of human, technical, and environmental factors. Although they usually occur because of human actions, thoughts, or behavior, investigators and prevention educators are preoccupied with technical matters and equipment. Equipment, machinery, weather, and other objective facts are…

  2. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652.236-70 Section 652.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS...; (iii) Trenching or other excavation greater than one (1) meter in depth; (iv) Earth moving...

  3. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652.236-70 Section 652.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS...; (iii) Trenching or other excavation greater than one (1) meter in depth; (iv) Earth moving...

  4. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652.236-70 Section 652.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS...; (iii) Trenching or other excavation greater than one (1) meter in depth; (iv) Earth moving...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the Millennium... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Signs, Signals, and...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the Millennium... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Signs, Signals, and...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the Millennium... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Signs, Signals, and...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the Millennium... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Signs, Signals, and...

  9. The Epidemiology and Prevention of Traffic Accidents Involving Child Pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Read, John H.; Bradley, Eleanor J.; Morison, Joan D.; Lewall, David; Clarke, David A.

    1963-01-01

    A study of 713 motor vehicle accidents involving 749 children in the city of Vancouver is reported. A control group of 110 children who did not have accidents was included in the concurrent study. Factors investigated were the driver, the vehicle, the weather, the time of day, the day of week, the month, the width of roadway, the location of the accident, the child's age, sex, personality, school record, and family background, the type of injury, and the ambulance and hospital service received. Boys were more commonly involved than girls, and most accidents occurred in the 3 to 7 year age group. Head injuries prevailed in the younger age groups and decreased steadily with the age of the child. Specific epidemic areas in the city were identified and selective enforcement was suggested as a possible countermeasure. Hospital records seldom provided a detailed history of the events leading up to the accident. In order to apply the preventive techniques of education and enforcement it was suggested that in each pedestrian traffic accident the driver should be required to accompany the victim to the site of medical care. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:14055829

  10. [Motivation of the employer for accident prevention and rehabilitation through risk-justified premiums].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A L; Merz, R

    1989-01-01

    The Swiss workers' compensation law prescribes experience rating. Successful efforts of an employer to reduce the risk of accidents through adequate preventive measures on one hand, and on the other hand to keep subsequent costs of still occurring accidents low with quick, consistent and generous measures of rehabilitation, will therefore result in a lower insurance rate. The motivating influence and success of this self-responsibility is pointed out with the figures of a trading company who had been detached from a large risk-community due to bad results. The success with accident prevention and the very favourable ratio achievable of costs for medical treatment (as a measure for the severity of the injuries) to daily payments and costs for permanent disabilities is shown with the example of a construction machinery company. What relations and consecutive costs result from (partly conscious) neglect of rehabilitation is demonstrated with the figures of a construction company. PMID:2532438

  11. Theoretical Perspectives on Learning for the Prevention of Fishing Vessel Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical model for accident prevention education that includes four paradigms: humanism, radical humanism, functionalism, and radical functionalism. Applies the model to fishing boat accidents and derives implications for changing the content and processes of prevention education. (SK)

  12. The Maurice Ellis lecture for 1986. The responsibility of emergency medicine towards the prevention of road accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, W H

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that doctors who work in accident and emergency departments should play their part in road accident prevention. It is suggested that this might be done in the field of research, by direct action, through education of the public and by influencing legislation. Examples are given of both small and simple, and major national research projects based in accident and emergency departments. The type of direct action envisaged is modelled on the work of Dr Hayle Hadeson in preventing accidents to children. Examples of the education of the public are drawn from publicity work in the seat-belt campaign, and experiences of lobbying members of parliament in relation to seat-belt legislation are described. The relative under-funding of trauma research compared with cancer of heart disease research is seen as a measure of society's lack of interest in accident prevention, and colleagues unchallenged to do more to alter this situation. PMID:3768120

  13. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  14. Handle Yourself with Care: An Instructor's Guide for an Accident Prevention Course for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dorothea J.; Winsor, Richard J.

    Accidents are the first cause of crippling and, many times, of death, among older people. To help reduce the possibility of accidents among older people, the Administration on Aging and the National Safety Council have joined in preparing this booklet--a course of instruction in safety and accident prevention for Older Americans. It spells out…

  15. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  16. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 2. Accident Prevention for Faculty and Administrators, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…

  17. Application of Electronic Business in Safe Accident Prevention and Control on Coalface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guozhi; Tang, Jianquan; Yao, Chunhui; Yang, Lei

    In this paper, by analyzing the coal mine safety accident of present stage, the author has come to a conclusion that the safe accidents on coalface accounting for a lot of coal mine safety accident, and has brought forward the cause leading to this phenomenon. Then, through the discussion about "Overlying Strata Movement Law", this author has suggested that Electronic Business can be used for the coal mine to prevent and control safe accident on coalface, and has given out the operating pattern of Electronic Business innovatively. This conclusions are most instructive to Chinese coal mine in managing safe accident on coalface and innovative for application of Electronic Business in coal mine safety.

  18. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  19. [Accident cause masculinity?--Gender-related issues of accident victims between prevention and coping in Kaiserreich and Weimarer Republik].

    PubMed

    Knoll-Jung, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Occupational accidents in industrial workplaces are a specific health problem for man. Therefore it seems adequate to use masculinities as a category of research in this field. For the Kaiserreich and the Weimarer Republik it shows that male workers relating to their danger awareness and behavior, prevention, accident causes and coping strategies are settled in an area of conflict between a hard workplace environment and the family. On the basis of health practices of the accident victims it appears that there are different forms of labor masculinities. They have an important influence on all levels of an occupational accident from the endangerment to the success of the treatment. Through a critical use of the category academic void can be shown and alternative explanatory models can be offered. PMID:26219189

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.360 - What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant agencies? 102-74.360 Section 102-74.360 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.360 What are the specific accident and fire prevention responsibilities of occupant...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply? 102-80.80 Section 102-80.80 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-80.80 With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?...

  8. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

  9. Recommendations for Injury Prevention in Transport Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grierson, Anita E.; Jones, Lisa E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, a national objective was established to reduce the rate of fatal accidents in aviation. To assist in determining the best methods for improving aircraft crash survivability, a combined approach was used involving database research and the examination of case studies of transport aviation accidents. The results of the study include recommendations for maintaining occupiable space, enhancing occupant restraint, managing energy transferred to the occupant, improving egress, and increasing post-crash survival.

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To the maximum extent feasible, Federal agencies must manage facilities in accordance with the accident and...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To the maximum extent feasible, Federal agencies must manage facilities in accordance with the accident and...

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To the maximum extent feasible, Federal agencies must manage facilities in accordance with the accident and...

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To the maximum extent feasible, Federal agencies must manage facilities in accordance with the accident and...

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.355 - With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Accident and Fire Prevention § 102-74.355 With what accident and fire prevention standards must Federal facilities comply? To the maximum extent feasible, Federal agencies must manage facilities in accordance with the accident and...

  15. Punishment as a factor in preventing alcohol-related accidents.

    PubMed

    Ross, H L

    1993-07-01

    As a humanitarian and economic 'bad', infliction of punishment requires justification in terms of compensating achievements, as well as moral appropriateness. In the context of road accidents, there is evidence that increasing the certainty and swiftness of threatened punishment may deter risky behavior, although increasing the severity of the threat seems ineffective. These effects may be generalizable to other kinds of accidents, but empirical evidence is lacking. A further possibility for the justifiable use of punishment is in its application to negligent service of alcohol. PMID:8358271

  16. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  17. Improvement of relief algorithm to prevent inpatient's downfall accident with night-vision CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miwa, Masafumi; Nukumi, Shinobu; Mori, Kumiko; Kuinose, Yuko; Maeda, Etuko; Miura, Hirokazu; Taki, Hirokazu; Hori, Satoshi; Abe, Norihiro

    2005-12-01

    "ROSAI" hospital, Wakayama City in Japan, reported that inpatient's bed-downfall is one of the most serious accidents in hospital at night. Many inpatients have been having serious damages from downfall accidents from a bed. To prevent accidents, the hospital tested several sensors in a sickroom to send warning-signal of inpatient's downfall accidents to a nurse. However, it sent too much inadequate wrong warning about inpatients' sleeping situation. To send a nurse useful information, precise automatic detection for an inpatient's sleeping situation is necessary. In this paper, we focus on a clustering-algorithm which evaluates inpatient's situation from multiple angles by several kinds of sensor including night-vision CCD camera. This paper indicates new relief algorithm to improve the weakness about exceptional cases.

  18. 3W approach to the investigation, analysis, and prevention of human-error aircraft accidents.

    PubMed

    Ricketson, D S; Brown, W R; Graham, K N

    1980-09-01

    Human error is the largest cause of U.S. Army aircraft accidents. An approach to this problem is presented which is based on a model of the human-error accident. This 3W approach identifies what task error (TE) caused or contributed to the accident, what inadequacy (I) in the aviation system caused or allowed the TE to occur, and what remedial measure (R) is required to correct the I. There were 82 human-error accidents analyzed to identify TEIR information. Statistically important is were identified which could be remedied based on accident costs. Then, potentially cost-effective remedial actions were ranked on a cost-benefit totem pole. The totem pole was given to the aviation system manager as a management tool to assist in determining priorities for corrective actions. PMID:7417175

  19. A Program of Education in Accident Prevention, with Methods and Results. Bulletin, 1922, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, E. George

    1922-01-01

    No movement in education in recent years has taken hold of the imagination and emotions of the American business man more effectively than education in accident prevention. This appeal to the business man is perhaps due more than anything else to the fact that when the educator begins to talk of education in terms of saving human lives he is using…

  20. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  1. 77 FR 74662 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Accident Prevention Plans and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... and Recordkeeping. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 56645 on September 13, 2012... Burden The estimated reporting burden has been adjusted since published in the Federal Register at 74 FR... NE., Washington, DC 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0060, Accident Prevention Plans...

  2. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 1. Accident Prevention for College and University Students, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…

  3. Prevention of high-dose-rate brachytherapy accidents. ICRP Publication 97.

    PubMed

    Valentin, J

    2005-01-01

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy is a rapidly growing technique (HDR) that has been replacing low-dose-rate (LDR) procedures over the last few years in both industrialised and developing countries. It is estimated that about 500,000 procedures (administration of treatment) are performed by HDR units annually. LDR equipment has been discontinued by many manufacturers over the last few years, leaving HDR brachytherapy as the major alternative. HDR brachytherapy techniques deliver a very high dose, of the order of 1.6-5.0 Gy/min, so mistakes can lead to under- or overdosage with the potential for clinical adverse effects. More than 500 HDR accidents (including one death) have been reported along the entire chain of procedures from source packing to delivery of dose. Human error has been the prime cause of radiation events. In the present report, the International Commission on Radiological Protection concludes that many accidents could have been prevented if staff had had functional monitoring equipment and paid attention to the results. Since iridium has relatively short half-life, the HDR sources need to be replaced approximately every 4 months. Over 10,000 HDR sources are transported annually, with the resultant potential for accidents; therefore, appropriate procedures and regulations must be observed. A number of specific recommendations on procedures and equipment are given in this report. The need for an emergency plan and for practising emergency procedures is stressed. The possibility of loss or theft of sources must be kept in mind. A collaborating team of specifically trained personnel following quality assurance (QA) procedures is necessary to prevent accidents. Maintenance is indispensable component of QA; external audits of procedures re-enforce good and safe practice, and identify potential causes of accidents. QA should include peer review of cases. Accidents and incidents should be reported and the lessons learned should be shared with other users to

  4. The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (p<0.05). After the educational intervention, there seemed to be a significant difference with the questions regarding the knowledge on preventing fall (p=0.000), drowning (p=0.000), and intoxication (p=0.007). The authors concluded that the educational intervention performed in this study increased the subjects’ knowledge on prevention of accidents in childhood. PMID:27583061

  5. The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (p<0.05). After the educational intervention, there seemed to be a significant difference with the questions regarding the knowledge on preventing fall (p=0.000), drowning (p=0.000), and intoxication (p=0.007). The authors concluded that the educational intervention performed in this study increased the subjects' knowledge on prevention of accidents in childhood. PMID:27583061

  6. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  7. [Examination of the Prevention of Severe Hand Trauma Injury Cases due to Occupational Accidents--An Expert Opinion Gathering Meeting].

    PubMed

    Zenke, Yukichi; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Nakao, Toyoki; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Shoji, Takurou; Fukumoto, Keizo; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    We gathered seven specialists from various fields who are interested in worker injury prevention programs, based on cases of patients who had suffered refractory injuries requiring hand surgery because of industrial accidents. The patients were asked to write their thoughts and ideas on the theme, "Measures that must be implemented to prevent arm injuries." The content obtained was classified into different categories, using the KJ method, and was scripted to sort out the items. As a result, the following eleven points were identified as measures to prevent serious hand surgery-related injuries: 1. Purchase safe machinery, 2. Create a list of machines that require caution, 3. Enclose a machine's various rotating parts, 4. Carry out periodic maintenance work on the machines, 5. Indicate dangerous areas by putting up signs that attract attention, 6. Illuminate the rotating parts more brightly and avoid placing objects around them, 7. Systematically carry out safety education that creates a strong impact, 8. Encourage workers to look after their own health, 9. Announce policies on health and safety, 10. Re-examine the operational procedures, and 11. Be prepared in case an accident occurs. A perspective based on the results of this research is deemed important in creating a workplace improvement manual in the future. PMID:26667199

  8. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. PMID:22664682

  9. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    PubMed Central

    P, Gokulakrishnan; P, Ganeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU’s coverage area or outside RSU’s coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  10. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    PubMed

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  11. Explosions of ammonium nitrate fertilizer in storage or transportation are preventable accidents.

    PubMed

    Babrauskas, Vytenis

    2016-03-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a detonable substance which has led to numerous disasters throughout the 20th century and until the present day, with the latest disaster occurring on 17 April 2013. Needed safety lesson have not been learned, since typically each accident was viewed as a great surprise and investigations focused on finding some unique reason for the accident, rather than examining what is common among the accidents. A review is made of accidents which involved AN for fertilizer purposes, and excluding incidents involving ANFO or additional explosives apart from AN. It is found that, for explosions in storage or transportation, 100% of these disasters had a single causative factor-an uncontrollable fire. Thus, such disasters can be eliminated by eliminating the potential for uncontrolled fire. Two actions are required to achieve this: (1) adoption of fertilizer formulations which reduce the potential for uncontrolled fire and for detonation; and (2) adoption of building safety measures which provide assurance against uncontrolled fires. Technical means are available for achieving both these required measures. These measures have been known for a long time and the only reason that disasters continue to occur is that these safety measures are not implemented. The problem can be solved unilaterally by product manufacturers or by government authorities, but preferably both should take necessary steps. PMID:26547622

  12. Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, K. Gus (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Second NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Annual Project Review held June 5-7, 2001, in Cleveland, Ohio, presented the NASA technical plans and accomplishments to the aviation community. NASA-developed technologies presented included an Aviation Weather Information System with associated digital communications links, electronic atmospheric reporting technologies, forward-looking turbulence warning systems, and turbulence mitigation procedures. The meeting provided feedback and insight from the aviation community of diverse backgrounds and assisted NASA in steering its plans in the direction needed to meet the national safety goal of 80-percent reduction of aircraft accidents by 2007. The proceedings of the review are enclosed.

  13. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective. PMID:23099767

  14. Rapid demountable platform (RDP)--a device for preventing fall from height accidents.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Esther; Chan, Albert P C

    2012-09-01

    The prevention of fall from height accidents has long been a popular topic in the field of construction safety. Previous research has indicated one of the potential hazards was induced by the use of steel bracket as scaffold support. While researchers are focusing to improve the existing scaffolding system, this research introduces a newly developed device to minimize fall accidents. The working platform, namely Rapid Demountable Platform (RDP) can be applied across window frames without fixing anchor bolts. Emphasizing on the rapid installation/dismantling, the RDP provides another safer option for working at height. The development of the RDP has incorporated modular concept and aesthetic factor into the design, achieving a more user-friendly platform. Although the RDP is not intended to totally replace the traditional bamboo truss-out scaffold, it is designed to act as an alternative or a supplement to the existing bamboo truss-out scaffold. The RDP is the first of this kind to minimize fall from height accidents especially in cities similar to Hong Kong where external working at height is frequently encountered. PMID:22664686

  15. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Measurement tools needed for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.S. )

    1994-03-01

    Pollution prevention concepts are gathering momentum, and will impact manufacturing and the commercial environmental industry significantly. Management tools that accurately measure, document and prioritize pollution prevention programs are critically needed at the corporate and national levels. Numerous environmental information management systems are available to catalog and track waste flows. However, companies also need to measure the effectiveness of waste minimization programs. An accurate way to measure and document progress would allow companies to prioritize programs with the greatest impact and display environmental progress to the public. Few proprietary software programs interface environmental data with financial and productivity databases to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention programs.

  17. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  18. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places. PMID:23631250

  19. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (<2.5 m) and warn the truck driver acoustically. Bicycle lanes should be planned for one direction only, separated from the pedestrian way and large enough (2.0 m are safer than 1.6 m). Traffic education for school beginners and younger children should be repeated to be effective. Training for elderly bicyclists in cities with heavy traffic would also be reasonable. Active security systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers. PMID:22159502

  20. Traffic accident and emission reduction through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and emission characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the reduction of traffic accidents and CO emissions is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ < 0.8, the probability of traffic accidents is much higher; and CO emissions increase significantly when ρ < 0.2. After an intermittent release measure is applied, the probability of traffic accidents and level of CO emissions become reasonable. Obviously, the measure can enhance traffic safety and reduce emissions.

  1. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    . This paper addresses simulation modeling requirements that are unique to turboprop transport aircraft and highlights the growing need for aerodynamic models suitable for stall training for these configurations. A review of prominent accidents that involved aerodynamic stall is used to illustrate various modeling features unique to turboprop configurations and the impact of stall behavior on susceptibility to loss of control that has led to new training requirements. This is followed by an overview of stability and control behavior of straight-wing turboprops, the related aerodynamic characteristics, and a summary of recent experimental studies on icing effects. In addition, differences in flight dynamics behavior between swept-wing jets and straight-wing turboprop configurations are discussed to compare and contrast modeling requirements. Specific recommendations for aerodynamic models along with further research needs and data measurements are also provided. 1

  2. Measuring Compliance with Preventive Care Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Dresselhaus, Timothy R; Peabody, John W; Lee, Martin; Wang, Ming Ming; Luck, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine how accurately preventive care reported in the medical record reflects actual physician practice or competence. DESIGN Scoring criteria based on national guidelines were developed for 7 separate items of preventive care. The preventive care provided by randomly selected physicians was measured prospectively for each of the 7 items. Three measurement methods were used for comparison: (1) the abstracted medical record from a standardized patient (SP) visit; (2) explicit reports of physician practice during those visits from the SPs, who were actors trained to present undetected as patients; and (3) physician responses to written case scenarios (vignettes) identical to the SP presentations. SETTING The general medicine primary care clinics of two university-affiliated VA medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Twenty randomly selected physicians (10 at each site) from among eligible second- and third-year general internal medicine residents and attending physicians. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Physicians saw 160 SPs (8 cases × 20 physicians). We calculated the percentage of visits in which each prevention item was recorded in the chart, determined the marginal percentage improvement of SP checklists and vignettes over chart abstraction alone, and compared the three methods using an analysis-of-variance model. We found that chart abstraction underestimated overall prevention compliance by 16% (P < .01) compared with SP checklists. Chart abstraction scores were lower than SP checklists for all seven items and lower than vignettes for four items. The marginal percentage improvement of SP checklists and vignettes to performance as measured by chart abstraction was significant for all seven prevention items and raised the overall prevention scores from 46% to 72% (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that physicians perform more preventive care than they report in the medical record. Thus, benchmarks of preventive care by individual physicians and

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-596); Executive Order 12196; 29 CFR part 1960; and applicable safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants...

  4. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  5. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-596); Executive Order 12196; 29 CFR part 1960; and applicable safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants...

  7. Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Bernstein, R S; Buist, A S

    1986-01-01

    Medical treatment has only a small role in severe volcanic eruptions and so preventive measures are paramount if injuries and loss of life are to be reduced. The health team must be incorporated in emergency planning and response at the earliest stage. Guidance on the interpretation of geological information about a volcano and the appropriate health measures that should be adopted before and after an eruption are summarized for the benefit of health workers. PMID:3946731

  8. INSIGHTS INTO PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. The etiology of erosion is related to different behavioral, biological and chemical factors. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of the preventive strategies relevant for patients suffering from dental erosion. Behavioral factors, such as special drinking habits, unhealthy lifestyle factors or occupational acid exposure, might modify the extent of dental erosion. Thus, preventive strategies have to include measures to reduce the frequency and duration of acid exposure as well as adequate oral hygiene measures, as it is known that eroded surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion. Biological factors, such as saliva or acquired pellicle, act protectively against erosive demineralization. Therefore, the production of saliva should be enhanced, especially in patients with hyposalivation or xerostomia. With regard to chemical factors, the modification of acidic solutions with ions, especially calcium, was shown to reduce the demineralization, but the efficacy depends on the other chemical factors, such as the type of acid. To enhance the remineralization of eroded surfaces and to prevent further progression of dental wear, high-concentrated fluoride applications are recommended. Currently, little information is available about the efficacy of other preventive strategies, such as calcium and laser application, as well as the use of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Further studies considering these factors are required. In conclusion, preventive strategies for patients suffering from erosion are mainly obtained from in vitro and in situ studies and include dietary counseling, stimulation of salivary flow, optimization of fluoride regimens, modification of erosive beverages and adequate oral hygiene measures. PMID:19274390

  9. [Preventive measures of diabetic foot complications].

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Sarah; Chappuis, Bernhard; Egli, Marc; Hagon-Traub, Isabelle; Schimke, Katrin; Schönenweid, Claude; Peter-Riesch, Bettina

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic foot complications are a public health challenge and preventive measures although simple are often not enforced, as evidenced by the lack of decrease in the rate of ulcers and amputation in Switzerland. This article proposes a risk score to grade individual risk of the diabetic patient and an individualized prevention measures as this risk. We discuss the importance of collaboration of various specialists. Two areas are important, first the early involvement of specialists in revascularization because the diabetic population with feet at risk of ulcération risk nowadays primarily has neuro-ichemic ulcerations and also the close collaboration with podiatrists and orthopedic shoemakers who are full partners of the multidisciplinary team. PMID:27487677

  10. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  11. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  12. [Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence].

    PubMed

    Híjar-Medina, M C; López-López, M V; Flores-Aldana, M; Anaya, R

    1997-02-01

    Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recently been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary data the good quality and validity of which are assumed. The paper presented seeks to discuss and share with researchers in this field, some of the methodological aspects to be considered in the attempt to recreate the scene of the accident and obtain information approximating to reality. The measurements in situ of, such traffic accident variables as injury, use of seat belt, speed and alcohol intake are discussed. PMID:9430931

  13. A measurement method for pollution prevention progress

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, D.G.; Knodel, R.M.; Bridges, J.S.

    1995-10-01

    A software program (P2P) has been developed for measuring progress P2 resulting from product redesign, product reformulation, or product replacement. The program compares the pollution generated by the original product with that from the modified or replacement product. It can take into account the various lifecycle stages of the product if desired. The pollution prevented (or sometimes increased) as a consequence of the redesign can be delineated with respect to the media affected. Reports can also be generated that show on which EPA regulatory lists the {open_quotes}prevented{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}increased{close_quotes} pollutants appear. In the initial version of P2P (released in January 1995), pollution prevented is indicated simply in terms of mass. In a subsequent version now being developed, the relative {open_quote}potency{close_quotes} of various pollutants within a class will be considered. Also, the method will be extended for application to P2 projects of all types, not just product changes.

  14. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. )

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Developing a relativities approach to valuing the prevention of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health.

    PubMed

    Karnon, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Aki; Dolan, Paul

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the current explorative study is to define and test a process for the valuation of the benefits associated with the prevention of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health. A relativities approach is adopted, and monetary values for the prevention of three forms of work-related illness are estimated. The approach involves describing relevant attributes of alternative events (accidents or occurrences of ill health), their causes, the characteristics of the relevant working population, and the number of events that are avoidable, and asking respondents to make pair wise choices between alternatives options for prevention. Indirect monetary valuations are obtained against a peg event for which a reliable valuation exists (road deaths).A series of discussion groups were held to identify relevant factors affecting potential valuations and to test the presentation of information. The predicted magnitude of responses for three-case study events (and road deaths) was estimated in a pilot study. These preliminary stages informed the final survey instrument that described five attributes in addition to a statement of the event and occupation, and the likely intervention effect, which was administered by post. Based on a small sample, the results show that virtually all respondents passed the inserted consistency test. The median respondent altered their choice according to the number of events avoided for all three comparisons, such that the estimated valuations appear sensible. Potential amendments are suggested, but the general relativities approach warrants further investigation for the valuation of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health. PMID:15791666

  16. [Surgical smoke: risks and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Rodríguez, Hilario; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Soria-Aledo, Víctor; García-López, Concepción

    2009-05-01

    The application of the advanced technologies in medicine has led to the appearance of new risk factors for health personnel. One of these could be the surgical smoke produced by electrosurgical instruments, ultrasounds or laser. However, there is still insufficient evidence in the published population studies on the detrimental effects of chronic exposure to surgical smoke. The main concern on the possible damage to the health of operating room staff is mainly based on the components currently detected until the date and laboratory experiments. Caution must also be used when extrapolating the results of in vitro studies to daily clinical practice. The organisations responsible for protecting the health of the workers in different countries have still not issued guidelines for the treatment and removal of the surgical smoke generated in both open and laparoscopic procedures. In this article we try to present a view of the consequences that surgical smoke has on health and the preventive measures that can be adopted. PMID:19376504

  17. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

  18. Concept of Operations for the NASA Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Walter S.; Tsoucalas, George; Tanger, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Weather Accident Prevention Concept of Operations (CONOPS) serves as a decision-making framework for research and technology development planning. It is intended for use by the WxAP members and other related programs in NASA and the FAA that support aircraft accident reduction initiatives. The concept outlines the project overview for program level 3 elements-such as AWIN, WINCOMM, and TPAWS (Turbulence)-that develop the technologies and operating capabilities to form the building blocks for WxAP. Those building blocks include both retrofit of equipment and systems and development of new aircraft, training technologies, and operating infrastructure systems and capabilities. This Concept of operations document provides the basis for the WxAP project to develop requirements based on the operational needs ofthe system users. It provides the scenarios that the flight crews, airline operations centers (AOCs), air traffic control (ATC), and flight service stations (FSS) utilize to reduce weather related accidents. The provision to the flight crew of timely weather information provides awareness of weather situations that allows replanning to avoid weather hazards. The ability of the flight crew to locate and avoid weather hazards, such as turbulence and hail, contributes to safer flight practices.

  19. [EU policy orientations on road accidents prevention and workplace health promotion in the transport sector].

    PubMed

    Isolani, L

    2012-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) transport industry directly employs more than 10 million people, accounting for 4.5% of total employment. Road traffic accidents and road safety are a major public health issue. The Commission of the EU has published policy orientations on road safety to provide a general framework, under which concrete action can be taken at European, national, regional and local levels. Some strategic objectives were identified in order to 1) improve education and training of road users and the quality of the licensing and training system of drivers; 2) make both road infrastructure and vehicles safer. These orientations will translate for the workers of the transport sector in an important initial and periodic training with the aim to improve their health and well-being and to reduce road risk and road accidents, representing a very good example of health promotion. PMID:23405665

  20. Inherent Prevention and Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Roald A. Wigeland; James E. Cahalan

    2011-04-01

    Safety challenges for sodium-cooled fast reactors include maintaining core temperatures within design limits and assuring the geometry and integrity of the reactor core. Due to the high power density in the reactor core, heat removal requirements encourage the use of high-heat-transfer coolants such as liquid sodium. The variation of power across the core requires ducted assemblies to control fuel and coolant temperatures, which are also used to constrain core geometry. In a fast reactor, the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation. Accidents leading to fuel melting, fuel pin failure, and fuel relocation can result in positive reactivity, increasing power, and possibly resulting in severe accident consequences including recriticalities that could threaten reactor and containment integrity. Inherent safety concepts, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, can be used to increase the level of safety to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not credible, for such severe accident consequences to occur.

  1. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-02-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry.

  2. RECENT LASER ACCIDENTS AT DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect

    ODOM, CONNON R.

    2007-02-02

    Recent laser accidents and incidents at research laboratories across the Department of Energy complex are reviewed in this paper. Factors that contributed to the accidents are examined. Conclusions drawn from the accident reports are summarized and compared. Control measures that could have been implemented to prevent the accidents will be summarized and compared. Recommendations for improving laser safety programs are outlined and progress toward achieving them are summarized.

  3. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  4. [Radiation measures and trend after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2014-02-01

    The radioactive materials spread by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in March, 2011 caused NPP workers to be exposed to radiation above ordinance limits. The number of workers exposed to radiation within ordinance limits is increasing. Decontamination began at many places in Fukushima, although new laws were enforced in the decontamination work, in the current situation, medical examinations for radiation are limited due to a shortage of doctors. In this paper, I introduce the ordinances on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards and the revised points about radiation exposure doses of the NPP workers, as well as the new ordinance for decontamination. PMID:24605520

  5. [Evaluation of preventive measures using scientific methods].

    PubMed

    Göhlen, Britta; Bossmann, Hildegard

    2010-10-01

    The evaluation of preventive and health activities is due to ethical and financial aspects increasingly gaining importance. But how can this be assured on a scientifically high level? A tool that suits this purpose is Health Technology Assessment (HTA). Provided that the appropriate methodology is selected and scientific literature is evaluated, HTA can help to appraise the outcomes of preventive activities. The German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information publishes HTA reports on behalf of the Federal Health Ministry. These deal with topics related to prevention amongst others. Examples of the year 2009 are reports on the vaccination against human papilloma virus or on the nonmedicinal secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. PMID:20981592

  6. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  7. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics and ... Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention ...

  8. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  9. Environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece following the Fukushima Daichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Potiriadis, C; Kolovou, M; Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S

    2012-07-01

    Since the double disaster of the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami that affected hundreds of thousands of people and seriously damaged the Fukushima Daichi power plant in Japan on 11 March 2011, traces of radioactive emissions from Fukushima have spread across the entire northern hemisphere. The radioactive isotope of iodine (131)I that was generated by the nuclear accident in Fukushima arrived in Greece on 24 March 2011. Radioactive iodine is present in the air either as gas or bound to particles (aerosols). The maximum (131)I concentrations were measured between 3 and 5 April 2011. In aerosols the maximum (131)I values measured in Southern Greece (Athens) and Northern Greece (Thessaloniki) were 585±70 and 408±61 μΒq m(-3), respectively. (131)I concentrations in gas were about 3.5 times higher than in aerosols. Since 29 April 2011, the (131)I concentration has been below detection limits. Traces of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were also measured in the air filters with an activity ratio of (137)Cs/(134)Cs equal to 1 and (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 3. Since 16 May 2011, the (137)Cs concentration in air has been determined to be about the same as before the Fukushima accident. Traces of (131)I were also measured in grass and milk. The maximum measured activity of (131)I in sheep milk was about 2 Bq l(-1) which is 5000 times less than that measured in Greece immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The measured activity concentrations of artificial radionuclides in Greece due to the Fukushima release, have been very low, with no impact on human health. PMID:22090415

  10. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788

  11. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James

    2002-10-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  12. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  13. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  14. [Prevention and accidents in Italian popular car magazines during the second postwar years].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro; Colombo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of the fifties and the second half of the sixties the Italian car industry was one of the few in Europe to introduce technical changes for car safety. Some Italian popular magazines took part in this plan not only by an information and prevention campaign, but also by promoting experimental safety car projects. Among them Quattroruote, rivista mensile per gli automobilisti di oggi e di domani stands out. PMID:23393901

  15. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on background radiation doses measured by control dosimeters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; King, David L; Kennemur, Lisa K

    2012-05-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011 in Japan, several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered severe damage. There was immediate participation of U.S. Navy vessels and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) teams that were already in the area at the time of the disaster or arrived shortly thereafter. The correct determination of occupational dose equivalent requires estimation of the background dose component measured by control dosimeters, which is subsequently subtracted from the total dose equivalent measured by personal dosimeters. The purpose of the control dosimeters is to determine the amount of radiation dose equivalent that has accumulated on the dosimeter from background or other non-occupational sources while they are in transit or being stored. Given the release of radioactive material and potential exposure to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the process by which the U.S. Navy calculates occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, analysis of pre- and post-event control dosimeters is warranted. Several hundred historical dose records from the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) database were analyzed and compared with the post-accident dose equivalent data of control dosimeters. As result, it was shown that the dose contribution of the radiation and released radiological materials from the Fukushima nuclear accident to background radiation doses is less than 0.375 μSv d for shallow and deep photon dose equivalent. There is no measurable effect on neutron background exposure. The latter has at least two important conclusions. First, the NDC can use doses measured by control dosimeters at issuing sites in Japan for determination of personnel dose equivalents; second, the dose data from control dosimeters prior to and after the Fukushima accident may be used to assist in dose reconstruction of non-radiological (non-badged) personnel at these locations

  16. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  17. Radiocesium levels measured in breast milk one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Lolis, D.; Zikopoulos, K.; Dusias, B.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred-two samples of colostral milk, collected during spring of 1987, approximately one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, were measured for radiocesium contamination. The data showed a normal-type distribution with a mean contamination concentration of 16.4 Bq L-1. A weak correlation of the data to the mothers' diet was established by taking into account four of the main staples in the area. The corresponding transfer coefficient was deduced with a value of fm = 0.06 +/- 0.03 d L-1. The resultant effective dose received by breast-feeding infants was estimated, on the average, as 0.012 mrem d-1.

  18. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present. PMID:25486690

  19. Measuring preventive procedures by French GPs: an observational survey

    PubMed Central

    Blanquet, Marie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Noirfalise, Chantal; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Campagne, Claude; Malaval, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevention has become a legal obligation for French GPs, since a law was passed in March 2002. Aim Measurement and analysis of preventive procedures performed by French GPs. Design of study Observational survey. Setting GP surgeries in Puy-de-Dôme, France. Method Doctors completed a questionnaire about their socioprofessional characteristics, and a researcher completed another questionnaire about preventive procedures performed on the last 15 patients seen by each GP. Twenty preventive services were evaluated and, for each service, medical records, targets, and objectives were defined according to the national preventive care guidelines. The gap between guidelines and practice was explained by doctor characteristics. Statistical analyses were performed using χ2 and logistic regression. Results Representative samples of 179 doctors and 2453 medical records were randomised. Four preventive services were performed in more than 75% of cases, and the gap was explained by the salaried job the doctors had. Ten preventive services were performed in 25% to 75% of cases and the gap was explained by the medical software used. The six remaining services were performed in less than 25% of cases and no explanatory variable was identified. Conclusion Sixteen preventive procedures were insufficiently performed. The more a preventive service is performed the more the gap will be explained by GPs' socioprofessional characteristics. The gap for a preventive procedure performed in 25% to 75% of cases was mainly explained by management of the medical records. A nationwide policy to improve prevention performance in general practice seems to be essential. PMID:21401987

  20. Establishing protective long term measures after severe nuclear accidents using multiple criteria.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, I A; Kollas, J G

    1997-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents and demonstrates its use. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is adopted where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. All feasible solutions are implicitly considered and evaluated in the chosen criteria. Technically inferior solutions are excluded. Only the non-dominated or efficient solutions forming the "efficient frontier" are retained and presented to the decision makers. Implementation of inefficient solutions is in this way avoided. A choice among the efficient solutions, although it implies value tradeoffs among the multiple criteria, avoids the direct and apriori assessment of preferences. An interactive computer package has been developed with which the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the corresponding alternative in the decision space. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident using as criteria the collective effective life-time dose received by the population and the cost associated with each possible decision. PMID:9106708

  1. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  2. Preventive measures against the mustard gas: a review

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    The main aim in this study was to collect the experiences of Iranian researchers about sulfur mustard (SM) and provide a guideline for the prevention of abuse for this dangerous agent. We searched valid national and international databases using related key words in the two languages. We found 193 articles which had been published in medical journals. Among them, 25 articles had some implications about prevention measures. In this study, we have mentioned 8 preventive points before the attacks, 10 points during and 2 points afterwards, we also found 12 points for the prevention of people who were exposed with SM and suffering from respiratory, ocular, dermatologic and psychological complications. In conclusion, most of the published studies on chemical war victims in Iran are focused on diagnosis and treatment of late SM-induced complications. Hence, a research should be conducted separately in relation to the prevention. PMID:23741170

  3. [Measures to prevent injuries related to bicycle seats].

    PubMed

    Martelli, A; Angrisano, A; Verdoni, F

    1999-01-01

    Injuries related to the use of bicycle seats are increasing due to the more frequent use of bicycles, mostly in metropolis. Several cases of children who suffered lesions to the lower limbs are reported from which we may summarize the most frequent clinical features, characterized by a foot swelling caused by the crushing between the wheel spokes, with different degrees of skin injuries. Fractures of the lower part of the leg bones are frequent as well. A greater number of cases was reported in summertime and, in all the bicycles, there was no spoke cover and the seats did not provide any protection to the feet. So far no precise rules for the marketing approval of bicycle seats have been fixed by UE, contrary to what has been already set for cars. Therefore, we suggest that such rules should soon be enforced. We also recommend the compulsory use of the helmet, as in other countries. We underline the usefulness of a more detailed epidemiological monitoring to better understand the dynamic of such traumatic events and, consequently, achieve some further improvements in the seats design, for an increased safety. The critical factor in prevention, however, will always remain a proper sanitary education. In the general chapter of accidents prevention, pediatrics should provide the parents with all the indications and cautions concerned with bicycle seat safety. PMID:10356943

  4. Evaluation of Efficacy of Preventive Measures under Hypokinesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Matveyev, Ivan O.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of physical exercise alone and in combination with other preventive measures with 24 adult male subjects kept under a bed rest regime. It was concluded that physical exercise was the most reliable measure in counteracting neuromuscular system disorders under diminished muscular activity conditions. (Author/DB)

  5. Environmental measurements and inspections on imported foods and feedstuffs in Greece after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Potiriadis, C; Anagnostakis, M J; Clouvas, A; Eleftheriadis, K; Florou, E; Housiadas, C; Ioannides, K; Ioannidou, A; Karangelos, D I; Karfopoulos, K L; Kehagia, K; Kolovou, M; Kritidis, P; Manolopoulou, M; Papastefanou, K; Savva, M I; Simopoulos, S E; Stamoulis, K; Stoulos, S; Xanthos, S; Xarchoulakos, D

    2013-10-01

    The radionuclides released during the accident at the Fukushima Daichii nuclear power plant following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 were dispersed in the whole north hemisphere. Traces of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs reached Greece and were detected in air, grass, sheep milk, ground deposition, rainwater and drainage water. Members of Six Greek laboratories of the national network for environmental radioactivity monitoring have collaborated with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and carried out measurements during the time period between 11 March 2011 and 10 May 2011 and reported their results to GAEC. These laboratories are sited in three Greek cities, Athens, Thessaloniki and Ioannina, covering a large part of the Greek territory. The concentrations of the radionuclides were studied as a function of time. The first indication for the arrival of the radionuclides in Greece originating from Fukushima accident took place on 24 March 2011. After 28 April 2011', concentrations of all the radionuclides were below the minimum detectable activities (<10 μBq m(-3) for (131)I). The range of concentration values in aerosol particles was 10-520 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, 10-200 μBq m(-3) for (134)Cs and 10-200 μBq m(-3) for (137)Cs and was 10-2200 μBq m(-3) for (131)I in gaseous phase. The ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs concentrations are also presented. For (131)I, the maximum concentration detected in grass was 2.2 Bq kg(-1). In the case of sheep milk, the maximum concentration detected for (131)I was 2 Bq l(-1). Furthermore, more than 200 samples of imported foodstuff have been measured in Greece, following the EC directives on the inspection of food and feeding stuffs. PMID:23604742

  6. Acceptance of preventive measures by individuals, institutions and communities.

    PubMed

    Silversin, J; Kornacki, M J

    1984-09-01

    The acceptance by individuals, institutions and communities of preventive measures for controlling the two most prevalent dental diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease, is limited. A wide gap exists between available preventive methods and their appropriate application. Adoption of preventive dental self-care (tooth brushing, flossing diet modification) is organized around five categories of determinants influencing oral health behaviours: psychological factors; face-to-face interactions between people; broad societal influences; information and the immediate surroundings; and reinforcement schemes. While each of these five categories of determinants influences adoption of the desired behaviours, altering any single factor does not usually result in sustained behaviour change. Institutions (e.g. schools and workplaces) and communities are sites where the determinants of individual behaviours can be altered and preventive services can be delivered. Very little research has been conducted to improve our understanding of the variables which explain why dental health prevention programmes are accepted or rejected by institutions or communities. When programmes are adopted, little is known about the accuracy of their administration or about barriers to, and problems in, their implementation and maintenance. To achieve optimal oral health throughout life, a combination of passive measures (e.g. water fluoridation, school-based fluoride programmes) and active personal behaviours (e.g. oral hygiene, diet control) is required. Therefore, it is essential that researchers and practitioners improve their understanding of the acceptance of passive measures by institutions and communities as well as their understanding of the adoption of active measures by individuals. PMID:6592149

  7. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures. PMID:18460354

  8. [Behavioural attitude of the young as regards road accident prevention: a survey carried out among high school students in two Sicilian towns].

    PubMed

    Vinci, Carmine; Coniglio, Maria Anna; Di Nuovo, Santo; Pignato, Sarina; Giammanco, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    This survey is aimed at assessing young peoples awareness as regards car accident prevention and misleading behaviours. The survey concerned a sample of 829 high school students of both genders, aged 17 to 23, from a chief town (Catania) and a country town (Noto, Siracusa). In addition to a good level of awareness as regards road accidents and misleading behaviours, the investigation also showed an opposite trend to disregard basic safety rules such as the use of helmets, safety belts and abstention from alcohol intake. Dangerous behaviours have shown to be higher in Noto than Catania, and more frequent among male than female of both towns. In the light of such results, some educational actions have been discussed for road safety. PMID:12874629

  9. Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…

  10. Violence in the Family Therapist's Workplace: Prevention Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Gary L.; Brende, Joel O.; McBride, J. LeBron

    1999-01-01

    Study of marriage and family therapists reports that 44% had experienced a physical or psychological assault from a client and that 30% had feared for their lives. Describes basic preventive, assessment, management, and coping measures for working with violent clients. Emphasizes the importance of training and continuing education in the…

  11. Measuring Quality of Delivery in a Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions,…

  12. Constructing a consensus-based prevention outcome measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Siegal, H A; Lane, D T; Falck, R S; Wang, J; Carlson, R G; Rahman, A; Chambers, D T

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Ohio's Prevention Evaluation Project (PEP). The purpose of the project was to develop a process and instrument to assess behavioral and attitudinal outcomes in primary drug abuse prevention programs targeting young people aged twelve to seventeen. One of PEP's principal achievements was the inclusion of community prevention program providers from throughout the state in the evaluation instrument development. The effort produced a self-administered questionnaire to capture data on young peoples' drug use practices, attitudes toward drugs, and problematic behaviors. Most significantly, the product produced was the acceptance and endorsement of community-based programs. The forty-one-item questionnaire has good to excellent reliability for virtually all measures, as assessed by the test-retest method. The instrument is a product of a process that brought together a university-based research team, state alcohol and drug abuse prevention administrators, and representatives of public programs. PEP demonstrates how to productively link service providers, administrators, and evaluators to develop a process for assessing the effectiveness of prevention programs. The process and tools described serve as a model for other communities wanting to evaluate their prevention programming. PMID:11487991

  13. [Equestrian accidents in children].

    PubMed

    Giebel, G; Braun, K; Mittelmeier, W

    1993-11-01

    In a retrospective study we reviewed 262 horse riding related injuries in children younger than 16 which were treated between 1975 and 1989 at the Section of Traumatology in the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Homburg/Saar. In 155 of these accidents, detailed information was gained via a questionnaire. The typical patient profile was that of young female equestrians with little experience and little weekly riding practice, without practicing falling-exercises and warming up often using different horses. At the time of the accident only 59% were wearing a head protection. Most accidents happened in the summer months in the afternoon during leisure riding on a large familiar horse in the riding hall. Apart from the typical accidents like falling of the horse (64.9%) and falling with the horse (5.7%) accidents in handling the horse were of special significance: Kick by horse's hoof (11.8%), being stepped by horse (3.8%), horsebite (7.3%) and injuries of horse's bridle had their own pattern of injuries. Injuries of the distal parts of the upper extremity are preeminent in falling of the horse, whilst in falling with the horse head injuries and shoulder injuries are preeminent. Remarkably often injuries of kick by horse's hoof were causing sometimes even dangerous head injuries (41.6%). Overall in horse riding related injuries in childhood superficial soft tissue injuries (48.6%) and fractures (30.6%) were predominant. Fractures of the clavicle which are well known as a riding injury proved to be typical for a fall with the horse, whilst a fractured vertebra was only seen once amongst the 262 children treated. The severity of the injuries was lower than expected: In 85.1% of all the injuries only one body region was injured, 90.1% could be assigned to an injury severity score (ISS) of 1-3. Ponyriders had less severe injuries than riders of large horses. One fatal accident happened in handling a horse, in these situations preventive measures are often

  14. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers. PMID:19030993

  15. [Assessment methods and preventive measures focusing on relationships].

    PubMed

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Reichle, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution relationship-oriented assessment methods and preventive measures during infancy and childhood are founded in an ecological and differential understanding of development in context. Using selected developmental milestones it is demonstrated that relationships as a social context play an important role particularly during early infancy. Criteria for describing well functioning and maladaptive relationships can be derived from theoretical presumptions, empirical longitudinal studies and health related clinical judgements. These criteria may serve as guidelines for interventions, especially in cases of children with a clinical diagnosis of child neglect. Possible procedures to assess the quality of relationships are discussed using methods from contributions in this issue of the journal as examples. Diagnostic and preventive procedures are seen as mutually interacting within continuous feedback loops, where assessment procedures serve to both give evidence for the efficacy of interventions and for specifying further preventive methods. PMID:17725182

  16. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  17. DATABASE OF METEOROLOGICAL AND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MADE IN BELARUS DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow’s milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow’s milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:23103580

  18. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  19. The Skandia Report II: Why Are Children Injured in Traffic? Can We Prevent Child Accidents in Traffic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandels, Stina

    This investigation concerns traffic accidents in Sweden during 1968 and 1969 in which children ages 1-10 were active participants. A total of 182 complete police investigations including preliminary investigation records, police reports to the Central Bureau of Statistics, and memorandums, were analyzed. The purpose of this report is to determine…

  20. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  1. A public health perspective of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  2. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  3. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  4. [On psychologic profile of locomotive crew workers in Russian Railways JSC and its role in accidents prevention].

    PubMed

    Mendelevich, V D; Makaricheva, E V; Serikov, V V; Dmitrieva, E V; Zakrevskaia, A A; Ozhogina, O A; Alpaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers personality characters of locomotive crew workers of Russian Railways JSC, and specifying a block of methods for psychologic support of these workers' occupational activities. According to the results obtained, the authors presented a thorough description of characterologic, motivational personality traits characterizing a select of locomotive crew workers, and analyzed a relationship between the traits and levels of accidents in the workers' occupational activity. PMID:25826879

  5. Measure to Prevent Inundation in a Fish Farm Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, S.; Chang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many fish farms locate along southern-west shoreline of Taiwan where various high-value fishes are cultivated. However, the terrain elevations are often lower than sea level. Inundation therefore occurred frequently in heavy rainfall events. Insufficient capacity of drainage flumes and extra drained water from fish farms cause flume overflow (Fig.1a). The inundation causes loss of the fish farm owners due to fish escape. To prevent inundation, we numerically study the drainage in the fish area (3.73 square km) of the Xindian drainage flume (4 km), Chiayi County, by the Storm Water Management Model, based on the 25-year period designed rainfall (326 mm total rainfall in 24 hours). In this study, a mitigation measure, pre-drainages in the fish farms, was considered to prevent inundation. The gate at the flume exit was closed to neglect the tide influence. According to the simulations, pre-drainages in the fish farms were operated at a given drained water depth before heavy rainfall events and kept the initial water stage 0 m in the flume which sufficiently provided the extra storage for the rainfall. Fig.1b suggests only 7 cm drained water depth successfully avoided flume overflow. Therefore the measure of the pre-drainage was an effective non-engineering method to prevent inundation. For practical operations, river managers perform pre-drainage simulations based on the forecast rainfall and then determine a pre-drained water depth. The drained water from the fish farms discharges by gravity at low tide and the gate is closed. The simple procedures will effectively prevent the inundation in the fish farms.

  6. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies. PMID:17920847

  7. The Flash Environmental Assessment Tool: worldwide first aid for chemical accidents response, pro action, prevention and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Posthuma, Leo; Wahlstrom, Emilia; Nijenhuis, René; Dijkens, Chris; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik; Hollander, Anne; Brand, Ellen; den Hollander, Henri A; van Middelaar, Johan; van Dijk, Sander; Hall, E F; Hoffer, Sally

    2014-11-01

    The United Nations response mechanism to environmental emergencies requested a tool to support disaster assessment and coordination actions by United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) teams. The tool should support on-site decision making when substantial chemical emissions affect human health directly or via the environment and should be suitable for prioritizing impact reduction management options under challenging conditions worldwide. To answer this need, the Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) was developed and the scientific and practical underpinning and application of this tool are described in this paper. FEAT consists of a printed decision framework and lookup tables, generated by combining the scientific data on chemicals, exposure pathways and vulnerabilities with the pragmatic needs of emergency field teams. Application of the tool yields information that can help prioritize impact reduction measures. The first years of use illustrated the usefulness of the tool as well as suggesting additional uses and improvements. An additional use is application of the back-office tool (Hazard Identification Tool, HIT), the results of which aid decision-making by the authorities of affected countries and the preparation of field teams for on-site deployment. Another extra use is in disaster pro action and prevention. In this case, the application of the tool supports safe land-use planning and improved technical design of chemical facilities. UNDAC teams are trained to use the tool after large-scale sudden onset natural disasters. PMID:24880694

  8. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  9. Plague: Modern Preventive Measures in Ships and Ports

    PubMed Central

    White, C. F.

    1935-01-01

    Maritime quarantine, introduced in the fourteenth century in an endeavour to prevent the spread of plague. Though the system failed to achieve its object, and was expensive and restrictive to sea-borne commerce, it survived for over 500 years, presumably because, in the absence of knowledge of the ætiology of plague, no method of procedure more likely to be successful could be devised. This country acknowledged the failure of quarantine as a preventive measure in the middle of last century, and substituted the medical inspection of ships on arrival, though the last Quarantine Act was not repealed till 1896. Nevertheless it was not till the discovery of the rôle of the rat and the rat-flea in the spread of plague that it was possible to establish plague-preventive measures on a sound scientific basis. It is now recognized that a Port Health Authority must not only take steps to detect plague, human or rodent, afloat or ashore, at the earliest possible moment, but must eliminate conditions in ships and in shore premises which are conducive to the development of an epizoötic. Though here, and in other countries with an enlightened Public Health Administration, practice has long been ahead of legislation, the International Sanitary Convention of 1926 has now established throughout the world a large measure of uniformity in measures designed to prevent the spread of the more dangerous epidemic diseases by overseas trade, and the Port Sanitary Regulations 1933 have brought quarantine legislation in this country up to date. For the detection of plague every ship arriving from a plague-infected port is medically inspected on arrival, but even if there is no evidence of plague-infection on board, such ships are examined daily by a rat-officer until the discharge of cargo is complete. Dead rats found and live rats trapped are bacteriologically examined. If a rat is reported to be infected the vessel is fumigated at once. The discharge of cargo is then continued under

  10. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  11. Measuring Prevention More Broadly: An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures

    PubMed Central

    Menachemi, Nir; Blackburn, Justin; Becker, David J.; Morrisey, Michael A.; Sen, Bisakha; Caldwell, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess limitations of using select Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) core claims-based measures in capturing the preventive services that may occur in the clinical setting. Methods: We use claims data from ALL Kids, the Alabama Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), to calculate each of four quality measures under two alternative definitions: (1) the formal claims-based guidelines outlined in the CMS Technical Specifications, and (2) a broader definition of appropriate claims for identifying preventive service use. Additionally, we examine the extent to which these two claims-based approaches to measuring quality differ in assessments of disparities in quality of care across subgroups of children. Results: Statistically significant differences in rates were identified when comparing the two definitions for calculating each quality measure. Measure differences ranged from a 1.9 percentage point change for measure #13 (receiving preventive dental services) to a 25.5 percentage point change for measure #12 (adolescent well-care visit). We were able to identify subgroups based upon family income, rural location, and chronic disease status with differences in quality within the core measures. However, some identified disparities were sensitive to the approach used to calculate the quality measure. Conclusions: Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit the usefulness of select claims-based core measures for detecting disparities accurately. Additional guidance and research may be necessary before reporting of the measures becomes mandatory. PMID:24800161

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND APPLICATION OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Cemalovic, Nermina; Rosic, Semso; Toromanovic, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Occupational injuries are one of the major public health problems in the world and in our country, and are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity of workers. The goals of this study are to determine the type and nature of occupational injuries and propose a program of preventive measures. Material and methods: The study included 98 injured workers in the period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 in the area of the Cazin municipality. The sources of data used are reports of an accident at work in the Occupational Health Services and the Primary Health Care Center. Results: The most common injuries are the ones by sharp object (30.6%), incarceration (27.5%) and fall from a height (19.3%). According to the nature of the injuries the most numerous are contusions and lacerations. Activities that are most prevalent among those injured are in service provision (48.0%), manufacturing (36.4%) and construction (33.3%). Conclusions: It is necessary to implement measures of collective and personal protection, education of workers, proper handling of tools and machinery, improving interpersonal relationships, rewarding and implementation of the strategy of making plans for the program of occupational safety. PMID:27047268

  13. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  14. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  15. Problems of drug abuse and preventive measures in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tobolska-Rydz, H

    1986-01-01

    An increasing abuse of drugs emerged among young people in Poland at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to information provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, there are currently 35,000 drug abusers, but the actual number is estimated at approximately 200,000. The abuse of extract from poppy straw and the inhalation of volatile solvents, such as glue and paint remover, are the major drug abuse problems. Addicts prepare a decoction of poppy straw for injection, and morphine and heroin have been clandestinely manufactured in very elementary home-made laboratories. Recently, methamphetamine hydrochloride and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have also been illicitly produced in such home-made laboratories. The increasing drug abuse problem has prompted the authorities to prepare new complementary drug control legislation, the Act on the Prevention of Narcotic Addiction, which was adopted on 31 January 1985. The Act provides for more effective preventive and treatment measures, as well as severe punishment for involvement in illicit drug trafficking. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug-dependent persons is provided on a voluntary basis, except for persons convicted of drug-related offences and for persons under 18 years of age, in which case treatment may be compulsory. PMID:3779183

  16. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. PMID:26619285

  17. Preventive measures reducing superficial mycobiotic contamination of grain.

    PubMed

    Steponavičius, Dainius; Raila, Algirdas; Steponavičienė, Aušra; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Search for the preventive measures reducing the accumulation of mycotoxin producers in food raw material was carried out. Active ventilation was used; the impact of the electro-chemically activated air (ozone) and electro-chemically activated water (anolyte) on the micromycetes prevailing in grain raw material for food (GRMF) was determined. The GRMF was dried by active ventilation using the ozone-air mixture. Ozone (concentration 1250 ppb) disinfects the surface of the raw material and creates conditions unfavourable for the increase of mycobiotic contamination in drying upper layers of the grain mound. Within 8 days the contamination of GRMF in a mound decreased by 50%, while in its lower layers - more than 3 times. Ventilation of the mound with the above-mentioned concentration of the ozone-air mixture has ceased the active functioning of Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. solani, F. tricinctum F. sporotrichioides micromycetes and has considerably retarded the development of Alternaria alternata and other fungi. Anolyte (0.05% of chlorine concentration) reduced the mycobiotic contamination of GRMF by almost 2.5 times. The optimal treatment duration is from 0.5 to 1 hour. The optimal technical parameters, allowing the use of these measures for the preparation of grain food safety technologies, were elaborated; they are designed for more efficient protection of human health against micromycetes and their toxic metabolites, which are abundantly produced and released into the environment. PMID:22742787

  18. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-08-07

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals.

  19. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  20. Measurement of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident.

    PubMed

    MacMullin, S; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Holmes, R; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F

    2012-10-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products (131)I and (137)Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 ± 0.6 mBq/m(3) and 0.42 ± 0.07 mBq/m(3) respectively. Additional activity from (131,132)I, (134,136,137)Cs and (132)Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF). PMID:22348994

  1. Home accidents in older people: role of primary health care team.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, H. J.; Firth, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence and nature of unreported and reported home accidents in older people and to investigate associated environmental factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire requesting information on home accidents in the preceding month. SETTING--Inner London general practice. SUBJECTS--All registered patients aged over 65 years (n = 1662), of whom 120 were inappropriately registered and 1293 responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Circumstances and consequences of accidents in the home. RESULTS--108 accidents were recorded in 100 patients, giving a home accident rate of 84/1000 patients, equivalent to an annual rate of 1002/1000. 73 accidents were falls, and 83 were unreported. Of the 25 reported accidents, 19 were reported to general practice and six to accident and emergency departments (5.6% of all events). Rates of home accidents increased with age and were higher in women than men (79/819 upsilon 29/474; chi 2 = 4.5, df = 1, p less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of home accidents in people aged over 65 years was high but few events were reported to medical services. General practice provided the main contact for patients who reported home accidents, and primary care workers have important opportunities for advising elderly patients on home accident prevention. Improved publicity on home safety targeted at older people and their carers would support the primary health care team in this role. PMID:1638198

  2. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  3. Patellofemoral Crepitus after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Etiology and Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Patellofemoral crepitus and clunk syndrome are infrequent, yet troublesome complications of total knee arthroplasty with a reported incidence of 0%-18%. They are primarily associated with implantation of posterior cruciate substituting designs. These entities are the result of peripatellar fibrosynovial hyperplasia at the junction of the superior pole of the patella and the distal quadriceps tendon which becomes entrapped within the superior aspect of the intercondylar box of the femoral component during knee flexion. When the knee extends, a crepitant sensation occurs as the fibrosynovial tissue exits the intercondylar box. Numerous etiologies have been proposed such as femoral component designs with a high intercondylar box ratio, previous knee surgery, reduced patellar tendon length, thinner patellar components, reduced patella-patellar component composite thickness, and smaller femoral components. Preventative measures include choice of femoral components with a reduced intercondylar box ratio, use of thicker patellar components, avoidance of over-resection of the patella, and debridement of the fibrosynovial tissue at the time of knee arthroplasty. Most patients with crepitus are unaware of the problem or have minimal symptoms so that no treatment is required. If significant disability is incurred, symptoms can be eliminated in a high percentage of patients with arthroscopic debridement of the fibrosynovial hyperplasia. PMID:24605184

  4. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  5. Reference dosimetry measurements for the international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry SILENE 9-21 June 2002.

    PubMed

    Asselineau, B; Trompier, F; Texier, C; Itié, C; Médioni, R; Tikunov, D; Muller, H; Pelcot, G

    2004-01-01

    An international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using the ROSPEC spectrometer associated with a NE-213 scintillator, ionisation chambers, GM counters, diodes and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). For this intercomparison, a large area was required to irradiate the dosemeters both in free air and on phantoms. Therefore, measurements of the uniformity of the field were performed with activation detectors and TLDs for neutron and gammas, respectively. This paper describes the procedures used and the results obtained. PMID:15353691

  6. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  7. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.

    PubMed

    Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places. PMID:23903263

  8. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  9. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  10. [A cooperative program for the prevention of domestic accidents in children at the department of the Doubs. II. Educative aspects and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Baudier, F; Marchais, M; Ferry, B; Bourderont, D; Pinochet, C; Blum, D

    1988-01-01

    Effective prevention of domestic accidents in children includes regimental and/or legislative action, information for parents and education of the children. The latter two strategies have been applied in the deparment of the Doubs in a cooperative health promotion program. Preschool and kindergarten structures were chosen and the pedagogical project involved acquainting the children with the idea of danger by use of a kit prepared by the "Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé" (French Committee for health education). This study was set up in two stages: "experimental" in 2 schools (1983-1984) and "operational" in 40 schools (1984-1985). In order to evaluate it, the population was divided into a control group and an experimental group. A total of 5,720 tests were carried out among 520 children. 494 parents and 82 teachers answered the questionnaires sent to them. The teachers were generally very positive about the effectiveness of education about dangers and the teaching activities which could be employed: discovery of environment, awareness of body, a.s.o. The changes in attitude were real and enduring among children. The parents changed their behavior significantly concerning the storing of poisonous products (medicines and household cleaning products), which allows to feel that this program can be effective in terms of risk reduction. PMID:3202675

  11. Radioactive contamination processes during 14-21 March after the Fukushima accident: What does atmospheric electric field measurements tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.; Miyagi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Ionizing radiation from the radioactive material is known to increase atmospheric electric conductivity, and hence to decrease vertical downward atmospheric DC electric field at ground level, or potential gradient (PG). In the past, the drop of PG has been observed after rain-induced radioactive fallout (wet contamination) after nuclear tests or after the Chernobyl disaster. After the nuclear accident Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that started 11 March 2011, the PG also at Kakioka, 150 km southwest from the FNPP, also dropped a by one order of magnitude. Unlike the past examples, the PG drop was two-stepped on 14 March and 20 March. Both correspond to two largest southward release of radioactive material according to the data from the radiation dose rate measurement network. We compare the Kakioka's PG data with the radiation dose rate data at different places to examine the fallout processes of both on 14 March and on 20 March. The former turned out to be dry contamination by surface wind, leaving a substantial amount of fallout floating near the ground. The latter turned out to be wet contamination by rain after transport by relatively low-altitude wind, and the majority of the fallout settled to the ground at this time. It is recommended that all nuclear power plant to have a network of PG observation surrounding the plant. Takeda, et al. (2011): Initial effect of the Fukushima accident on atmospheric electricity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15811, doi:10.1029/2011GL048511. Yamauchi, et al. (2012): Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement, Ann. Geophys., 30, 49-56, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-49-2012.

  12. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  13. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Sitakanta; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  14. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (c) Rodents, flies, and other pest control. As part of this program, you must: (1) Monitor for... conditions. “SE monitored” means the pullets are raised under SE control conditions that prevent SE... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d))...

  15. Development of a Measure of Attitude toward Pulmonary Disease Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaghie, William C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Systematic scale-development procedures, reliability analyses on 2,852 medical students (3 samples), and factor analysis were used to develop and refine a scale reflecting attitudes about pulmonary disease prevention. Development and verification samples included 110 and 2,691 students, respectively. The scale is promising for health education and…

  16. Accidents at work and costs analysis: a field study in a large Italian company.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Massimo; Frey, Marco; Passetti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  17. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    PubMed Central

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  18. Prevention Validation and Accounting Platform: A Framework for Establishing Accountability and Performance Measures of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; McLeod, Jonnie H.; Williams, Charles; Hepler, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Faced with the absence of a conceptual framework and the terminology for establishing evaluation criteria in the substance abuse prevention services field, this special issue is devoted to exploring the topics of accountability and performance measures. It discusses the requisite components (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, data)…

  19. Preventative measures for bulimic patients with dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, G; Bartlett, D

    2001-03-01

    The preventative techniques suggested to bulimic patients are frequently undervalued and ignored in favour of restorative treatment, possibly because the dentist may not be aware of the eating disorder. Educating bulimic patients about fluoride application, the use of brushing techniques, antacids, cheese, xylitol chewing gum and the possible use of mouth guards may minimise the effect of acids. Together with attempts at improving patient compliance they can be a valuable adjunct to treatment of bulimic patients with dental problems. Monitoring the wear on teeth by comparing study casts is a good way to maintain control but there are circumstances when restorations are indicated, perhaps when further delay may result in the prognosis of the teeth being compromised. Following a brief introduction to causes of bulimia and the consequences to the dentition, this paper, based on a literature review, considers patient-orientated techniques for prevention and provisional management of erosion of dental hard tissues for patients with bulimia nervosa. PMID:11695131

  20. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  1. Nuclear-accident dosimetry: measurements at the Los Alamos SHEBA critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilik, D.G.; Martin, R.W.; Fuller, D.

    1981-07-01

    Criticality dosimeters were exposed to different degraded neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra from the Los Alamos Solution High Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA). The liquid critical test assembly was operated in the continuous mode to provide a mixed source of neutron and gamma-ray radiation for the evaluation of Los Alamos criticality detector systems. Different neutron and gamma-ray spectra were generated by operating the reactor (a) shielded by 12 cm of Lucite, (b) unshielded, (c) shielded by 20 cm of concrete, and (d) shielded by 15 cm of steel. This report summarizes the dosimetry measurements conducted for these different configurations. In-air measurements were conducted with shielded and unshielded area and personnel dosimeters. Phantom measurements were made using personnel dosimeters. Combined blood-sodium and hair sulfur activation measurements of absorbed dose were also made. In addition, indium foils placed on phantoms were evaluated for the purpose of screening personnel for radiation exposure.

  2. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides E Appendix E to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. E Appendix E to Part 273—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides E Appendix E to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. E Appendix E to Part 273—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling...

  4. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  5. PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES TO PREVENT THE INTRODUCTION OF INVASIVE SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses phytosanitary measures from the standpoint of invasive species. It lists many problems facing regulators, such as global climate changes, increased quantity and variety of trade, environmental degradation, and smuggling. Phytosanitary measures are divided into those requirin...

  6. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours. PMID:17085914

  7. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  8. [Road accidents morbidity and mortality in district of Vrancea].

    PubMed

    Duma, Odetta

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, road accidents represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The present paper is a descriptive study of the most important factors involved in road accidents appearance from the district of Vrancea, in year 2001 and assesses the gravity of premature deaths using potential years of lost life (PYLL). In this district, the level of PYLL due to road accidents in male is significant higher in comparison with female (964 and respectively 408), these data being in concordance with PYLL of the entire country. The most frequent causes involved in road accidents are related to human factor and less to vehicle or road conditions. This category of trauma and deaths may be entirely prevented through educational, law, control or technical measures and using descriptive epidemiological data regarding road traffic. PMID:14974230

  9. An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: the crash of Comair Flight 5191.

    PubMed

    Pruchnicki, Shawn A; Wu, Lora J; Belenky, Gregory

    2011-05-01

    On 27 August 2006 at 0606 eastern daylight time (EDT) at Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY (LEX), the flight crew of Comair Flight 5191 inadvertently attempted to take off from a general aviation runway too short for their aircraft. The aircraft crashed killing 49 of the 50 people on board. To better understand this accident and to aid in preventing similar accidents, we applied mathematical modeling predicting fatigue-related degradation in performance for the Air Traffic Controller on-duty at the time of the crash. To provide the necessary input to the model, we attempted to estimate circadian phase and sleep/wake histories for the Captain, First Officer, and Air Traffic Controller. We were able to estimate with confidence the circadian phase for each. We were able to estimate with confidence the sleep/wake history for the Air Traffic Controller, but unable to do this for the Captain and First Officer. Using the sleep/wake history estimates for the Air Traffic Controller as input, the mathematical modeling predicted moderate fatigue-related performance degradation at the time of the crash. This prediction was supported by the presence of what appeared to be fatigue-related behaviors in the Air Traffic Controller during the 30 min prior to and in the minutes after the crash. Our modeling results do not definitively establish fatigue in the Air Traffic Controller as a cause of the accident, rather they suggest that had he been less fatigued he might have detected Comair Flight 5191's lining up on the wrong runway. We were not able to perform a similar analysis for the Captain and First Officer because we were not able to estimate with confidence their sleep/wake histories. Our estimates of sleep/wake history and circadian rhythm phase for the Air Traffic Controller might generalize to other air traffic controllers and to flight crew operating in the early morning hours at LEX. Relative to other times of day, the modeling results suggest an elevated risk of fatigue

  10. Accident profile of older people in Antalya City Center, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Levent; Gokkoca, Zuhal

    2003-01-01

    Accidents are major health problems leading to deaths and injuries among older people. The present study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the accidents experienced within the last 1 year in people aged 60 years and older living in Antalya City Center. The study was planned as a cross-sectional research. A total of 840 individuals selected from the study population with cluster-sampling method were used in questionnaires. A number of 163 (19.4%) individuals had at least one accident in the last year. A total of 178 accidents were reported within the last 1-year; 124 (69.7%) falls, 22 (12.4%) traffic accidents and 12 (6.7%) dropping of objects to head. The accidents occurred mostly at home (40.4%), at avenue-street etc. (31.5%), and in garden (8.4%). The result of logistic regression analysis revealed that accident frequency was positively related with female gender (odds=1.79, P<0.05), disability of lower extremities (odds=1.63, P<0.05) and hearing impairment (odds=2.01, P<0.05) whereas it was negatively related with living in detached house (odds=0.41, P<0.05). It was found that accidents caused health (82.0%) and financial (38.2%) problems in elderly and also the disabilities in daily activities (66.3%). Average numbers of days with disability in daily activities were 21.1 in 1 year per accident and 5.7 in 1 year per individual. Occurrence of health problems and disability in daily activities were more frequent among women compared to men (P<0.05). Methods like environmental measures or educational programs to prevent accidents and accident-related injuries must be focused on defined risk groups and places where the accidents occur more frequently. Future researches about the effectiveness of prevention in elderly on accident frequency, mortality and morbidity are needed to deal with this current problem. PMID:12888223

  11. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. PMID:26789364

  12. Accidents in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, J. Arthur

    1964-01-01

    The causes of injury to 17,141 children brought to the emergency department of a large pediatric hospital in one year were studied. The leading causes of injury were: falls, 5682; cuts or piercings, 1902; poisonings, 1597; and transportation accidents, 1368. Included in these are 587 falls on or down stairs, 401 cuts due to glass, 630 poisonings from household or workshop substances, 510 poisonings from salicylate tablets, and 449 accidents involving bicycles or tricycles. Other findings included 333 injuries to fingers or hands in doors, usually car doors; 122 instances of pulled arms; 384 ingestions and 53 inhalations of foreign bodies; 60 alleged sexual assaults, 58 chemical burns, 127 wringer injuries, and four attempted suicides. A rewarding opportunity in accident prevention exists for hospitals that undertake to compile and distribute pertinent source data. PMID:14201260

  13. Measuring trainer fidelity in the transfer of suicide prevention training

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wendi F.; Pisani, Anthony R.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; McMahon, Marcie; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding effective and efficient models to train large numbers of suicide prevention interventionists, including ‘hotline’ crisis counselors, is a high priority. Train-the-trainer (TTT) models are widely used but understudied. Aims To assess the extent to which trainers following TTT delivered the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) program with fidelity, and to examine fidelity across two trainings and seven training segments. Methods We recorded and reliably rated trainer fidelity, defined as adherence to program content and competence of program delivery, for 34 newly trained ASIST trainers delivering the program to crisis center staff on two separate occasions. A total of 324 observations were coded. Trainer demographics were also collected. Results On average, trainers delivered two-thirds of the program. Previous training was associated with lower levels of trainer adherence to the program. 18% of trainers' observations were rated as solidly competent. Trainers did not improve fidelity from their first to second training. Significantly higher fidelity was found for lectures and lower fidelity was found for interactive training activities including asking about suicide and creating a safe plan. Conclusions We found wide variability in trainer fidelity to the ASIST program following TTT and few trainers had high levels of both adherence and competence. More research is needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of TTT models. PMID:24901061

  14. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  15. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  16. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Pt. 274, App. A Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive...

  18. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Pt. 274, App. A Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive...

  19. Measuring the preventability of adverse drug reactions in France: A 2015 overview.

    PubMed

    Olivier-Abbal, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has gradually gained ground as an additional criterion for assessing drug-related risk, alongside seriousness, causality mechanism of action or frequency. However, the definition of preventability itself remains a concept that needs to be defined clearly so as to compare study results. After an overview of the current methods of measuring preventability, which include a French instrument, this work proposes a synthesis of the French studies assessing the preventability of ADRs over the last 30 years. Measuring preventability is important to classify ADRs as preventable/not preventable, but the ultimate aim remains to characterize these preventable ADRs, highlighting the clinical situations and drug classes related to the risk. It is then possible to provide targeted clinical actions to correct these situations and improve the clinical use of these drugs. Thus, assessing medical preventability should address the causes of ADRs and not the responsibility of healthcare professionals. Finally, certain ideas are proposed to improve the French scale and pursue its validation. PMID:27080838

  20. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. PMID:25886711

  1. Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Kandyala, Reena; Raghavendra, Sumanth Phani C; Rajasekharan, Saraswathi T

    2010-01-01

    Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon known for its wide usage in tissue processing, staining and cover slipping in the histology laboratory. The hazards of xylene are well documented, making it a potential occupational hazard for the histopathological technicians. As every other profession became cautious of the occupational hazards, the very speciality that identifies the illnesses became one of the last to become aware and remedy its own hazards. This review article aims to discuss the toxicity of xylene and safety measures to counteract the hazards and enlists the pros and cons of using various substitutes that claim to be much safer, better and faster. PMID:21180450

  2. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  3. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Error processing SSI file Connect with us: Enter Search Term(s): Skip to main content Toggle navigation Home Tools & Protocols Undiagnosed Hypertension Self-Measured Blood Pressure ...

  4. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a... information: (1) Date, time, and approximate duration of the release; (2) Chemical(s) released; (3)...

  10. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a... information: (1) Date, time, and approximate duration of the release; (2) Chemical(s) released; (3)...

  11. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media. PMID:24445055

  12. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model. PMID:27376994

  13. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  14. Prevention of Home-Related Injuries of Preschoolers: Safety Measures Taken by Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khameesa, Nedaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of safety measures taken by mothers to prevent serious injuries to their pre-school children in the home, and the factors that influence mothers' behaviour in taking these safety measures. Design: A self-completion questionnaire based on a Five Level Likert Scale was used in the study.…

  15. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases. PMID:25282798

  16. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consistency, controlling for abstinence, and type of sex. Of 215 studies reviewed, 109 studies (51%) measured condom use as a primary outcome. Outcomes were stratified by partner type in 47 studies (43%). Assessing condom use at last sex was the most common measurement. Consistency of condom use was assessed in 47 studies (43%). Developing and utilizing standards for condom use measurement would increase comparability of findings across studies and benefit HIV prevention research. Recommendations include measuring condom use at last sex, frequency of condom use, and number of protected sex acts in studies evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions on sexual risk behavior. PMID:24197972

  17. [Evaluation of a program for changing attitudes in pre-drivers to prevent road accidents related to drink-driving in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Filella Guiu, Gemma; Jariot Garcia, Mercè; Montané Capdevila, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This study appraises the results of an intervention to prevent drink-driving in a cohort of pre-drivers in the region of Catalonia (Spain). The program applied, based on attitude change, sets out to reduce significantly the risk of being involved in drink-driving. A classic quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with control group was used, and two questionnaires were applied: a general one measuring several risk factors, and another one specifically addressing the question of alcohol. The study was carried out with three groups: a) experimental 1, which received the entire program, b) experimental 2, which received a part of the program, and c) control, which did not receive the benefits of the program. Results from the factor analysis (PCA) and the repeated-measures ANOVA suggest that young pre-drivers who received the program obtained better results in road safety and showed less risk of drink-driving than those who did not receive the program or received only part of it. Significant differences were also found between men and women. The results confirm the effectiveness of the attitude-change program and the possibility of reducing alcohol use among young pre-drivers. PMID:21814714

  18. Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure to prevent skin cancer methodology and measurement.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Mayer, Joni A

    2005-08-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and is also one of the most preventable. This paper builds on an evidence review of skin cancer prevention interventions that was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (n=85 studies), and summarizes the state of knowledge about research methodology and measurement in studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. As this field advances, researchers should strive to minimize threats to validity in their study designs, as well as to consider the balance between internal and external validity. There is a need for more longer-duration interventions, and follow-up periods that make possible conclusions about the potential of these interventions to affect intermediate markers of skin cancer or at least sustained behavior change. Also, more work is needed to minimize attrition and characterize nonresponders and study dropouts. Verbal report measures of behavior are the most widely used measures of solar protection behavior. Given their limitations, investigators should routinely collect data about reliability and validity of those measures. They should also increase efforts to complement verbal data with objective measures including observations, skin reflectance, personal dosimetry, skin swabbing, and inspection of moles. Measures of environments and policies should incorporate observations, documentation, and direct measures of ambient UVR and shade. This article places the data derived from the evidence review in the context of needs and recommendations for future research in skin cancer prevention. PMID:16005810

  19. Burden, distribution and impact of domestic accidents in a semi-urban area of coastal Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Stalin, P; Senthilvel, V; Kanimozhy, K; Singh, Zile; Rajkamal, R; Purty, Anil J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of domestic accidents, describe the factors associated with domestic accidents and assess the medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-urban area of Tamil Nadu during February 2013. A total of 3947 study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Study variables included were socio-demography, housing conditions, epidemiological factors, medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Means and proportions were calculated. The prevalence of domestic accidents was 12.7%. Out of 500 domestic accidents, falls (54.4%) was the most common type of domestic accident. Females and the respondents in age group of 21-40 years were more commonly affected. About 60% of victims received treatment. Mean duration of hospital stay, mean amount of money spent for treatment and mean number of days away from routine work for falls category were 16 days, US$25 and 8 days, respectively, which are higher than other types of accidents. The burden and impact of domestic accidents was high. Therefore, in order to prevent and control domestic accidents, promotion of house safety measures and creation of awareness among the community using IEC programmes have to be undertaken. PMID:24025116

  20. Analysis of the reasons for accidents and of protective measures against induced voltage on aerial electrical transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Misrikhanov, M. Sh.; Mirzaabdullaev, A. O.

    2009-01-15

    The problem of safety during work on aerial transmission lines under an induced voltage is examined. Results are presented from a study of the causes of accidents over the last 20 years in electrical grids in this country. A determination of different levels of induced voltage on disconnected aerial transmission lines as a function of their grounding scheme is proposed. The order of magnitudes for each level are given, along with approximate expressions for calculating them.

  1. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  2. [The prevention measures of plague in Hebei from 1946 to 1948].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ge

    2010-05-01

    The plague was seriously occurred in Hebei from 1946 to 1948, which had a great impact on the local social economy and people's life. The public health system was established by the government, and people were instructed about the knowledge of health consciousness and life habits for controlling effectively the plague. The measures of giving medicine freely and social assistance were taken for preventing the plague in the folk. Thus, the plague was controlled in a short time. However, the effect of prevention was limited by the objective conditions. The color of western medicine was showed from these measures, and the "modernity" of the system at that time was indicated. PMID:21029708

  3. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

    2005-09-12

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive. PMID:15927286

  4. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary. PMID:24738521

  5. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures. PMID:18642168

  6. Typical accidents encountered by assembly workers: six scenarios for safety planning identified using multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, L; Backström, T; Döös, M

    1993-08-01

    This study highlights the most typical accidents encountered by assembly workers employed in a variety of different workshops at a large automobile and truck factory in Sweden. Following site visits and the collection of data from accident registers, statistics on 28 accident characteristics were compiled on the basis of the 145 accidents involving assemblers in 1986 and 1987. For data treatment, two statistical methods complemented one another: the factorial analysis of correspondence (FAC) and the hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC). Six typical accident profiles were extensively portrayed, quantified, and illustrated graphically: overexertion; falls and stumbling; injuries related to the handling of tools; superficial wounds to the (left) hand; cuts/pinches from moving machine parts and the handling of objects; miscellaneous blows from work pieces. The distribution of these types of accidents across the workshops was studied. It is emphasized that the search for typical accident patterns using multivariate statistical methods helps to structure and define the accident problems of a target group and therefore provides benefits for the evaluation of the need for preventive measures. PMID:8357453

  7. PA03.05. Masha taila as a preventive measure in gulpha marma injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Dhaded, Rajani; Kulkarni, BG

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In Basketball game Gulpha Marma injuries are common. Wrong landing causes inflammation & tearing of ligament resulting into sprain. Prevention can be carried out by protective wears like Ankelet,crape bandge which gives temporary recovery. Assessment and evaluation of the application of Masha Taila as a Snehana and Avagaha Sweda as a preventive measure for Gulpha Marma injuries. Method: 30 players with Normal ankle joint (Group A) & 30 players with Ankle sprain (1st degree) of Basketball players (Group B) were taken with age group 13 to 25 yrs. Goniometer to measure Range of motion (R.O.M.), pain analog scale for pain gradation. Result: Group A and B were compared with their control groups. The statistical result for normal dorsiflexion was 0.0007 degree, plantar flexion 0.001 degree, dorsi flexion of ankle sprain players 0.002 degree, plantar flexion 0.03 degree. The measurement of ROM of all players increased by 510 times indicating increased joint flexibility, based on ROM Mash taila proved to be a preventive measure. Pain analog scale for group B players indicated moderate pain at 0 day,reduced by 50% on 15th day and completely reduced on 30th day. Conclusion: “Prevention is better than cure”. As a preventive aspect the application of Masha Taila in normal ankle joint as Snehan & Swedan with warm water increases flexibility of joint and muscle strength. In sprained joint the same Taila application relives pain and regains its movements, this recovery and strength of joints happens because of reduce adhesion & influence the direction of new collage fibres in the healing process. It eliminates toxic accumulation from secondary muscle spasm. These Marma being the vital points must be prevented by applying Snehan & Swedan before starting the game just as warm up.

  8. Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R): a performance-based measure of executive function in people with mild cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M Tracy; Giles, Gordon Muir; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M; Dromerick, Alexander W; Polatajko, Helene J; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes a performance-based measure of executive function, the Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R), and examines its ability to discriminate between people with mild cerebrovascular accident (mCVA) and control participants. METHOD. We compared the MET-R scores and measures of CVA outcome of 25 participants 6 mo post-mCVA and 21 matched control participants. RESULTS. Participants with mCVA showed no to minimal impairment on measures of executive function at hospital discharge but reported difficulty with community integration at 6 mo. The MET-R discriminated between participants with and without mCVA (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSION. The MET-R is a valid and reliable measure of executive functions appropriate for the evaluation of clients with mild executive function deficits who need occupational therapy to fully participate in community living. PMID:23791321

  9. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks. PMID:27289189

  10. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and preventive measures. 549.15 Section 549.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training...

  11. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas...

  12. Evaluating a Peer-Led, Theatrical Sexual Assault Prevention Program: How Do We Measure Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Jun, Mi Kyun

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test…

  13. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas...

  14. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Pt. 274, App. A Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on...

  15. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 192.7), section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional measures to protect the high... and the root cause analysis to support identification of targeted additional preventative and..., unstable suspension bridge) is a threat to the integrity of a covered segment, the operator must...

  16. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 192.7), section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional measures to protect the high... and the root cause analysis to support identification of targeted additional preventative and..., unstable suspension bridge) is a threat to the integrity of a covered segment, the operator must...

  17. Reliability and Validity of Self-Report Measures to Evaluate Drug and Violence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli; Perry, Cheryl L.; Munson, Karen A.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation plan for the Minnesota D.A.R.E. Plus Project, a drug and violence prevention program for young adolescents, and to present the results of psychometric analyses on the measures that will be used in the assessment of the intervention program. The survey instrument was tested using different…

  18. Dynamics of preventive vs post-diagnostic cancer control using low-impact measures

    PubMed Central

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer poses danger because of its unregulated growth, development of resistance, and metastatic spread to vital organs. We currently lack quantitative theory for how preventive measures and post-diagnostic interventions are predicted to affect risks of a life threatening cancer. Here we evaluate how continuous measures, such as life style changes and traditional treatments, affect both neoplastic growth and the frequency of resistant clones. We then compare and contrast preventive and post-diagnostic interventions assuming that only a single lesion progresses to invasive carcinoma during the life of an individual, and resection either leaves residual cells or metastases are undetected. Whereas prevention generally results in more positive therapeutic outcomes than post-diagnostic interventions, this advantage is substantially lowered should prevention initially fail to arrest tumour growth. We discuss these results and other important mitigating factors that should be taken into consideration in a comparative understanding of preventive and post-diagnostic interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06266.001 PMID:26111339

  19. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  20. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  1. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  2. [The change in efficiency of protective measures for reduction of 137Cs accumulation by agricultural plants in various periods after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Aleksakhin, R M; Muzalevskaia, A A

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of 137Cs transfer factors to plants and the effects of protective measures on this radionuclide accumulation in the agricultural production is estimated on the example of the south-western regions of Bryansk District. Three periods in decreasing the 137Cs content in plants during 20 years after the Chernobyl accident are identified. The contribution of radionuclide decay, natural biogeochemical processes and protective measures aimed at reduction of the 137Cs accumulation in agricultural plants during various periods after radioactive fallout is shown. Maximum permissible levels of 137Cs contamination of cultivated lands, where crop products meeting current standards may be obtained, at different scopes of protective measures on radioactive-contaminated territories are forecasted. Periods after radioactive fallout, when crop and forage products meeting radiological standards are obtained, are assessed. PMID:21520624

  3. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Morrissey, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO/sub 2/ and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC/sub 2/ particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO/sub 2/ particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC/sub 2/ particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium.

  4. An evaluation of EU legislation concerning risk assessment and preventive measures in occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Naumanen, Paula; Hirvonen, Maria L

    2012-09-01

    The European Council Directive 89/391/EC of 12 June 1989 is concerned with the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the occupational safety and health. For example, it deals with risk assessment and preventive measures. The Finnish legislation enacts the risk assessment and prevention measures in a similar way as the EU Directive 89/391/EC. The aim of this study was to examine: 1) the implementation of risk assessment process as a part of OSH management, and 2) the effectiveness of the OSH legislation concerned with risk assessment. The quantitative method involved an online questionnaire. The respondents were employers (N = 1478), workers (N = 1416) and occupational care (OHC) professionals' units (N = 469). Three quarters of the employer respondents and two thirds of the workers and OHC service providers felt that the EU legislative provisions have promoted the engagement of the management. According to the study, improvement is needed in ensuring the cooperation between employers and workers. The combined variables of Risk Assessment Process revealed positive impacts both on Cooperation and Management Measures and on the Concrete Preventive Measures among the employers and the workers. The combined variables of Use of Documents of Risk Assessments highlighted positive impacts on both the Exploiting of Results of Risk Assessments in Planning and Management and on the Exploiting of Results of Risk Assessment in Cooperation and Technology. PMID:22233692

  5. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  6. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  7. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  8. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  9. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  10. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  11. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  12. Methods for Linking Community Views to Measureable Outcomes in a Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A.; Walker, Alia; Branas, Charles C.; TenHave, Thomas R.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Leff, Stephen S.; Hausman, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Background All parties in community–academic partnerships have a vested interest prevention program success. Markers of success that reflect community’s experiences of programmatic prevention success are not always measurable, but critically speak to community-defined needs. Objective The purpose of this manuscript was to (1) describe our systematic process for linking locally relevant community views (community-defined indicators) to measurable outcomes in the context of a youth violence prevention program and (2) discuss lessons learned, next steps, and recommendations for others trying to replicate a similar process. Methods A research team composed of both academic and community researchers conducted a systematic process of matching community-defined indicators of youth violence prevention programmatic success to standardized youth survey items being administered in the course of a program evaluation. The research team of three community partners and Five academic partners considered 43 community-defined indicators and 208 items from the youth surveys being utilized within the context of a community-based aggression prevention program. At the end of the matching process, 92 youth survey items were identified and agreed upon as potential matches to 11 of the community-defined indicators. Conclusions We applied rigorous action steps to match community-defined indicators to survey data collected in the youth violence prevention intervention. We learned important lessons that inform recommendations for others interested in such endeavors. The process used to derive and assess community-defined indicators of success emphasized the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and use of existing and available data to reduce participant burden. PMID:23221296

  13. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  14. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  15. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes. PMID:26860276

  16. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  17. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  18. Measurement of 129 I and 137 Cs in soils from Belarus and reconstruction of 131I deposition from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Marchetti, A A; Voigt, G; Minenko, V; Gu, F; Men, P; Trofimik, S; Tretyakevich, S; Drozdovitch, V; Shagalova, E; Zhukova, O; Germenchuk, M; Berlovich, S

    2006-07-01

    I and Cs have been measured in a large number of soil samples collected throughout the country of Belarus to support efforts for thyroid-dose reconstruction following the Chernobyl accident. Samples of soil consisting of multiple 30-cm-deep cores per site were sampled following a selection process to ensure sites were undisturbed and representative. Samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for I, gamma spectrometry for Cs, and gas chromatography (GC) for total iodine. Results show that both I and Cs are retained firmly in the top approximately 15 to 20 cm of the soil. Our results also suggest that the correlation between I and Cs deposition across the country of Belarus is poor; hence, I is a better surrogate for I than is Cs. It was also noted that total iodine concentrations in topsoil from Belarus are low compared with other regions of the world where radiogenic thyroid cancer has been studied. PMID:16775475

  19. Modeling and Preventive Measures of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time. PMID:24633146

  20. Survey of use of malaria prevention measures by Canadians visiting India

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, C C; Anvar, A; Keystone, J S; Kain, K C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is an increasing problem, particularly among new immigrant populations. The objective of this study was to determine the malaria prevention measures used by Canadians originating from a malaria-endemic area when returning to visit their country of origin. METHODS: A 35-item English-language questionnaire was administered by interview to travellers at a departure lounge at Pearson International Airport, Toronto, between January and June 1995. Information was collected on subject characteristics, travel itinerary, perceptions about malaria, and pretravel health advice and malaria chemoprophylaxis and barriers to their use. RESULTS: A total of 324 travellers departing on flights to India were approached, of whom 307 (95%) agreed to participate in the study. Participants were Canadian residents of south Asian origin with a mean duration of residence in Canada of 12.8 years. Most of the respondents were returning to visit relatives for a mean visit duration of 6.8 weeks. Although 69% of the respondents thought malaria was a moderate to severe illness and 54% had sought advice before travelling, only 31% intended to use any chemoprophylaxis, and less than 10% were using measures to prevent mosquito bites. Only 7% had been prescribed a recommended drug regimen. Family practitioners were the primary source of information for travellers and were more likely to prescribe an inappropriate chemoprophylactic regimen than were travel clinics or public health centres (76% v. 36%) (p = 0.003). Respondents who had lived in Canada longest and those with a family history of malaria were more likely to use chemoprophylaxis (p < 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Few travellers were using appropriate chemoprophylaxis and mosquito prevention measures. Misconceptions about malaria risk and appropriate prevention measures were the main barriers identified. PMID:9951440

  1. Outdoor Hazards & Preventive Measures: West Nile Virus: A Clinical Commentary for the Camp Health Care Community; Poison Ivy: A Primer for Prevention; Lyme Disease Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Ellen; Bauer, Holly; Ratner-Connolly, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Transmitted by mosquitos, West Nile virus may cause serious illness, but the actual likelihood of infection is low. Prevention, implications, and recommendations for camps are discussed. Poison ivy identification, treatment, and complications are presented; a prevention quiz is included. Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are described, as are…

  2. Factors associated with reduced compliance of children to dental preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Bidoosi, Mervat; Levin, Liran

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to record self-reported factors for non-compliance to 'dental home' preventive measures among pediatric patients, and to clarify whether number or frequency of recall appointments increases their long-term compliance to dental home. Children attending recall appointments in a pediatric dental clinic were interviewed regarding their compliance as well as factors for non-compliance with the previously recommended preventive measures. Files of 651 children were analyzed. A significant positive correlation was found between compliance with regular teeth brushing twice a day (p < 0.0001), using correct fluoride concentration toothpaste (p < 0.0001), drinking water between meals (p < 0.0001), using Elmex gel (p < 0.0001), flossing (p < 0.002) and number of recall appointments. The most common factor for non-compliance to 'dental home' was 'I forgot'. Not flossing was commonly justified by performance difficulty while non-compliance to Elmex gel or to mouth rinses was attributed mainly to 'bad taste'. Additional common reasons were 'it was finished', 'my parents did not purchase', 'I did not find it at home', 'I did not know I need to'. Frequency and number of recall appointments might improve compliance with dental preventive measures. Referring to the specific factors of personal non-compliance may increase compliance. PMID:21698350

  3. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan's current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 x 10(-8) (95th percentile: 3.20 x 10(-7)). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  4. [Hidden statistics of traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, E L; Larsen, C F; Jørgensen, H R

    1989-10-23

    Only 19% of the 3,071 injured persons who were treated in the casualty department of Odense Hospital following traffic accidents in 1987 could be found again in the police registers of traffic accidents from the same region. All of the registrations from the police registers from the central region could be found again in the casualty department. In 1971, the corresponding coverage was 36%. The degree of coverage is particularly low for single bicycle accidents, other bicycle accidents, other single accidents and the hours immediately after midnight. Considerable disagreement exists concerning registration of the use of safety belts and crash helmets. In Odense, the municipal road authorities utilize the localization of the accidents reported by the casualty department. The decrease in the degree of coverage is due mainly to an increasing proportion of bicycle accidents. Where casualties require admission to hospital, the coverage is approximately 75%. This has remained unchanged throughout the years and it is therefore suggested that this proportion should be employed as indicator of the effect of the majority of prophylactic measures. In addition, proposals are made for simplification of the police registration forms. PMID:2588362

  5. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  6. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  7. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  8. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  9. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  10. [Safety assessment of a Brazilian company based on analysis of work accidents by the causal tree method].

    PubMed

    Binder, M C; Pham, D; de Almeida, I M

    1998-01-01

    We present here the results of a study of 21 work-related accidents that occurred in a Brazilian manufacturing company. The aim was to assess the safety level of the company to improve its work accident prevention policy. In the last 6 months of 1992 and 1993, all accidents resulting in 15 days' absence from work, reported for social security purposes, were analyzed using the INRS causal tree method (ADC) and a questionnaire completed on site. Potential risk factors for accidents were identified based on the specific factors highlighted by the ADC. More universal trees were also compiled for the safety assessment. Three hundred and thirty specific accident factors were recorded (mean of 15.71 per accident). This is consistent with there being multiple causes of accidents rather than the assertion of Brazilian business safety departments that accidents are due to "dangerous" or "unsafe" behavior. Introducing the idea of culpability into accidents prevents the implementation of an appropriate information feedback process, essential for effective prevention. However, the large number of accidents related to "material" (78%) and "environment" (70%) indicates that working conditions are poor. This shows that the technical risks, mostly due to unsafe machinery and equipment are not being dealt with. Seventy-five potential accident factors were identified. Of these, 35% were "organizational", a high proportion for the company studied. Improvisation occurs at all levels, particularly at the organizational level. This is thus a major determinant for entire series of, if not most, accident situations. The poor condition of equipment also plays a major role in accidents. The effects of poor equipment on safety exacerbate the organizational shortcomings. The company's safety intervention policy should improve the management of human resources (rules designating particular workers for particular workstations; instructions for the safe operation of machines and equipment

  11. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments. PMID:20823633

  12. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D D), and surveillance and maintenance (S M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  13. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), and surveillance and maintenance (S&M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  14. Accident involvement and attitudes towards hazards and countermeasures in a Swedish rural population.

    PubMed

    Jansson, B; Eriksson, C G

    1990-06-01

    Research on the resistance to implementation of effective injury control measures is needed. An important task is to identity factors or circumstances that influence the possibilities of taking active safety measures, and also factors that may limit or hinder such efforts. The objective of this study was to describe the farmers' own attitudes towards farm accident hazards and their interest in participating in preventive measures. The study is part of a project to develop systems for injury surveillance and control in Swedish emergency care. A standardised questionnaire for telephone interviews was used. All patients who had consulted an emergency department during a one-year period for injuries caused by accidents on 2,454 farms in two Swedish rural municipalities were interviewed. The results demonstrated that adults, especially young adults with small children, seem to be most conscious of accident risks and best motivated for participation in active safety measures, e.g. safety education. PMID:2367824

  15. A Review of Medication Errors in Iran: Sources, Underreporting Reasons and Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Ava; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Khoee, Seyed Hamid; Dastan, Farzaneh; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2014-01-01

    Medication error (ME) is the most common preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. Inadequate, low-quality studies plus wide estimation variations in ME from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. To clarify sources, underreporting reasons and preventive measures of MEs, we reviewed Iran current available literature. We searched Scopus, WOS, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID) up to October 2012. Two authors independently selected and one reviewed and extracted data. Results reported by more than 30% of studies considered as the most important topics. Finally 25 articles were included. All study designs were cross-sectional (except for two interventional studies) and in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most observed populations. Individual factor, with “inadequate knowledge of medication” as its most frequent reason, were the mostly reported source of MEs. Fear and reporting process were two most important reporting barriers. The sense of being reprimanded and ignoring to report respectively were their most frequent factors. Anti-infectives were the most frequent drugs involved in MEs. Preventive measures were varied and reporting of their effectiveness was inconsistent. There are still many research gaps which need to be explored by further studies. Based on our findings, further researches may be focused on design, implementation, and evaluation of a ME reporting system as groundwork, assessing systems-related factors to ME alongside individual factors and evaluating the effectiveness of preventive measures for MEs in trials. PMID:24734052

  16. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  17. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis. PMID:25307274

  18. The relation between shift work, sleepiness, fatigue and accidents in Iranian Industrial Mining Group workers.

    PubMed

    Halvani, Gholam Hossein; Zare, Mohsen; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Jalil

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the rate of fatigue and sleepiness around the shift and non-shift workers and its relation to occupational accidents. This was a cross-sectional study on the workers of Iranian Industrial Mining Group. They included 137 shift workers as the case and 130 non-shift workers as the control. A multi-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, Piper Fatigue Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were applied. The chi(2) test and t-test were used to measure differences between variables. The mean of PFS scores in the two groups was significantly different (p=0.045), but the difference in the mean of ESS scores was not significant. Shift workers with the reported accident had a higher score on fatigue than shift workers with no accident (p<0.001) whereas the difference in the number of accidents in the two groups was not related significantly to the rate of sleepiness. The rate of fatigue and the number of the work accidents was more in the shift workers. Also, fatigue had a stronger relationship with the occupational accidents as compared to sleepiness. It seems that evaluation of fatigue as compared to sleepiness is a more accurate factor for preventing work accidents. PMID:19367041

  19. [Characteristics of occupational accidents in the building industry and public works in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Sarr, E H; Ouatara, B; Sow, M L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to appreciate the magnitude of work accidents in a building construction sector, to specify their type and characteristics. A retrospective study was undergone in a big building construction industry in Senegal. Data were collected from records of accidents reported to the Social Security Administration between 1994--1996. We looked for characteristics of accidents as well as workers involved in accident. 244 accidents were collected in a three years period, i e 81.5/year, 132 work injuries involved temporaryworkers. 55.73% occurred in chantiers, and 1/3 in working room. Moving and handle objects generated most accidents (36,47%). Wounds and contusions were the most frequent lesion (51,62.%). Arms and feets were concerned in 51.63%, and ocular lesions were noticed in 13.94%. These accidents generate an overall number of 3055 days lost. Work injuries in the building construction sector in Senegal are identical to those described in othercountries. Prevention measures requires improvement of working conditions, education of workers and availability of personal protective equipment's. PMID:15773178

  20. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  1. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  2. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupa R; Liang, Stephen Y; Koolwal, Pooja; Kuhlmann, Frederick Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. PMID:25709464

  3. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  4. The four steps in the prevention of human papillomavirus-associated neoplasia: considerations for preventive measures, screening, disease impact, and potential overtreatments in HPV-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Carlo A

    2013-11-01

    There is no cure currently available for HPV infections, although ablative and excisional treatments of some dysplasias often result in a clinical and virological cure. Effective control measures of HPV-associated cancers rely on the prevention at four different levels. Apart from sexual abstinence, primary prevention is realized through vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types: negative attitudes towards HPV vaccination and high costs are the main obstacles. The aim of secondary prevention is to detect precancerous changes before they develop into invasive cancer, while tertiary prevention involves actual treatment of high-grade lesions: in many countries routine screening with cytology is being challenged with HPV DNA testing. Quaternary prevention comprehends those actions adopted to mitigate or avoid unnecessary or excessive medical interventions, and may well be addressed in avoiding treatments for low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Though some gynecologists commonly recommend treatment for low-grade disease and women tend to prefer active management if not properly informed, harms arising from unnecessary treatments, increased costs, work overload for second-level health services, and induced psychosocial distress are causing on-going problems. Prevention efforts of genital HPV-associated cancers should concentrate in: (1) enhancing primary prevention through vaccination of all eligible subjects, (2) achieving high levels of adherence to routine screening programs, (3) treating precancerous lesions, and (4) monitoring current guidelines recommendations to avoid overtreatments. Novel research projects should be designed to study the delicate mechanisms of immune response to HPV. PMID:23974280

  5. Accidents to preschool children: comparing family and neighbourhood risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reading, R; Langford, I H; Haynes, R; Lovett, A

    1999-02-01

    Accidental injury in young children is more common among poorer families and in deprived areas but little is known about how these factors interact. This paper describes a study to measure the contribution of individual family factors and area characteristics in determining risk of accidental injury among preschool children. We conducted a population based study of preschool accident and emergency attendances over two years in and around the city of Norwich, UK. Information on individual families was extracted from the district child health information system while "social areas" were constructed from adjacent census enumeration districts with homogeneous social and demographic characteristics. Statistical analysis was by multilevel modelling. Accidental injury rates were much higher in deprived urban neighbourhoods than in affluent areas but the multilevel analysis showed that, for all accidents, much of the variation in rates was accounted for by factors at the individual level i.e. male sex, young maternal age, number of elder siblings and distance from hospital, with a smaller, but independent, influence of living in a deprived neighbourhood. The model for more severe injuries was similar except single parenthood was now significant at the level of individuals and the effect of area deprivation was stronger. We conclude that preschool accidental injuries are influenced by factors operating at both the level of individual families and between areas. This evidence suggests that both social policy changes to improve child care among unsupported young families and targeting accident prevention measures at a local level towards deprived neighbourhoods would reduce accidents. PMID:10077280

  6. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  7. Comparison between modelling and measurement of marine dispersion, environmental half-time and 137Cs inventories after the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Garreau, Pierre; Laguionie, Philippe; Korsakissok, Irène

    2014-03-01

    Contamination of the marine environment following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) represents the most important influx of artificial radioactivity released into the sea ever recorded. The evaluation, in near real time, of the total amount of radionuclide released at sea and of the residence time in coastal waters were ones of challenges for nuclear authorities during this event. In the framework of a crisis situation, a numerical hydrodynamical model has been built and used `as is'. The concomitant use of this numerical model and in situ data allows the comparison of the simulated and measured environmental half-times. A tuning of the wind drag coefficient has been nevertheless necessary to reproduce the evolution of measured inventories of 137Cs and 134Cs between April and June 2011. After tuning, the relative mean absolute error between measured and simulated concentrations for the 849 measurements in the dataset is 69 %, while the relative bias indicates a model underestimation of 4 %. These results confirm the estimates of the source term, i.e. 27 PBq (12-41 PBq) for direct releases and 3 PBq for atmospheric deposition onto the sea. The parameters applied here to simulate atmospheric deposition onto the sea are within the correct order of magnitude for reproducing seawater concentrations. Quantitative inventories of tracers which integrate dispersion and transport processes are useful to test model reliability. It exhausts the model sensibility to meteorological forcing, which remains difficult to appraise to reproduce mid- to long-term transport.

  8. [Examination of Measures for Preventing Exposure in Nurses Who Handle Cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kaoru; Ono, Yuki; Suzuki, Yumi; Omori, Keiko; Matsuda, Mikiko; Sato, Hiroko; Omoto, Eijiro

    2015-12-01

    Health hazards due to long-term exposure to anticancer drugs have been reported among health care professionals. In Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, constant use of personal protective equipment(gloves and mask with face shield)is mandatory, but there is no clear description of the protective gown. To verify the exposure status of nurses while handling cyclophosphamide and the usefulness of a protective gown as a protective measure, urinary concentration of cyclophosphamide was measured for nurses who handled cyclophosphamide. No cyclophosphamide was detected in the urine samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide while wearing protective gowns or in the samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide without protective gowns. This finding suggests that gloves and a mask with a face shield are sufficient for preventing exposure to cyclophosphamide. However, considering that only experienced nurses were included as subjects in this study, we cannot conclude that a protective gown is unnecessary, because inexperienced nurses may be exposed to cyclophosphamide. Our study's findings may be one reference to examine measures for preventing exposure in nurses. PMID:26809304

  9. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  10. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. PMID:26183413

  11. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  12. Disparities in Age at Diabetes Diagnosis Among Asian Americans: Implications for Early Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Becerra, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association between Asian American ethnicity and age at diagnosis for type 2 diabetes using data from the California Health Interview Survey. Survey-weighted unadjusted and adjusted linear regressions were used to obtain mean estimates of age at diagnosis. In the adjusted regression model, ages at diagnosis were 10.5, 8.7, 8.4, and 4.2 years earlier among South Asian, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean populations, respectively, as compared to non-Hispanic whites; no significant difference in age at diagnosis was noted for Chinese and Japanese populations. Recommendations for diabetes screening and preventive measures specific to Asian American populations are warranted. PMID:26355827

  13. Disparities in Age at Diabetes Diagnosis Among Asian Americans: Implications for Early Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association between Asian American ethnicity and age at diagnosis for type 2 diabetes using data from the California Health Interview Survey. Survey-weighted unadjusted and adjusted linear regressions were used to obtain mean estimates of age at diagnosis. In the adjusted regression model, ages at diagnosis were 10.5, 8.7, 8.4, and 4.2 years earlier among South Asian, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean populations, respectively, as compared to non-Hispanic whites; no significant difference in age at diagnosis was noted for Chinese and Japanese populations. Recommendations for diabetes screening and preventive measures specific to Asian American populations are warranted. PMID:26355827

  14. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  15. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks mostly far from intersections in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the perspective of preventive measures, results suggest the necessity of designing education and information campaigns for road users as well as allocating resources for infrastructural interventions and law enforcement in order to address the identified major problems. PMID:22062337

  16. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. PMID:22119284

  17. Ethnic differences in accident rates at work.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C C

    1987-01-01

    The accidents at work of 4482 employees in a car engine machining and assembly plant in south east England were studied retrospectively over a 12 month period. The study population was composed of Asian (22%), white (66%), and West Indian employees (12%). The crude accident rates differed among the groups, the means being Asians 1.58, white 1.23, and West Indians 1.28. There was, however, no consistent ethnic difference after adjustment for other factors such as age, type of job, and duration of service. Accident rates were higher in those employees who were younger, newly employed, and in production jobs. The findings of this research imply that accident prevention programmes should be directed to those factors known to relate to accidents and not to any specific ethnic group. PMID:3828246

  18. Measures to prevent and reduce drug abuse among young people in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khant, U

    1985-01-01

    Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2934106

  19. Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Yang, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. PMID:25617776

  20. Need for Better Blood Pressure Measurement in Developing Countries to Improve Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Perruolo, Eleonora; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is now the foremost cause of disability and is responsible for the highest percentage of attributable death among risk factors. These global changes are mainly due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a consequence of relevant socioeconomic changes occurring during the last decades. Implementation of global prevention efforts urgently needs to be accelerated because of the increasing incidence of haemorrhagic stroke, renal failure, and hypertensive heart disease in developing countries. Blood pressure (BP) measurement has different implications in epidemiological studies performed in low-resource settings. First, the frequency of blood pressure measurement is a simple but reliable indicator of access to healthcare in epidemiological studies, which may disclose the favourable effects of urbanization; the opportunity to have BP measured increases hypertension awareness, facilitates drug treatment, and leads to better achievement of BP control. Second, BP measurement is a key element in cardiovascular risk stratification, focusing solely on the preferred strategy in low-resource settings where costs of biochemical tests might be less sustainable. Third, the issue of obtaining reliable estimation of BP values is crucial to achieve sound data on the burden of hypertension in LMICs, and some aspects of BP measurement, such as the use of reliable automated devices, the number of measurements/visits to achieve a consistent diagnosis of hypertension, and the possible confounding effect of environmental factors, must be closely considered. PMID:25420484

  1. Factor Structure of the Preventive Coping Resources Inventory and Its Relationship to Existing Measures of Stress and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Lambert, Richard G.; Curlette, William L.; Seraphine, Anne E.; Beard, Michelle

    This paper provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the Preventive Coping Resources Inventory (PCRI) instrument designed to measure coping resources useful for prevention based on previous research. It specifically looks at the construct validity of the PCRI; the convergent and discriminate validity of the PCRI with related…

  2. [Prevention of melanoma by sun protective measures in childhood. Temporal changes in awareness of parents].

    PubMed

    Kölmel, K F; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O

    1997-06-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies on risk factors of malignant melanoma confirm the etiologic role of excessive UV-exposure especially in childhood. Preventive educational campaigns directed to parents of pre-school children have been inaugurated in several countries. In Germany the information was distributed by the "Working group for Preventive Measures in Dermatology" in cooperation with different public health institutions and the media starting in 1993. To evaluate the influence of these efforts on the knowledge and behaviour of the parents, two successive cross-sectional studies at all 56 nursery schools using the same standardised questionnaire were performed. The first interview took place in spring 1993 (before the campaign) with 1341 evaluable questionnaires', the second in fall 1994 (after the campaign) with 1150 evaluable questionnaire. The knowledge of the parents on melanoma risk factors was significantly improved in the second interview. Also the parental behavior regarding sun-protective measures when their children were outdoor at the beach or in the garden definitely changed. In 1993 the best textile sun protection was used by 21% of the parents at the beach and 36% in the garden. These numbers rose to 34% (beach) and 57% (garden) by the second interview. The percentage of children with no sunburn recorded during the preceding summer rose from 39% to 51%. According to the child's gender the parental behavior was different between the sexes; boys were always better protected than girls. The design of this study with two cross-sectional surveys in the same populations does not provide a methodologically sound basis for attributing the observed positive changes to the campaign. Without any doubt it can be stated that the parental knowledge and their attention to sun protection in their children showed substantial improvement in the second survey after the campaign. Thus, these results provide some evidence for the success of the preventive activities

  3. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  4. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  5. Radar walking speed measurements of seniors in their apartments: technology for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, Paul E; Yardibi, Tarik; Legenzoff, Zachary J; Liu, Liang; Phillips, Calvin E; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Keller, James; Popescu, Mihail; Back, Jessica; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of injury and accidental death among persons over the age of 65. Gait velocity is one of the parameters which have been correlated to the risk of falling. We aim to build a system which monitors gait in seniors and reports any changes to caregivers, who can then perform a clinical assessment and perform corrective and preventative actions to reduce the likelihood of falls. In this paper, we deploy a Doppler radar-based gait measurement system into the apartments of thirteen seniors. In scripted walks, we show the system measures gait velocity with a mean error of 14.5% compared to the time recorded by a clinician. With a calibration factor, the mean error is reduced to 10.5%. The radar is a promising sensing technology for gait velocity in a day-to-day senior living environment. PMID:23365880

  6. Source term estimation using air concentration measurements and a Lagrangian dispersion model - Experiments with pseudo and real cesium-137 observations from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel

    2015-04-01

    A transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) was created in a previous study using a Lagrangian dispersion model to provide plume predictions under different emission scenarios. The TCM estimates the contribution of each emission period to all sampling locations and can be used to estimate source terms by adjusting emission rates to match the model prediction with the measurements. In this paper, the TCM is used to formulate a cost functional that measures the differences between the model predictions and the actual air concentration measurements. The cost functional also includes a background term which adds the differences between a first guess and the updated emission estimates. Uncertainties of the measurements, as well as those for the first guess of source terms are both considered in the cost functional. In addition, a penalty term is added to create a smooth temporal change in the release rate. The method is first tested with pseudo observations generated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model at the same location and time as the actual observations. The inverse estimation system is able to accurately recover the release rates and performs better than a direct solution using singular value decomposition (SVD). It is found that computing ln(c) differences between model and observations is better than using the original concentration c differences in the cost functional. The inverse estimation results are not sensitive to artificially introduced observational errors or different first guesses. To further test the method, daily average cesium-137 air concentration measurements around the globe from the Fukushima nuclear accident are used to estimate the release of the radionuclide. Compared with the latest estimates by Katata et al. (2014), the recovered release rates successfully capture the main temporal variations. When using subsets of the measured data, the inverse estimation method still manages to identify most of the

  7. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  8. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  9. Motor Vehicle Accident Eye Injuries in Northern Israel

    PubMed Central

    Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and types of motor vehicle accident eye trauma in north Israel. Methods: The records between the years 2007–2011 of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room of one medical center were searched. Eye injuries due to motor vehicle accidents were classified according to type, severity of injury and demographic data of patients. Results: Nearly five percents of ER presentations were due to motor vehicle accidents. Most motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries were mild. Conclusion: Efforts should be taken to prevention and to minimize the severity of motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries. PMID:24747538

  10. Laboratory evaluation of a SpectraMax microplate reader and test strips for field measurement of creatinine in spot urine samples in the event of a radiological accident.

    PubMed

    Daka, Joseph N; Moodie, Gerry; Li, Chunsheng; Wilkins, Ruth; Kramer, Gary H

    2011-08-01

    The fear that terrorists might use radiological or nuclear (RN) devices to attack others is a new but growing phenomenon, arising mainly from the events of 11 September 2001. Research on rapid analytical methods that can allow analyses of large numbers of people who may become internally contaminated with radionuclides due to a RN accident is still limited. To contribute to this bioassay capacity for emergency response, the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada has identified and evaluated two new portable SpectraMax plate readers (model 250 and Plus 384) and one brand of dry reagent strips for rapid measurement of creatinine in spot urine samples. Concentrations of creatinine in spot urine samples provide a means of adjusting or normalizing urine collections to 24 h, upon which accurate internal dose assessments due to the radionuclides can be made. Preliminary test results of the devices showed the two SpectraMax plate readers and the TECO dry creatinine reagent strips were portable, rapid and reliable for urinary creatinine measurements in spot samples, suggesting they can be used in rapid dose screening of people. PMID:21709503

  11. Agglomeration and defluidization in FBC of biomass fuels -- Mechanisms and measures for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, A.; Oehman, M.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of biomass fuels in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and gasification (FBG) is becoming more important because of the environmental benefits associated with these fuel and processes. However, severe bed agglomeration and defluidization have been reported due to the special ash forming constituents of some biomass fuels. Previous results have indicated that this could possibly be prevented by intelligent fuel mixing. In the present work the mechanisms of bed agglomeration using two different biomass fuels as well as the mechanism of the prevention of agglomeration by co-combustion with coal (50/50 %{sub w}) were studied. Several repeated combustion tests with the two biomass fuels, alone (Lucerne and olive flesh), all resulted in agglomeration and defluidization of the bed within less than 30 minutes. By controlled defluidization experiments the initial cohesion temperatures for the two fuels were determined to be as low as 670 C and 940 C, respectively. However, by fuel mixing the initial agglomeration temperature increased to 950 C and more than 1050 C, respectively. When co-combusted with coal during ten hour extended runs, no agglomeration was observed for either of the two fuel mixtures. The agglomeration temperatures were compared with results from a laboratory method, based on compression strength measurements of ash pellets, and results from chemical equilibrium calculations. Samples of bed materials, collected throughout the experimental runs, as well as the produced agglomerated beds, were analyzed using SEM EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that loss of fluidization resulted from formation of molten phases coating the bed materials; a salt melt in the case of Lucerne and a silicate melt in the case of the olive fuel. By fuel mixing, the in-bed ash composition is altered, conferring higher melting temperatures, and thereby agglomeration and defluidization can be prevented.

  12. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  13. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  14. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  15. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures

    PubMed Central

    Braich, Puneet S.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David RP.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread. PMID:26486112

  16. PERIPARTUM DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AS AN INTEGRATIVE CROSS DOMAIN TARGET FOR PSYCHIATRIC PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Jessica A.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Murgatroyd, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24709228

  17. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. PMID:26707071

  18. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  19. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  20. Observational Measures of Implementer Fidelity for a School-based Preventive Intervention: Development, Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wendi; West, Jennifer; Wyman, Peter A.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Teisl, Michael; Brown, C. Hendricks; Forgatch, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in 1st–3rd graders with elevated aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from Year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer-child dyad on Adherence (content) and Competence (quality). Using multi-level modeling we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (Competence, 68%; Adherence, 41%); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw Adherence and Competence scores shared 46% of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (Adherence) and quality (Competence) of program delivered predicted children’s enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after six months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods. PMID:24736951

  1. Observational measures of implementer fidelity for a school-based preventive intervention: development, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wendi; West, Jennifer; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Teisl, Michael; Brown, C Hendricks; Forgatch, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in first-third graders with elevated aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer-child dyad on adherence (content) and competence (quality). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (competence, 68 %; adherence, 41 %); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw adherence and competence scores shared 46 % of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (adherence) and quality (competence) of program delivered predicted children's enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after 6 months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods. PMID:24736951

  2. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  3. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion. PMID:25760111

  4. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    PubMed

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  5. Patterns of injuries and motor-vehicle traffic accidents in Athens.

    PubMed

    Pikoulis, E; Filias, V; Pikoulis, N; Daskalakis, P; Avgerinos, E D; Tavernarakis, G; Belechri, M; Pappa, P; Theos, C; Geranios, A; Gougoudi, E; Leppaniemi, A; Tsatsoulis, P

    2006-09-01

    The extremely high cost of motor-vehicle accidents in public health leads to the necessity of a better injury data collection in the Accident and Emergency Hospital Departments. The 'Asclepeion' of Voula Hospital covers the southeastern suburban areas of the greater Athens area (1,000,000 population). The aim of this study is to present information on the pattern of injuries in Athens, in order to understand the magnitude of the problem and develop rational prevention programmes. Specially trained health visitors of the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS) interviewed in person every injured victim who was brought into the Emergency Service of the 'Asclepeion' of Voula Hospital. The study was performed during a 3-year period, from 1996 to 1998; 4564 persons were interviewed. Traffic accidents were more frequent on weekdays with a seasonal peak in July and among young Greeks (aged 25 - 34 years). The usual type of injuries seen in vehicle-accident victims were cerebral contusion and concussion, while in motorcycle-accident victims, head contusion and fractures. The most common reasons for the accident were excessive speed, poor condition of road, inattention, abstraction or drowsiness and drug effects. A total of 29.8% of motorcycle drivers and 5.7% of motorcycle passengers wore a helmet and 26.3% of car drivers and 14.1% of car passengers were using seatbelts. The identification of road traffic injury patterns can contribute to the development of injury prevention measures and guide rational preventive interventions that can reduce the incidence of these injuries. The EDISS system established at 'Asclepeion' of Voula Emergency Service can provide useful and accurate information about this serious and multidimensional problem of Greek Public Health. PMID:16943163

  6. Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 μm diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources

  7. On school violence in Korean middle school, prevention and reaction measures

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study is aiming to explore the practical and realistic measure in more variable way, which enables us to manage the problems about school violence we are currently facing as well as to overcome limitations in the current situation where we react only with punishments, mainly in the form of the law enforcement, supported by the police. This study was conducted on male and female students (n= 424) and teachers (n= 136) attending at the seven middle schools located in Seoul. The frequency analysis, one way ANOVA F-test, t -test, the multiple regression analysis were applied. Students recognize’ harmful environmental cleanup’ as an important variable or factor to reduce school violence. Also, both teachers and students are aware that ‘regular survey on school violence’ could reduce school violence. In conclusion, it is considered that as an effective and viable prevention measure against school violence, more attention and affection efforts need to be activated and addressed, on the part of home, school, and government, which will enable our young generations of students to be brought up, and take up the future of our country. PMID:25830143

  8. Aspects on feed related prophylactic measures aiming to prevent post weaning diarrhoea in pigs.

    PubMed

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coil as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given nonpathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coil within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  9. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  10. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. PMID:26878632

  11. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  12. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  13. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  14. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  15. The Host-Agent-Environment Concept of Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Don

    Background information is presented to indicate that accidents are an environmental health problem. While accidents are seldom thought to be a disease process, in many ways there are remarkable similarities--not only in terms of causal relationships, but also in preventive aspects. These parallels are described in terms of host-agent-environment…

  16. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Measures of Thyroid Function among Belarusian Children and Adolescents Exposed to Iodine-131 from the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rozhko, Alexander; Hatch, Maureen; Furukawa, Kyoji; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert J.; Nadyrov, Eldar; Petrenko, Sergey; Romanov, George; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Prokopovich, Alexander; Savasteeva, Irina; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Brenner, Alina V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thyroid dysfunction after exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning 131I-related risk of these common diseases. Objective: Our goal was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with 131I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based 131I dose estimates in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases. Results: Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated 131I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range, 0.001–26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of 131I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO. Conclusions: The association between 131I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental 131I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes. PMID:23651658

  18. [Basic measures for prevention of the epidemiological consequences of a natural disaster in the North Caucasus in 2002].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I; Briukhanova, G D; Malashikhin, N T; Vovk, Iu I; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Koval'chuk, I V; Fedosova, G N

    2003-01-01

    The system of organizational and prophylactic measures, carried out with a view to prevent epidemiological aggravations in connection with the natural calamity in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation in 2003, is described. Proposals on the improvement of the system of preventive measures, including the monitoring of the epidemiological, sanitary and hygienic situation, personnel training, technical provision, the cooperation of different services and departments, capable of ensuring the liquidation of the consequences of emergency situations of the natural character, are made. PMID:14716967

  19. Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    A number of preventive measures for the protection of humans against tick-borne diseases were evaluated. Measures involving the avoidance of tick bites with the use of protective clothing and insect repellents are the simplest and most effective. Repellents are applied directly to the skin or clothing and other fabrics, such as bednets, tents and anti-mosquito screens. Currently, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is considered the most efficient arthropod repellent reference substance. The registered and recommended active repellent ingredients for skin and/or cloths application, among others, are: DEET, 1-methyl-propyl-2- (hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), ethyl butylactyloaminopropionate ( IR3535), 1S,2S-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220), racemic 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (AI3-37220) and synthethic pyrethroid - 3-phenoxybenzyl-cis-trans-3(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropancarboxylate (permethrin) - an acaricide with repellent properties. To achieve the protection from tick bites by avoiding attachment and/or engorgement by the arthropod, acaricides with repellent properties, such as synthetic pyrethroid-permethrin are used. This pyrethroid is an acaricide of choice used for clothing impregnation, which is effective for personal protection against all three parasitic stages of western black-legged ticks. Products based on natural compounds, e.g. eugenol from Ocimum basilicum, 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato, geraniol - a natural product extracted from plants, and many others, represent an interesting alternative to common synthetic repellents and/or acaricides. PMID:23311778

  20. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Régia Luzia; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Pereira, José Carlos; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Lauris, José Roberto P; Barbosa, Sílvia Helena

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38) and experimental (43) groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions) was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later) and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization) was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2), however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque) and maternal factors. PMID:12964648

  1. Summary of a workshop on severe accident management for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Jae, M.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Xing, L.; Dhir, V.K.; Lim, H.; Okrent, D.; Swider, J.; Yu, D.

    1991-11-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or alternative resources, systems and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of strategies there may be several options available to the operator; and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrument behavior during an accident. During the period September 26--28, 1990, a workshop was held at the University of California, Los Angeles, to address these uncertainties for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This report contains a summary of the workshop proceedings.

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  3. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  4. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  5. 77 FR 34390 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Amendment to “Guidance for Industry: Revised Preventive Measures To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Amendment (revisions to labeling recommendations for potential risk of vCJD) to `Guidance for Industry: Revised Preventive Measures to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) by Blood and......

  6. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. 50.60 Section 50.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of Licenses and Construction Permits...

  7. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    PubMed

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities. PMID:27412981

  8. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

  9. "MARK I" MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS OCCURRING AS A RESULT OF PRODUCT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for assessing progress in pollution prevention resulting from product redesign, reformulation or replacement is described. The method compares the pollution generated by the original product with that from the modified or replacement product, taking into account, if...

  10. [Facial plastic surgery as preventive measures for psychic lesions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stellmach, R

    1981-06-26

    Facial plastic surgery offers numerous possibilities of removing disfigurements and deformities of the face and thus preventing or curing psychic lesions. The causes of such disturbances are pointed out. In selected examples the relevant aspects in childhood, in adults and in advanced age are emphasized. Up-to-date advances in microsurgical grafting methods and a more aggressive technique in neck-lifting show that successful plastic surgery of the face always has preventive or curative effects on psychic lesions. PMID:6789178

  11. Update on age-appropriate preventive measures and screening for Canadian primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tawnya; Bouchard, Manon; Mavriplis, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the best available age-appropriate, evidence-based guidelines for prevention and screening in Canadian adults. Quality of evidence The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations are the primary source of information, supplemented by relevant US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations when a Canadian task force guideline was unavailable or outdated. Leading national disease-specific or specialty-specific organizations’ guidelines were also reviewed to ensure the most up-to-date evidence was included. Main message Recommended screening maneuvers by age and sex are presented in a summary table highlighting the quality of evidence supporting these recommendations. An example of a template for use with electronic medical records or paper-based charts is presented. Conclusion Whether primary care providers use a dedicated preventive health visit or opportunistic preventive counseling and screening in their patient encounters, this summary of evidence-based recommendations can help maximize efficiency and prevent important omissions and unnecessary screening. PMID:26884526

  12. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  13. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention. PMID:10487350

  14. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  15. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  16. Assessment of Critical Care Provider’s Application of Preventive Measures for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Abchuyeh, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani-Cherati, Jamshid; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of guidelines for the prevention of Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been shown to have a significant effect in reducing the incidence of VAP. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of the preventive strategies for VAP in ICUs of university hospitals of Sari, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 600 beds/day in the ICUs of university hospitals of Sari from April to June 2012. Sampling was done by availability technique in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU. The implementation of the preventive measures was assessed by a standard checklist with previously approved validity and reliability. Results The percentage of implementing each of the measures was as follows: sterile suction, 88.44%; semi-recumbent position, 76.8%; oral hygiene, 58.45%; using heat and moisture exchanges (HMEs), 58%; controlling cuff pressure, 46.8%; hand hygiene, 32.8%; using anti-coagulants, 26.8% and physiotherapy, 25.5%. Closed suction system, continuous drainage of subglottic secretions and kinetic beds were not used at all. Conclusion The overall mean percentage of implementing preventive measures was low and required designing integrated guidelines by considering the conditions of the ICUs in each country, as well as educating and encouraging the staffs to use the recommended guidelines. PMID:26435967

  17. An approach for optimal allocation of safety resources: using the knapsack problem to take aggregated cost-efficient preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of the combination of the well-known knapsack problem and a widely used risk management technique in organizations (that is, the risk matrix), an approach was developed to carry out a cost-benefits analysis to efficiently take prevention investment decisions. Using the knapsack problem as a model and combining it with a well-known technique to solve this problem, bundles of prevention measures are prioritized based on their costs and benefits within a predefined prevention budget. Those bundles showing the highest efficiencies, and within a given budget, are identified from a wide variety of possible alternatives. Hence, the approach allows for an optimal allocation of safety resources, does not require any highly specialized information, and can therefore easily be applied by any organization using the risk matrix as a risk ranking tool. PMID:23551066

  18. Detection criteria and preventive measures for occupational disease in the mines of Almaden (Spain).

    PubMed

    Tejero-Manzanares, J; Español-Cano, S; Montes-Tubio, F P

    2013-11-01

    This research focuses on the metallurgy and underground mining job positions in the historic mines of Almaden (Spain). We introduce a preventive methodology for hydrargyrism in work environments known by the name of Methodology for Operational Units Action Levels for Health Indicators (MUONAIS). The methodology allows critical levels to be established using environmental and clinical-biological indicators. The prevention plan concentrated on 15 job positions in the metallurgy department that employed more than 100 workers between the years 1986 and 1997. The development of this preventive methodology managed to keep workers' mercury levels below 60 μg/l in blood and 200 μg/l in urine, values that present no negative effects on human health. MUONAIS has proven very effective in protecting workers' health. During this period, some cases of micro-mercurialism were detected, yet were completely reversible, allowing us to affirm that the terrible disease of hydrargyrism was totally eradicated. PMID:23657737

  19. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  20. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  1. Injuries associated with cycle rickshaws accidents

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Barwar, Nilesh; Rastogi, Devarshi; Sharma, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cycle rickshaw is an important means of transportation in Urban India. Pedestrians, rickshaw users, rickshaw pullers, two wheeled vehicle users and cyclists are among the most vulnerable road user groups in terms of injuries and fatalities resulting from road traffic accidents in India. Our objectives were to study characteristics of crashes and nature of injuries associated with cycle rickshaw. Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 to July 2009, a hospital based observational study was done of patients who presented to King George medical college trauma center with injury sustained due to cycle rickshaw in emergency department. Age, time of trauma, mode of trauma, contributing factors and type of injury were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient was 32.1. Seventeen patients were rickshaw pullers and the rest were occupants of the rickshaw. Overloading with more than two passengers was found in 24 cases (28.5%). Most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56 patients, %) followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw. On arrival to the hospital, the mean Injury severity score (ISS) was 3.5 ± 2.2 and the mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 13.4 ± 4.3. Nine patients were admitted to ICU (Intensive care unit). The median ICU stay was 4 (1-24 days). Six of the ICU admitted patients had head injury. Conclusion: Rickshaw pullers and occupants are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Urgent preventive measures targeted towards this group are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries involving rickshaws. The need for improved understanding of the risk characteristics of cycle rickshaw is emphasized. PMID:24812450

  2. Report on suicidal trends in persons aged 60 or over in Japan: the need for effective prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, the suicide rate has remained high since 1998, and effective suicide prevention measures that can bring about an immediate decrease in suicides are needed now. Specific suicide prevention measures must be based on the results of detailed research into the trends and causative factors of suicide. In the present study, we investigated the number of suicides and the proportion of causative factors in persons aged 60 or over compared with the total number of suicides in Japan from 1999 to 2005. We also discussed the causative factors of suicide among men and women aged 60 or over in detail. During the period from 1999 to 2005, the proportion of the number of suicides in persons aged 60 or over to the total number of suicides changed from 28.9% to 31.1% among men and from 42.5% to 45.9% among women. The most common causative factor was 'health problems' among both men and women, and the second most common cause was 'economic and life problems' among men. 'Family problems' was one of the major causative factors among both men and women. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to persons aged 60 or over with regard to these factors in particular. Professionals and organizations involved in suicide prevention must work cooperatively to prevent suicide. PMID:21595419

  3. The Development of an Instrument to Measure School Readiness for a Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David B.; Myford, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to understand how environmental characteristics of a school influence the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Although researchers have discussed the importance of conducting needs assessments before implementing interventions, few of these types of assessments focus on the relational aspect. Furthermore, few assessments have the…

  4. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  5. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  6. Building the backbone for organisational research in public health systems: development of measures of organisational capacity for chronic disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Eyles, John; Robinson, Kerry; Cameron, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Background : Research to investigate levels of organisational capacity in public health systems to reduce the burden of chronic disease is challenged by the need for an integrative conceptual model and valid quantitative organisational level measures. Objective To develop measures of organisational capacity for chronic disease prevention/healthy lifestyle promotion (CDP/HLP), its determinants, and its outcomes, based on a new integrative conceptual model. Methods Items measuring each component of the model were developed or adapted from existing instruments, tested for content validity, and pilot tested. Cross sectional data were collected in a national telephone survey of all 216 national, provincial, and regional organisations that implement CDP/HLP programmes in Canada. Psychometric properties of the measures were tested using principal components analysis (PCA) and by examining inter‐rater reliability. Results PCA based scales showed generally excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.70 to 0.88). Reliability coefficients for selected measures were variable (weighted κ(κw) = 0.11 to 0.77). Indicators of organisational determinants were generally positively correlated with organisational capacity (rs = 0.14–0.45, p<0.05). Conclusions This study developed psychometrically sound measures of organisational capacity for CDP/HLP, its determinants, and its outcomes based on an integrative conceptual model. Such measures are needed to support evidence based decision making and investment in preventive health care systems. PMID:17630377

  7. Multifactorial intervention after a fall in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Fiona E; Bond, John; Richardson, David A; Dawson, Pamela; Steen, I Nicholas; McKeith, Ian G; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of multifactorial intervention after a fall in older patients with cognitive impairment and dementia attending the accident and emergency department. Design Randomised controlled trial. Participants 274 cognitively impaired older people (aged 65 or over) presenting to the accident and emergency department after a fall: 130 were randomised to assessment and intervention and 144 were randomised to assessment followed by conventional care (control group). Setting Two accident and emergency departments, Newcastle upon Tyne. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was number of participants who fell in year after intervention. Secondary outcomes were number of falls (corrected for diary returns), time to first fall, injury rates, fall related attendances at accident and emergency department, fall related hospital admissions, and mortality. Results Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference between intervention and control groups in proportion of patients who fell during 1 year's follow up (74% (96/130) and 80% (115/144), relative risk ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.05). No significant differences were found between groups for secondary outcome measures. Conclusions Multifactorial intervention was not effective in preventing falls in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department after a fall. What is already known on this topicMultifactorial intervention prevents falls in cognitively normal older people living in the community and in those who present to the accident and emergency department after a fallFall prevention strategies have not been tested by controlled trials in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia who fallWhat this study addsNo benefit was shown from multifactorial assessment and intervention after a fall in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department

  8. [Role of the practitioner after accidents related to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Vrousos, C; Kolodié, H; Gallin-Martel, C; Pons, H

    1995-03-15

    Accidents due to ionizing radiations can be nuclear accidents, concerning a large part of the population, or radiological accidents which may, at higher doses, irradiate a limited number of persons. In case of nuclear accident, radioactive rejections lead to an irradiation and/or a contamination, and induce the "préfet" to take public health measures. According to the dose possibly received by the population, measures can be the continuation of normal life, confinement, distribution of stable iodine, restriction of certain food consummation, evacuation being the ultimate measure. General practitioner will be an important actor in the information of the populations. When a radiological accident occurs, the management will depend on the type of accident and the dose emitted. This treatment of medico-surgical emergency is an absolute priority, if traumatic lesions are associated, on nuclear risk, especially when prognosis for life is involved. Lesions associated to radiolesions worsen the prognosis. PMID:7754325

  9. Approaches to Measuring the Extent and Impact of Environmental Change in Three California Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L.; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions. PMID:20935262

  10. Development of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) to Measure Organizational Physical and Social Support for Worksite Obesity Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Wang, Shaohung; Baker, Kristin M.; Bowen, Heather M.; Tully, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, reliability, and validity of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) for assessing worksite physical and social environmental support for obesity prevention. Methods The EAT was developed using a multi-step process. Inter-rater reliability was estimated via Kappa and other measures. Concurrent and predictive validity were estimated using site-level correlations and person-level multiple regression analyses comparing EAT scores and employee absenteeism and healthcare expenditures. Results Results show high inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity for many measures and predictive validity for absenteeism expenditures. Conclusions The primary use of the EAT is as a physical and social environment assessment tool for worksite obesity prevention efforts. It can be used as a reliable and valid means to estimate relationships between environmental interventions and absenteeism and medical expenditures, provided those expenditures are for the same year that the EAT is administered. PMID:18301169

  11. The parental daily diary. A sensitive measure of the process of change in a child maltreatment prevention program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lizette; Tremblay, George; Ewigman, Bernard; Popkey, Connie

    2002-10-01

    There is a substantial deficit of sensitive measures of parental discipline in the area of prevention, generally, and in child maltreatment prevention specifically, despite reports that over a million children experience maltreatment in the United States every year. Part of the challenge in locating such measures is the impossibility of obtaining accurate observational measures of the degree of harsh discipline, unless extremely large populations are used. The majority of studies on harsh discipline have dealt with this problem by using self-report instruments or proxy observation tasks (such as observing mother-child interactions in a compliance framework). The most well-known self-report instruments, such as the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Milner, 1986), are constructed to measure parental pathology in maltreating parents rather than to identify parents who might benefit from preventive endeavors. In contrast, there are no well standardized measures of mother-child interaction that document a sensitivity to the presence of harsh discipline, possibly due to the clear pressure of social desirability problems. This paper outlines a daily self-observation measure of parental disciplinary behavior in the form of a diary. This self-monitoring instrument offered data on the overall feelings and disciplinary behaviors used daily following each session on parenting group interventions. The study showed a gradual decrease in physical punishment and a gradual increase in planned ignoring across treatment, as these were introduced as part of an ongoing curriculum. The use of an explicit technique, such as time-out, increased abruptly rather than gradually and effects were seen only after specific instruction. Advantages and future applications of this kind of ongoing self-observation measure of treatment progress are described. PMID:12375378

  12. [Prevention of hand injuries - current situation in Europe].

    PubMed

    Leixnering, M; Quadlbauer, S; Szolarcz, C; Schenk, C; Leixnering, S; Körpert, K

    2013-12-01

    Hand injuries are a frequent occurrence and account for 41% of all occupational injuries. In general such accidents are the result of stress, inattention, tiredness, use of defective or poorly maintained machinery. However, artention must equally be directed at the large number of accidents occurring in leisure time activities since the inability to work due to a leisure time accident is similarly cost-intensive. Throughout Europe attempts have been made in the past 10 years to improve prevention. At the initiative of the Hand Trauma Committee (HTC) of FESSH prevention conferences were stated in 2009. These have in part reduced the number of hand injuries in -Europe. In Austria a special controlling committee was founded by the Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) with the specific objective of reducing the number of hand injuries. Similarly the "Circle for Leisure Time Hand Injury Prevention" was created to specifically deal with hand injuries occurring during leisure time activities. Through the cooperation of these 2 committees and implementation of the thus decided measures, a reduction in the number of accidents involving the hand is to be expected with a concomitant reduction in the associated costs. PMID:24357478

  13. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    PubMed

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. For three of these major causes of suffocation and strangulation deaths among infants and children (refrigerator or freezer entrapment, suffocation by plastic bag, and inhumation at construction sites), there appears to have been a significant decline in incidence; however, there is no evidence of a significant reduction in deaths from mechanical strangulation in cribs. The impact of current countermeasures is discussed, and some suggestions for new or modified approaches are made. PMID:3920722

  14. Moving cystic fibrosis care from rescue to prevention by embedding adherence measurement in routine care.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Martin J; Hoo, Zhe Hui

    2014-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis [CF] is a chronic disease in which preventative treatment with nebulised antibiotics can reduce pulmonary exacerbations that otherwise require rescue therapy. However, adherence is low. Making adherence to maintenance treatment visible is a crucial step towards improving adherence. In this article, we discuss how adherence data can be used to support Quality Improvement in CF through behaviour change in both people with cystic fibrosis and their clinical teams. PMID:24835307

  15. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  16. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information. PMID:17784652

  17. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  18. Safety Is No Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    1985-01-01

    Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)

  19. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  20. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  1. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  2. Retrospective dosimetry with the MAX/EGS4 exposure model for the radiological accident in Nesvizh-Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C. A.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.

    2007-09-01

    On October 26, 1991 a fatal radiological accident occurred in a 60Co irradiation facility in the town of Nesvizh in Belarus. Following a jam in the product transport system, the operator entered the facility to clear the fault. On entering the irradiation room the operator bypassed a number of safety features, which prevented him from perceiving that the source rack was in the irradiation position. After the accident average whole body absorbed doses between 8 and 16 Gy have been determined by TLD measurements, by isodose rate distributions, by biological dosimetry and by ESR measurements of clothes and teeth. In an earlier investigation the MAX/EGS4 exposure model had been used to calculate absorbed dose distributions for the radiological accident in Yanango/Peru, which actually represented the simulation of exposure from a point source on the surface of the body. After updating the phantom as well as the Monte Carlo code, the MAX/EGS4 exposure model was used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution for the worker involved in the radiological accident in Nesvizh/Belarus. For this purpose, the arms of the MAX phantom had to be raised above the head, and a rectangular 60Co source was designed to represent the source rack used in the irradiation facility. Average organ absorbed doses, depth-absorbed doses, maximum absorbed dose and average whole body absorbed dose have been calculated and compared with the corresponding data given in the IAEA report of the accident.

  3. Parental Bereavement after Suicide and Accident: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Monique; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares differences in the bereavement process for 30 survivors of suicide versus 30 survivors of car accidents. Indicates suicide survivors were more depressed than accident survivors at the first measure but not at the second measure. Survivors of suicide experienced greater feelings of shame and had experienced more life events after the death…

  4. [Medication errors with concentrated potassium intravenous solutions: Data of the literature, context and prevention].

    PubMed

    Charpiat, B; Magdinier, C; Leboucher, G; Aubrun, F

    2016-01-01

    Accidental direct intravenous injection of a concentrated solution of potassium often leads to patient death. In France, recommendations of healthcare agencies to prevent such accidents cover only preparation and intravenous infusion conditions. Accidents continue to occur in French hospitals. These facts demonstrate that these recommendations are insufficient and ineffective to prevent such deaths, especially those occurring during a catheter flushing. This article reviews the measures able to reduce the number of accidents. Countries which removed concentrated ampoules from ward stocks observed a decrease of the number of accidental deaths. This withdrawal, recommended by the World Health Organization, is now part of standards in studies aimed at determining the safety of care in hospitals. However, removal alone is insufficient to eliminate the risk. The combination with other measures should be considered. These measures are the provision of a combination of diluted intravenous ready to use solutions, the promotion of the oral route with tablets and oral solutions for potassium replenishment and to make available products with safeguards to prevent single shot intravenous injection. Studies aimed at determining the consequences on preventing concentrated potassium accidents of a widespread distribution of isotonic sodium chloride pre-filled ready-to-use syringes for catheter flushing should be performed. PMID:26298848

  5. [Snow board accidents. Multicenter Swiss snow board study 1992/93 with the cooperation of the bfu].

    PubMed

    Campell, L; Soklic, P; Ziegler, W; Matter, P; Fenner, A; Noesberger, B; Rigo, M

    1993-01-01

    Snowboarding has become increasingly popular in recent years. A prospective multicenter study was therefore performed during the winter 1992/93. 345 injuries were analysed and compared with 305 healthy snowboarders on the slopes. Preliminary results show predominantly injuries of the upper extremity comparative to those suffered from alpine skiing. Protection of the hand and wrist is recommended as well as an instruction for a special technique for falling as measurements for accident prevention. PMID:8123341

  6. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

  7. UF6 overfilling prevention at Eurodif production Georges Besse plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reneaud, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    Risk of overfilling exists on different equipments of Georges BESSE Plant: cylinders, desublimers and intermediate tanks. The preventive measures are composed of technical devices: desublimers weighing, load monitoring alarms, automatic controls ... and procedures, training, safety organization. In thirteen years of operation, some incidents have occurred but none of them has caused any personal injuries. They are related and discussed. The main factors involved in the Sequoyah fuel facility accident on 1/4/1986 have been analyzed and taken into account.

  8. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    conceptualizing the influence of different driving behaviors so as to enrich our understanding of the role of human factors in road accidents and consequently develop effective countermeasures to prevent traffic accidents involving motorcycles. PMID:21545879

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident further encourages a discussion of the effect of fission products upon the environment, including the resulting contamination of air, water, soil, animals, fish, milk, and crops. Accident-generated radiation levels that caused the evacuation of people 20-30 km from the facility further serve to foster student interest and desire to understand the science associated with the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:27573783

  11. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  12. A method for the early health technology assessment of novel biomarker measurement in primary prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Douwe; de Graaf, Gimon; Hillege, Hans L; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Buskens, Erik

    2012-10-15

    Many promising biomarkers for stratifying individuals at risk of developing a chronic disease or subsequent complications have been identified. Research into the potential cost-effectiveness of applying these biomarkers in actual clinical settings has however been lacking. Investors and analysts may improve their venture decision making should they have indicative estimates of the potential costs and effects associated with a new biomarker technology already at the early stages of its development. To assist in obtaining such estimates, this paper presents a general method for the early health technology assessment of a novel biomarker technology. The setting considered is that of primary prevention programs where initial screening to select high-risk individuals eligible for a subsequent intervention occurs, for example, prevention of type 2 diabetes. The method is based on quantifying the health outcomes and downstream healthcare consumption of all individuals who get reclassified as a result of moving from a screening variant based on traditional risk factors to a screening variant based on traditional risk factors plus a novel biomarker. As these individuals form well-defined subpopulations, a combination of disease progression modeling and sensitivity analysis can be used to perform an initial assessment of the maximum increase in screening cost for which the use of the new biomarker technology is still likely to be cost effective. PMID:22806952

  13. [Implementation and evaluation of error prevention measures in surgical clinics: Results of a current online survey].

    PubMed

    Rothmund, Matthias; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Siebert, Hartmut; Ansorg, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, more than 3,000 surgeons completed an online questionnaire asking for the prevalence and efficiency of instruments to prevent adverse events within surgical departments in Germany. About 90 % of the respondents stated that perioperative checklists, preoperative marking of the surgical site and the documentation of hospital infections had been implemented in their institution; and 75 % of the institutions had introduced critical incident reporting systems (CIRS), morbidity and mortality conferences and identification bracelets for patients. The surgeons were asked to rank the different instruments for the prevention of adverse events. According to the respondents, preoperative marking of the surgical site and the use of checklists were at the top of the efficacy ranking, followed by an introductory course for surgeons starting work in a hospital or when new devices became available. Only 50 % of the responding surgeons perceived CIRS as being efficient. Overall, the answers showed that instruments to increase patient safety were commonly available in surgical departments. On the other hand, there is still room for improvement in daily practice. PMID:26354140

  14. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  15. The Effect of Preventive Conservation Measures on the Technical Condition of A Religious Building Located in the Mining Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barycz, Stanisław; Firek, Karol; Kocot, Wojciech; Malinowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the case study of a historical religious building located in the area of "Bogdanka" S.A. Coal Mine. As the building lacked adequate resistance to the expected effects of mining, the Mine undertook efforts so that it was fully protected against mining impacts before the commencement of mining operations. A preventive conservation system was used, consisting of an external stiffening reinforced concrete plate at the ground level and a system of steel tie rods established at the level of vault supports. The article assesses the effect of undertaken preventive conservation measures on the current technical condition of the building. The basis for the assessment was the extent of damage to the building confirmed after the occurrence of impacts from the performed mining operations combined with the analysis of ground deformation.

  16. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  17. Factors affecting the use of anti-malaria preventive measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to malaria-endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Shin; Hu, Susan C; Hsu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Kwo-Liang; Chen, Kou-Huang; Yu, Mei-Ching; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of anti-malaria preventive measures (AMPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from malaria-endemic countries, attended by either the Taipei or Tainan Immigrant Service Center, Taiwan, and who reported a history of returning to their country of origin within the preceding year during the malarious season in their country of origin were enrolled in the study. Complete information was collected from 316 immigrants, with a response rate of 87% (316/364). The mean age of the subjects was 38.1 years (SD = 9.9). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pre-travel consultation; more than 40% reported that they did not use measures to prevent insect bites. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, travel consultation before travel, lower perceived susceptibility to malaria, higher perceived severity of malaria infection, higher perceived benefit for taking measures, and higher self-efficacy for taking measures significantly predicted the use of AMPMs during the return to their country of origin (R(2) = 0.20; F = 50.42; P < 0.001). A high proportion of immigrants were not using appropriate AMPMs when they returned to their country. Educational approaches should be targeted toward immigrants who return to visit their country of origin. PMID:23932759

  18. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  19. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Schöffmann, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]). Objectives Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital? How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance? Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies? Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff? What kind of liability problems exist? Methods Based on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. Results 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. Discussion It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The internal and external validity of

  20. “Capacitive Sensor” to Measure Flow Electrification and Prevent Electrostatic Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Paillat, Thierry; Touchard, Gerard; Bertrand, Yves

    2012-01-01

    At a solid/liquid interface, physico-chemical phenomena occur that lead to the separation of electrical charges, establishing a zone called electrical double layer. The convection of one part of these charges by the liquid flow is the cause of the flow electrification phenomenon which is suspected of being responsible of incidents in the industry. The P' Institute of Poitiers University and CNRS has developed an original sensor called “capacitive sensor” that allows the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the generation, accumulation and transfer of charges. As an example, this sensor included in the design of high power transformers, could easily show the evolution of electrostatic charge generation developed during the operating time of the transformer and, therefore, point out the operations leading to electrostatic hazards and, then, monitor the transformer to prevent such risks. PMID:23202162

  1. “Capacitive sensor” to measure flow electrification and prevent electrostatic hazards.

    PubMed

    Paillat, Thierry; Touchard, Gerard; Bertrand, Yves

    2012-01-01

    At a solid/liquid interface, physico-chemical phenomena occur that lead to the separation of electrical charges, establishing a zone called electrical double layer. The convection of one part of these charges by the liquid flow is the cause of the flow electrification phenomenon which is suspected of being responsible of incidents in the industry. The P’ Institute of Poitiers University and CNRS has developed an original sensor called “capacitive sensor” that allows the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the generation, accumulation and transfer of charges. As an example, this sensor included in the design of high power transformers, could easily show the evolution of electrostatic charge generation developed during the operating time of the transformer and, therefore, point out the operations leading to electrostatic hazards and, then, monitor the transformer to prevent such risks. PMID:23202162

  2. Is accounting for acute care beds enough? A proposal for measuring infection prevention personnel resources.

    PubMed

    Gase, Kathleen A; Babcock, Hilary M

    2015-02-01

    There is still little known about how infection prevention (IP) staffing affects patient outcomes across the country. Current evaluations mainly focus on the ratio of IP resources to acute care beds (ACBs) and have not strongly correlated with patient outcomes. The scope of IP and the role of the infection preventionist in health care have expanded and changed dramatically since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project) recommended a 1 IP resource to 250 ACB ration in the 1980s. Without a universally accepted model for accounting for additional IP responsibilities, it is difficult to truly assess IP staffing needs. A previously suggested alternative staffing model was applied to acute care hospitals in our organization to determine its utility. PMID:25480447

  3. The epidemiology of bovine respiratory disease: What is the evidence for preventive measures?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jared D.; Fulton, Robert W.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Step, Douglas L.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly disease of beef cattle in North America. Despite extensive research, industry practices are often more informed by dogma than by fact. Frequently advocated interventions, including vaccination, various processing procedures, and nutritional manipulation, have limited impact on morbidity and mortality. Evidence for use of oral antimicrobials, either in feed or water, appears to be equivocal. In contrast, preconditioning and metaphylaxis have significant scientific evidence of efficacy, with weaning prior to sale potentially being the most important component of preconditioning. The inability to reach more definitive conclusions in preventing BRD may be attributable to difficulties in investigating the disease. Study challenges include potential for extensive confounding, tremendous variability, the multi-factorial nature of the disease, and inadequate methods for diagnosis. PMID:21358927

  4. A method to measure the costs of counseling for HIV prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, R D

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the true resource costs of counseling for HIV prevention. The method includes identifying the resources used in counseling, determining the true unit costs of the resources used, and calculating the total costs of counseling. Cost equations and sample calculations of total and expected costs per client in a specified time period are provided. This method of estimating costs provides a systematic application of a standard set of procedures, including sample tables and calculations. It uses the societal perspective on resource cost to determine true resource costs. This method can be used for resource allocation decisions among programs and as inputs for cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Since the method minimizes the burden of data collection and calculations, it is useful for the nonspecialist in cost analysis. The method provides a rational approach for realistic decision making and planning in public health. PMID:8862166

  5. Traffic accident in Cuiabá-MT: an analysis through the data mining technology.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2010-01-01

    The traffic road accidents (ATT) are non-intentional events with an important magnitude worldwide, mainly in the urban centers. This article aims to analyzes data related to the victims of ATT recorded by the Justice Secretariat and Public Security (SEJUSP) in hospital morbidity and mortality incidence at the city of Cuiabá-MT during 2006, using data mining technology. An observational, retrospective and exploratory study of the secondary data bases was carried out. The three database selected were related using the probabilistic method, through the free software RecLink. One hundred and thirty-nine (139) real pairs of victims of ATT were obtained. In this related database the data mining technology was applied with the software WEKA using the Apriori algorithm. The result generated 10 best rules, six of them were considered according to the parameters established that indicated a useful and comprehensible knowledge to characterize the victims of accidents in Cuiabá. Finally, the findings of the associative rules showed peculiarities of the road traffic accident victims in Cuiabá and highlight the need of prevention measures in the collision accidents for males. PMID:20841739

  6. Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = −0.226, p-value < 0.001). However, underestimation resulted in only 6% of individuals at high risk of diabetes being incorrectly categorised as moderate or low risk of diabetes. Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which

  7. [Accident with biological material at the prehospital mobile care: reality for health and non-healthcare workers].

    PubMed

    Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Silva, Elisangelo Aparecido Costa; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Mendonça, Katiane Martins; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva E; Melo, Dulcelene Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Analytical transversal study that was conducted with the objectives of identifying the prevalence and characterizing the accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital service (PHS) and comparing the risk behaviors adopted by healthcare and non-healthcare groups that can affect the occurrence and seriousness of such accidents. Data were obtained by questionnaire applied to all PHS workers in Goiânia-GO. The study revealed a high prevalence of accidents involving biological material which, although higher for the healthcare group, also affected the non-healthcare group. There were significant (p < 0.05) risk behaviors for these accidents in both groups: not using gloves, masks or eye protectors; inappropriate disposal of sharps; inadequate dress; re-capping of needles; and a lack of immunization against hepatitis B. The results underscore the importance of both groups in adhering to preventive measures, and further point to the need to structure and implement vigilance and control system for this type of accident. PMID:23887787

  8. [Socioecological determinants of the risk of accidents in young pedestrians].

    PubMed

    Joly, M F; Foggin, P; Pless, I

    1991-01-01

    We studied all traffic accidents to pedestrians under age 15 which occurred on the Island of Montreal during an eighteen months period. Data were collected from eleven hospitals and completed with accident police records. A spatial quadrat analysis, a Comparative Accident Index, and a comparative analysis of the means of different socio-ecological variables between high and low risk accident areas revealed interesting patterns. The location of traffic accidents is not random but rather presents a particular spatial structure. High risk zones are characterized by dense population, fast-moving traffic, and the absence of parks. Accidents often take place on two-way streets, far from traffic lights, on dry surfaces, in good weather, and with good visibility. The socio-economic status of the victim's family as measured by education, income, and unemployment, tends to be low. More boys than girls are victims. Children are often injured while getting out of a car or crossing unconventionally. PMID:1754700

  9. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Zibit, Melanie J.; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Cui, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Methods: Students in grades 2–5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results: There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00594997 PMID

  10. [The role of information as a preventive drug measure among youth at risk].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila van der Meer; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Ribeiro, Luciana Abeid; Nappo, Solange Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Illicit drug consumption among youngsters is a public health concern that requires attention. However, little research has highlighted the importance of "drug information availability" among protection factors. The objective of the study is to identify, from the point of view of youngsters at risk, what factors could prevent them to try illicit drugs, focusing on the importance of "drug information availability". An intentional sample was selected, composed by 62 youngsters divided into two groups: (NU) non illicit users N=32 and (U) users N=30. The sample was recruited through key-informants and snowball and each participant was submitted to an in-depth semi-structured interview. According to NU, "drug information availability" was reported as the main protector factor. Family-based information was the main source of knowledge followed by observation of the drug negative consequences on lives of friends who have already consumed illicit drugs in a regular-basis. Among users, a lack of drug knowledge or availability of partial information was reported. Among youngsters at risk, drug information availability is the main protection factor against experimental and regular drug consumption. Family based information was reported as its main source. PMID:21503474

  11. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. PMID:26316421

  12. Effect of different carriers preventive measures in children highly infected with mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, B; Edward, S; Torell, P; Krasse, B

    1989-08-01

    The caries preventive effect of topical application of fluoride varnish (Duraphat), ferric-aluminum-fluoride solution (FeAlF) and chlorhexidine gel was compared in 2-yr clinical study. Children with more than 10(6) mutans steptococci per ml saliva were selected and a total of 189 13-yr-old children participated in the study. The children in the fluoride groups were treated every third month with either Duraphat or FeAlF-solution. In the chlorhexidine group children with more than 2.5 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per ml of saliva were treated every third month. The mean number of new decayed and filled tooth surfaces was 3.06 in the chlorhexidine group, 5.88 in the Duraphat group, 5.33 in the FeAlF group, and 6.34 in the control group. Thus supervised antimicrobial treatment can significantly reduce the incidence of dental (caries) in children with high numbers of mutans streptococci. PMID:2799271

  13. Measuring the progress of capacity building in the Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D; Sosa Hernandez, Cristabel; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Reed, Shandy; Montemurro, Genevieve; Lytvyak, Ellina; MacLellan-Wright, Mary-Frances

    2014-07-01

    The Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention (APCCP) represents practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and community organizations working together to coordinate efforts and advocate for policy change to reduce chronic diseases. The aim of this research was to capture changes in the APCCP's capacity to advance its goals over the course of its operation. We adapted the Public Health Agency of Canada's validated Community Capacity-Building Tool to capture policy work. All members of the APCCP were invited to complete the tool in 2010 and 2011. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A group process for reaching consensus provided context to the survey responses and contributed to a participatory analysis. Significant improvement was observed in eight out of nine capacity domains. Lessons learned highlight the importance of balancing volume and diversity of intersectoral representation to ensure effective participation, as well as aligning professional and economic resources. Defining involvement and roles within a coalition can be a challenging activity contingent on the interests of each sector represented. The participatory analysis enabled the group to reflect on progress made and future directions for policy advocacy. PMID:24334541

  14. [Cardiac arrest in dialysis patients: Risk factors, preventive measures and management in 2015].

    PubMed

    Luque, Yosu; Bataille, Aurélien; Taldir, Guillaume; Rondeau, Éric; Ridel, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a 10 to 20 times higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) than the general population. Sudden cardiac death is a rare event (approximately 1 event per 10,000 sessions) but has a very high mortality rate. Epidemiological data comes almost exclusively from North American studies; there is a great lack of European data on the subject. Ventricular arrhythmia is the main mechanism of sudden cardiac deaths in dialysis patients. These patients develop increased sensitivity mainly due to a high prevalence of severe ischemic heart disease and left ventricular hypertrophy and to a frequent trigger event: electrolytic and plasma volume shifts during dialysis sessions. Unfortunately, accurate predictive markers of SCA do not exist, however some primary prevention trials using beta-blockers or angiotensin II receptor blockers are encouraging, while the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in the population of chronic dialysis patients remains controversial. Identification of patients at risk, minimizing trigger events such as electrolytic shifts and improving team skills in the diagnosis and initial resuscitation with the latest recommendations from 2010 seem necessary to reduce incidence and improve survival in this high risk population. Organization of European studies would also allow a more accurate view of this reality in our dialysis units. PMID:26547563

  15. Measurements of gamma (γ)-emitting radionuclides with a high-purity germanium detector: the methods and reliability of our environmental assessments on the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Komiyama, Chiyo; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The severe accident of Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant due to the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake in 11 March 2011 caused wide contamination and pollution by radionuclides in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. In the current JPR symposium, a group of plant scientists attempted to examine the impact of the radioactive contamination on wild and cultivated plants. Measurements of gamma (γ) radiation from radionuclides in "Fukushima samples", which we called and collected from natural and agricultural areas in Fukushima prefecture were mostly done with a high-purity Ge detector in the Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University. In this technical note, we describe the methods of sample preparation and measurements of radioactivity of the samples and discuss the reliability of our data in regards to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency test (IAEA proficiency test). PMID:24338059

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of European injecting drug users concerning preventive measures for HIV.

    PubMed

    Richardson, S C; Papaevangelou, G; Ancelle-Park, R

    1994-04-01

    Strategies for controlling the HIV epidemic include education and information campaigns for intravenous drug users (IDUs), as for all high-risk groups, and the provision of various public health measures and treatment. These can only be effective if the IDU is aware of them and has a favourable image of them. A study of 2330 IDUs in 12 European countries recorded awareness and opinions of various categories of measures and institutions. Of all measures, those mentioned most often related to availability of new injecting equipment; specifically unrestricted sales in pharmacies and needle exchanges, which were also thought to be more useful than anything else. Prompted awareness of rehabilitative institutions was well over 90% in most countries, but up to a quarter of IDUs did not trust them and up to one fifth did not think that they were useful. There appears to be a general need for more effective communication with IDUs to improve the image of the services available. PMID:7813690

  17. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  18. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement, floods... implementing additional inspection and maintenance programs. (b) Third party damage and outside force damage... measures to minimize the consequences to the covered segment from outside force damage. These...

  19. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement, floods... implementing additional inspection and maintenance programs. (b) Third party damage and outside force damage... measures to minimize the consequences to the covered segment from outside force damage. These...

  20. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  1. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... implementing additional inspection and maintenance programs. (b) Third party damage and outside force damage.... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement, floods... measures to minimize the consequences to the covered segment from outside force damage. These......

  2. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  3. A Measure for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Johnson, Stephanie A.; Sawilowksy, Shlomo S.

    2002-01-01

    The Teen Attitude Pregnancy Scale (TAPS) was developed to measure teen attitudes and intentions regarding teenage pregnancy. The model demonstrated good internal consistency and concurrent validity for the samples in this study. Analysis revealed evidence of validity for this model. (JDM)

  4. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in large incisional hernia repair to prevent abdominal compartmental syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ANGELICI, A.M.; PEROTTI, B.; DEZZI, C.; AMATUCCI, C.; MANCUSO, G.; CARONNA, R.; PALUMBO, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The repair of large incisional hernias may occasionally lead to a substantial increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and rarely to abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) with subsequent respiratory, vascular, and visceral complications. Measurement of the IAP has recently become a common practice in monitoring critical patients, even though such measurements were obtained in the early 1900s. Patients and Methods A prospective study involving 54 patients undergoing elective abdominal wall gap repair (mean length, 17.4 cm) with a tension-free technique after incisional hernia was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not urinary pressure for indirect IAP measurement is a reliable method for the early identification of patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. IAP measurements were performed using a Foley catheter connected to a HOLTECH® medical manometer. IAP values were determined pre-operatively, after anesthetic induction, upon patient awakening, upon patient arrival in the ward after surgery, and 24 h after surgery before removing the catheter. All patients were treated by the same surgical team using a prosthetic composite mesh (PARIETEX®). Results Incisional hernia repair caused an increase in the mean IAP score of 2.68 mmHg in 47 of 54 patients (87.04%); the IAP was decreased in two patients (3.7%) and remained equal in five patients before and 24 h after surgery (9.26%). FEV-1, measured 24 h after surgery, increased in 50 patients (92.6%), remained stable in two patients (3.7%), and decreased in two patients (3.7%). The mean increase in FEV-1 was 0.0676 L (maximum increase = 0.42 L and minimum increase = 0.01 L) in any patient who developed ACS. Conclusions Measurement of urinary bladder pressure has been shown to be easy to perform and free of complications. Measurement of urinary bladder pressure can also be a useful tool to identify patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. PMID:27142823

  5. Measuring Tissue Perfusion During Pressure Relief Maneuvers: Insights Into Preventing Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Makhsous, Mohsen; Priebe, Michael; Bankard, James; Rowles, Diana; Zeigler, Mary; Chen, David; Lin, Fang

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: To study the effect on tissue perfusion of relieving interface pressure using standard wheelchair pushups compared with a mechanical automated dynamic pressure relief system. Design: Repeated measures in 2 protocols on 3 groups of subjects. Participants: Twenty individuals with motor-complete paraplegia below T4, 20 with motor-complete tetraplegia, and 20 able-bodied subjects. Methods: Two 1-hour sitting protocols: dynamic protocol, sitting configuration alternated every 10 minutes between a normal sitting configuration and an off-loading configuration; wheelchair pushup protocol, normal sitting configuration with standard wheelchair pushup once every 20 minutes. Main Outcome Measures: Transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide measured from buttock overlying the ischial tuberosity and interface pressure measured at the seat back and buttocks. Perfusion deterioration and recovery times were calculated during changes in interface pressures. Results: In the off-loading configuration, concentrated interface pressure during the normal sitting configuration was significantly diminished, and tissue perfusion was significantly improved. Wheelchair pushups showed complete relief of interface pressure but incomplete recovery of tissue perfusion. Conclusions: Interface pressure analysis does not provide complete information about the effectiveness of pressure relief maneuvers. Measures of tissue perfusion may help establish more effective strategies. Relief achieved by standard wheelchair pushups may not be sufficient to recover tissue perfusion compromised during sitting; alternate maneuvers may be necessary. The dynamic seating system provided effective pressure relief with sustained reduction in interface pressure adequate for complete recovery of tissue perfusion. Differences in perfusion recovery times between subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and controls raise questions about the importance of changes in vascular responses

  6. Safety illusion and error trap in a collectively-operated machine accident.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Nobre, Hildeberto; do Amaral Dias, Maria Dionísia; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Workplace accidents involving machines are relevant for their magnitude and their impacts on worker health. Despite consolidated critical statements, explanation centered on errors of operators remains predominant with industry professionals, hampering preventive measures and the improvement of production-system reliability. Several initiatives were adopted by enforcement agencies in partnership with universities to stimulate production and diffusion of analysis methodologies with a systemic approach. Starting from one accident case that occurred with a worker who operated a brake-clutch type mechanical press, the article explores cognitive aspects and the existence of traps in the operation of this machine. It deals with a large-sized press that, despite being endowed with a light curtain in areas of access to the pressing zone, did not meet legal requirements. The safety devices gave rise to an illusion of safety, permitting activation of the machine when a worker was still found within the operational zone. Preventive interventions must stimulate the tailoring of systems to the characteristics of workers, minimizing the creation of traps and encouraging safety policies and practices that replace judgments of behaviors that participate in accidents by analyses of reasons that lead workers to act in that manner. PMID:22317204

  7. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning. PMID:23226111

  8. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning. PMID:23226111

  9. The Pepcon Disaster-Causative Factors and potential Preventive and Mitigative Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H E; Alvares, N J

    2003-07-25

    On May 4, 1988, the PEPCON plant experienced three major and several smaller explosions that caused over $70 million in property damage and caused two deaths. The PEPCON plant produced Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), a major ingredient for rocket fuel. The PEPCON plant and the nearby Kidd Marshmallow plant were totally destroyed by the detonations. The initiating event for the explosions was a fire that originated in the Batch Dryer Building and spread to adjacent storage. Several factors combined to cause the AP in the major storage fields to detonate, the most important being lack of adequate separation between storage units. Welding and flame cutting procedure with poor fire watch protocol was the prime candidate for fire ignition. There were no automatic fire suppression systems at the plant. Buildings including the Batch Dryer Building were made of combustible building material (fiberglass). There was poor housekeeping and no control of AP dust generation. AP was stored in combustible polyethylene drums, aluminum tote bins, 30-gallon steel storage drums and fiber reinforced tote bags. There were high-density storage practices. In addition, a contributing factor to the rapid fire-spread was that the wind that day was blowing directly from the batch dryer building to the storage areas. This paper claims that if codes, standards, and well-known hazard identification safety techniques were implemented at PEPCON, then the disaster would have been averted. A limited scope probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to establish the effectiveness of various preventive and mitigative features that could have been deployed to avert the disaster. The major hazard at the PEPCON site was fire and explosion involving the processing, production and storage of AP, which was then and is currently stored as a class 4 oxidizer. Since minute quantities of contamination can cause AP to be detonable by shock, there has been an ongoing debate concerning its reclassification to a class

  10. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  11. Communication: Entropic measure to prevent energy over-minimization in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydzewski, J.; Jakubowski, R.; Nowak, W.

    2015-11-01

    This work examines the impact of energy over-minimization on an ensemble of biological molecules subjected to the potential energy minimization procedure in vacuum. In the studied structures, long potential energy minimization stage leads to an increase of the main- and side-chain entropies in proteins. We show that such over-minimization may diverge the protein structures from the near-native attraction basin which possesses a minimum of free energy. We propose a measure based on the Pareto front of total entropy for quality assessment of minimized protein conformation. This measure may help in selection of adequate number of energy minimization steps in protein modelling and, thus, in preservation of the near-native protein conformation.

  12. Measuring the Gy:preventing convection in water calorimetry using a low duty cycle modulated beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Mayer, H. H.; Tosh, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    The most fundamental method for determining the absorbed dose to water by radiation beams is by measuring the consequent temperature increase of the water. Water calorimeters used for this purpose are not irradiated uniformly; thus spatial dose gradients within the calorimeter give rise to significant heat transport effects that interfere with the measurement of the small temperature rise associated with radiotherapy doses (e.g. 240 μK/Gy at a typical dose rate of 1 Gy/min). When subjected to periodic exposure to radiation, the calorimeter response (registered as temperature at a point in the water) reaches steady-state oscillation in which effects due to heat conduction and convection may be studied as a function of modulation frequency, so that appropriate correction factors can be derived for desired operating conditions. Theoretical treatment of the behavior is greatly simplified if experimental conditions can be arranged so that convection is negligible. While this is usually done by refrigerating the calorimeter to 4 °C, where the thermal expansion coefficient of water is zero (thus, buoyancy forces due to density fluctuations effectively vanish), we present evidence suggesting that such conditions can be achieved at room temperature by reducing the duty cycle, or effective "on" time of the radiation at a given shutter frequency. Results are presented here in the form of system transfer functions obtained under conditions of 50 and 3.5% duty cycle. Comparison of these measured transfer functions with the output of a three dimensional finite element model indicates that convection is greatly suppressed in the lower duty cycle case. Experimental uncertainty in these measurements is too large to conclude that convection is eliminated altogether, but more extended runs using this technique should enable a more definitive judgment as to whether the simpler conduction corrections alone can be applied.

  13. Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates: Types, Causes, Clinical Examinations, Preventive Measures and Treatments: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ULLAH, Sana; RAHMAN, Khaista; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment. Methods: The main databases including Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to the newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia. The main terms used to literature search were “newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia”, “newborns’ jaundice”, “Physiological Jaundice” and “Patholigical Jaundice”. The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1952 to 2015. Results: Neonatal jaundice due to breast milk feeding is also sometimes observed. Hemolytic jaundice occurs because of the incompatibility of blood groups with ABO and Rh factors, when the fetus and mother blood groups are not compatible and the fetus blood crosses the barrier of the umbilical cord before birth causing fetus blood hemolysis owing to severe immune response. Conclusion: Jaundice is easily diagnosable however require quick and on the spot treatment. If not treated properly, it leads to many complications. Currently the treatment options for jaundice include photo therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccinations. PMID:27398328

  14. Physics in Accident Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Mary L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)

  15. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  16. Accidents with horses: what has changed in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chitnavis, J P; Gibbons, C L; Hirigoyen, M; Lloyd Parry, J; Simpson, A H

    1996-03-01

    Horse riding is a dangerous pastime with more accidents occurring per hour than during motor-cycling. Since a prospective survey of horse-related injuries conducted at a major centre in 1971-1972, equestrian groups and the medical profession have encouraged improvements in training and protective riding wear. By conducting a similar study at the same centre 20 years later we hoped to assess the effects of these measures on the pattern of injuries resulting from contact with horses. Patient and injury details were recorded prospectively for all those presenting to the Accident Service at Oxford during the whole of 1991. Total admissions fell by 46 per cent on average. Most of the decrease was due to a near fivefold fall in those admitted with head injuries (P < 0.001). A reduction in the severity of such injuries was associated with an increased use of riding helmets. However, the most commonly injured group remained amateur young female riders suggesting the need for increasing awareness and training of this group. In seven cases, severe digital injuries were caused by the habit of entwining reins around the fingers. This practice should be discouraged. Up to 12 per cent of all injuries might have been prevented if adequate footwear had been worn. PMID:8730383

  17. Prevalence of malaria, prevention measures, and main clinical features in febrile children admitted to the Franceville Regional Hospital, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Maghendji-Nzondo, Sydney; Nzoughe, Hermann; Lemamy, Guy Joseph; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Pegha-Moukandja, Irene; Lekoulou, Faustin; Mbatchi, Bertrand; Toure-Ndouo, Fousseyni; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11.7% of cases (n = 89/760); among them 19 (21.4%) had a severely altered condition. Malaria was the second most frequent etiology (22.0%; n = 162/738), after respiratory tract infections (37.3%; n = 275/738). Children with malaria (63 ± 39 months) were older than children without malaria (40 ± 37 months) (p = 0.0013). Hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet values were lower in children with malaria than in those without malaria (p < 0.0001). Anemia was the most common feature of severe malaria (70.6%; n = 12/17), followed by neurological involvement (23.5%; n = 4/17). The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children older than 60 months than in younger children (40% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.0001). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 97.5% of cases (158/162), followed by Plasmodium malariae (2.5%; n = 4/162). Bed net use was high (74.4%; n = 697/936) and contributed to malaria prevention (p = 0.001). Good basic knowledge of malaria also had a preventive effect (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of malaria in children in Franceville did not decrease significantly from 2009 to 2012, remaining at about 20%, highlighting that preventive measures should be reinforced. PMID:27492564

  18. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:23956369

  19. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  20. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  1. Climate services for adapting landslide hazard prevention measures in the Vrancea Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Balteanu, Dan; Jurchescu, Marta; Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Mihai

    2014-05-01

    The Vrancea Seismic Region is covering an area of about 8 000 km2 in the Romanian Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians and it is considered one of Europe's most intensely multi-hazard-affected areas. Due to its geomorphic traits (heterogeneous morphostructural units of flysch mountains and molasse hills and depressions), the area is strongly impacted by extreme hydro-meteorological events which are potentially enhancing the numerous damages inflicted to a dense network of human settlements. An a priori knowledge of future climate change is a useful climate service for local authorities to develop regional adapting strategies and adequate prevention/preparedness frameworks. This paper aims at integrating the results of the high-resolution climate projections over the 21st century (within the FP7 ECLISE project) into the regional landslide hazard assessment. The requirements of users (Civil Protection, Land management, local authorities) for this area refer to reliable and high-resolution spatial data on landslide and flood hazard for short and medium-term risk management strategies. An insight into the future behavior of climate variability in the Vrancea Seismic Region, based on future climate projections of three regional models, under three RCPs (2.6, 4.5, 8.6), suggests a clear warming, both annually and seasonally and a rather limited annual precipitation decrease, but with a strong change of seasonality. A landslide inventory of 2485 cases (shallow and medium seated earth, debris and rock slides and earth and debris flows) was obtained based on large scale geomorphological mapping and aerial photos support (GeoEye, DigitalGlobe; provided by GoogleEarth and BingMaps). The landslides are uniformly distributed across the area, being considered representative for the entire morphostructural environment. Landslide susceptibility map was obtained using multivariate statistical analysis (logistic regression), while a relative landslide hazard index was computed

  2. Pressure to produce=pressure to reduce accident reporting?

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Graso, Maja

    2013-10-01

    Each year, more than 4 million U.S. workers are injured on the job - several thousand die (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008). Despite these staggering numbers, research suggests that they are gross underestimates of the true volume of workplace related illnesses and injuries due to accident under-reporting. Although accident under-reporting has been well-documented, less is known regarding why this occurs. The current study suggests that under-reporting may in part be due to high levels of perceived production pressure. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that production pressure would be related to more experienced accidents overall and more negative attitudes toward reporting accidents. Further, we expected that production pressure would exacerbate the under-reporting of accidents. Survey data were collected from a sample of 212 copper mining workers located in the southwestern United States. The survey measured employee perceptions regarding production pressure, attitudes toward reporting accidents, perceived consequences of reporting accidents, and actual reporting behaviors (e.g., types and numbers of accidents experienced vs. reported). As predicted, the average number of experienced accidents per employee was significantly higher (M=2.84) than the number of reported accidents (M=.49). In addition, production pressure was related to more negative reporting attitudes. Individuals who had positive reporting attitudes were injured less frequently; however, when an incident occurred, they were more likely to report it. Finally, higher levels of production pressure were related to greater accident under-reporting. Additionally, employees who perceived high levels of production pressure not only experienced more accidents overall, they also reported fewer of them to the organization. Implications for occupational safety initiatives--particularly in the current economic climate--are discussed, as are methodological challenges of conducting research in

  3. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  4. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

  5. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter. PMID

  6. [Accidents in nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Mediås, I B; Fiskerud, R

    1991-08-20

    169 "injury situations" involving 61 patients were registered in a nursing home during one year. Four patients were sent to hospital. A few patients had several falls. Men were more prone to injury than women. Age itself seemed to be of no importance. Patients on shortterm admittance were at high risk. In general patients with dementia were not at higher risk but suffered the more serious injuries and were also involved in various episodes of patient violence. The risk of injuries is generally high in nursing homes. A certain risk must be accepted, but it is important to introduce prophylactic measures. A larger nursing staff might have prevented some of the situations. PMID:1926073

  7. Influence of caries-preventive measures in mothers on cariogenic bacteria and caries experience in their children.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Andréen, I

    1994-10-01

    Preventive measures, which reduced the salivary level of mutans streptococci in mothers, delayed colonization by these organisms in their children. The preventive programme was discontinued when the children were 3 years old. These children, at the age of 7 years, and their mothers were now examined to determine the effect of the earlier caries-preventive approach. The control mothers had significantly higher levels of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli than the test mothers (p < 0.05). The median level of salivary mutans streptococci was 0.6 x 10(6) c.f.u. (colony-forming units) per ml in the test mothers and 1.3 x 10(6) c.f.u. in the control mothers. The median level of salivary lactobacilli was 10 times higher in control than test mothers (80 x 10(3) and 7 x 10(3) c.f.u. per ml, respectively). Significantly more children of control than test mothers carried mutans streptococci (95 versus 46%) (z-test; p < 0.01). Children of test mothers had lower salivary levels of mutants streptococci and lactobacilli (p < 0.05). Twenty three % of the test children were caries-free, compared with 9% of the control children (z-test; p < 0.01). The mean caries experience of the test children was also significantly lower than that of the control children (defstot 5.2 and 8.6, respectively; p < 0.05). The results show that reduction of the mutans streptococci in the mother during the emergence of the primary teeth in her child has a long-term influence on colonization by these bacteria and the caries experience in the child. PMID:7741661

  8. The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabi, Doreen M; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Nerenberg, Kara; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; McKay, Donald W; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Ramesh Prasad, G V; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Brian Penner, S; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Fournier, Anne; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Harris, Kevin C; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program reviews the hypertension literature annually and provides detailed recommendations regarding hypertension diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment. This report provides the updated evidence-based recommendations for 2015. This year, 4 new recommendations were added and 2 existing recommendations were modified. A revised algorithm for the diagnosis of hypertension is presented. Two major changes are proposed: (1) measurement using validated electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices is preferred over auscultation for accurate office blood pressure measurement; (2) if the visit 1 mean blood pressure is increased but < 180/110 mm Hg, out-of-office blood pressure measurements using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (preferably) or home blood pressure monitoring should be performed before visit 2 to rule out white coat hypertension, for which pharmacologic treatment is not recommended. A standardized ambulatory blood pressure monitoring protocol and an update on automated office blood pressure are also presented. Several other recommendations on accurate measurement of blood pressure and criteria for diagnosis of hypertension have been reorganized. Two other new recommendations refer to smoking cessation: (1) tobacco use status should be updated regularly and advice to quit smoking should be provided; and (2) advice in combination with pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be offered to all smokers. The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed. PMID:25936483

  9. The Allium cepa chromosome aberration test reliably measures genotoxicity of soils of inhabited areas in the Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, O; Kovalchuk, I; Arkhipov, A; Telyuk, P; Hohn, B; Kovalchuk, L

    1998-07-01

    The accident on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant reactor IV in April 1986 led to the release of an enormous amount of radioactive material into the biosphere and to the formation of a complex pattern of nuclear contamination over a large area. As a consequence more than 5 million km2 of the soil in the Ukraine became contaminated with more than 1 Ci/km2 [1,2]. An assessment of the genetic consequences of the nuclear pollution is one of the most important problems. We applied the Allium cepa test to estimate the impact on plant chromosomes of nuclear pollution in the inhabited zones of the Ukraine. We tested soil from the obligatory resettlement zone (zone 2), where the mean density of pollution is 15-40 Ci/km2; zones of enhanced radiological control-zone 3, 5-15 Ci/km2 and zone 4, 1-5 Ci/km2. We found a dose-dependent increase in the fraction of aberrant mitoses from control values of 1.6 +/- 0.9% up to 23.8 +/- 5.0%, and a corresponding monotonous decrease of the mitotic index from 49.4 +/- 4.8% to a limiting value of 22.5 +/- 4.0% at pollution levels exceeding 35 Ci/km2 (activity of the soil samples exceeding 6000 Bq/kg, respectively). We observed a strong, significant correlation of 137Cs activity of soil samples with the percentage of chromosomal abnormalities, r = 0.97 (P < 0.05), and with the mitotic index, r = -0.93 (P < 0.05), in the roots of A. cepa, respectively. The results showed high toxicity and genotoxicity of radioactively polluted soils and confirmed the efficiency of the A. cepa test as a quick and inexpensive biological test for ecological and genetic risk assessment in the 'Chernobyl' zones. PMID:9711261

  10. [Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms - a rational measure to prevent sudden rupture].

    PubMed

    Torsello, Giovanni; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Grundmann, Reinhart Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has still a high hospital mortality rate of about 50 % (intervention and non-corrective treatment combined). With an easy non-invasive and inexpensive measure such as the ultrasound screening rupture threatened aneurysms can be recognized in time and then treated prophylactically, hemorrhagic shock can be avoided. Screening programs in England and Sweden currently describe an AAA prevalence of 1.5 % among screened 65-year-old males. With an absolute risk reduction for aneurysm-related death of 15.1 per 10,000 men invited for screening and a cost of £ 7,370 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), screening for this target group is highly cost-effective. Comprehensive AAA screening requires defined criteria for the quality of the aortic ultrasound examination and for the surgical treatment of detected large AAA. These interventions should be concentrated in centers obligated to quality registry documentation. Patients with smaller AAA, requiring no repair, should be included in a surveillance program, also with registry of their long-term data. PMID:27404935

  11. [Attitude of district physicians and the population toward measures regarding the prevention of ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Chazova, L V; Ivanov, V M; Manukian, L M; Patoka, N A; Sats, L M

    1984-11-01

    The experience of the work on multifactorial prophylaxis of coronary heart disease performed on the basis of an urban out-patient center among 40-59-year-old males points to an inadequate response of the population to the primary (57 % after the mailing of 4 invitations) and repeated annual (50-60% of those who have had the primary examination) prophylactic examinations. Over 4 years, 22 % of patients with coronary heart disease and 32 % of patients with arterial hypertension refused to come for out-patient examinations. The number of responses was greater among individuals with risk factors of coronary heart disease. Most therapists from out-patient clinics believe it necessary to carry out prophylactic measures and would like to have more time for this purpose. Yet, many of them doubt that the population will follow medical advice with regard to changing the life style. The population is poorly aware of the role of prophylactic examinations, the effect of nutrition and bad habits on the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:6521209

  12. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  13. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  14. [Study of accidents in the Koprivnica area].

    PubMed

    Vorko-Jović, Ariana; Biloglav, Zrinka; Vadla, Drazenka; Brezovec, Mladen

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present injury incidence, risky population groups, circumstances and activities before the accident and injury mechanism in Koprivnica district (715 km2, 61,052 inhabitants). Data were taken from the Register which includes all population who were injured in this area. Register was located in surgical unit, general hospital in Koprivnica. During study period Jan 1, 1998-Jun 30, 2000 there were 4833 injured persons registered. Males had significantly higher injury incidence (40.9/1000) than females (23.8/1000) (P < 0.01). The highest incidence among male population was in the age 15-24 yrs. (66.3/1000) and among females in the age 0-14 yrs. (35.6/1000). The most risky time for accidents was on Saturday (18.7%) and at 12-18 p.m. (53.2%). The highest road traffic accident mortality was in older age (65 and over) (110.3/100,000) and the highest injury incidence was in younger age (15-24 yrs.) (3200.6/100,000). Regarding other accidents, the most risky place was around the house, in garden (26.6%). The most frequent injury mechanism for both genders is slipping (16.5%); in men follow cuts (12.8%) and being hit from the moving object (12.3%) and in women follow fall on (from) stairs (12.5%) and cuts (10.7%). The most frequent activity before an accident appears is unpaid work with tools, machines and other (15.7%). More detailed investigation on the local level makes possible suggesting more efficient injury prevention programs. PMID:14692088

  15. Acute hepatitis A in Italy: incidence, risk factors and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Tosti, M E; Spada, E; Romanò, L; Zanetti, A; Mele, A

    2008-10-01

    The incidence of, and risk factors for, acute hepatitis A (AHA) were assessed by using data collected from the Italian surveillance system of acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA). To this end, a case-control study within a population-based surveillance for acute viral hepatitis was performed. AHA incidence has been estimated since 1991; the association with considered risk factors was analysed from 2001 to 2006 employing cases of acute hepatitis B (AHB) as controls. The incidence of AHA declined from 4 / 100 000 in 1991 to 1.4/100 000 in 2006, with a peak during 1996-1998 due to an outbreak in southern Italy. The incidence of AHA was highest among persons aged 15-24 years. The case-fatality rate was 2.9 / 10 000. Contact with individuals with AHA [adjusted OR (OR(adj)) = 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.5; population-attributable risk (PAR) = 7.5%], travelling to endemic areas (OR(adj) = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6-3.8; PAR = 19.5%), ingestion of raw shellfish (OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6-2.1; PAR = 26.6%), and cohabitation with day care children (OR(adj) = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.01-1.7; PAR = 2.3%) were the main important risk factors. In 2003, an outbreak, with high case-fatality rate occurred among intravenous drug users, in a central Italian town. A weak association was found for male homosexuality when acute hepatitis C cases were employed as controls (OR(adj) = 1.4 CI, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Hepatitis A virus infections are currently occurring more frequently in adults, in whom the disease is most severe. In conclusion, looking at the attributable risks, at present most of the AHA infections are due to shellfish consumption, travel to endemic areas and contact with patients with AHA. Vaccination of individuals at increased risk of infection, as well as persons with underling liver disease and those at increased risk of complications, combined with surveillance of shellfish retail outlets are efficient control measures. PMID:18837830

  16. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? What You Need to Know in an Emergency ... Aid: Poisoning First-Aid Kit Emergency Contact Sheet Lead Poisoning Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  17. A survey of Preventive Measures Used and their Impact on Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) in Intensive Care Units (SPIN-BACC)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Quebec central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (ICUs) Surveillance Program saw a decrease in CLABSI rates in most ICUs. Given the surveillance trends observed in recent years, we aimed to determine what preventive measures have been implemented, if compliance to measures was monitored and its impact on CLABSI incidence rates. Methods All hospitals participating in the Quebec healthcare-associated infections surveillance program (SPIN-BACC – n = 48) received a 77-question survey about preventive measures implemented and monitored in their ICU. The questionnaire was validated for construct, content, face validity, and reliability. We used Poisson regression to measure the association between compliance monitoring to preventive measures and CLABSI rates. Results Forty-two (88%) eligible hospitals completed the survey. Two components from the maximum barrier precautions were used less optimally: cap (88%) and full sterile body drape (71%). Preventive measures reported included daily review of catheter need (79%) and evaluation of insertion site for the presence of inflammation (90%). Two hospitals rewired lines even if an infection was suspected or documented. In adult ICUs, there was a statistically significant greater decrease in CLABSI rates in ICUs that monitored compliance to preventive insertion measures, after adjusting for teaching status and the number of hospital beds (p = 0.036). Conclusions Hospitals participating to the SPIN-BACC program follow recommendations for CLABSI prevention, but only a minority locally monitor their application. Compliance monitoring of preventive measures for catheter insertion was associated with a decrease in CLABSI incidence rates. PMID:24289473

  18. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  19. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  20. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  1. A new approach of the surface temperature measurement for a preventive conservation of the work of arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Tuccio, Maria Concetta; De Grandi, Sandro; Vivarelli, Arianna; Becherini, Francesca; Pockelé, Luc; Bernardi, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    To conserve the work of arts (paintings, sculptures, etc..) in a preventive mode, a careful monitoring of the environment around these artifacts, as well as of their surface temperature, is necessary. The latter is the only physical variable which can be measured in a non-invasive way, following directly the thermal conditions and variations of the work of arts due to the dynamics of the microclimate. Considering that the works of art are often untouchable, an automated and accurate remote sensing could be very useful to prevent dangerous processes of deterioration. For these reasons a new sensor has been developed by a spin-off of the ISAC - CNR. This sensor allows to check in real-time the surface temperature changes of the artifacts both over time and at different predefined points. This automated sensor is a radiometer sensible to wavelengths ranging from 7,5 µm to 13,4 µm. A system rotating over three dimension "pan and tilt" allows to make multiple measures on a grid of points previously defined on the surface of the work of arts. The accuracy, obtained by means of a carefull calibration process, is  0,5 °C, more precise than the usual remote sensing (thermal camera and commercial radiometers), characterized by an accuracy value of  2°C. In order to obtain accurate measures of the surface temperature for a real body, the correct emissivity values need to be integrated in the calculation. Hence, an easy to use management software has been developed allowing to set the emissivity value in each point of the grid. For rejoinable points of the surface, the exact emissivity value could be determined comparing the measurements recorded by the new infrared sensor with the ones obtained by a very sensitive sensor (0,02 - 0,03)°C manually placed on the surface for a short time. In case of work of arts placed at great distance from the sersor, the emissivity values must be determined previously. The emissivity depends on a lot of variables and one of them is

  2. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR THE ABOVE GROUND TANK FAILURE REPRESENTATIVE ACCIDENT & ASSOCIATED REPRESENTED HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    ZACH, J.J.

    2003-03-21

    This document qualitatively evaluates the frequency and consequences of the representative aboveground tank failure accident and associated represented hazardous conditions without controls. Based on the evaluation, it was determined that safety-significant structures, systems, and components, and/or technical safety requirements were not required to prevent or mitigate aboveground tank failure accidents.

  3. Pattern of Hepatitis A Virus Epidemiology in Nursing Students and Adherence to Preventive Measures at Two Training Wards of a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Campagna, Marcello; Maria Mereu, Noemi; Mulas, Lucia; Pilia, Roberta; Francesca Piazza, Maria; Spada, Laura; Lai, Alberto; Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Masia, Giuseppina; Restivo, Angelo; Mura, Paolo; Finco, Gabriele; Cristina Coppola, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Nursing students can be exposed to patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and can represent a vehicle of transmission both for health personnel, patients and relatives. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the risk of HAV infection in nursing students during their internship. Patients and Methods A seroprevalence survey on HAV infection was performed on nursing students at the Cagliari university-hospital, together with the assessment of the compliance to preventive measures to decrease the risk of infection during their internship. Blood specimens were obtained from 253 students. All serum samples were tested for anti-HAV antibodies (IgG) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compliance to preventive measures was recorded by trained personnel. Results Overall HAV seropositivity in nursing students (mean age 24, range 17 - 45 years) was 3%. Compliance to preventive measures was not uniform (6% - 76%) and extremely low in some specific measures targeted to decrease the oral-fecal transmission. Conclusions The high proportion of susceptible nursing students can contribute to an increase in the risk of nosocomial transmission, especially when specific preventive measures are not completely applied. Nursing education packages, before starting medical internship, should be implemented in order to increase their compliance to preventive measures, especially in wards at higher risk. Vaccination should be considered in wards at higher risk. PMID:27195012

  4. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  5. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

  6. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Sapkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added. PMID:23841001

  7. Comparison of waste prevention behaviors among three Japanese megacity regions in the context of local measures and socio-demographics.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Kiyo H; Bortoleto, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    Waste prevention behaviors (WPBs) should be investigated separately from recycling behaviors and analyzed in the context of local policies and measures. Previous studies on WPBs have been mainly conducted in the USA and Europe (mainly in the UK), and studies in Japan have remained very limited to date. Moreover, the effects of socio-demographic factors have been rarely described correctly based on appropriate large sampling. In this study, we conducted an on-line questionnaire survey and obtained 8000 respondents in three megacity regions (Tokyo, Osaka, and Aichi) in Japan. Among these three regions, Osaka respondents showed significantly lower practice rates in nine of 18 WPBs. Particularly in My-bag behavior, the charging of plastic shopping bags strongly affects the practice rate. As shown in the results, local policies and measures affect WPBs. Based on the practice rates, latent four factors were extracted by factor analysis. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and age significantly affect WPB factors before local policy effects. PMID:21470842

  8. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. PMID:25060676

  9. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  10. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovitch, O; Prister, B; Nasvit, O; Los, I; Berkovski, V

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned from the Chernobyl example. PMID:8655324

  12. Systemic analysis of so-called 'accidents on the level' in a multi trade company.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, S; Thouy, S

    2004-10-10

    Slips, trips and falls on the level are considered commonplace and are rarely subjected to in-depth analysis. They occur in highly varied circumstances in an occupational situation. In-depth analysis of these accidents was conducted within a company with the aim of understanding them better, to be able to discuss prevention field possibilities and priorities for the company concerned. Firstly, available data on 'accidents on the level' occurring over the last 4 years were analysed and a typology for these accidents was derived, based on individual activity at the time of the accident and accident location. The three most serious accident-causing situations were analysed in-depth from interviews with injured persons, as well as from activity observation and activity-related verbal information obtained from operatives. These most serious situations involved accidents occurring when climbing down from trucks or when walking either in surroundings outside company premises or from (to) a vehicle to (from) a work location. In-depth accident analysis and characterization of accident-causing situations as a whole enhance our understanding of the accident process and allow us to envisage priorities for action in the prevention field, in operational terms. Each accident-causing situation reveals environmental factors that in fact constitute accident factors (obstacle, stone, etc.), when the individual walks or climbs down from a truck. Analysis shows that other events are necessary for accident occurrence. For example, the individual may be subjected to a time constraint or may be preoccupied. Results obtained here, in a company integrating different trades, are discussed and compared with those referred to in the literature. Generalization of some of these results is also considered. PMID:15370848

  13. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

    2013-04-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  14. [Risk of accidents for a Parisian pedestrian].

    PubMed

    Vayre, P

    2001-12-01

    The risk of accident for a parisian pedestrian is of reduced frequency and of moderate severity (terrorism and natural disasters not included) according to the statistics of 1999. This is due to security measures and the excellent organisation of assistance to wounded persons. The improvement in protection of pedestrians, even the disabled and elderly persons will soon make Paris the best protected megalopolis of our continent. Pedestrians are involved in 28% of accidents on public streets with a mortality of 1.2%, with serious injuries in 12.6% of the cases. Injuries without collision occur in 57% of the cases. 18% of the wounded older than 75 years with 1.8% of deaths and 66% of severe injury. Accidents related to public transportation represent a very slight risk of 0.00044%. By modification of the concept of transportation and its materials over a five year period there is a decrease in the number of the victims (-3.75%), in spite of the increase of accidents (3.5%). For lone pedestrian being victims of aggression in public places, after a decrease of 10% in 1999, there is in 2001 an increase which raises the question of police proximity again. Over a five year period the RATP (subway authority) has noticed a 14.77% decrease of thefts and a 54.78% decrease in attacks... This makes the Parisian railnet (subway mostly) seven times less dangerous than the streets. PMID:11803819

  15. Simulation of a beyond design-basis-accident with RELAP5/MOD3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses, parametric and sensitivity studies, performed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 computer code for the 4th IAEA Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). The test, conducted on the PMK-2 facility in Budapest, involved simulation of a Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440 type pressurized water reactor. According to the scenario, the unavailability of the high pressure injection system led to a beyond design basis accident. For prevention of core damage, secondary side bleed-and-feed accident management measures were applied. A brief description of the PMK-2 integral type test facility is presented, together with the profile and some key phenomenological aspects of this particular experiment. Emphasis is placed on the ability of the code to predict the main trends observed in the test and thus, an assessment is given for the code capabilities to represent the system transient.

  16. Stochastic analysis of motor-control stability, polymer based force sensing, and optical stimulation as a preventive measure for falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrock, Clinton K.

    Falls are the leading cause of all external injuries. Outcomes of falls include the leading cause of traumatic brain injury and bone fractures, and high direct medical costs in the billions of dollars. This work focused on developing three areas of enabling component technology to be used in postural control monitoring tools targeting the mitigation of falls. The first was an analysis tool based on stochastic fractal analysis to reliably measure levels of motor control. The second focus was on thin film wearable pressure sensors capable of relaying data for the first tool. The third was new thin film advanced optics for improving phototherapy devices targeting postural control disorders. Two populations, athletes and elderly, were studied against control groups. The results of these studies clearly show that monitoring postural stability in at-risk groups can be achieved reliably, and an integrated wearable system can be envisioned for both monitoring and treatment purposes. Keywords: electro-active polymer, ionic polymer-metal composite, postural control, motor control, fall prevention, sports medicine, fractal analysis, physiological signals, wearable sensors, phototherapy, photobiomodulation, nano-optics.

  17. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  18. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures Among the Jarai Male Youth Along the Cambodia-Vietnam Border.

    PubMed

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-10-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam-Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  19. Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident.

    PubMed Central

    Sehmer, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians regularly treat victims of rear-end vehicle accidents. This article describes how taking a detailed history of the accident and understanding the significance of the physical events is helpful in understanding and anticipating patients' morbidity and clinical course. Eight questions to ask patients are suggested to help physicians understand the severity of injury. PMID:8495140

  20. Associations between availability and coverage of HIV-prevention measures and subsequent incidence of diagnosed HIV infection among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Wiessing, Lucas; Likatavicius, Giedrius; Klempová, Danica; Hedrich, Dagmar; Nardone, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul

    2009-06-01

    HIV-prevention measures specific to injection drug users (IDUs), such as opioid substitution treatment and needle-and-syringe programs, are not provided in many countries where injection drug use is endemic. We describe the incidence of diagnosed HIV infection in IDUs and the availability and coverage of opioid substitution and needle-and-syringe programs in the European Union and 5 middle- and high-income countries. Countries with greater provision of both prevention measures in 2000 to 2004 had lower incidence of diagnosed HIV infection in 2005 and 2006. PMID:19372511