Science.gov

Sample records for accident prevention measures

  1. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  2. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  3. Accident prevention manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-05-01

    Among the many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of families, ourselves, fellow employees, and the continuing success of this organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. In the event of conflicting judgments, the more conservative interpretation shall prevail pending review and resolution by management.

  4. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I

    2005-07-01

    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets).

  5. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    PubMed

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions.

  6. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  7. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  8. Review of aviation safety measures which have application to aviation accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Doughtery, J D

    1975-01-01

    Introduction of certain human-factors techniques has been followed by market reduction in military and airline accident rates. In this study, these safety measures are analyzed to determine the value of their application to general aviation activity. Some techniques are already in use. They are: 1. medical evaluation of iarcrews; 2. aeronautical innovations which tailor the machine to the man; 3. imporvement of precision navigational air traffic control and flight procedures; 4. standardization of flight training and flight procedures. A remaining field of interest, and one which appears to be underused, is that of supervision. After ending his association with the flight instructor, the general aviation pilot is essentially unsupervised. Accident data gathered over several years show that with increases in the proportion of pilots who have not maintained an association with a flight instructor, the general aviation fatal accident rate is increased. Current regulations, which require revalidation of airman's certificates, provide a method by which this association can be maintained. The flight instructor, or some similar aviation professional, can maintain an element of supervision with otherwise independent general aviation pilots. Data from previous years supports the hypothesis that such a program would make a substantial improvement in general aviation safety.

  9. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  10. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  11. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  12. The three essentials for accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Crystal

    2014-11-01

    This article was written by Crystal Eastman when she was Secretary of the New York Commission on Employers' Liability and Causes of Industrial Accidents, Unemployment, and Lack of Farm Labor. It was published in July of 1911, in Volume 38, Number 1 of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pages 98-107. The issue title was "Risks in Modern Industry." Eastman calls for the prevention of workplace accidents through three essentials: injury surveillance/reporting (with annual public reporting of the data); government enforcement of accident prevention laws, via departments with well-paid and well-trained officials and inspectors, fines that are high enough to be a deterrence to employers, and the power to have police shut down a factory if preventive measures are not installed; and a workers' compensation system-"a system of liability by which an employer can reduce his accident costs, not by hiring a more unscrupulous attorney and a more hard-hearted claim agent, but only by reducing his accidents." PMID:25261022

  13. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  14. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies.

  15. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  16. Accident prevention: the health visitor's role.

    PubMed

    Levene, S

    1992-10-01

    The health of the nation white paper sets targets in five key areas for reductions in both mortality and morbidity: coronary heart disease and stroke, cancers, mental illness, HIV/Aids and sexual health and accidents. In a series of articles in Health visitor, experts will be considering the opportunities the white paper offers for community nurses in each of the key areas. Here Dr Sara Levene, medical consultant to the Child Accident Prevention Trust, considers accidents, a major problem which health visitors can do much to control. She reviews how accidents are presented in the white paper, what health visitors can do and what resources are available to help them. She offers particular advice on special accident prevention initiatives and discusses some of the opportunities created by the white paper.

  17. Childhood accidents: epidemiology, trends, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Sibert, J

    1997-01-01

    Accidents are the most common cause of death in children over one year of age. Prevention remains a high priority. We have reviewed the current epidemiology of childhood accidents and their prevention, and made recommendations for the future. In 1992, 559 children died in United Kingdom as a result of an accidents--240 from road traffic accidents and 100 from burns and scalds. Every year 50 children drown. Accidents cause significant disability to children. Many children, up to one in four of the population in urban areas, attend accident and emergency departments, and 5-10% of these are admitted to hospital. Accident risk factors include low social class, psychosocial stress, an unsafe environment, and child developmental disorders. Research has shown that prevention is best achieved by making the child's environment safer, often through legislation. Insufficient resources have been put into both research into childhood injuries and preventive work in communities. Collaboration between health authorities, NHS trusts, local authorities and community networks is vital if success is to be achieved. A national safety agenda for children would focus the attention that this problem deserves. PMID:9315935

  18. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  19. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention... the Secretary of Labor at 29 CFR part 1926 and 29 CFR part 1910; and (3) Ensure that any...

  1. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  2. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  3. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    , insufficient attention was paid to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region, i.e., AD 869 Jogan and 1677 Empo Boso-oki tsunamis, and the 1896 Sanriku tsunami maximum height in eastern Japan whose maximum runup was 38m. Two, the design safety conditions were different in Onagawa, Fukushima and Tokai NPPs. It is inconceivable to have had different earthquake scenarios for the NPPs at such close distance from each other. Three, studying the sub-standard TEPCO analysis performed only months before the accident shows that it is not the accuracy of numerical computations or the veracity of the computational model that doomed the NPP, but the lack of familiarity with the context of numerical predictions. Inundation projections, even if correct for one particular scenario, need to always be put in context of similar studies and events elsewhere. To put it in colloquial terms, following a recipe from a great cookbook and having great cookware does not always result in great food, if the cook is an amateur. The Fukushima accident was preventable. Had the plant's owner TEPCO and NISA followed international best practices and standards, they would had predicted the possibility of the plant being struck by the size of tsunami that materialized in 2011. If the EDGs had been relocated inland or higher, there would have been no loss of power. A clear chance to have reduced the impact of the tsunami at Fukushima was lost after the 2010 Chilean tsunami. Standards are not only needed for evaluating the vulnerability of NPPs against tsunami attack, but also for evaluating the competence of modelers and evaluators. Acknowledgment: This work is partially supported by the project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe) FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839 to the Technical University of Crete and the Middle East Technical University.

  4. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to the requirements set forth at 29 CFR 1910.145 of this chapter. ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to the requirements set forth at 29 CFR 1910.145 of this chapter. ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.91 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Working Conditions § 1915.91 Accident prevention signs and tags. The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to the requirements set forth at 29 CFR 1910.145 of this chapter. ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1915.91 Section...

  8. 77 FR 56645 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Department of Defense... reinstatement of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Accident Prevention Plans... 9000- 0060, Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping by any of the following methods:...

  9. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In the performance of each project, the Cooperator shall comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local...

  10. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In the performance of each project, the Cooperator shall comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local...

  11. Child protection. Accident prevention: a community approach.

    PubMed

    Roberts, H

    1991-07-01

    Child accidents are the main cause of death and a considerable cause of morbidity in children, as well as anxiety to adults. Attempts to tackle this major health problem have tended to rely on campaigns of education and exhortation; public health strategies remain underdeveloped. Health visitors are well placed to pursue child safety strategies which build on parents' own knowledge and experience. Helen Roberts describes an initiative based not on the question, why did that accident happen? but the more intriguing question of how is it that most parents manage to keep their children safe most of the time and what can we learn from them?

  12. [Accidents involving children and adolescents: from epidemiological findings to preventive action].

    PubMed

    Manciaux, M; Jeanneret, O

    1983-01-01

    It is generally accepted that improving epidemiological knowledge of accidents in childhood and adolescence leads to a better implementation of more efficient prevention programs. Nevertheless, it is not yet generally admitted that any new preventive measure addressing these accidents has to be evaluated by competent epidemiologists. Obviously, there are exceptions regarding these two rules. Four examples of successful implementation are presented in this paper: safety packaging of aspirin; fences around private swimming pools; changes in minimal drinking and driving age in adolescence; bicycle accidents. The discussion is focused on four intervention levels suggested for the epidemiologists. PMID:6669771

  13. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  14. [Etiological accident types and recommendations for prevention in basketball].

    PubMed

    Raschka, C; Gläser, H; de Marées, H

    1995-09-01

    The study is based on 128 basketball accidents. The following accident types were discovered: ankle sprains 54.7%, handling the ball (saving and catching) 15.6%, knee-joint-distorsions 10.2%, collisions, blows and kicks 11.7%, falls 3.9%, spontaneous damage of muscles and tendons 1.6% and getting hurt because of the equipment in the gym 2.3%. Prophylactic precautions might be physiological or synthetic taping, proprioceptor training and preventive sports medical checkups.

  15. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  16. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852.236-87 Section 852.236-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  17. Theoretical Perspectives on Fishing Vessel Accidents and Their Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    Fishing vessel accidents occur because of complex interactions of human, technical, and environmental factors. Although they usually occur because of human actions, thoughts, or behavior, investigators and prevention educators are preoccupied with technical matters and equipment. Equipment, machinery, weather, and other objective facts are…

  18. [Life style and prevention of cerebrovascular accidents].

    PubMed

    Labauge, R; Aboobaker-Labauge, F

    1991-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) claim 1.5 million lives each year in industrialized countries; in developing countries, estimates suggest the same distressing trends. CVD rank as the third leading cause of death after ischaemic heart disease and cancer. Surviving patients are left disabled and paralysed, dependent on their families and on society. Lifestyle, an issue of concern both for the individual and the community, can play an important role in the primary prevention of CVD when combined with dietary adjustments and appropriate drug therapy; it can prevent and slow down the development of atheroma, help to regulate blood pressure and contribute to the prevention of heart diseases likely to cause embolic strokes. The preventive treatment and management of other conditions, such as rheumatic heart disease, coronary artery disease with myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmias (embolic strokes), combined with healthy eating habits that tend to reduce the intake of saturated fats (atherosclerosis) and salt (high blood pressure) and the avoidance of smoking and alcohol (ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes) will help to lower the incidence of mortality and morbidity due to CVD.

  19. The Epidemiology and Prevention of Traffic Accidents Involving Child Pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Read, John H.; Bradley, Eleanor J.; Morison, Joan D.; Lewall, David; Clarke, David A.

    1963-01-01

    A study of 713 motor vehicle accidents involving 749 children in the city of Vancouver is reported. A control group of 110 children who did not have accidents was included in the concurrent study. Factors investigated were the driver, the vehicle, the weather, the time of day, the day of week, the month, the width of roadway, the location of the accident, the child's age, sex, personality, school record, and family background, the type of injury, and the ambulance and hospital service received. Boys were more commonly involved than girls, and most accidents occurred in the 3 to 7 year age group. Head injuries prevailed in the younger age groups and decreased steadily with the age of the child. Specific epidemic areas in the city were identified and selective enforcement was suggested as a possible countermeasure. Hospital records seldom provided a detailed history of the events leading up to the accident. In order to apply the preventive techniques of education and enforcement it was suggested that in each pedestrian traffic accident the driver should be required to accompany the victim to the site of medical care. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:14055829

  20. [Motivation of the employer for accident prevention and rehabilitation through risk-justified premiums].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A L; Merz, R

    1989-01-01

    The Swiss workers' compensation law prescribes experience rating. Successful efforts of an employer to reduce the risk of accidents through adequate preventive measures on one hand, and on the other hand to keep subsequent costs of still occurring accidents low with quick, consistent and generous measures of rehabilitation, will therefore result in a lower insurance rate. The motivating influence and success of this self-responsibility is pointed out with the figures of a trading company who had been detached from a large risk-community due to bad results. The success with accident prevention and the very favourable ratio achievable of costs for medical treatment (as a measure for the severity of the injuries) to daily payments and costs for permanent disabilities is shown with the example of a construction machinery company. What relations and consecutive costs result from (partly conscious) neglect of rehabilitation is demonstrated with the figures of a construction company. PMID:2532438

  1. Theoretical Perspectives on Learning for the Prevention of Fishing Vessel Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical model for accident prevention education that includes four paradigms: humanism, radical humanism, functionalism, and radical functionalism. Applies the model to fishing boat accidents and derives implications for changing the content and processes of prevention education. (SK)

  2. [Road vehicle accidents during travel and their prevention].

    PubMed

    Murat, J E

    1997-01-01

    The number of road vehicle accidents during travel outside Europe and/or under difficult conditions increases about 5% every year. Road accidents account for a third to half of medical evacuations as well as for the most serious injuries. The risk of accidents and their potential gravity may be enhanced by the poor condition of roads and vehicles. Personal factors including fatigue, speed, alcohol, drugs, and poor vision also play a major role. Physicians should warn travelers planning road trips of all these hazards and of any specific local conditions prevailing in certain destinations. Prevention depends on the age of the traveler and on any disabilities that he/she might have. Packing a first aid kit and inspecting safety equipment before the trip and at regular intervals during the trip are indispensable. Knowledge of emergency first aid procedures is highly recommendable. While avoiding excessiveness of any kind, the physician should encourage suitable psychological and material preparation in function of travel plans. This preparation should be aimed at reducing the risk of road accident particularly in developing countries. Counseling can be useful in reducing the risk of road accidents particularly in developing countries.

  3. Prevention of dental accidents in Swiss boxing clubs.

    PubMed

    Ifkovits, Tatjana; Kühl, Sebastian; Connert, Thomas; Krastl, Gabriel; Dagassan-Berndt1, Dorothea; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Boxing involves a high risk of dental trauma due to the impact of enormous external forces against the head. Wearing a mouthguard is, therefore, mandatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental trauma as well as the utilization and quality of mouthguards in Swiss boxing clubs. In order to achieve this, data on the mouthguards of 217 boxers in total were collected using questionnaires and examination forms, which were statistically evaluated. Out of the 217 boxers, 75 (34.6%) had already experienced a dental accident, but only 8 (10.7%) of them while practicing their sport. Professional boxers were most frequently affected by dental trauma (p = 0.001). Crown fractures were most often observed, followed by tooth dislocations. All interviewed athletes owned a mouthguard, which they used much more consistently during full-contact sparring (practice fighting) than during regular partner exercises. Most of the boxers used prefabricated mouthguards, which could be individually adapted using the “boil and bite” system. The majority of the athletes received their mouthguards from the boxing club. Impaired speaking when wearing a mouthguard was, by far, the problem most frequently mentioned by the athletes. In terms of these bothering factors, custom-made mouthguards from dentists received the best rating (p = 0.002). The quality of the mouthguard was assessed by evaluating the following criteria: coverage of the buccolabial surface, occlusal support of the opposing dentition, thickness of the occlusal layer, and rounded edges. Of the 215 mouthguards examined, 193 (89.8%) were insufficient (p = 0.002). Despite the observed deficiencies, only a few dental injuries occurred during boxing. This study shows that although basic preventive measures do exist in Swiss boxing, they should be improved substantially by providing better instruction and more information. PMID:26678302

  4. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  5. Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility.

  6. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 2. Accident Prevention for Faculty and Administrators, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…

  7. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  8. [Accident cause masculinity?--Gender-related issues of accident victims between prevention and coping in Kaiserreich and Weimarer Republik].

    PubMed

    Knoll-Jung, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Occupational accidents in industrial workplaces are a specific health problem for man. Therefore it seems adequate to use masculinities as a category of research in this field. For the Kaiserreich and the Weimarer Republik it shows that male workers relating to their danger awareness and behavior, prevention, accident causes and coping strategies are settled in an area of conflict between a hard workplace environment and the family. On the basis of health practices of the accident victims it appears that there are different forms of labor masculinities. They have an important influence on all levels of an occupational accident from the endangerment to the success of the treatment. Through a critical use of the category academic void can be shown and alternative explanatory models can be offered. PMID:26219189

  9. [Accident cause masculinity?--Gender-related issues of accident victims between prevention and coping in Kaiserreich and Weimarer Republik].

    PubMed

    Knoll-Jung, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Occupational accidents in industrial workplaces are a specific health problem for man. Therefore it seems adequate to use masculinities as a category of research in this field. For the Kaiserreich and the Weimarer Republik it shows that male workers relating to their danger awareness and behavior, prevention, accident causes and coping strategies are settled in an area of conflict between a hard workplace environment and the family. On the basis of health practices of the accident victims it appears that there are different forms of labor masculinities. They have an important influence on all levels of an occupational accident from the endangerment to the success of the treatment. Through a critical use of the category academic void can be shown and alternative explanatory models can be offered.

  10. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  11. Environmental Safety and the Prevention of Childhood Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Satya

    Of 25 western countries under consideration in 1975, Canada had the worst accident record for female children and the second worst for male children. In response to this problem, the present report assembles data to present a clearer picture of the extent of the problem and begins an analysis of potential accident events as a preliminary step to…

  12. [Electrophysiologic criteria for the prevention of electric accidents].

    PubMed

    Kupfer, J

    1990-11-01

    About 0.25 percent of all registered industrial accidents are caused by electric current. One in 20 of these accidents has been fatal. The consequences of electric flow are determined by several factors, above all voltage, time and path of flow, type of current, and resistors within the power circuit. These are attributable to physiological criteria of conduction. Slight electric shock and death by ventricular fibrillation are close to each other by the all-or-nothing law. Conclusions are suggested for practice, and a discussion is proposed with a view to find an adequate definition of the power-related accident. PMID:2085034

  13. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

  14. Recommendations for Injury Prevention in Transport Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grierson, Anita E.; Jones, Lisa E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, a national objective was established to reduce the rate of fatal accidents in aviation. To assist in determining the best methods for improving aircraft crash survivability, a combined approach was used involving database research and the examination of case studies of transport aviation accidents. The results of the study include recommendations for maintaining occupiable space, enhancing occupant restraint, managing energy transferred to the occupant, improving egress, and increasing post-crash survival.

  15. Systematic strategies for the third industrial accident prevention plan in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-sig; Yang, Sung-hwan; Kim, Tae-gu; Kim, Day-sung

    2012-01-01

    To minimize industrial accidents, it's critical to evaluate a firm's priorities for prevention factors and strategies since such evaluation provides decisive information for preventing industrial accidents and maintaining safety management. Therefore, this paper proposes the evaluation of priorities through statistical testing of prevention factors with a cause analysis in a cause and effect model. A priority matrix criterion is proposed to apply the ranking and for the objectivity of questionnaire results. This paper used regression method (RA), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and proposed analytical function method (PAFM) to analyze trends of accident data that will lead to an accurate prediction. This paper standardized the questionnaire results of workers and managers in manufacturing and construction companies with less than 300 employees, located in the central Korean metropolitan areas where fatal accidents have occurred. Finally, a strategy was provided to construct safety management for the third industrial accident prevention plan and a forecasting method for occupational accident rates and fatality rates for occupational accidents per 10,000 people.

  16. Systematic strategies for the third industrial accident prevention plan in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-sig; Yang, Sung-hwan; Kim, Tae-gu; Kim, Day-sung

    2012-01-01

    To minimize industrial accidents, it's critical to evaluate a firm's priorities for prevention factors and strategies since such evaluation provides decisive information for preventing industrial accidents and maintaining safety management. Therefore, this paper proposes the evaluation of priorities through statistical testing of prevention factors with a cause analysis in a cause and effect model. A priority matrix criterion is proposed to apply the ranking and for the objectivity of questionnaire results. This paper used regression method (RA), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and proposed analytical function method (PAFM) to analyze trends of accident data that will lead to an accurate prediction. This paper standardized the questionnaire results of workers and managers in manufacturing and construction companies with less than 300 employees, located in the central Korean metropolitan areas where fatal accidents have occurred. Finally, a strategy was provided to construct safety management for the third industrial accident prevention plan and a forecasting method for occupational accident rates and fatality rates for occupational accidents per 10,000 people. PMID:23047079

  17. [Therapeutic recommendations. Secondary prevention of cerebral vascular accident].

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Correia, M; Freire, A

    1998-01-01

    The guidelines for secondary stroke prevention, graded following available scientific evidence, are presented. Stroke and TIA are defined and the indications for referral established. Basic assessment of stroke patients should include laboratory evaluation, ECG, brain CT, ultrasound examination of the extracranial vessels for events in the carotid distribution, and transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiogram if cardioembolism is suspected. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological reduction of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, stopping smoking and reducing alcohol intake are general measures recommended for secondary stroke prevention, together with healthier life-style changes (eating a Mediterranean type diet and performing regular moderate physical exercise). Concerning antithrombotic therapy, oral anticoagulants are recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation and other high to medium emboligenic cardiac risk conditions. Antiplatelet drugs are recommended for all other survivors of an ischemic cerebral event. Aspirin (75-325 mg/day) is the drug of choice. Alternative antiplatelet agents are clopidrogrel, ticlopidine, dipiridamol or triflusal. They can be used in patients with intolerance or contraindication to aspirin or in high-risk subjects. Endarterectomy of the symptomatic carotid is an additional procedure recommended for patients with ischemic stroke or TIA and carotid stenosis > 80% on the side of the symptomatic cerebral hemisphere. PMID:9951075

  18. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  19. Improvement of relief algorithm to prevent inpatient's downfall accident with night-vision CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miwa, Masafumi; Nukumi, Shinobu; Mori, Kumiko; Kuinose, Yuko; Maeda, Etuko; Miura, Hirokazu; Taki, Hirokazu; Hori, Satoshi; Abe, Norihiro

    2005-12-01

    "ROSAI" hospital, Wakayama City in Japan, reported that inpatient's bed-downfall is one of the most serious accidents in hospital at night. Many inpatients have been having serious damages from downfall accidents from a bed. To prevent accidents, the hospital tested several sensors in a sickroom to send warning-signal of inpatient's downfall accidents to a nurse. However, it sent too much inadequate wrong warning about inpatients' sleeping situation. To send a nurse useful information, precise automatic detection for an inpatient's sleeping situation is necessary. In this paper, we focus on a clustering-algorithm which evaluates inpatient's situation from multiple angles by several kinds of sensor including night-vision CCD camera. This paper indicates new relief algorithm to improve the weakness about exceptional cases.

  20. Organisational Factors of Occupational Accidents with Movement Disturbance (OAMD) and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    LECLERCQ, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Workplace design and upkeep, or human factors, are frequently advanced for explaining so-called Occupational Slip, Trip and Fall Accidents (OSTFAs). Despite scientific progress, these accidents, and more broadly Occupational Accidents with Movement Disturbance (OAMDs), are also commonly considered to be “simple”. This paper aims to stimulate changes in such perceptions by focusing on organisational factors that often combine with other accident factors to cause movement disturbance and injury in work situations. These factors frequently lead to arbitration between production and safety, which involves implementation of controls by workers. These controls can lead to greater worker exposure to OAMD risk. We propose a model that focuses on such controls to account specifically for the need to confront production and safety logics within a company and to enhance the potential for appropriate prevention action. These are then integrated into the set of controls highlighted by work organisation model developed by the NIOSH. PMID:25345425

  1. A Program of Education in Accident Prevention, with Methods and Results. Bulletin, 1922, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, E. George

    1922-01-01

    No movement in education in recent years has taken hold of the imagination and emotions of the American business man more effectively than education in accident prevention. This appeal to the business man is perhaps due more than anything else to the fact that when the educator begins to talk of education in terms of saving human lives he is using…

  2. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  3. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 1. Accident Prevention for College and University Students, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…

  4. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  5. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    PubMed

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  6. The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (p<0.05). After the educational intervention, there seemed to be a significant difference with the questions regarding the knowledge on preventing fall (p=0.000), drowning (p=0.000), and intoxication (p=0.007). The authors concluded that the educational intervention performed in this study increased the subjects’ knowledge on prevention of accidents in childhood. PMID:27583061

  7. The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (p<0.05). After the educational intervention, there seemed to be a significant difference with the questions regarding the knowledge on preventing fall (p=0.000), drowning (p=0.000), and intoxication (p=0.007). The authors concluded that the educational intervention performed in this study increased the subjects' knowledge on prevention of accidents in childhood. PMID:27583061

  8. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  9. [Examination of the Prevention of Severe Hand Trauma Injury Cases due to Occupational Accidents--An Expert Opinion Gathering Meeting].

    PubMed

    Zenke, Yukichi; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Nakao, Toyoki; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Shoji, Takurou; Fukumoto, Keizo; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    We gathered seven specialists from various fields who are interested in worker injury prevention programs, based on cases of patients who had suffered refractory injuries requiring hand surgery because of industrial accidents. The patients were asked to write their thoughts and ideas on the theme, "Measures that must be implemented to prevent arm injuries." The content obtained was classified into different categories, using the KJ method, and was scripted to sort out the items. As a result, the following eleven points were identified as measures to prevent serious hand surgery-related injuries: 1. Purchase safe machinery, 2. Create a list of machines that require caution, 3. Enclose a machine's various rotating parts, 4. Carry out periodic maintenance work on the machines, 5. Indicate dangerous areas by putting up signs that attract attention, 6. Illuminate the rotating parts more brightly and avoid placing objects around them, 7. Systematically carry out safety education that creates a strong impact, 8. Encourage workers to look after their own health, 9. Announce policies on health and safety, 10. Re-examine the operational procedures, and 11. Be prepared in case an accident occurs. A perspective based on the results of this research is deemed important in creating a workplace improvement manual in the future. PMID:26667199

  10. The role of accident theory in injury prevention - time for the pendulum to swing back.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    Injury prevention is a branch of safety sciences. While comprehensive theoretical developments occurred in the wider field in the last decades, little of these developments reached and influenced the injury prevention community. Instead, a clear retro trend 'back to basics' is seen among injury prevention scholars, especially to Dr William Haddon's pioneering work some 50 years ago. This paper intends to draw attention to this polarisation and discuss possible explanations. It is argued that the strong campaign against the accident concept among leading injury prevention groupings became a serious hindrance for theoretical exchange. The underlying process is interpreted in terms of a struggle for ownership over this truly interdisciplinary field of research, unfortunately at the expense of theoretical stagnation in injury prevention circles and lessened interest in collaboration from other scientific areas. This paper is written as a tribute to Professor Leif Svanström and his scientific contributions, with special regard to his genuine interest in interdisciplinary research.

  11. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. PMID:22664682

  12. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  13. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    PubMed Central

    P, Gokulakrishnan; P, Ganeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU’s coverage area or outside RSU’s coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  14. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    PubMed

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  15. Explosions of ammonium nitrate fertilizer in storage or transportation are preventable accidents.

    PubMed

    Babrauskas, Vytenis

    2016-03-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a detonable substance which has led to numerous disasters throughout the 20th century and until the present day, with the latest disaster occurring on 17 April 2013. Needed safety lesson have not been learned, since typically each accident was viewed as a great surprise and investigations focused on finding some unique reason for the accident, rather than examining what is common among the accidents. A review is made of accidents which involved AN for fertilizer purposes, and excluding incidents involving ANFO or additional explosives apart from AN. It is found that, for explosions in storage or transportation, 100% of these disasters had a single causative factor-an uncontrollable fire. Thus, such disasters can be eliminated by eliminating the potential for uncontrolled fire. Two actions are required to achieve this: (1) adoption of fertilizer formulations which reduce the potential for uncontrolled fire and for detonation; and (2) adoption of building safety measures which provide assurance against uncontrolled fires. Technical means are available for achieving both these required measures. These measures have been known for a long time and the only reason that disasters continue to occur is that these safety measures are not implemented. The problem can be solved unilaterally by product manufacturers or by government authorities, but preferably both should take necessary steps.

  16. Explosions of ammonium nitrate fertilizer in storage or transportation are preventable accidents.

    PubMed

    Babrauskas, Vytenis

    2016-03-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a detonable substance which has led to numerous disasters throughout the 20th century and until the present day, with the latest disaster occurring on 17 April 2013. Needed safety lesson have not been learned, since typically each accident was viewed as a great surprise and investigations focused on finding some unique reason for the accident, rather than examining what is common among the accidents. A review is made of accidents which involved AN for fertilizer purposes, and excluding incidents involving ANFO or additional explosives apart from AN. It is found that, for explosions in storage or transportation, 100% of these disasters had a single causative factor-an uncontrollable fire. Thus, such disasters can be eliminated by eliminating the potential for uncontrolled fire. Two actions are required to achieve this: (1) adoption of fertilizer formulations which reduce the potential for uncontrolled fire and for detonation; and (2) adoption of building safety measures which provide assurance against uncontrolled fires. Technical means are available for achieving both these required measures. These measures have been known for a long time and the only reason that disasters continue to occur is that these safety measures are not implemented. The problem can be solved unilaterally by product manufacturers or by government authorities, but preferably both should take necessary steps. PMID:26547622

  17. Forum: social network for the surveillance and prevention of workplace accidents.

    PubMed

    Vilela, R A G; Almeida, I M; Nunes da Silva, A; Gomes, M H P; Prado, H; Buoso, E; Dias, M D; Cavalcante, S; Lacorte, L E

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, academic researchers and public service officials created a university extension studies platform based on online and on-site meetings denominated "Work-Related Accidents Forum: Analysis, Prevention, and Other Relevant Aspects. Its aim was to help public agents and social partners to propagate a systemic approach that would be helpful in the surveillance and prevention of work-related accidents. This article describes and analyses such a platform. Online access is free and structured to: support dissemination of updated concepts; support on-site meetings and capacity to build educational activities; and keep a permanent space for debate among the registered participants. The desired result is the propagation of a social-technical-systemic view of work-related accidents that replaces the current traditional view that emphasizes human error and results in blaming the victims. The Forum uses an educational approach known as permanent health education, which is based on the experience and needs of workers and encourages debate among participants. The forum adopts a problematizing pedagogy that starts from the requirements and experiences of the social actors and stimulates support and discussions among them in line with an ongoing health educational approach. The current challenge is to turn the platform into a social networking website in order to broaden its links with society.

  18. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Technical preventive measures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Y

    1994-05-01

    Technical preventive measures against vibration syndrome in the field of industrial health are reviewed in the present paper. The first technical prevention measure is to reduce vibration transmission from the tools to the operators. This measure employs vibration isolators between the handles and vibration sources of machine tools. Handles of tools using Neidhalt dampers, shear type rubber mounts and springs have reduced frequency-weighted acceleration levels (Lh,w) from 2 dB to 10 dB (Lh,w (dB) = 20 log a/ao; a: frequency-weighted acceleration (rms), ao = 10(-5) m/s2) in Z direction, while no reduction was found in X, Y directions. The second measure is to reduce vibration at the source; New chain saws have been developed to reduce vibration with twin cylinder instead of a single cylinder engines. This cancels unbalanced movements inside the internal combustion engine. Such chain saws reduced Lh,w values more than 10 dB in both front and rear handles except in Z direction of the front handle. A new type of impact wrench has been devised with an oil pulse device to avoid direct metal contact inside the power source. This new impact wrench lowered Lh,w values more than 10 dB in three directions. The third measure is to use a remote control system or to substitute another machine generating less vibration. Vibration reduction at the handle lever of the remote control chain saw was more than 20 dB. A more effective means is to substitute other machines for conventional tools: a hydraulic wheel jumbo instead of a leg-type rock drill; a hydraulic breaker instead of a hand-held breaker. However, these heavy machines produce whole-body vibration which might give rise to other problems such as back pain.

  20. Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, K. Gus (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Second NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Annual Project Review held June 5-7, 2001, in Cleveland, Ohio, presented the NASA technical plans and accomplishments to the aviation community. NASA-developed technologies presented included an Aviation Weather Information System with associated digital communications links, electronic atmospheric reporting technologies, forward-looking turbulence warning systems, and turbulence mitigation procedures. The meeting provided feedback and insight from the aviation community of diverse backgrounds and assisted NASA in steering its plans in the direction needed to meet the national safety goal of 80-percent reduction of aircraft accidents by 2007. The proceedings of the review are enclosed.

  1. Coordinability and consistency in accident causation and prevention: formal system theoretic concepts for safety in multilevel systems.

    PubMed

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V; Saleh, Joseph H

    2013-03-01

    Although a "system approach" to accidents in sociotechnical systems has been frequently advocated, formal system theoretic concepts remain absent in the literature on accident analysis and system safety. To address this gap, we introduce the notions of coordinability and consistency from the hierarchical and multilevel systems theory literature. We then investigate the applicability and the importance of these concepts to accident causation and safety. Using illustrative examples, including the worst disaster in aviation history, and recent incidents in the United States of aircraft clipping each other on the tarmac, we propose that the lack of coordinability is a fundamental failure mechanism causing or contributing to accidents in multilevel systems. We make a similar case for the lack of consistency. Coordinability and consistency become ingredients for accident prevention, and their absence fundamental failure mechanisms that can lead to system accidents. Finally, using the concepts introduced in this work, we identify several venues for further research, including the development of a theory of coordination in multilevel systems, the investigation of potential synergies between coordinability, consistency, and the high reliability organizations paradigm, and the possibility of reframing the view that "sloppy management is the root cause of many industrial accidents" as one of lack of coordinability and/or consistency between management and operations. By introducing and expanding on the concepts of coordinability and consistency, we hope to contribute to the thinking about, and the to language of, accident causation, and prevention and to add to the intellectual toolkit of safety professionals and academics. PMID:22967134

  2. Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets in Preventing Facial Injuries in Road Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Rebecca; Otte, Dietmar; Müller, Christian; Petri, Maximilian; Gaulke, Ralph; Krettek, Christian; Brand, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries is well- documented. Recent studies differ regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing facial injuries, especially those of the mid-face and the mandible. Objectives The present study was conducted to determine the protective effect of a bicycle helmet in preventing mid-face and mandibular fractures. Patients and Methods Data from an accident research unit were analyzed to collect technical collision details (relative collision speed, type of collision, collision partner, and use of a helmet) and clinical data (type of fracture). Results Between 1999 and 2011, 5,350 bicycle crashes were included in the study. Of these, 175 (3.3%) had fractures of the mid-face or mandible. In total, 228 mid-face or mandibular fractures were identified. A significant correlation was found between age and relative collision speed, and the incidence of a fracture. While no significant correlation was found between the use of a helmet and the incidence of mid-facial fractures, the use of a helmet was correlated with a significantly increased incidence of mandibular fractures. Conclusions Higher age of cyclists and increasing speed of the accident opponent significantly increase the likelihood of sustaining facial fractures. The use of bicycle helmets does not significantly reduce the incidence of mid-facial fractures, while being correlated with an even increased incidence of mandibular fractures. PMID:27800459

  3. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective. PMID:23099767

  4. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  5. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  6. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  7. Surgical videos for accident analysis, performance improvement, and complication prevention: time for a surgical black box?

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Magos, Adam

    2012-03-01

    Conventional audit of surgical records through review of surgical results provides useful knowledge but hardly helps identify the technical reasons lying behind specific outcomes or complications. Surgical teams not only need to know that a complication might happen but also how and when it is most likely to happen. Functional awareness is therefore needed to prevent complications, know how to deal with them, and improve overall surgical performance. The authors wish to argue that the systematic recording and reviewing of surgical videos, a "surgical black box," might improve surgical care, help prevent complications, and allow accident analysis. A possible strategy to test this hypothesis is presented and discussed. Recording and reviewing surgical interventions, apart from helping us achieve functional awareness and increasing the safety profile of our performance, allows us also to effectively share our experience with colleagues. The authors believe that those potential implications make this hypothesis worth testing.

  8. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  9. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  10. Evaluation of an accident prevention campaign in a major Greek industry.

    PubMed

    Bazas, T; Harrington, J M

    1981-01-01

    As epidemiologic intervention study was carried out (based on a multiple-choice questionnaire) to determine whether a two-month accident prevention campaign launched by a major Greek cotton company would result in an increase in the relevant knowledge of the production workers. The sign test revealed a statistically significant increase (P less than 0.05) in the knowledge of only those workers who were motivated enough to participate in an initial competition and receive most of the information during the subsequent campaign. Two major factors can be identified as having affected the outcome of this campaign, namely: the careful definition of its content and of the means to be used; and the personal contacts established between the occupational health professionals and the target workers during the two-month period.

  11. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    . This paper addresses simulation modeling requirements that are unique to turboprop transport aircraft and highlights the growing need for aerodynamic models suitable for stall training for these configurations. A review of prominent accidents that involved aerodynamic stall is used to illustrate various modeling features unique to turboprop configurations and the impact of stall behavior on susceptibility to loss of control that has led to new training requirements. This is followed by an overview of stability and control behavior of straight-wing turboprops, the related aerodynamic characteristics, and a summary of recent experimental studies on icing effects. In addition, differences in flight dynamics behavior between swept-wing jets and straight-wing turboprop configurations are discussed to compare and contrast modeling requirements. Specific recommendations for aerodynamic models along with further research needs and data measurements are also provided. 1

  12. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (<2.5 m) and warn the truck driver acoustically. Bicycle lanes should be planned for one direction only, separated from the pedestrian way and large enough (2.0 m are safer than 1.6 m). Traffic education for school beginners and younger children should be repeated to be effective. Training for elderly bicyclists in cities with heavy traffic would also be reasonable. Active security systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers. PMID:22159502

  13. The child accident repeater: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  14. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false With what...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false With what...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false With what...

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false With what...

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102... safety and environmental management criteria identified in this part; (b) Not expose occupants and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false With what...

  20. Measurement tools needed for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.S. )

    1994-03-01

    Pollution prevention concepts are gathering momentum, and will impact manufacturing and the commercial environmental industry significantly. Management tools that accurately measure, document and prioritize pollution prevention programs are critically needed at the corporate and national levels. Numerous environmental information management systems are available to catalog and track waste flows. However, companies also need to measure the effectiveness of waste minimization programs. An accurate way to measure and document progress would allow companies to prioritize programs with the greatest impact and display environmental progress to the public. Few proprietary software programs interface environmental data with financial and productivity databases to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention programs.

  1. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  2. Measuring the inappropriate utilization of accident and emergency services?

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Lau, F L; Hazlett, C B; Kam, C W; Wong, P; Wong, T W; Chow, S

    1999-01-01

    Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments are increasingly popular venues for primary care, causing a serious threat to healthcare quality. This paper reports the development of a comprehensive research method for identifying primary care patients attending A&E. Patients were randomly selected from the four A&E departments across different time periods and different regions in Hong Kong. The definition of GP cases was based on a retrospective record review conducted by a panel of emergency physicians using the standard laid down by the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians. The patients sampled were similar in sex and age distribution to A&E attendees for the whole territory. The level of GP cases was found to be 57 per cent, with a significantly higher proportion of patients in the younger age group. The high level of use reflects the lack of a well co-ordinated development of primary care services and interfacing with secondary care.

  3. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  4. Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

  5. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn’s disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care. PMID:27678347

  6. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-09-14

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn's disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care. PMID:27678347

  7. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn’s disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care.

  8. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. PMID:17369267

  9. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  10. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  11. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  12. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. )

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Assessment of Spatial Unevenness of Road Accidents Severity as Instrument of Preventive Protection from Emergency Situations in Road Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2016-08-01

    Emergency situations in road complex are road traffic accidents (RA) with severe consequences. These are incidents connected with the death and injury of large number of people. The most common reasons for this are the collision of three or more cars, the collision of buses with trains at railroad crossings, the fall of the buses in the mountain gorge, and other similar cases. Is it possible to predict such events? How to build a preventive protection against such emergencies? We have to understand that emergencies in a road complex are qualitative expression of the quantitative processes that characterize the general state of road safety in the region. In this regard, at the level of state monitoring of emergency situations it is important to understand in general - in which region the situation is more complicated and in which is more favorable. This knowledge helps to more efficiently reallocate resources intended to solve the problems of road safety provision. The consequence of this is improvement of the quality of preventive protection from the emergencies in the road complex. The article presents quantitative values of severity of accidents in the Russian Federation regions and the Pareto chart distribution of cumulates of the accident severity for the Russian Federation. On the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial non-uniformity of the accident severity results it offers two important recommendations, implementation of which will alleviate the issue of formation of emergency situations in the road of the Russian Federation on the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial nonuniformity of the accident severity results.

  14. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    PubMed

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  15. Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Bernstein, R S; Buist, A S

    1986-01-01

    Medical treatment has only a small role in severe volcanic eruptions and so preventive measures are paramount if injuries and loss of life are to be reduced. The health team must be incorporated in emergency planning and response at the earliest stage. Guidance on the interpretation of geological information about a volcano and the appropriate health measures that should be adopted before and after an eruption are summarized for the benefit of health workers. PMID:3946731

  16. Prevention of timber felling and chainsaw-related accidents in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Y G; Conroy, R M

    1989-12-01

    A one-year prospective survey in four rural Irish counties was performed between January 1 and December 31, 1986, to analyse chainsaw accidents in a representative sample of domestic chainsaw users. Of the 62 accident cases recorded, the largest group were farmers, followed by a medley of self-employed "loggers" and domestic users. Every age group was represented, the commonest age group being 16-30 years. One of three female cases was an old-aged pensioner, and three other cases were aged under 12 years. Two of the latter cases had been using the saw when the accident occurred. Most injuries were sustained to the lower extremities, mostly due to a slip or misdirection of the saw. Of the 27 cases admitted to a hospital, 25 (93%) required surgical procedures with an average inpatient stay of eight days. Only 2 (3%) of the 62 cases wore an item of protective gear; in both cases, this was steel capped boots that were unsuitable for protection against chainsaw injuries. First aid at the accident site was very inadequate. The research indicates few of the cases were competent to use a power saw, and there was a general lack of appreciation of the risks associated with these implements and a disregard for safety procedures. While new forthcoming legislation on safety at work may improve safety standards in the future, a substantial proportion of chainsaw users in Ireland are currently at risk from further accidents.

  17. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry. PMID:22721539

  18. INSIGHTS INTO PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. The etiology of erosion is related to different behavioral, biological and chemical factors. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of the preventive strategies relevant for patients suffering from dental erosion. Behavioral factors, such as special drinking habits, unhealthy lifestyle factors or occupational acid exposure, might modify the extent of dental erosion. Thus, preventive strategies have to include measures to reduce the frequency and duration of acid exposure as well as adequate oral hygiene measures, as it is known that eroded surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion. Biological factors, such as saliva or acquired pellicle, act protectively against erosive demineralization. Therefore, the production of saliva should be enhanced, especially in patients with hyposalivation or xerostomia. With regard to chemical factors, the modification of acidic solutions with ions, especially calcium, was shown to reduce the demineralization, but the efficacy depends on the other chemical factors, such as the type of acid. To enhance the remineralization of eroded surfaces and to prevent further progression of dental wear, high-concentrated fluoride applications are recommended. Currently, little information is available about the efficacy of other preventive strategies, such as calcium and laser application, as well as the use of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Further studies considering these factors are required. In conclusion, preventive strategies for patients suffering from erosion are mainly obtained from in vitro and in situ studies and include dietary counseling, stimulation of salivary flow, optimization of fluoride regimens, modification of erosive beverages and adequate oral hygiene measures. PMID:19274390

  19. Developing a relativities approach to valuing the prevention of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health.

    PubMed

    Karnon, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Aki; Dolan, Paul

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the current explorative study is to define and test a process for the valuation of the benefits associated with the prevention of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health. A relativities approach is adopted, and monetary values for the prevention of three forms of work-related illness are estimated. The approach involves describing relevant attributes of alternative events (accidents or occurrences of ill health), their causes, the characteristics of the relevant working population, and the number of events that are avoidable, and asking respondents to make pair wise choices between alternatives options for prevention. Indirect monetary valuations are obtained against a peg event for which a reliable valuation exists (road deaths).A series of discussion groups were held to identify relevant factors affecting potential valuations and to test the presentation of information. The predicted magnitude of responses for three-case study events (and road deaths) was estimated in a pilot study. These preliminary stages informed the final survey instrument that described five attributes in addition to a statement of the event and occupation, and the likely intervention effect, which was administered by post. Based on a small sample, the results show that virtually all respondents passed the inserted consistency test. The median respondent altered their choice according to the number of events avoided for all three comparisons, such that the estimated valuations appear sensible. Potential amendments are suggested, but the general relativities approach warrants further investigation for the valuation of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health. PMID:15791666

  20. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues.

  1. Isovolemic hemodilution-red cell exchange for prevention of cerebrovascular accident in sickle cell anemia: the standard operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, Karén; Anderson, Christina; Sarode, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cell exchange is an accepted superior therapy to simple chronic transfusion, due to minimal risk of iron overload, for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular accidents in selected patients with sickle cell anemia. Recently, we described our experience of Isovolemic Hemodilution-Red Blood Cell Exchange (IHD-RBCx), a two-step modification of the conventional RBCx with several advantages, including cost reduction. We are describing our standard operating procedure for IHD-RBCx with COBE Spectra apheresis system to make it widely available to the apheresis centers interested in implementing this procedure.

  2. RECENT LASER ACCIDENTS AT DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect

    ODOM, CONNON R.

    2007-02-02

    Recent laser accidents and incidents at research laboratories across the Department of Energy complex are reviewed in this paper. Factors that contributed to the accidents are examined. Conclusions drawn from the accident reports are summarized and compared. Control measures that could have been implemented to prevent the accidents will be summarized and compared. Recommendations for improving laser safety programs are outlined and progress toward achieving them are summarized.

  3. Concept of Operations for the NASA Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Walter S.; Tsoucalas, George; Tanger, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Weather Accident Prevention Concept of Operations (CONOPS) serves as a decision-making framework for research and technology development planning. It is intended for use by the WxAP members and other related programs in NASA and the FAA that support aircraft accident reduction initiatives. The concept outlines the project overview for program level 3 elements-such as AWIN, WINCOMM, and TPAWS (Turbulence)-that develop the technologies and operating capabilities to form the building blocks for WxAP. Those building blocks include both retrofit of equipment and systems and development of new aircraft, training technologies, and operating infrastructure systems and capabilities. This Concept of operations document provides the basis for the WxAP project to develop requirements based on the operational needs ofthe system users. It provides the scenarios that the flight crews, airline operations centers (AOCs), air traffic control (ATC), and flight service stations (FSS) utilize to reduce weather related accidents. The provision to the flight crew of timely weather information provides awareness of weather situations that allows replanning to avoid weather hazards. The ability of the flight crew to locate and avoid weather hazards, such as turbulence and hail, contributes to safer flight practices.

  4. Measurement of 129I concentrations in the environment after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M.; Fink), D.; Hollos, G.; Kaufman, A.; Kutschera, W.; Magaritz, M.

    1987-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which occurred on April 26, 1986 is known to have injected into the atmosphere a pulse of a large number of radionuclides. The activities of several radionuclides present in the subsequent fallout have been measured in different locations throughout Europe by gamma-ray and beta counting. We present here measurements of concentrations of the long-lived radionuclide 129I ( T {1}/{2} = 1.6 × 10 7yr) in environmental samples collected in Israel and Europe following the nuclear reactor accident. The measurements were performed by accelerator mass spectrometry, using the 14UD Rehovot Pelletron Accelerator. Concentrations of 129I in rainwater samples collected in the Munich (West-Germany) area and in Israel during the fallout period were measured to be 2.6 × 10 10 and 1.2 × 10 9{atoms}/{I} respectively, while a 1982 rainwater sample from Israel shows a 129I concentration of 8.2 × 10 7{atoms}/{I}. Three measurements of the ratio 129I/ 131I gave a mean value of 21, from which an effective operating time of the reactor of 1.5 to 2 yr prior to the accident can be estimated. The possible use of anthropogenic 129I as a tracing tool for global environmental processes is discussed.

  5. Inherent Prevention and Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Roald A. Wigeland; James E. Cahalan

    2011-04-01

    Safety challenges for sodium-cooled fast reactors include maintaining core temperatures within design limits and assuring the geometry and integrity of the reactor core. Due to the high power density in the reactor core, heat removal requirements encourage the use of high-heat-transfer coolants such as liquid sodium. The variation of power across the core requires ducted assemblies to control fuel and coolant temperatures, which are also used to constrain core geometry. In a fast reactor, the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation. Accidents leading to fuel melting, fuel pin failure, and fuel relocation can result in positive reactivity, increasing power, and possibly resulting in severe accident consequences including recriticalities that could threaten reactor and containment integrity. Inherent safety concepts, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, can be used to increase the level of safety to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not credible, for such severe accident consequences to occur.

  6. Environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece following the Fukushima Daichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Potiriadis, C; Kolovou, M; Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S

    2012-07-01

    Since the double disaster of the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami that affected hundreds of thousands of people and seriously damaged the Fukushima Daichi power plant in Japan on 11 March 2011, traces of radioactive emissions from Fukushima have spread across the entire northern hemisphere. The radioactive isotope of iodine (131)I that was generated by the nuclear accident in Fukushima arrived in Greece on 24 March 2011. Radioactive iodine is present in the air either as gas or bound to particles (aerosols). The maximum (131)I concentrations were measured between 3 and 5 April 2011. In aerosols the maximum (131)I values measured in Southern Greece (Athens) and Northern Greece (Thessaloniki) were 585±70 and 408±61 μΒq m(-3), respectively. (131)I concentrations in gas were about 3.5 times higher than in aerosols. Since 29 April 2011, the (131)I concentration has been below detection limits. Traces of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were also measured in the air filters with an activity ratio of (137)Cs/(134)Cs equal to 1 and (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 3. Since 16 May 2011, the (137)Cs concentration in air has been determined to be about the same as before the Fukushima accident. Traces of (131)I were also measured in grass and milk. The maximum measured activity of (131)I in sheep milk was about 2 Bq l(-1) which is 5000 times less than that measured in Greece immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The measured activity concentrations of artificial radionuclides in Greece due to the Fukushima release, have been very low, with no impact on human health.

  7. [AIDS: patients' rights, professional risks, preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Dionne-Proulx, J

    1994-11-01

    AIDS in the workplace poses distinct professional risks to health care providers. Identifying HIV carriers and providing specific preventive measures are not the only concerns. Societal prejudices that degenerate into attitudes and behaviors contrary to professional ethics can overwhelm nursing personnel. Their fears can lead them to make irrational decisions such as refusing to care for the client or divulging private information. The author emphasizes that nurses caring for clients with HIV or AIDS should develop a care approach based on two pivotal points. The first point is that nurses must ensure these clients receive appropriate care and that their fundamental rights are maintained. Secondly, nurses must be permitted to provide necessary care without exposing themselves to any associated health risk. The author asserts that nurses must count on complete, clear and accurate information about professional risks and preventative measures. She outlines the legal framework Canadian nurses can access and explains the legal protection available to health care providers. The development of clear and precise workplace policies based on provincial and federal laws can reduce crisis situations, workplace conflict and discrimination.

  8. Radionuclides from the Fukushima accident in the air over Lithuania: measurement and modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Lujanienė, G; Byčenkienė, S; Povinec, P P; Gera, M

    2012-12-01

    Analyses of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne aerosols were carried out in daily samples in Vilnius, Lithuania after the Fukushima accident during the period of March-April, 2011. The activity concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs ranged from 12 μBq/m(3) and 1.4 μBq/m(3) to 3700 μBq/m(3) and 1040 μBq/m(3), respectively. The activity concentration of (239,240)Pu in one aerosol sample collected from 23 March to 15 April, 2011 was found to be 44.5 nBq/m(3). The two maxima found in radionuclide concentrations were related to complicated long-range air mass transport from Japan across the Pacific, the North America and the Atlantic Ocean to Central Europe as indicated by modelling. HYSPLIT backward trajectories and meteorological data were applied for interpretation of activity variations of measured radionuclides observed at the site of investigation. (7)Be and (212)Pb activity concentrations and their ratios were used as tracers of vertical transport of air masses. Fukushima data were compared with the data obtained during the Chernobyl accident and in the post Chernobyl period. The activity concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs were found to be by 4 orders of magnitude lower as compared to the Chernobyl accident. The activity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was around 1 with small variations only. The activity ratio of (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu in the aerosol sample was 1.2, indicating a presence of the spent fuel of different origin than that of the Chernobyl accident.

  9. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-03-31

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. "PPRT"] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough 2-4 billions euro, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies.

  10. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on background radiation doses measured by control dosimeters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; King, David L; Kennemur, Lisa K

    2012-05-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011 in Japan, several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered severe damage. There was immediate participation of U.S. Navy vessels and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) teams that were already in the area at the time of the disaster or arrived shortly thereafter. The correct determination of occupational dose equivalent requires estimation of the background dose component measured by control dosimeters, which is subsequently subtracted from the total dose equivalent measured by personal dosimeters. The purpose of the control dosimeters is to determine the amount of radiation dose equivalent that has accumulated on the dosimeter from background or other non-occupational sources while they are in transit or being stored. Given the release of radioactive material and potential exposure to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the process by which the U.S. Navy calculates occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, analysis of pre- and post-event control dosimeters is warranted. Several hundred historical dose records from the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) database were analyzed and compared with the post-accident dose equivalent data of control dosimeters. As result, it was shown that the dose contribution of the radiation and released radiological materials from the Fukushima nuclear accident to background radiation doses is less than 0.375 μSv d for shallow and deep photon dose equivalent. There is no measurable effect on neutron background exposure. The latter has at least two important conclusions. First, the NDC can use doses measured by control dosimeters at issuing sites in Japan for determination of personnel dose equivalents; second, the dose data from control dosimeters prior to and after the Fukushima accident may be used to assist in dose reconstruction of non-radiological (non-badged) personnel at these locations.

  11. Preventive Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwiak, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Argues the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party accidents are discussed as is the importance of checking for drain blockages. (GR)

  12. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  13. [Surgical smoke: risks and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Rodríguez, Hilario; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Soria-Aledo, Víctor; García-López, Concepción

    2009-05-01

    The application of the advanced technologies in medicine has led to the appearance of new risk factors for health personnel. One of these could be the surgical smoke produced by electrosurgical instruments, ultrasounds or laser. However, there is still insufficient evidence in the published population studies on the detrimental effects of chronic exposure to surgical smoke. The main concern on the possible damage to the health of operating room staff is mainly based on the components currently detected until the date and laboratory experiments. Caution must also be used when extrapolating the results of in vitro studies to daily clinical practice. The organisations responsible for protecting the health of the workers in different countries have still not issued guidelines for the treatment and removal of the surgical smoke generated in both open and laparoscopic procedures. In this article we try to present a view of the consequences that surgical smoke has on health and the preventive measures that can be adopted. PMID:19376504

  14. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  15. Radiocesium levels measured in breast milk one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Lolis, D.; Zikopoulos, K.; Dusias, B.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred-two samples of colostral milk, collected during spring of 1987, approximately one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, were measured for radiocesium contamination. The data showed a normal-type distribution with a mean contamination concentration of 16.4 Bq L-1. A weak correlation of the data to the mothers' diet was established by taking into account four of the main staples in the area. The corresponding transfer coefficient was deduced with a value of fm = 0.06 +/- 0.03 d L-1. The resultant effective dose received by breast-feeding infants was estimated, on the average, as 0.012 mrem d-1.

  16. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio. PMID:23548474

  17. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  18. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  19. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  20. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  1. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-02-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry.

  2. The role of insurance in the prevention of work-related accidents in France in the first half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ruffat, M

    1998-01-01

    Insurance has played a role in the develoment of prevention of work-related accidents in several ways in France since the industrical revolution. The first attempts at prevention were taken at the initiative of manufacturers' associations, but it remained a matter of goodwill for manufacturers. The 1898 law gave systematic, if partial, financial responsability for occupational hazards to employers, who turned to insurance companies to carry the risks. As a result a new branch of insurance (assurance-loi) appeared, which accounted for 40% of general accident revenue for companies at the time of World War II. But the new law made no mention of prevention and even had a negative impact, since compensation was taken care of by insurance. However, after World War I, insurance companies created an association for the prevention of work-related accidents and illnesses and started to adjust rates according to the prevention efforts of corporations. When social insurance was generalized in 1946, insurance of occupational hazards went under state control and became compulsory. But the experience accumulated in the field of prevention by insurance companies was put to use in this new context, both on the technical side and the financial side.

  3. [Prevention and accidents in Italian popular car magazines during the second postwar years].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro; Colombo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of the fifties and the second half of the sixties the Italian car industry was one of the few in Europe to introduce technical changes for car safety. Some Italian popular magazines took part in this plan not only by an information and prevention campaign, but also by promoting experimental safety car projects. Among them Quattroruote, rivista mensile per gli automobilisti di oggi e di domani stands out.

  4. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  5. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  6. A scale for measuring the severity of diagnostic errors in accident and emergency departments.

    PubMed Central

    Guly, H R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and test a simple scale for measuring the severity of diagnostic errors occurring in accident and emergency (A&E) departments. METHODS: Empirical design of a scale which indicates the severity of errors on a scale of 1 to 7. It is obtained by adding two scores which indicate the additional treatment which a patient would have received and the follow up which would have been organised if the correct diagnosis had been made initially. RESULTS: The misdiagnosis severity score (MSS) revealed 166 diagnostic errors in injuries treated in an A&E department over one years. The scoring system allowed the more significant errors to be separated from the less significant ones. CONCLUSIONS: The MSS proved useful in describing the errors made in an A&E department. Images Figure 1 PMID:9315928

  7. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.

  8. Appropriate radiation accident medical management: necessity of extensive preparatory planning.

    PubMed

    Dörr, H D; Meineke, V

    2006-11-01

    Despite the rareness of radiation accidents, their potential consequences can be very serious, and appropriate medical management requires sufficient preparatory planning. To identify necessary factors for sufficient preparatory planning, three different radiation accidents were analyzed, i.e. the accidents in Goiânia, Brazil, 1987; Lilo, Georgia, 1997; and Tokai-mura, Japan, 1999. These radiation accidents have been chosen specifically because they provide a wide spectrum of potential radiation accident scenarios. After a brief description of the accidents and the following medical management, the measures taken are analyzed in terms of diagnosing radiation-induced health damage, determining the cause, dealing with contamination/incorporation, pathophysiological and therapeutic principles, preparatory planning, national and international cooperation and training. Several important factors are identified that should be considered in preparatory planning, i.e. preventing delayed diagnosis and training of medical personnel. Due to limited national resources, an intensified international cooperation to manage medical radiation accidents is of great importance.

  9. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  10. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788

  11. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  12. Can injury prevention efforts go too far? Reflections on some possible implications of Vision Zero for road accident fatalities.

    PubMed

    Elvik, R

    1999-05-01

    The Swedish National Road Administration has launched a long term vision of a road transport system in which nobody is killed or sustains an injury resulting in permanent impairment (Vision Zero). This paper examines some possible implications of Vision Zero for traffic fatalities. The main points of the paper can be summarised as follows: An objective of eliminating traffic deaths can be interpreted as an application of a general principle of minimising mortality. Minimising overall mortality implies that a survival lottery must be introduced, at any rate as long as there is a shortage of organs for transplants. A survival lottery is a scheme in which people are drawn at random to sacrifice their life for the benefit of others. An objective of eliminating a certain cause of death, like traffic accidents, may be so expensive to realise that there is so much less resources available to control other causes of death that general mortality increases. Several analyses of the relationship between income per capita and general mortality based on Norwegian data document a negative relationship between income and mortality. The loss of income that induces an additional statistical death, due to economic inefficiency, is estimated to between 25 and 317 million NOK (3.8-47.5 million US dollars). These estimates are in line with those of most previous studies. No study of the relationship between income and mortality fully satisfies commonly used criteria of causality. However, the balance of evidence suggests that the relationship between income and mortality is a causal one. A hypothetical programme designed to implement Vision Zero for traffic fatalities was developed and its effects on the number of fatalities estimated. Implementing the whole programme could reduce the number of traffic deaths in Norway from about 300 per year to about 90 per year. Applying the lowest estimate of the income loss that induces an additional death (25 million NOK), it was estimated that

  13. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  14. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  15. DATABASE OF METEOROLOGICAL AND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MADE IN BELARUS DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow’s milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow’s milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:23103580

  16. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-02-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

  17. Prediction of police officers' traffic accident involvement using behavioral observations.

    PubMed

    Gully, S M; Whitney, D J; Vanosdall, F E

    1995-06-01

    The current study used scores on the Driver Performance Measurement (DPM) test and data gathered over four years on accident type and frequency from 47 police officers to provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral observations of driving patterns can lead to predictions of subsequent accident involvement. Results indicate that after controlling for age and experience, scores on the DPM test predicted involvement in preventable accidents but not unpreventable accidents. Implications for future research involving the observation of cognitive-behavioral sequences are discussed. PMID:7639919

  18. Measurements of radiocesium transfer to milk and calculation of resulting dose in Brescia, Italy, following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Albini, E; Mascaro, L; Belletti, S

    1990-10-01

    Results are presented of several measurements on components of the cows' milk chain performed at our Medical Physics Service after the Chernobyl accident. Values were obtained for Cs isotope transfer coefficients, namely, for cows' diet-milk and diet-feces transfers. Other measured parameters were the effective half-life of Cs in milk and the 134Cs:137Cs ratio. In addition, an evaluation of Cs contribution to the absorbed dose to population from milk is performed.

  19. Investigations on Hydrogen Distribution and Mitigation Measures in the Containment Under Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Jun Xiao; Zhi-Wei Zhou; Xing-Qing Jing

    2006-07-01

    During severe accident oxidation of the metallic components of the reactor core and the core-concrete interaction will produce hydrogen which may threaten the integrity of the containment. It is important to predict hydrogen transport and mixing in the containment, in order to determine whether the mixture can locally reach flammability limits, and install the hydrogen mitigation devices at a reasonable and suitable position. Several turbulence models in FLUENT and GASFLOW were adopted in this paper to investigate hydrogen transport and mixing in the containment, and the results were compared. The study indicates that RNG k -- {epsilon} model can obtain better simulation in parameter fluctuation, velocity field, and hydrogen concentration field than the other models'. The results calculated by algebraic model in GASFLOW are largely different from the other results in the simulation of mass diffusion, momentum diffusion, and parameter fluctuation. The results of k -- {epsilon} model in GASFLOW have the similar trend as the results of FLUENT in velocity field and concentration field. Three hydrogen mitigation measures were also studied in a simple closed room using the code GASFLOW. The results indicate that the combination of recombiners and igniters is a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of hydrogen combustion. (authors)

  20. Measuring preventive procedures by French GPs: an observational survey

    PubMed Central

    Blanquet, Marie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Noirfalise, Chantal; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Campagne, Claude; Malaval, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevention has become a legal obligation for French GPs, since a law was passed in March 2002. Aim Measurement and analysis of preventive procedures performed by French GPs. Design of study Observational survey. Setting GP surgeries in Puy-de-Dôme, France. Method Doctors completed a questionnaire about their socioprofessional characteristics, and a researcher completed another questionnaire about preventive procedures performed on the last 15 patients seen by each GP. Twenty preventive services were evaluated and, for each service, medical records, targets, and objectives were defined according to the national preventive care guidelines. The gap between guidelines and practice was explained by doctor characteristics. Statistical analyses were performed using χ2 and logistic regression. Results Representative samples of 179 doctors and 2453 medical records were randomised. Four preventive services were performed in more than 75% of cases, and the gap was explained by the salaried job the doctors had. Ten preventive services were performed in 25% to 75% of cases and the gap was explained by the medical software used. The six remaining services were performed in less than 25% of cases and no explanatory variable was identified. Conclusion Sixteen preventive procedures were insufficiently performed. The more a preventive service is performed the more the gap will be explained by GPs' socioprofessional characteristics. The gap for a preventive procedure performed in 25% to 75% of cases was mainly explained by management of the medical records. A nationwide policy to improve prevention performance in general practice seems to be essential. PMID:21401987

  1. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  2. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  3. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  4. Complications in surgery: root cause analysis and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin C; Kotsis, Sandra V

    2012-06-01

    Patients expect to receive quality medical care by relying on the concepts of evidence-based medicine. This quality care is expected to be provided at decreased costs for payors, some of whom have stopped reimbursement for cases involving "reasonably preventable" surgical complications. The purpose of this article is to introduce root cause analysis as a tool for identifying the causes of surgical complications. The authors also discuss preventive measures, such as improved communication, checklists, reporting systems, and the use of evidence-based medicine, that have been implemented to decrease surgical complications. These preventive measures can be used alone or together to decrease complications and improve overall patient care. PMID:22634659

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Control for Prevention and or Mitigation of HEPA Filter Failure Accidents at Tank Farm Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-28

    This study evaluates the adequacy and benefit of use of HEPA filter differential pressure limiting setpoints to initiate exhauster shut down as an alternative safety control for postulated accidents that might result in filtration failure and subsequent unfiltered release from Tank Farm primary tank ventilators.

  6. Preventive measures against the mustard gas: a review

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    The main aim in this study was to collect the experiences of Iranian researchers about sulfur mustard (SM) and provide a guideline for the prevention of abuse for this dangerous agent. We searched valid national and international databases using related key words in the two languages. We found 193 articles which had been published in medical journals. Among them, 25 articles had some implications about prevention measures. In this study, we have mentioned 8 preventive points before the attacks, 10 points during and 2 points afterwards, we also found 12 points for the prevention of people who were exposed with SM and suffering from respiratory, ocular, dermatologic and psychological complications. In conclusion, most of the published studies on chemical war victims in Iran are focused on diagnosis and treatment of late SM-induced complications. Hence, a research should be conducted separately in relation to the prevention. PMID:23741170

  7. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors. PMID:26536976

  8. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors.

  9. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  10. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  11. Critical steps in learning from incidents: using learning potential in the process from reporting an incident to accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Drupsteen, Linda; Groeneweg, Jop; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M

    2013-01-01

    Many incidents have occurred because organisations have failed to learn from lessons of the past. This means that there is room for improvement in the way organisations analyse incidents, generate measures to remedy identified weaknesses and prevent reoccurrence: the learning from incidents process. To improve that process, it is necessary to gain insight into the steps of this process and to identify factors that hinder learning (bottlenecks). This paper presents a model that enables organisations to analyse the steps in a learning from incidents process and to identify the bottlenecks. The study describes how this model is used in a survey and in 3 exploratory case studies in The Netherlands. The results show that there is limited use of learning potential, especially in the evaluation stage. To improve learning, an approach that considers all steps is necessary. PMID:23498711

  12. [On psychologic profile of locomotive crew workers in Russian Railways JSC and its role in accidents prevention].

    PubMed

    Mendelevich, V D; Makaricheva, E V; Serikov, V V; Dmitrieva, E V; Zakrevskaia, A A; Ozhogina, O A; Alpaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers personality characters of locomotive crew workers of Russian Railways JSC, and specifying a block of methods for psychologic support of these workers' occupational activities. According to the results obtained, the authors presented a thorough description of characterologic, motivational personality traits characterizing a select of locomotive crew workers, and analyzed a relationship between the traits and levels of accidents in the workers' occupational activity. PMID:25826879

  13. Complications in Surgery: Root Cause Analysis and Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Kotsis, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Patients expect to receive quality medical care by relying on the concepts of evidence-based medicine. This quality care is expected to be provided at decreased costs for payors, some of whom have stopped reimbursement for cases involving “reasonably preventable” surgical complications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce root cause analysis as a tool for identifying the causes of surgical complications. We also discuss preventive measures such as improved communication, checklists, reporting systems, and the use of evidence-based medicine that have been implemented to decrease surgical complications. These preventive measures can be used alone or together to decrease complications and improve overall patient care. PMID:22634659

  14. a Study of the Interferences with the On-Line Radioiodine Measurement Under Nuclear Accident Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Tung-Tse

    In this research the interferences with the on -line detection of radioiodines, under nuclear accident conditions, were studied. The special tool employed for this research is the developed on-line radioiodine monitor (the Penn State Radioiodine Monitor), which is capable of detecting low levels of radioiodine on-line in air containing orders of magnitude higher levels of radioactive noble gases. Most of the data reported in this thesis were collected during a series of experiments called "Source -Term Experiment Program (STEP)." The experiments were conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory's TREAT reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In these tests, fission products were released from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) test fuels as a result of simulating a reactor accident. The Penn State Monitor was then used to sample the fission products accumulated in a large container which simulated the reactor containment building. The test results proved that the Penn State Monitor was not affected significantly by the passage of large amounts of noble gases through the system. Also, it confirmed the predicted results that the operation of conventional on-line radioiodine detectors would, under nuclear accident conditions, be seriously impaired by the passage of high concentrations of radioactive noble gases through such systems. This work also demonstrated that under conditions of high noble gas concentrations and low radioiodine concentrations, the formation of noble-gas-decayed alkali metals can seriously interfere with the on-line detection of radioiodine, especially during the 24 hours immediately after the accident. The decayed alkali metal particulates were also found to be much more penetrating than the ordinary type of particulates, since a large fraction (15%) of the particulates were found to penetrate through the commonly used High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter (rated >99.97% for 0.3 (mu)m particulate). Also, a

  15. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... environmental test required in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section is positive, you must begin egg testing,...

  16. DEVELOPING AND USING PRODUCTION-ADJUSTED MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research examining production-adjusted measures of pollution prevention(P2). Under this research, a methodology was developed for applying statistical and graphical tools to assess the accuracy of the factors (called units-of-product) used to adjust P2 measu...

  17. Violence in the Family Therapist's Workplace: Prevention Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Gary L.; Brende, Joel O.; McBride, J. LeBron

    1999-01-01

    Study of marriage and family therapists reports that 44% had experienced a physical or psychological assault from a client and that 30% had feared for their lives. Describes basic preventive, assessment, management, and coping measures for working with violent clients. Emphasizes the importance of training and continuing education in the…

  18. Measuring Quality of Delivery in a Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions,…

  19. A Study on Measures of Safety and Health against Accidents in Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Matsuda, Tadahiro

    The purpose of this report is to exclude risk factors based on the instance of Hiyari Hatto (near-miss accidents) experienced by school personnel and students and to make the environment in which students can participate safely in the class and extracurricular activities. By means of the risk assessment and KYT (training for predicting dangers, K : Kiken, Y : Yochi, T : Training) , it has been considered how the college should control the students‧ experiments. As a result, the students have been able to work on the experiments without affecting the school facilities and the students‧ working site, and the number of injuries has decreased.

  20. The Flash Environmental Assessment Tool: worldwide first aid for chemical accidents response, pro action, prevention and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Posthuma, Leo; Wahlstrom, Emilia; Nijenhuis, René; Dijkens, Chris; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik; Hollander, Anne; Brand, Ellen; den Hollander, Henri A; van Middelaar, Johan; van Dijk, Sander; Hall, E F; Hoffer, Sally

    2014-11-01

    The United Nations response mechanism to environmental emergencies requested a tool to support disaster assessment and coordination actions by United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) teams. The tool should support on-site decision making when substantial chemical emissions affect human health directly or via the environment and should be suitable for prioritizing impact reduction management options under challenging conditions worldwide. To answer this need, the Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) was developed and the scientific and practical underpinning and application of this tool are described in this paper. FEAT consists of a printed decision framework and lookup tables, generated by combining the scientific data on chemicals, exposure pathways and vulnerabilities with the pragmatic needs of emergency field teams. Application of the tool yields information that can help prioritize impact reduction measures. The first years of use illustrated the usefulness of the tool as well as suggesting additional uses and improvements. An additional use is application of the back-office tool (Hazard Identification Tool, HIT), the results of which aid decision-making by the authorities of affected countries and the preparation of field teams for on-site deployment. Another extra use is in disaster pro action and prevention. In this case, the application of the tool supports safe land-use planning and improved technical design of chemical facilities. UNDAC teams are trained to use the tool after large-scale sudden onset natural disasters.

  1. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers. PMID:19030993

  2. An appraisal of measures to prevent and control psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Farber, E M; Nall, L

    1984-03-01

    Prevention in a broad sense refers to limiting the progress of disease at any stage of its course; control refers to reduction in frequency and/or severity of a disease in a population. Measures to prevent and control psoriasis require a knowledge on behalf of both the physician and the patient to recognize genetic and environmental components in the onset and course of the disease. Triggering factors include streptococcal throat infection, injury, drugs, low humidity, and emotional stress. From a study of 102 severely affected psoriasis patients, the "Three-P Concept" for the management of psoriasis has evolved encompassing: (1) prevention of injury, (2) persistence in avoiding overtreatment, and (3) pauses or rest periods in the course of treatment with sedation, emolliation, and humidification. Educating psoriasis patients about their disease and encouraging them to take responsibility for self-care will lessen the morbidity.

  3. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-08-07

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals.

  4. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  5. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  6. Lapses in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infection.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P N; Milind, K

    2001-03-01

    This study was carried out in a rural tertiary care referral hospital in central India, to ascertain lapses made by people caring for neonates in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Unobtrusive observation of the healthcare personnel (doctors, nurses, mothers and hospital attendants) during care of the newborn was undertaken. Lapse in handwashing by healthcare personnel was observed around 41% of the time, although mothers practiced their instructions meticulously. Lapses in methods of hand drying were seen around 7-8% of the time, in those who did wash their hands. Gloves were not used around 21% of the time, when they should have been; and of those using gloves, they were unsterile in around 22% cases. At delivery babies were received unhygienically on approximately 67% of occasions observed. Lapses during cord care ranged from 14.2% to 28.6% and during resuscitation from 16.6% to 60% of occasions. An uncleaned stethoscope was used 75% of the time. The practice of putting a finger in the baby's mouth was observed on 18 occasions. Considerable lapses by all, in every measure recommended for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections were observed. It is concluded that nothing other than an individual's commitment is likely to be successful in preventing hospital-acquired infections.

  7. Measure to Prevent Inundation in a Fish Farm Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, S.; Chang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many fish farms locate along southern-west shoreline of Taiwan where various high-value fishes are cultivated. However, the terrain elevations are often lower than sea level. Inundation therefore occurred frequently in heavy rainfall events. Insufficient capacity of drainage flumes and extra drained water from fish farms cause flume overflow (Fig.1a). The inundation causes loss of the fish farm owners due to fish escape. To prevent inundation, we numerically study the drainage in the fish area (3.73 square km) of the Xindian drainage flume (4 km), Chiayi County, by the Storm Water Management Model, based on the 25-year period designed rainfall (326 mm total rainfall in 24 hours). In this study, a mitigation measure, pre-drainages in the fish farms, was considered to prevent inundation. The gate at the flume exit was closed to neglect the tide influence. According to the simulations, pre-drainages in the fish farms were operated at a given drained water depth before heavy rainfall events and kept the initial water stage 0 m in the flume which sufficiently provided the extra storage for the rainfall. Fig.1b suggests only 7 cm drained water depth successfully avoided flume overflow. Therefore the measure of the pre-drainage was an effective non-engineering method to prevent inundation. For practical operations, river managers perform pre-drainage simulations based on the forecast rainfall and then determine a pre-drained water depth. The drained water from the fish farms discharges by gravity at low tide and the gate is closed. The simple procedures will effectively prevent the inundation in the fish farms.

  8. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192

  9. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment. PMID:22953203

  10. [Good practices and techniques for prevention of accidents at work and occupational diseases. New database of Inail].

    PubMed

    Bindi, L; Ossicini, A

    2007-01-01

    The project "The publication of good practices and good techniques for prevention" is one the priorities of nail. This computerized system for the collection of good practices and standards of Good Technology is aimed to health and safety of workers. The basic objective of the database is to provide a valuable tool, usable, dynamic and implemented, in order to facilitate and direct the access to BP and BT it by people responsible for SSL. At the same time constitutes a tool strategically important for enterprises (especially SMEs) in terms of technological innovation and competitiveness, related to the prevention, safety and health of workers. The realization of this project has involved many of the professionals (chemists, engineers, doctors, biologists, geologists, etc.), and everyone gives his intake of qualified professional competence.

  11. Plague: Modern Preventive Measures in Ships and Ports

    PubMed Central

    White, C. F.

    1935-01-01

    Maritime quarantine, introduced in the fourteenth century in an endeavour to prevent the spread of plague. Though the system failed to achieve its object, and was expensive and restrictive to sea-borne commerce, it survived for over 500 years, presumably because, in the absence of knowledge of the ætiology of plague, no method of procedure more likely to be successful could be devised. This country acknowledged the failure of quarantine as a preventive measure in the middle of last century, and substituted the medical inspection of ships on arrival, though the last Quarantine Act was not repealed till 1896. Nevertheless it was not till the discovery of the rôle of the rat and the rat-flea in the spread of plague that it was possible to establish plague-preventive measures on a sound scientific basis. It is now recognized that a Port Health Authority must not only take steps to detect plague, human or rodent, afloat or ashore, at the earliest possible moment, but must eliminate conditions in ships and in shore premises which are conducive to the development of an epizoötic. Though here, and in other countries with an enlightened Public Health Administration, practice has long been ahead of legislation, the International Sanitary Convention of 1926 has now established throughout the world a large measure of uniformity in measures designed to prevent the spread of the more dangerous epidemic diseases by overseas trade, and the Port Sanitary Regulations 1933 have brought quarantine legislation in this country up to date. For the detection of plague every ship arriving from a plague-infected port is medically inspected on arrival, but even if there is no evidence of plague-infection on board, such ships are examined daily by a rat-officer until the discharge of cargo is complete. Dead rats found and live rats trapped are bacteriologically examined. If a rat is reported to be infected the vessel is fumigated at once. The discharge of cargo is then continued under

  12. Measuring Prevention More Broadly: An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures

    PubMed Central

    Menachemi, Nir; Blackburn, Justin; Becker, David J.; Morrisey, Michael A.; Sen, Bisakha; Caldwell, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess limitations of using select Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) core claims-based measures in capturing the preventive services that may occur in the clinical setting. Methods: We use claims data from ALL Kids, the Alabama Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), to calculate each of four quality measures under two alternative definitions: (1) the formal claims-based guidelines outlined in the CMS Technical Specifications, and (2) a broader definition of appropriate claims for identifying preventive service use. Additionally, we examine the extent to which these two claims-based approaches to measuring quality differ in assessments of disparities in quality of care across subgroups of children. Results: Statistically significant differences in rates were identified when comparing the two definitions for calculating each quality measure. Measure differences ranged from a 1.9 percentage point change for measure #13 (receiving preventive dental services) to a 25.5 percentage point change for measure #12 (adolescent well-care visit). We were able to identify subgroups based upon family income, rural location, and chronic disease status with differences in quality within the core measures. However, some identified disparities were sensitive to the approach used to calculate the quality measure. Conclusions: Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit the usefulness of select claims-based core measures for detecting disparities accurately. Additional guidance and research may be necessary before reporting of the measures becomes mandatory. PMID:24800161

  13. Radioactive contamination processes during 14-21 March after the Fukushima accident: What does atmospheric electric field measurements tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.; Miyagi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Ionizing radiation from the radioactive material is known to increase atmospheric electric conductivity, and hence to decrease vertical downward atmospheric DC electric field at ground level, or potential gradient (PG). In the past, the drop of PG has been observed after rain-induced radioactive fallout (wet contamination) after nuclear tests or after the Chernobyl disaster. After the nuclear accident Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that started 11 March 2011, the PG also at Kakioka, 150 km southwest from the FNPP, also dropped a by one order of magnitude. Unlike the past examples, the PG drop was two-stepped on 14 March and 20 March. Both correspond to two largest southward release of radioactive material according to the data from the radiation dose rate measurement network. We compare the Kakioka's PG data with the radiation dose rate data at different places to examine the fallout processes of both on 14 March and on 20 March. The former turned out to be dry contamination by surface wind, leaving a substantial amount of fallout floating near the ground. The latter turned out to be wet contamination by rain after transport by relatively low-altitude wind, and the majority of the fallout settled to the ground at this time. It is recommended that all nuclear power plant to have a network of PG observation surrounding the plant. Takeda, et al. (2011): Initial effect of the Fukushima accident on atmospheric electricity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15811, doi:10.1029/2011GL048511. Yamauchi, et al. (2012): Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement, Ann. Geophys., 30, 49-56, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-49-2012.

  14. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  15. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Sitakanta; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  16. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress.

  17. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    PubMed Central

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  18. [A cooperative program for the prevention of domestic accidents in children at the department of the Doubs. II. Educative aspects and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Baudier, F; Marchais, M; Ferry, B; Bourderont, D; Pinochet, C; Blum, D

    1988-01-01

    Effective prevention of domestic accidents in children includes regimental and/or legislative action, information for parents and education of the children. The latter two strategies have been applied in the deparment of the Doubs in a cooperative health promotion program. Preschool and kindergarten structures were chosen and the pedagogical project involved acquainting the children with the idea of danger by use of a kit prepared by the "Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé" (French Committee for health education). This study was set up in two stages: "experimental" in 2 schools (1983-1984) and "operational" in 40 schools (1984-1985). In order to evaluate it, the population was divided into a control group and an experimental group. A total of 5,720 tests were carried out among 520 children. 494 parents and 82 teachers answered the questionnaires sent to them. The teachers were generally very positive about the effectiveness of education about dangers and the teaching activities which could be employed: discovery of environment, awareness of body, a.s.o. The changes in attitude were real and enduring among children. The parents changed their behavior significantly concerning the storing of poisonous products (medicines and household cleaning products), which allows to feel that this program can be effective in terms of risk reduction. PMID:3202675

  19. [A cooperative program for the prevention of domestic accidents in children at the department of the Doubs. II. Educative aspects and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Baudier, F; Marchais, M; Ferry, B; Bourderont, D; Pinochet, C; Blum, D

    1988-01-01

    Effective prevention of domestic accidents in children includes regimental and/or legislative action, information for parents and education of the children. The latter two strategies have been applied in the deparment of the Doubs in a cooperative health promotion program. Preschool and kindergarten structures were chosen and the pedagogical project involved acquainting the children with the idea of danger by use of a kit prepared by the "Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé" (French Committee for health education). This study was set up in two stages: "experimental" in 2 schools (1983-1984) and "operational" in 40 schools (1984-1985). In order to evaluate it, the population was divided into a control group and an experimental group. A total of 5,720 tests were carried out among 520 children. 494 parents and 82 teachers answered the questionnaires sent to them. The teachers were generally very positive about the effectiveness of education about dangers and the teaching activities which could be employed: discovery of environment, awareness of body, a.s.o. The changes in attitude were real and enduring among children. The parents changed their behavior significantly concerning the storing of poisonous products (medicines and household cleaning products), which allows to feel that this program can be effective in terms of risk reduction.

  20. Radiotherapy Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckenzie, Alan

    A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

  1. Accident profile of older people in Antalya City Center, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Levent; Gokkoca, Zuhal

    2003-01-01

    Accidents are major health problems leading to deaths and injuries among older people. The present study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the accidents experienced within the last 1 year in people aged 60 years and older living in Antalya City Center. The study was planned as a cross-sectional research. A total of 840 individuals selected from the study population with cluster-sampling method were used in questionnaires. A number of 163 (19.4%) individuals had at least one accident in the last year. A total of 178 accidents were reported within the last 1-year; 124 (69.7%) falls, 22 (12.4%) traffic accidents and 12 (6.7%) dropping of objects to head. The accidents occurred mostly at home (40.4%), at avenue-street etc. (31.5%), and in garden (8.4%). The result of logistic regression analysis revealed that accident frequency was positively related with female gender (odds=1.79, P<0.05), disability of lower extremities (odds=1.63, P<0.05) and hearing impairment (odds=2.01, P<0.05) whereas it was negatively related with living in detached house (odds=0.41, P<0.05). It was found that accidents caused health (82.0%) and financial (38.2%) problems in elderly and also the disabilities in daily activities (66.3%). Average numbers of days with disability in daily activities were 21.1 in 1 year per accident and 5.7 in 1 year per individual. Occurrence of health problems and disability in daily activities were more frequent among women compared to men (P<0.05). Methods like environmental measures or educational programs to prevent accidents and accident-related injuries must be focused on defined risk groups and places where the accidents occur more frequently. Future researches about the effectiveness of prevention in elderly on accident frequency, mortality and morbidity are needed to deal with this current problem. PMID:12888223

  2. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  3. Preventing surgical-site infections: measures other than antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chauveaux, D

    2015-02-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) due to intra-operative contamination are chiefly ascribable to airborne particles carrying microorganisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, which settle on the surgeon's hands and instruments. SSI prevention therefore rests on minimisation of airborne contaminated particle counts, although these have not been demonstrated to correlate significantly with SSI rates. Maintaining clear air in the operating room classically involves the use of ultra clean ventilation systems combining laminar airflow and high-efficiency particulate air filters to create a physical barrier around the surgical table; in addition to a stringent patient preparation protocol, appropriate equipment, and strict operating room discipline on the part of the surgeon and other staff members. SSI rates in clean surgery, although influenced by the type of procedure and by patient-related factors, are consistently very low, of about 1% to 2%. These low rates, together with the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the multiplicity of parameters influencing the SSI risk, are major obstacles to the demonstration that a specific measure is effective in decreasing SSIs. As a result, controversy surrounds the usefulness of many measures, including laminar airflow, body exhaust suits, patient preparation techniques, and specific surgical instruments. Impeccable surgical technique and operating room behaviour, in contrast, are clearly essential.

  4. Preventing surgical-site infections: measures other than antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chauveaux, D

    2015-02-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) due to intra-operative contamination are chiefly ascribable to airborne particles carrying microorganisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, which settle on the surgeon's hands and instruments. SSI prevention therefore rests on minimisation of airborne contaminated particle counts, although these have not been demonstrated to correlate significantly with SSI rates. Maintaining clear air in the operating room classically involves the use of ultra clean ventilation systems combining laminar airflow and high-efficiency particulate air filters to create a physical barrier around the surgical table; in addition to a stringent patient preparation protocol, appropriate equipment, and strict operating room discipline on the part of the surgeon and other staff members. SSI rates in clean surgery, although influenced by the type of procedure and by patient-related factors, are consistently very low, of about 1% to 2%. These low rates, together with the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the multiplicity of parameters influencing the SSI risk, are major obstacles to the demonstration that a specific measure is effective in decreasing SSIs. As a result, controversy surrounds the usefulness of many measures, including laminar airflow, body exhaust suits, patient preparation techniques, and specific surgical instruments. Impeccable surgical technique and operating room behaviour, in contrast, are clearly essential. PMID:25623269

  5. [Nutritional laminitis--preventive measures for the obese horse].

    PubMed

    Kienzle, E; Fritz, J

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition-induced laminitis is often caused by i) fermentation of large amounts of carbohydrates in the hindgut (usually fructans from grass or starch from cereals), which cause the release and absorption of microbial toxins and ii) insulin resistance induced by being overweight (equine metabolic syndrome). Both causes can act together. Overweight horses with a history of laminitis need to reduce body weight to prevent further incidences of laminitis. Weight reduction occurs normally on a diet of late-cut hay, a hay-straw mixture (maximally one third straw to prevent constipation) or grass seed straw all at 1-1.2% of ideal body weight. However, this roughage allowance does not satisfy the need of horses to chew, for which it requires at least 1.5% of ideal body weight. This may lead to behavioural issues, such as allophagia and aggression, and in extreme cases, stereotypic behaviour. Starch concentrates should not be replaced with high fat concentrates. Used saw dust is recommended for bedding. The intake of grass from a pasture has to be considerably and efficiently reduced. If the horse is extremely prone to laminitis or if stable management is unreliable, abstention from grazing is recommended. Any supplements need to be low in energy, and should supply minerals and vitamins which are deficient in the diet. Some additional protein or amino acids may be beneficial. Regular exercise, such as a daily 30-minute speedy trot, improves insulin sensitivity. Exercise increases energy expenditure to a certain extent, allowing a slight increase in the roughage supply, thus alleviating the conflict between energy reduction and fulfilling the need to chew. Weight loss should be 0.5-1% of body weight per week, while at a higher rate there is a potential risk of hyperlipemia. The effectiveness of the reducing diet should be monitored regularly, either by weighing or measuring body, neck or girth circumference (aiming for a reduction of 1-2 cm per week). PMID:23959622

  6. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. PMID:26789364

  7. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future.

  8. Early in situ measurement of radioactive fallout in Fukushima city due to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masashi; Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Using a high-purity germanium detector, both indoor and outdoor radionuclides that had deposited 1.5 d after the radioactive fallout events in the city of Fukushima were experimentally measured. Eleven artificial ((131)I, (132)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (129)Te, (129m)Te, (131m)Te, (132)Te, (140)La and (99m)Tc) and 5 natural radionuclides were identified. Total air kerma rates were mainly due to (132)I, (134)Cs and (136)Cs from 4 to 6 µGy/h at a 7.5-cm height from the ground. Radioactive contamination on the ground was contributed by (132)I and (132)Te, from 330 to 420 Bq/cm(2). In a worst-case scenario, the maximum skin dose rates were estimated to be from 520 to 670 µGy/h. Effective dose rates were evaluated to be 10 to 15 µSv/h and reached 17.9 µSv/h at 4 a.m. on 16 March. In the effective dose rates, (132)I, (134)Cs and (132)Te were the main contributors. Our measurements are useful for estimating dose levels in the public in the city of Fukushima during the days after radioactive fallout contamination.

  9. [Radiological estimation of the protective measures used in agricultural complex of Belarus Republic in 2000-2005 (20 years after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP)].

    PubMed

    Podoliak, A G; Bogdevich, I M; Ageets, V Iu; Timofeev, S F

    2007-01-01

    The radiological estimation of the basic agrochemistry measures spent for the agriculture of the Republic of Belarus in 2000-2005 is given. Laws of behavior radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in agrosystems are considered depending on used protective a measures (countermeasures) and the primary goals on liquidation of consequences in sphere of agrarian and industrial complex which are necessary for solving during the remote period after accident ChNNP (in 2006-2010) are studied.

  10. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  11. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  12. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  13. Family planning. A most effective preventive health measure.

    PubMed

    Rowley, J

    1984-06-01

    Family planning is widely regarded as among the most effective of preventive health measures and can contribute to break the vicious cycle of infection, malnutrition, and uncontrolled fertility widespread among mothers and children in the Third World. Significant achievements have been scored in the past 2 decades in educating people about the health implications of reproduction and providing contraceptive services to those who want them. Increasing numbers of women in developing countries are aware of the advantages of fewer and better spaced children. However, this awareness is often not reflected in practice. Only 2/% of women in developing countries, compared with 70% in developed countries, practice family planning. This situation is considered serious in view of the fact that the number of couples in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Oceania who require contraceptive protection will double to 1 billion by the year 2000. The gap between awareness and practice reflects numerous factors, including nonavailability of services, inaccurate knowledge about family planning, and women's oppression. Overcoming the cultural, economic, and social barriers to family planning requires sensitive and diverse communication strategies. High-level political support, village-based community programs, a high level of female education, and a well-developed primary health care system have contributed to the success of family planning efforts. Since family planning to a large extent reflects individual decision making, attention should be directed toward the role of fieldworkers and local family planning acceptors in influencing others to adopt contraception. PMID:6469252

  14. [The mortality because of road accidents and means of its reduction].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The road traumatism has a special place in the structure of trauma mortality due to severe aftermath for population health and enormous burden on public health system. The damage resulted of road accidents impacts the social, demographic, medical and economic sectors. Most of the existing systems of road accidents outcomes prevention are targeted to the primary (prevention of trauma occurrence or decrease of their severity) and secondary (supply of adequate medical care) prevention. The review analyses the system of preventive measures directed at prevention of road traumatism. The issues of supplying of adequate medical care to victims on all its stages are discussed. The particular attention is paid to the issues of pre-hospital stage, the known models of organization of medical care to victims on pre-hospital stage, the major directions of modernization of the system of pre-hospital medical care of road accident victims.

  15. An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: the crash of Comair Flight 5191.

    PubMed

    Pruchnicki, Shawn A; Wu, Lora J; Belenky, Gregory

    2011-05-01

    On 27 August 2006 at 0606 eastern daylight time (EDT) at Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY (LEX), the flight crew of Comair Flight 5191 inadvertently attempted to take off from a general aviation runway too short for their aircraft. The aircraft crashed killing 49 of the 50 people on board. To better understand this accident and to aid in preventing similar accidents, we applied mathematical modeling predicting fatigue-related degradation in performance for the Air Traffic Controller on-duty at the time of the crash. To provide the necessary input to the model, we attempted to estimate circadian phase and sleep/wake histories for the Captain, First Officer, and Air Traffic Controller. We were able to estimate with confidence the circadian phase for each. We were able to estimate with confidence the sleep/wake history for the Air Traffic Controller, but unable to do this for the Captain and First Officer. Using the sleep/wake history estimates for the Air Traffic Controller as input, the mathematical modeling predicted moderate fatigue-related performance degradation at the time of the crash. This prediction was supported by the presence of what appeared to be fatigue-related behaviors in the Air Traffic Controller during the 30 min prior to and in the minutes after the crash. Our modeling results do not definitively establish fatigue in the Air Traffic Controller as a cause of the accident, rather they suggest that had he been less fatigued he might have detected Comair Flight 5191's lining up on the wrong runway. We were not able to perform a similar analysis for the Captain and First Officer because we were not able to estimate with confidence their sleep/wake histories. Our estimates of sleep/wake history and circadian rhythm phase for the Air Traffic Controller might generalize to other air traffic controllers and to flight crew operating in the early morning hours at LEX. Relative to other times of day, the modeling results suggest an elevated risk of fatigue

  16. [Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

    2007-03-01

    The health care program in working facilities and companies have played a significant part in prevention of tuberculosis. However, the ordinary national tuberculosis survey policy was abolished in April, 2005 and the tuberculosis survey for salary-earners is on the brink of drastic change. In this symposium the current status of the prevailing survey of tuberculosis in working facilities and companies was reviewed and the future direction of the tuberculosis survey in comparison to that in lung cancer survey was discussed. 1. Epidemiological trends of tuberculosis from the tuberculosis surveillance data: Masako OHMORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). The estimated rate of tuberculosis case discovery by periodical mass screening in the working facilities was 0.033% and it was higher than that in general adult population. The detection rate of tuberculosis in nurses who suffered from tuberculosis reached 40.4% by an aid of mass X-ray screening and 8.7% by contact tracing. The risk of onset of the disease was 4.3 times higher nurses than in general at the same years of age. The importance of infection control measures in the medical facilities was emphasized. 2. Current status and problems in tuberculosis control in a large-sized company: Yusuke NAKAOKA (Department of Occupational Health, Osaka Railway Hospital, West Japan Railway Company). Some preventive modalities against TB such as periodical medical check-up and awareness programs have been done for the purpose of prevention in our company. The prevalence of the disease has significantly reduced in number. The specific circumstances in large-sized company should be taken into consideration, and it is important for company workers and health professionals to recognize their roles in preventing the infectious disease. 3. Are there any differences between clinical cases and control people working for small-sized companies in the onset of tuberculosis?: Osamu NAKASHIMA, Kohei

  17. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  18. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  19. [SAFETY IN THE ELDERLY: HOME ACCIDENTS].

    PubMed

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia M; Píriz-Campos, Rosa Ma; Cordeiro, Raú; Muñoz Bermejo, Laura; Casado Verdjo, Inés; Postigo Mota, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    Home accidents are more common in the elderly and they can have serious consequences to the injured person's health. At home, chances to suffer accidents of any type are higher, because it's the place where old people spend most of their daily time. It is important to point out that a high percentage of domestic accidents could be easily avoided by taking some simple cautions. The main aim of this paper is to know how we can prevent most common domestic accidents in the aged population: falls, burnings, poisonings and fire prevention. PMID:27405149

  20. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  1. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media. PMID:24445055

  7. [Preventive measures against human error based on the classification of the adverse events].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    It is impossible to entirely eliminate human error; however, systematic attempts have been made to comprehensively minimize accidents originating in human error. It appears that the "work classification" we proposed previously is not able to reduce adverse events, fifty percent of which were duty confirmation failures. We have therefore reviewed and classified the causes of human error from the perspective of working conditions to create a simpler and more preventative strategy. Text-mining analysis was applied to speech part classification to reveal areas with room for improvement. In an objective approach, a conduct code was created and put into practice, based on the common features revealed from a classification of human error in the examples investigated. The average number of accidents per year was reduced from 36 to 24, and those due to human error per year were reduced from 17.6 to 11. This objective approach appears to achieve a reduction of adverse events, including those caused by human error. However, these results were obtained over only one year, in a single-center analysis, and thus, widespread and continuous enforcement would be needed to demonstrate the validity of this objective approach to the prevention of human error. PMID:24464065

  8. Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Ola; Burström, Lage

    2010-11-01

    Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of

  9. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model. PMID:27376994

  10. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  11. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  12. Preventative measures for bulimic patients with dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, G; Bartlett, D

    2001-03-01

    The preventative techniques suggested to bulimic patients are frequently undervalued and ignored in favour of restorative treatment, possibly because the dentist may not be aware of the eating disorder. Educating bulimic patients about fluoride application, the use of brushing techniques, antacids, cheese, xylitol chewing gum and the possible use of mouth guards may minimise the effect of acids. Together with attempts at improving patient compliance they can be a valuable adjunct to treatment of bulimic patients with dental problems. Monitoring the wear on teeth by comparing study casts is a good way to maintain control but there are circumstances when restorations are indicated, perhaps when further delay may result in the prognosis of the teeth being compromised. Following a brief introduction to causes of bulimia and the consequences to the dentition, this paper, based on a literature review, considers patient-orientated techniques for prevention and provisional management of erosion of dental hard tissues for patients with bulimia nervosa.

  13. [The prevalence of spinal column pathologies. Preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Lulich, A; Luna, C; Lupidi, S; Severina, M de los A

    1992-01-01

    It has been observed that a high percentage of students present problems with the spinal column; this is due to the lack of prevention in the activities of daily life and in hospitals' practice. Added to this, is the presence of a large percentage of alterations of the feet. This coincides with our hypothesis of work, and brings us to suggest the correct positions in the principal postures.

  14. [Orofacial injuries in skateboard accidents].

    PubMed

    Frohberg, U; Bonsmann, M

    1992-04-01

    In a clinical study, 25 accidents involving injuries by a fall with a skateboard were investigated and classified in respect of epidemiology, accident mechanism and injury patterns in the facial region. Accident victims are predominantly boys between 7 and 9 years of age. A multiple trauma involving the teeth and the dental system in general and the soft parts of the face is defined as a characteristic orofacial injury pattern in skateboard accidents. The high proportion of damage to the front teeth poses problems of functional and aesthetic rehabilitation necessitating long-term treatment courses in children and adolescents. Effective prevention of facial injuries may be possible by evolving better facial protection systems and by creating areas of playgrounds where skateboarders can practise safely.

  15. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  16. [Tuberculosis prevention measure in medical and correlated facilities].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2011-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection of healthcare workers in medical and correlated facilities is serious issue. For the prevention of TB transmission in the facilities, there are five important matters which are management of work environment, self protection manner, TB infection screening, a system for infection control, and TB education. The air containing TB nuclei must be exhausted from the work space mechanically, the workers should wear N95 mask at high risk places, regular chest X-ray examination and periodically QuantiFERON test for healthcare workers should undergo, the infection control committee must be active and TB education course for healthcare workers must be held annually. PMID:21838052

  17. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  18. Development of emergency response support system for accident management

    SciTech Connect

    Taminami, Tatsuya; Kubota, Ryuji; Kubota, Tadashi; Yamane, Noriyuki

    1997-12-01

    Specific measures for the accident management (AM) are proposed to prevent the severe accident and to mitigate their effects in order to upgrade the safety of nuclear power plants even further. To ensure accident management effective, it is essential to grasp the plant status accurately. In consideration of the above mentioned background, the Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) was developed as a computer assisted prototype system by a joint study of Japanese BWR group. This system judges and predicts the plant status at the emergency condition in a nuclear power plant. This system displays the results of judgment and prediction. The effectiveness of the system was verified through the test and good prospects for applying the system to a plant was obtained. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Typical accidents encountered by assembly workers: six scenarios for safety planning identified using multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, L; Backström, T; Döös, M

    1993-08-01

    This study highlights the most typical accidents encountered by assembly workers employed in a variety of different workshops at a large automobile and truck factory in Sweden. Following site visits and the collection of data from accident registers, statistics on 28 accident characteristics were compiled on the basis of the 145 accidents involving assemblers in 1986 and 1987. For data treatment, two statistical methods complemented one another: the factorial analysis of correspondence (FAC) and the hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC). Six typical accident profiles were extensively portrayed, quantified, and illustrated graphically: overexertion; falls and stumbling; injuries related to the handling of tools; superficial wounds to the (left) hand; cuts/pinches from moving machine parts and the handling of objects; miscellaneous blows from work pieces. The distribution of these types of accidents across the workshops was studied. It is emphasized that the search for typical accident patterns using multivariate statistical methods helps to structure and define the accident problems of a target group and therefore provides benefits for the evaluation of the need for preventive measures. PMID:8357453

  20. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  1. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Coverage includes transfrontier radioactive contamination, deposition of radioactive pollutants from the atmosphere, and radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air and soil contamination, and in vegetation and food. Monthly radioactive monitoring in different countries, possible health hazards caused by the radiation, and estimates of radiation doses to the population from the fallout are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. [Accidents of fulguration].

    PubMed

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  3. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  4. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks. PMID:27289189

  5. Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R): a performance-based measure of executive function in people with mild cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M Tracy; Giles, Gordon Muir; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M; Dromerick, Alexander W; Polatajko, Helene J; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes a performance-based measure of executive function, the Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R), and examines its ability to discriminate between people with mild cerebrovascular accident (mCVA) and control participants. METHOD. We compared the MET-R scores and measures of CVA outcome of 25 participants 6 mo post-mCVA and 21 matched control participants. RESULTS. Participants with mCVA showed no to minimal impairment on measures of executive function at hospital discharge but reported difficulty with community integration at 6 mo. The MET-R discriminated between participants with and without mCVA (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSION. The MET-R is a valid and reliable measure of executive functions appropriate for the evaluation of clients with mild executive function deficits who need occupational therapy to fully participate in community living. PMID:23791321

  6. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  7. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  8. Measuring trainer fidelity in the transfer of suicide prevention training

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wendi F.; Pisani, Anthony R.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; McMahon, Marcie; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding effective and efficient models to train large numbers of suicide prevention interventionists, including ‘hotline’ crisis counselors, is a high priority. Train-the-trainer (TTT) models are widely used but understudied. Aims To assess the extent to which trainers following TTT delivered the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) program with fidelity, and to examine fidelity across two trainings and seven training segments. Methods We recorded and reliably rated trainer fidelity, defined as adherence to program content and competence of program delivery, for 34 newly trained ASIST trainers delivering the program to crisis center staff on two separate occasions. A total of 324 observations were coded. Trainer demographics were also collected. Results On average, trainers delivered two-thirds of the program. Previous training was associated with lower levels of trainer adherence to the program. 18% of trainers' observations were rated as solidly competent. Trainers did not improve fidelity from their first to second training. Significantly higher fidelity was found for lectures and lower fidelity was found for interactive training activities including asking about suicide and creating a safe plan. Conclusions We found wide variability in trainer fidelity to the ASIST program following TTT and few trainers had high levels of both adherence and competence. More research is needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of TTT models. PMID:24901061

  9. Passive smoking, invasive meningococcal disease and preventive measures: a commentary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Active smoking is a recognized risk factor of various infectious diseases. In a systematic review published in BMC Public Health, Murray et al. demonstrated that exposure to passive smoking significantly increased the risk of meningococcal disease among children. Their review especially highlights that the risk remains high even if the exposure occurs during pregnancy or after birth, although the authors could not disentangle the independent effects of smoking during pregnancy from those in the postnatal period. How passive smoking increases the risk of childhood meningococcal disease is not precisely known. Both exposure to 'smoke', or 'smokers' (who are highly susceptible to pharyngeal carriage of meningococci) are postulated mechanisms, but unfortunately very few studies have examined the risk of exposure by considering these two variables separately, and this therefore remains a research priority. Quitting may well be the mainstay of preventing tobacco-related hazards but the available global data suggest that most smokers are reluctant to quit. Among other interventions, immunizing children with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine could, theoretically, reduce the risk of meningococcal disease among children and their smoker household contacts through herd immunity. See related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/1062 PMID:23228079

  10. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  11. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  12. PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE READING RETARDATION IN THE PRIMARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REID, HALE C.; AND OTHERS

    COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT-2698 WAS EXTENDED TO THE SECOND-GRADE LEVEL IN ORDER TO DEVELOP AND MEASURE THE EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL OR SMALL-GROUP INSTRUCTION FOR LOW-SCORING SECOND GRADERS IN READING, OF LESSONS ADAPTED TO THE NEEDS OF THE LOW GROUP, AND OF INSERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. SECOND GRADERS WHO RECEIVED TOTAL METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT…

  13. [Evaluation of a program for changing attitudes in pre-drivers to prevent road accidents related to drink-driving in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Filella Guiu, Gemma; Jariot Garcia, Mercè; Montané Capdevila, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This study appraises the results of an intervention to prevent drink-driving in a cohort of pre-drivers in the region of Catalonia (Spain). The program applied, based on attitude change, sets out to reduce significantly the risk of being involved in drink-driving. A classic quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with control group was used, and two questionnaires were applied: a general one measuring several risk factors, and another one specifically addressing the question of alcohol. The study was carried out with three groups: a) experimental 1, which received the entire program, b) experimental 2, which received a part of the program, and c) control, which did not receive the benefits of the program. Results from the factor analysis (PCA) and the repeated-measures ANOVA suggest that young pre-drivers who received the program obtained better results in road safety and showed less risk of drink-driving than those who did not receive the program or received only part of it. Significant differences were also found between men and women. The results confirm the effectiveness of the attitude-change program and the possibility of reducing alcohol use among young pre-drivers.

  14. [Evaluation of a program for changing attitudes in pre-drivers to prevent road accidents related to drink-driving in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Filella Guiu, Gemma; Jariot Garcia, Mercè; Montané Capdevila, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This study appraises the results of an intervention to prevent drink-driving in a cohort of pre-drivers in the region of Catalonia (Spain). The program applied, based on attitude change, sets out to reduce significantly the risk of being involved in drink-driving. A classic quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with control group was used, and two questionnaires were applied: a general one measuring several risk factors, and another one specifically addressing the question of alcohol. The study was carried out with three groups: a) experimental 1, which received the entire program, b) experimental 2, which received a part of the program, and c) control, which did not receive the benefits of the program. Results from the factor analysis (PCA) and the repeated-measures ANOVA suggest that young pre-drivers who received the program obtained better results in road safety and showed less risk of drink-driving than those who did not receive the program or received only part of it. Significant differences were also found between men and women. The results confirm the effectiveness of the attitude-change program and the possibility of reducing alcohol use among young pre-drivers. PMID:21814714

  15. [The change in efficiency of protective measures for reduction of 137Cs accumulation by agricultural plants in various periods after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Aleksakhin, R M; Muzalevskaia, A A

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of 137Cs transfer factors to plants and the effects of protective measures on this radionuclide accumulation in the agricultural production is estimated on the example of the south-western regions of Bryansk District. Three periods in decreasing the 137Cs content in plants during 20 years after the Chernobyl accident are identified. The contribution of radionuclide decay, natural biogeochemical processes and protective measures aimed at reduction of the 137Cs accumulation in agricultural plants during various periods after radioactive fallout is shown. Maximum permissible levels of 137Cs contamination of cultivated lands, where crop products meeting current standards may be obtained, at different scopes of protective measures on radioactive-contaminated territories are forecasted. Periods after radioactive fallout, when crop and forage products meeting radiological standards are obtained, are assessed. PMID:21520624

  16. Testing of an automatic outdoor gamma ambient dose-rate surveillance system in Tokyo and its calibration using measured deposition after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Korpach, Ed; Berg, Rodney; Ungar, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    An in-situ fixed point radioactivity surveillance network has been developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. The network consists of a number of spectrometric NaI(Tl) detectors measuring, in real-time, ambient gamma dose-rate. The present paper describes the gamma dose-rate monitoring by one detector installed at the Canadian embassy in Tokyo during the Fukushima nuclear accident. Soil samples were collected for the measurement of fallout fission products inventories at each location where the NaI(Tl) detector was installed. The gamma-ray attenuation by the soil matrix was estimated by the information on the depth distribution of (137)Cs activities. The study demonstrated that the gamma dose-rates measured by the field NaI(Tl) spectrometric method agreed well with the laboratory results estimated by the inventories of fallout fission products deposited in the soil and the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil. PMID:23317566

  17. [The change in efficiency of protective measures for reduction of 137Cs accumulation by agricultural plants in various periods after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Aleksakhin, R M; Muzalevskaia, A A

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of 137Cs transfer factors to plants and the effects of protective measures on this radionuclide accumulation in the agricultural production is estimated on the example of the south-western regions of Bryansk District. Three periods in decreasing the 137Cs content in plants during 20 years after the Chernobyl accident are identified. The contribution of radionuclide decay, natural biogeochemical processes and protective measures aimed at reduction of the 137Cs accumulation in agricultural plants during various periods after radioactive fallout is shown. Maximum permissible levels of 137Cs contamination of cultivated lands, where crop products meeting current standards may be obtained, at different scopes of protective measures on radioactive-contaminated territories are forecasted. Periods after radioactive fallout, when crop and forage products meeting radiological standards are obtained, are assessed.

  18. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Morrissey, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO/sub 2/ and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC/sub 2/ particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO/sub 2/ particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC/sub 2/ particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium.

  19. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  20. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  1. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  2. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  3. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  4. Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Kandyala, Reena; Raghavendra, Sumanth Phani C; Rajasekharan, Saraswathi T

    2010-01-01

    Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon known for its wide usage in tissue processing, staining and cover slipping in the histology laboratory. The hazards of xylene are well documented, making it a potential occupational hazard for the histopathological technicians. As every other profession became cautious of the occupational hazards, the very speciality that identifies the illnesses became one of the last to become aware and remedy its own hazards. This review article aims to discuss the toxicity of xylene and safety measures to counteract the hazards and enlists the pros and cons of using various substitutes that claim to be much safer, better and faster. PMID:21180450

  5. [MEDICAL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR REDUCING CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONAL RISKS IN THE PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS].

    PubMed

    Bazarova, E L; Osherov, I S; Roslyĭ, O F; Tartakovskaia, L Ia

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach in the prevention and rehabilitation of workers employed in the production of titanium alloys envisages the implementation of targeted multi-stage rehabilitation measures in groups with high occupational risk.

  6. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  7. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  8. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal.

  9. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. PMID:25886711

  10. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  11. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  12. Measurement of 129 I and 137 Cs in soils from Belarus and reconstruction of 131I deposition from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Marchetti, A A; Voigt, G; Minenko, V; Gu, F; Men, P; Trofimik, S; Tretyakevich, S; Drozdovitch, V; Shagalova, E; Zhukova, O; Germenchuk, M; Berlovich, S

    2006-07-01

    I and Cs have been measured in a large number of soil samples collected throughout the country of Belarus to support efforts for thyroid-dose reconstruction following the Chernobyl accident. Samples of soil consisting of multiple 30-cm-deep cores per site were sampled following a selection process to ensure sites were undisturbed and representative. Samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for I, gamma spectrometry for Cs, and gas chromatography (GC) for total iodine. Results show that both I and Cs are retained firmly in the top approximately 15 to 20 cm of the soil. Our results also suggest that the correlation between I and Cs deposition across the country of Belarus is poor; hence, I is a better surrogate for I than is Cs. It was also noted that total iodine concentrations in topsoil from Belarus are low compared with other regions of the world where radiogenic thyroid cancer has been studied. PMID:16775475

  13. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    PubMed

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  14. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  15. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments. PMID:20823633

  16. Questionnaire- and measurement-based individual thyroid doses in Ukraine resulting from the Chornobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Likhtarev, I; Bouville, A; Kovgan, L; Luckyanov, N; Voillequé, P; Chepurny, M

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the Ministries of Health of Belarus and of Ukraine, is involved in epidemiological studies of thyroid diseases presumably related to the Chornobyl accident, which occurred in Ukraine on 26 April 1986. Within the framework of these studies, individual thyroid absorbed doses, as well as uncertainties, have been estimated for all members of the cohorts (13,215 Ukrainians and 11,918 Belarusians), who were selected from the large group of children aged 0 to 18 whose thyroids were monitored for gamma radiation within a few weeks after the accident. Information on the residence history and dietary habits of each cohort member was obtained during personal interviews. The methodology used to estimate the thyroid absorbed doses resulting from intakes of (131)I by the Ukrainian cohort subjects is described. The model of thyroid dose estimation is run in two modes: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic mode, the model is run 1,000 times for each subject using a Monte Carlo procedure. The geometric means of the individual thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode range from 0.0006 to 42 Gy. The arithmetic and geometric means of these individual thyroid absorbed doses over the entire cohort are 0.68 and 0.23 Gy, respectively. On average, the individual thyroid dose estimates obtained in the deterministic mode are about the same as the geometric mean doses obtained in the stochastic mode, while the arithmetic mean thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode are about 20% higher than those obtained in the deterministic mode. The distributions of the 1000 values of the individual thyroid absorbed dose estimates are found to be approximately lognormal, with geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 5.0 for most cohort subjects. For the time being, only the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of (131)I have been estimated for all subjects. Future work will include the estimation

  17. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  18. [Characteristics of occupational accidents in the building industry and public works in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Sarr, E H; Ouatara, B; Sow, M L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to appreciate the magnitude of work accidents in a building construction sector, to specify their type and characteristics. A retrospective study was undergone in a big building construction industry in Senegal. Data were collected from records of accidents reported to the Social Security Administration between 1994--1996. We looked for characteristics of accidents as well as workers involved in accident. 244 accidents were collected in a three years period, i e 81.5/year, 132 work injuries involved temporaryworkers. 55.73% occurred in chantiers, and 1/3 in working room. Moving and handle objects generated most accidents (36,47%). Wounds and contusions were the most frequent lesion (51,62.%). Arms and feets were concerned in 51.63%, and ocular lesions were noticed in 13.94%. These accidents generate an overall number of 3055 days lost. Work injuries in the building construction sector in Senegal are identical to those described in othercountries. Prevention measures requires improvement of working conditions, education of workers and availability of personal protective equipment's. PMID:15773178

  19. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  20. Prevention of Home-Related Injuries of Preschoolers: Safety Measures Taken by Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khameesa, Nedaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of safety measures taken by mothers to prevent serious injuries to their pre-school children in the home, and the factors that influence mothers' behaviour in taking these safety measures. Design: A self-completion questionnaire based on a Five Level Likert Scale was used in the study.…

  1. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  2. Preventive measures reduce exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a graphite electrode plant

    PubMed Central

    dell'Omo, M.; Muzi, G.; Marchionna, G.; Latini, L.; Carrieri, P.; Paolemili, P.; Abbritti, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the efficacy of preventive measures in a graphite electrode plant aimed at reducing occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: Electrode workers (n = 146) answered a questionnaire and provided an end of shift urine sample. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-hpur), a biological marker of exposure to PAHs, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with: (a) fluorescence detection. 1- Hydroxypyrene concentrations were compared with the concentrations measured before implementing the preventive measures; and (b) those of a control group of 54 men not occupationally exposed to PAHs. RESULTS: After implementation of preventive measures, median concentrations 1- hpur were significantly reduced in some groups of workers: by -24%, - 37% and -30% in workers at the green electrode unit, one baking impregnation unit, and the laboratory, respectively. In workers at a second baking impregnation unit, in end product finishing and in the power station 1-hpur concentrations were unchanged. Urinary 1-hp concentrations were still significantly higher in each group of workers than in the control group (p < 0.001 for any comparison). Concentrations in the workers varied with the type of job, the highest values being found in workers engaged in the power station, in the two baking impregnation units and in the green electrode unit. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing preventive measures significantly reduced exposure to PAHs at a graphite electrode plant. The reduction in median and peak concentrations of 1-hpur, which reflects total exposure to, and internal dose of PAHs, was most evident in workers employed in the units where preventive measures had been taken. Despite an overall reduction, further preventive measures are needed to minimise exposure to PAHs and consequently the risk of adverse health effects.   PMID:9764100

  3. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases.

  4. Manned space programs accident/incident summaries (1963 - 1969)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This summary is a compilation of 508 mishaps assembled from company and NASA records which cover several years of manned space flight activity. The purpose is to provide information to be applied towards accident prevention. The accident/incident summaries are categorized by the following ten systems: cryogenic; electrical; facility/GSE; fuel and propellant; life support; ordnance; pressure; propulsion; structural; and transport/handling. Each accident/incident summary has been summarized by description, cause and recommended preventive action.

  5. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Error processing SSI file Connect with us: Enter Search Term(s): Skip to main content Toggle navigation Home Tools & Protocols Undiagnosed Hypertension Self-Measured Blood Pressure ...

  6. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  7. Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure to prevent skin cancer methodology and measurement.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Mayer, Joni A

    2005-08-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and is also one of the most preventable. This paper builds on an evidence review of skin cancer prevention interventions that was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (n=85 studies), and summarizes the state of knowledge about research methodology and measurement in studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. As this field advances, researchers should strive to minimize threats to validity in their study designs, as well as to consider the balance between internal and external validity. There is a need for more longer-duration interventions, and follow-up periods that make possible conclusions about the potential of these interventions to affect intermediate markers of skin cancer or at least sustained behavior change. Also, more work is needed to minimize attrition and characterize nonresponders and study dropouts. Verbal report measures of behavior are the most widely used measures of solar protection behavior. Given their limitations, investigators should routinely collect data about reliability and validity of those measures. They should also increase efforts to complement verbal data with objective measures including observations, skin reflectance, personal dosimetry, skin swabbing, and inspection of moles. Measures of environments and policies should incorporate observations, documentation, and direct measures of ambient UVR and shade. This article places the data derived from the evidence review in the context of needs and recommendations for future research in skin cancer prevention. PMID:16005810

  8. Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? Issues in policy, programming and research.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J

    1986-01-01

    Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? As the field of child abuse and neglect prevention matures intellectually and as more and more agencies require evaluative research to substantiate claims of programmatic success, this issue is emerging with ever growing vigor. This paper reviews efforts to set prevention goals in the United States, e.g., by the federal government's Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and by the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. For such goal setting to be defensible and socially productive, it must be linked to a research base. This research base is growing and maturing. The home health visitor concept, in particular, has received clear and powerful support as a preventive strategy. However, many issues remain concerning other strategies. Of equal or greater importance are the many difficulties we face in documenting base rates of maltreatment with which to assess the impact of preventive interventions. Questions remain about the adequacy of infant mortality data, child injury rates, and the validity of officially reported cases of child maltreatment. The paper reviews the data available to clarify and resolve these issues, and outlines a strategy for assessing success of efforts to reduce severity and incidence of child abuse in the United States. These efforts are presented in the context of a series of principles regarding child abuse prevention, e.g., the difference between prevention linked to broad social and economic reforms versus preventive programming targeted at ameliorating the lives of high-risk families in the absence of broad socioeconomic change.

  9. [Poisoning accidents with household chemicals among children].

    PubMed

    Johannsen, H G; Mikkelsen, J B

    1994-10-01

    A review is presented of the registration of all poisoning accidents among children aged 0-6 years treated at the University Hospital, Odense, Denmark during the period 1.1.1980-31.12.1992. There were 1751 poisoning accidents of which 482 were accidents with household chemicals. There were 69 accidents with lamp oil (Petroleum) of which 67 were in the age group 0-3 years. A peak incidence in the age group 0-3 years old is seen in 1986. In 1992 the incidence is at about the same level as in 1980. The incidence in the age group 4-6 years is at almost the same level throughout the entire period. We conclude that it is necessary to continue with campaigns to prevent accidents with household chemicals among children.

  10. Comparison between modelling and measurement of marine dispersion, environmental half-time and 137Cs inventories after the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Garreau, Pierre; Laguionie, Philippe; Korsakissok, Irène

    2014-03-01

    Contamination of the marine environment following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) represents the most important influx of artificial radioactivity released into the sea ever recorded. The evaluation, in near real time, of the total amount of radionuclide released at sea and of the residence time in coastal waters were ones of challenges for nuclear authorities during this event. In the framework of a crisis situation, a numerical hydrodynamical model has been built and used `as is'. The concomitant use of this numerical model and in situ data allows the comparison of the simulated and measured environmental half-times. A tuning of the wind drag coefficient has been nevertheless necessary to reproduce the evolution of measured inventories of 137Cs and 134Cs between April and June 2011. After tuning, the relative mean absolute error between measured and simulated concentrations for the 849 measurements in the dataset is 69 %, while the relative bias indicates a model underestimation of 4 %. These results confirm the estimates of the source term, i.e. 27 PBq (12-41 PBq) for direct releases and 3 PBq for atmospheric deposition onto the sea. The parameters applied here to simulate atmospheric deposition onto the sea are within the correct order of magnitude for reproducing seawater concentrations. Quantitative inventories of tracers which integrate dispersion and transport processes are useful to test model reliability. It exhausts the model sensibility to meteorological forcing, which remains difficult to appraise to reproduce mid- to long-term transport.

  11. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  12. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  13. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident.

  14. Effect of prevention measures on incidence of human listeriosis, France, 1987-1997.

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, V.; de Valk, H.; Pierre, O.; Stainer, F.; Rocourt, J.; Vaillant, V.; Jacquet, C.; Desenclos, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the impact of preventive measures by the food industry, we analyzed food monitoring data as well as trends in the incidence of listeriosis estimated through three independent sources: the National Reference Center of Listeriosis; a laboratory-based active surveillance network; and two consecutive nationwide surveys of public hospital laboratories. From 1987 to 1997, the incidence of listeriosis decreased by an estimated 68%. A substantial reduction in the proportion of Listeria monocytogenes-contaminated products was observed at the retail level. The temporal relationship between prevention measures by the food industry, reduction in L. monocytogenes-contaminated foodstuffs, and reduction in listeriosis incidence suggests a causal relationship and indicates that a substantial part of the reduction in illness is related to prevention efforts. PMID:11747725

  15. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  16. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  17. Validating measures of scanned information exposure in the context of cancer prevention and screening behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget J; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Hornik, Robert C

    2009-12-01

    Individuals may obtain health information, particularly from the mass media, without engaging in purposeful information searches (called scanning). This study used the Seeking and Scanning Behavior Survey of the General Population (SSBG), a nationally representative survey of adults aged 40-70 years (n = 2,489), to validate measures of scanned information exposure about cancer prevention and screening behaviors. Scanned exposure measures concerning specific behaviors (exercise; fruit and vegetable consumption; dieting; and mammogram, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) text, and colonoscopy screening) have good face validity and are convergent across behaviors (mean correlation across six preventive behaviors = 0.50, sd = 0.09). These measures can be discriminated from measures of general media exposure (mean r = 0.23, sd = 0.02) and seeking exposure for the same behaviors (mean r = 0.25, sd = 0.06). Scanned information exposure was associated with weekly volume of newspaper coverage for two of six behaviors, providing additional evidence of nomological validity. Scanned information exposure at the first round of measurement was associated with identical exposure 1 year later (mean r = .41, sd = .04). Scanned exposure measures also were significantly associated with five of the six preventive behaviors. These results provide evidence that scanned information exposure measures are valid indicators of the construct. Researchers might consider their use to capture scanned media influence on cognitions and behaviors. PMID:20029707

  18. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  19. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas...

  1. Evaluating a Peer-Led, Theatrical Sexual Assault Prevention Program: How Do We Measure Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Jun, Mi Kyun

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test…

  2. [Unsaturated fatty acids as a preventive measure for Alzheimer's disease: the literature review].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, A V

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the using of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid) as a possible preventive measure for Alzheimer's disease on the basis of modern literature data. It is possible to use the combination of the anticholinesterase drugs and the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:22708456

  3. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas...

  4. Source term estimation using air concentration measurements and a Lagrangian dispersion model - Experiments with pseudo and real cesium-137 observations from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel

    2015-04-01

    A transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) was created in a previous study using a Lagrangian dispersion model to provide plume predictions under different emission scenarios. The TCM estimates the contribution of each emission period to all sampling locations and can be used to estimate source terms by adjusting emission rates to match the model prediction with the measurements. In this paper, the TCM is used to formulate a cost functional that measures the differences between the model predictions and the actual air concentration measurements. The cost functional also includes a background term which adds the differences between a first guess and the updated emission estimates. Uncertainties of the measurements, as well as those for the first guess of source terms are both considered in the cost functional. In addition, a penalty term is added to create a smooth temporal change in the release rate. The method is first tested with pseudo observations generated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model at the same location and time as the actual observations. The inverse estimation system is able to accurately recover the release rates and performs better than a direct solution using singular value decomposition (SVD). It is found that computing ln(c) differences between model and observations is better than using the original concentration c differences in the cost functional. The inverse estimation results are not sensitive to artificially introduced observational errors or different first guesses. To further test the method, daily average cesium-137 air concentration measurements around the globe from the Fukushima nuclear accident are used to estimate the release of the radionuclide. Compared with the latest estimates by Katata et al. (2014), the recovered release rates successfully capture the main temporal variations. When using subsets of the measured data, the inverse estimation method still manages to identify most of the

  5. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  6. Dynamics of preventive vs post-diagnostic cancer control using low-impact measures

    PubMed Central

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer poses danger because of its unregulated growth, development of resistance, and metastatic spread to vital organs. We currently lack quantitative theory for how preventive measures and post-diagnostic interventions are predicted to affect risks of a life threatening cancer. Here we evaluate how continuous measures, such as life style changes and traditional treatments, affect both neoplastic growth and the frequency of resistant clones. We then compare and contrast preventive and post-diagnostic interventions assuming that only a single lesion progresses to invasive carcinoma during the life of an individual, and resection either leaves residual cells or metastases are undetected. Whereas prevention generally results in more positive therapeutic outcomes than post-diagnostic interventions, this advantage is substantially lowered should prevention initially fail to arrest tumour growth. We discuss these results and other important mitigating factors that should be taken into consideration in a comparative understanding of preventive and post-diagnostic interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06266.001 PMID:26111339

  7. Laboratory evaluation of a SpectraMax microplate reader and test strips for field measurement of creatinine in spot urine samples in the event of a radiological accident.

    PubMed

    Daka, Joseph N; Moodie, Gerry; Li, Chunsheng; Wilkins, Ruth; Kramer, Gary H

    2011-08-01

    The fear that terrorists might use radiological or nuclear (RN) devices to attack others is a new but growing phenomenon, arising mainly from the events of 11 September 2001. Research on rapid analytical methods that can allow analyses of large numbers of people who may become internally contaminated with radionuclides due to a RN accident is still limited. To contribute to this bioassay capacity for emergency response, the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada has identified and evaluated two new portable SpectraMax plate readers (model 250 and Plus 384) and one brand of dry reagent strips for rapid measurement of creatinine in spot urine samples. Concentrations of creatinine in spot urine samples provide a means of adjusting or normalizing urine collections to 24 h, upon which accurate internal dose assessments due to the radionuclides can be made. Preliminary test results of the devices showed the two SpectraMax plate readers and the TECO dry creatinine reagent strips were portable, rapid and reliable for urinary creatinine measurements in spot samples, suggesting they can be used in rapid dose screening of people.

  8. An evaluation of EU legislation concerning risk assessment and preventive measures in occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Naumanen, Paula; Hirvonen, Maria L

    2012-09-01

    The European Council Directive 89/391/EC of 12 June 1989 is concerned with the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the occupational safety and health. For example, it deals with risk assessment and preventive measures. The Finnish legislation enacts the risk assessment and prevention measures in a similar way as the EU Directive 89/391/EC. The aim of this study was to examine: 1) the implementation of risk assessment process as a part of OSH management, and 2) the effectiveness of the OSH legislation concerned with risk assessment. The quantitative method involved an online questionnaire. The respondents were employers (N = 1478), workers (N = 1416) and occupational care (OHC) professionals' units (N = 469). Three quarters of the employer respondents and two thirds of the workers and OHC service providers felt that the EU legislative provisions have promoted the engagement of the management. According to the study, improvement is needed in ensuring the cooperation between employers and workers. The combined variables of Risk Assessment Process revealed positive impacts both on Cooperation and Management Measures and on the Concrete Preventive Measures among the employers and the workers. The combined variables of Use of Documents of Risk Assessments highlighted positive impacts on both the Exploiting of Results of Risk Assessments in Planning and Management and on the Exploiting of Results of Risk Assessment in Cooperation and Technology.

  9. Methods for Linking Community Views to Measureable Outcomes in a Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A.; Walker, Alia; Branas, Charles C.; TenHave, Thomas R.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Leff, Stephen S.; Hausman, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Background All parties in community–academic partnerships have a vested interest prevention program success. Markers of success that reflect community’s experiences of programmatic prevention success are not always measurable, but critically speak to community-defined needs. Objective The purpose of this manuscript was to (1) describe our systematic process for linking locally relevant community views (community-defined indicators) to measurable outcomes in the context of a youth violence prevention program and (2) discuss lessons learned, next steps, and recommendations for others trying to replicate a similar process. Methods A research team composed of both academic and community researchers conducted a systematic process of matching community-defined indicators of youth violence prevention programmatic success to standardized youth survey items being administered in the course of a program evaluation. The research team of three community partners and Five academic partners considered 43 community-defined indicators and 208 items from the youth surveys being utilized within the context of a community-based aggression prevention program. At the end of the matching process, 92 youth survey items were identified and agreed upon as potential matches to 11 of the community-defined indicators. Conclusions We applied rigorous action steps to match community-defined indicators to survey data collected in the youth violence prevention intervention. We learned important lessons that inform recommendations for others interested in such endeavors. The process used to derive and assess community-defined indicators of success emphasized the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and use of existing and available data to reduce participant burden. PMID:23221296

  10. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  11. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    PubMed

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring.

  12. Modeling and Preventive Measures of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time. PMID:24633146

  13. Survey of use of malaria prevention measures by Canadians visiting India

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, C C; Anvar, A; Keystone, J S; Kain, K C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is an increasing problem, particularly among new immigrant populations. The objective of this study was to determine the malaria prevention measures used by Canadians originating from a malaria-endemic area when returning to visit their country of origin. METHODS: A 35-item English-language questionnaire was administered by interview to travellers at a departure lounge at Pearson International Airport, Toronto, between January and June 1995. Information was collected on subject characteristics, travel itinerary, perceptions about malaria, and pretravel health advice and malaria chemoprophylaxis and barriers to their use. RESULTS: A total of 324 travellers departing on flights to India were approached, of whom 307 (95%) agreed to participate in the study. Participants were Canadian residents of south Asian origin with a mean duration of residence in Canada of 12.8 years. Most of the respondents were returning to visit relatives for a mean visit duration of 6.8 weeks. Although 69% of the respondents thought malaria was a moderate to severe illness and 54% had sought advice before travelling, only 31% intended to use any chemoprophylaxis, and less than 10% were using measures to prevent mosquito bites. Only 7% had been prescribed a recommended drug regimen. Family practitioners were the primary source of information for travellers and were more likely to prescribe an inappropriate chemoprophylactic regimen than were travel clinics or public health centres (76% v. 36%) (p = 0.003). Respondents who had lived in Canada longest and those with a family history of malaria were more likely to use chemoprophylaxis (p < 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Few travellers were using appropriate chemoprophylaxis and mosquito prevention measures. Misconceptions about malaria risk and appropriate prevention measures were the main barriers identified. PMID:9951440

  14. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  15. Pattern of ophthalmological accidents and emergencies presenting to hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R S; Parkin, D W; Gillie, R F; Han, K H

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate the numbers and characteristics of patients with ophthalmological accidents and emergencies presenting to hospitals. DESIGN--Prospective survey over eight weeks. SETTING--Two general and one ophthalmic accident and emergency departments, two general outpatient departments, and an eye hospital ward consulting room (all in two teaching hospitals) in Newcastle upon Tyne. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Consultation numbers by age, sex, health district of residence, source of referral, diagnosis, and disposal were determined. An average of 37 ophthalmological emergency patients were seen daily. The all cause consultation rate per 1000 population for Newcastle residents was 2.64 (17.2 per year); for injuries it was 1.10 (7.2 per year) and for inflammations the rate was 0.91 (5.9 per year). Consultation rates per 1000 were 3.5 for males and 1.8 for females, the excess being explained by the higher risk of injury to men. Most patients were self-referred (58%), consulted during office hours (79.6%), were attended by senior house officers working alone (83.9%), and were asked to return for follow up (66.1%). Patients in an accident and emergency department seldom saw a consultant in their initial management. The diagnoses of patients from outside Newcastle were little different from those who lived within the city. The 10 commonest problems accounted for 68% of all cases. Injuries were the commonest problem (40.9% of all diagnoses). CONCLUSION--Ophthalmological accident and emergencies are an important component of an accident and emergency department workload. These patients are usually seen by junior doctors, some untrained in ophthalmology. The wide range of presenting problems poses a challenge for training and the organisation of effective referral chains, while the gender difference in injury rates points to the potential for prevention. PMID:8289039

  16. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 μm diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources

  18. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, C; Zvonova, I; Rääf, C; Mattsson, S

    2011-10-15

    A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of (137)Cs (and (134)Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl (137)Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3mSv y(-1). This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl (137)Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  19. Life years at risk: a population health measure from a prevention perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuejen; Malyon, Rosalyn

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims to present life years at risk (LYAR), a new measure of population health needs for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, which classifies health outcomes by care type and distinguishes between positive and negative outcomes. It is determined by the probability of ill-health event, population size and life years lost, based on expected incidence, prevalence and mortality. The LYAR consists of two components: the observed LYAR, available using disability adjusted life years, and the avoided LYAR. Three examples are given to illustrate the calculation and application of the measure. The advantages, disadvantages and policy implications are also discussed.

  20. Follow - on activities to the Swedish severe accident mitigation program

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenhielm, G.; Espefalt, R. ); Soderman, E. )

    1992-01-01

    Due to the government requirements severe accident mitigating measures were implemented at Barseback nuclear power plant in 1985 and at the other Swedish nuclear power plants in 1988. For the latter plants these measures included protection against early containment impairment, highly redundant containment spray and filtered venting of the containment. Accident management strategies and corresponding documents were developed to counteract a severe accident situation. This document describes accident management strategies at Swedish nuclear power plants and our ongoing program for further development of the accident management program. Also ongoing research concerning phenomenological issues, such as direct containment heating, hydrogen deflagration and corium coolability is presented.

  1. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis.

  2. Outdoor Hazards & Preventive Measures: West Nile Virus: A Clinical Commentary for the Camp Health Care Community; Poison Ivy: A Primer for Prevention; Lyme Disease Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Ellen; Bauer, Holly; Ratner-Connolly, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Transmitted by mosquitos, West Nile virus may cause serious illness, but the actual likelihood of infection is low. Prevention, implications, and recommendations for camps are discussed. Poison ivy identification, treatment, and complications are presented; a prevention quiz is included. Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are described, as are…

  3. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  4. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents.

  5. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  6. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement.

  7. Healthcare Workers' Challenges in the Implementation of Tuberculosis Infection Prevention and Control Measures in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Dores Mosse, Carla das; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures. Methods Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method. Participants Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers), nurses and TB program staff. Results HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures. Conclusion HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control. PMID:25501847

  8. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  10. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Khan, Laura Kettel; Sobush, Kathleen; Keener, Dana; Goodman, Kenneth; Lowry, Amy; Kakietek, Jakub; Zaro, Susan

    2009-07-24

    Approximately two thirds of U.S. adults and one fifth of U.S. children are obese or overweight. During 1980--2004, obesity prevalence among U.S. adults doubled, and recent data indicate an estimated 33% of U.S. adults are overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9), 34% are obese (BMI >or=30.0), including nearly 6% who are extremely obese (BMI >or=40.0). The prevalence of being overweight among children and adolescents increased substantially during 1999-2004, and approximately 17% of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight (defined as at or above the 95% percentile of the sex-specific BMI for age growth charts). Being either obese or overweight increases the risk for many chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and stroke). Reversing the U.S. obesity epidemic requires a comprehensive and coordinated approach that uses policy and environmental change to transform communities into places that support and promote healthy lifestyle choices for all U.S. residents. Environmental factors (including lack of access to full-service grocery stores, increasing costs of healthy foods and the lower cost of unhealthy foods, and lack of access to safe places to play and exercise) all contribute to the increase in obesity rates by inhibiting or preventing healthy eating and active living behaviors. Recommended strategies and appropriate measurements are needed to assess the effectiveness of community initiatives to create environments that promote good nutrition and physical activity. To help communities in this effort, CDC initiated the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention Project (the Measures Project). The objective of the Measures Project was to identify and recommend a set of strategies and associated measurements that communities and local governments can use to plan and monitor environmental and policy-level changes for obesity prevention. This report describes the expert panel process that was used to identify 24

  11. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupa R; Liang, Stephen Y; Koolwal, Pooja; Kuhlmann, Frederick Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. PMID:25709464

  12. Measures of Thyroid Function among Belarusian Children and Adolescents Exposed to Iodine-131 from the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rozhko, Alexander; Hatch, Maureen; Furukawa, Kyoji; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert J.; Nadyrov, Eldar; Petrenko, Sergey; Romanov, George; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Prokopovich, Alexander; Savasteeva, Irina; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Brenner, Alina V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thyroid dysfunction after exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning 131I-related risk of these common diseases. Objective: Our goal was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with 131I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based 131I dose estimates in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases. Results: Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated 131I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range, 0.001–26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of 131I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO. Conclusions: The association between 131I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental 131I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes. PMID:23651658

  13. Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle. PMID:22220199

  14. The four steps in the prevention of human papillomavirus-associated neoplasia: considerations for preventive measures, screening, disease impact, and potential overtreatments in HPV-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Carlo A

    2013-11-01

    There is no cure currently available for HPV infections, although ablative and excisional treatments of some dysplasias often result in a clinical and virological cure. Effective control measures of HPV-associated cancers rely on the prevention at four different levels. Apart from sexual abstinence, primary prevention is realized through vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types: negative attitudes towards HPV vaccination and high costs are the main obstacles. The aim of secondary prevention is to detect precancerous changes before they develop into invasive cancer, while tertiary prevention involves actual treatment of high-grade lesions: in many countries routine screening with cytology is being challenged with HPV DNA testing. Quaternary prevention comprehends those actions adopted to mitigate or avoid unnecessary or excessive medical interventions, and may well be addressed in avoiding treatments for low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Though some gynecologists commonly recommend treatment for low-grade disease and women tend to prefer active management if not properly informed, harms arising from unnecessary treatments, increased costs, work overload for second-level health services, and induced psychosocial distress are causing on-going problems. Prevention efforts of genital HPV-associated cancers should concentrate in: (1) enhancing primary prevention through vaccination of all eligible subjects, (2) achieving high levels of adherence to routine screening programs, (3) treating precancerous lesions, and (4) monitoring current guidelines recommendations to avoid overtreatments. Novel research projects should be designed to study the delicate mechanisms of immune response to HPV. PMID:23974280

  15. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  16. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  17. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  18. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. PMID:26183413

  19. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  20. Plague: Modern Preventive Measures in Ships and Ports: (Section of Tropical Diseases and Parasitology).

    PubMed

    White, C F

    1935-03-01

    Maritime quarantine, introduced in the fourteenth century in an endeavour to prevent the spread of plague. Though the system failed to achieve its object, and was expensive and restrictive to sea-borne commerce, it survived for over 500 years, presumably because, in the absence of knowledge of the aetiology of plague, no method of procedure more likely to be successful could be devised. This country acknowledged the failure of quarantine as a preventive measure in the middle of last century, and substituted the medical inspection of ships on arrival, though the last Quarantine Act was not repealed till 1896. Nevertheless it was not till the discovery of the rôle of the rat and the rat-flea in the spread of plague that it was possible to establish plague-preventive measures on a sound scientific basis.It is now recognized that a Port Health Authority must not only take steps to detect plague, human or rodent, afloat or ashore, at the earliest possible moment, but must eliminate conditions in ships and in shore premises which are conducive to the development of an epizoötic. Though here, and in other countries with an enlightened Public Health Administration, practice has long been ahead of legislation, the International Sanitary Convention of 1926 has now established throughout the world a large measure of uniformity in measures designed to prevent the spread of the more dangerous epidemic diseases by overseas trade, and the Port Sanitary Regulations 1933 have brought quarantine legislation in this country up to date.For the detection of plague every ship arriving from a plague-infected port is medically inspected on arrival, but even if there is no evidence of plague-infection on board, such ships are examined daily by a rat-officer until the discharge of cargo is complete. Dead rats found and live rats trapped are bacteriologically examined. If a rat is reported to be infected the vessel is fumigated at once. The discharge of cargo is then continued under

  1. Need for better blood pressure measurement in developing countries to improve prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Perruolo, Eleonora; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is now the foremost cause of disability and is responsible for the highest percentage of attributable death among risk factors. These global changes are mainly due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a consequence of relevant socioeconomic changes occurring during the last decades. Implementation of global prevention efforts urgently needs to be accelerated because of the increasing incidence of haemorrhagic stroke, renal failure, and hypertensive heart disease in developing countries. Blood pressure (BP) measurement has different implications in epidemiological studies performed in low-resource settings. First, the frequency of blood pressure measurement is a simple but reliable indicator of access to healthcare in epidemiological studies, which may disclose the favourable effects of urbanization; the opportunity to have BP measured increases hypertension awareness, facilitates drug treatment, and leads to better achievement of BP control. Second, BP measurement is a key element in cardiovascular risk stratification, focusing solely on the preferred strategy in low-resource settings where costs of biochemical tests might be less sustainable. Third, the issue of obtaining reliable estimation of BP values is crucial to achieve sound data on the burden of hypertension in LMICs, and some aspects of BP measurement, such as the use of reliable automated devices, the number of measurements/visits to achieve a consistent diagnosis of hypertension, and the possible confounding effect of environmental factors, must be closely considered.

  2. Need for Better Blood Pressure Measurement in Developing Countries to Improve Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Perruolo, Eleonora; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is now the foremost cause of disability and is responsible for the highest percentage of attributable death among risk factors. These global changes are mainly due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a consequence of relevant socioeconomic changes occurring during the last decades. Implementation of global prevention efforts urgently needs to be accelerated because of the increasing incidence of haemorrhagic stroke, renal failure, and hypertensive heart disease in developing countries. Blood pressure (BP) measurement has different implications in epidemiological studies performed in low-resource settings. First, the frequency of blood pressure measurement is a simple but reliable indicator of access to healthcare in epidemiological studies, which may disclose the favourable effects of urbanization; the opportunity to have BP measured increases hypertension awareness, facilitates drug treatment, and leads to better achievement of BP control. Second, BP measurement is a key element in cardiovascular risk stratification, focusing solely on the preferred strategy in low-resource settings where costs of biochemical tests might be less sustainable. Third, the issue of obtaining reliable estimation of BP values is crucial to achieve sound data on the burden of hypertension in LMICs, and some aspects of BP measurement, such as the use of reliable automated devices, the number of measurements/visits to achieve a consistent diagnosis of hypertension, and the possible confounding effect of environmental factors, must be closely considered. PMID:25420484

  3. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention.

  4. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention. PMID:10487350

  5. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  6. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  7. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

  8. Measuring fidelity to a culturally adapted HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Burlew, A. Kathleen; Turnbull, Sharriann; Robinson, Michael; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    A fidelity measure was developed for use with Real Men Are Safe-Culturally Adapted (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment. The aims of this analysis were to: 1) assess the reliability of the Fidelity Rating and Skill Evaluation (FRASE); 2) measure improvement in therapist competence and adherence over time while delivering REMAS-CA; and 3) identify which modules of REMAS-CA were most difficult to deliver. Results showed that, 1) the FRASE was a reliable instrument; 2) therapists achieved adequate adherence and competence after training and demonstrated significant improvement over time in Global Empathy; and 3) Sessions 4 and 5 of REMAS-CA contained the most challenging modules for therapists to deliver. Recommendations for future REMAS-CA therapist trainings and fidelity monitoring are made. PMID:23810229

  9. Radar walking speed measurements of seniors in their apartments: technology for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, Paul E; Yardibi, Tarik; Legenzoff, Zachary J; Liu, Liang; Phillips, Calvin E; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Keller, James; Popescu, Mihail; Back, Jessica; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of injury and accidental death among persons over the age of 65. Gait velocity is one of the parameters which have been correlated to the risk of falling. We aim to build a system which monitors gait in seniors and reports any changes to caregivers, who can then perform a clinical assessment and perform corrective and preventative actions to reduce the likelihood of falls. In this paper, we deploy a Doppler radar-based gait measurement system into the apartments of thirteen seniors. In scripted walks, we show the system measures gait velocity with a mean error of 14.5% compared to the time recorded by a clinician. With a calibration factor, the mean error is reduced to 10.5%. The radar is a promising sensing technology for gait velocity in a day-to-day senior living environment. PMID:23365880

  10. Radar walking speed measurements of seniors in their apartments: technology for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, Paul E; Yardibi, Tarik; Legenzoff, Zachary J; Liu, Liang; Phillips, Calvin E; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Keller, James; Popescu, Mihail; Back, Jessica; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of injury and accidental death among persons over the age of 65. Gait velocity is one of the parameters which have been correlated to the risk of falling. We aim to build a system which monitors gait in seniors and reports any changes to caregivers, who can then perform a clinical assessment and perform corrective and preventative actions to reduce the likelihood of falls. In this paper, we deploy a Doppler radar-based gait measurement system into the apartments of thirteen seniors. In scripted walks, we show the system measures gait velocity with a mean error of 14.5% compared to the time recorded by a clinician. With a calibration factor, the mean error is reduced to 10.5%. The radar is a promising sensing technology for gait velocity in a day-to-day senior living environment.

  11. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  12. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  13. Characteristic variation and original analysis of emergent water source pollution accidents in China between 1985 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Ye, Xiuqing; You, Hong

    2016-10-01

    China has suffered various water source pollution incidents in the past decades, which have resulted in severe threats to the safety of the water supply for millions of residents. From the aspects of quantity fluctuation, temporal volatility, regional inequality, pollutant category variation, and accident type differences, this study first characterizes the current status of water source contaminations in China by analyzing 340 pollution events for the period spanning from 1985 to 2013. The results show a general increase in the number of accidents during the period 1985-2006 and then a rapid decline starting in 2007. Spring and summer are high-incidence seasons for pollution, and the accident rate in developed southeastern coastal areas is far higher than that in the northwestern regions. Hazardous chemicals and petroleum are the most frequently occurring pollutants, whereas heavy metals and tailings are becoming emerging contaminants during occasional pollutions. Most of the accidents that occurred before 2005 were blamed on illegal emissions or traffic accidents; however, leakage in production has gradually become a major accident type in the past decade. Then, in combination with government actions and policy constraints, this paper explores the deep inducements and offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to ensure future prevention and mitigation of emergent source water pollution.

  14. Drivers of accident preparedness and safety: evidence from the RMP Rule.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Paul R; Elliott, Michael R; Wang, Yanlin; Lowe, Robert A

    2004-11-11

    This paper provides an overview of recent results derived from the accident history data collected under 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments (the Risk Management Program (RMP) Rule) covering the period 1994-2000, together with a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the RMP Rule as a form of Management System Regulation. These were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania by a multi-disciplinary team of economists, statisticians and epidemiologists with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency and its Office of Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (OEPPR, formerly CEPPO). Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that chemical facilities in the US that had on premises more than specified quantities of toxic or flammable chemicals file a 5-year history of accidents. The initial data reported under the RMP Rule covered roughly the period from mid-1994 through mid-2000, and provided details on economic, environmental and acute health affects resulting from accidents at some 15,000 US chemical facilities for this period. This paper reviews research based on this data. The research is in the form of a retrospective cohort study that considers the statistical associations between accident frequency and accident severity at covered facilities (the outcome variables of interest) and a number of facility characteristics (the available predictor variables provided by the RMP Rule), the latter including such facility characteristics as size, hazardousness, financial characteristics of parent company-owners of the facility, regulatory programs in force at the facility, and host community characteristics for the surrounding county in which the facility was located, as captured in the 1990 Census. Among the findings reviewed are: (1) positive associations with (a measure of) facility hazardousness and accident, injury and economic costs of accidents; (2) positive (resp., negative) associations between accident

  15. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  16. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  17. Agglomeration and defluidization in FBC of biomass fuels -- Mechanisms and measures for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, A.; Oehman, M.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of biomass fuels in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and gasification (FBG) is becoming more important because of the environmental benefits associated with these fuel and processes. However, severe bed agglomeration and defluidization have been reported due to the special ash forming constituents of some biomass fuels. Previous results have indicated that this could possibly be prevented by intelligent fuel mixing. In the present work the mechanisms of bed agglomeration using two different biomass fuels as well as the mechanism of the prevention of agglomeration by co-combustion with coal (50/50 %{sub w}) were studied. Several repeated combustion tests with the two biomass fuels, alone (Lucerne and olive flesh), all resulted in agglomeration and defluidization of the bed within less than 30 minutes. By controlled defluidization experiments the initial cohesion temperatures for the two fuels were determined to be as low as 670 C and 940 C, respectively. However, by fuel mixing the initial agglomeration temperature increased to 950 C and more than 1050 C, respectively. When co-combusted with coal during ten hour extended runs, no agglomeration was observed for either of the two fuel mixtures. The agglomeration temperatures were compared with results from a laboratory method, based on compression strength measurements of ash pellets, and results from chemical equilibrium calculations. Samples of bed materials, collected throughout the experimental runs, as well as the produced agglomerated beds, were analyzed using SEM EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that loss of fluidization resulted from formation of molten phases coating the bed materials; a salt melt in the case of Lucerne and a silicate melt in the case of the olive fuel. By fuel mixing, the in-bed ash composition is altered, conferring higher melting temperatures, and thereby agglomeration and defluidization can be prevented.

  18. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed.

  19. Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety.

  20. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures

    PubMed Central

    Braich, Puneet S.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David RP.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread. PMID:26486112

  1. PERIPARTUM DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AS AN INTEGRATIVE CROSS DOMAIN TARGET FOR PSYCHIATRIC PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Jessica A.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Murgatroyd, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24709228

  2. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  3. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  4. Safety Is No Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    1985-01-01

    Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)

  5. [Analysis of non-confraternity sports accidents in the surgical department of a former district hospital during the period of 2 years].

    PubMed

    Raschka, Ch; Raschka, S; Peikert, T

    2009-12-01

    This epidemiological study analyses all n = 1,659 outpatient and inpatient non-confraternity sports accidents treated during a 2-year period in a former district hospital. The largest share with 40.6% is soccer, followed by cycling (15%), general fitness sports (7.6%), outdoor sports (6.5%), winter sports (5.5%), and riding (5.2%). Soccer injuries rise steadily until the age of 30. Of 86 horse riding accidents a total of 68 involved women, but only 18 men (ratio 8 : 2). 53% of the horse riding accidents among women concern the age group between 10 and 20 years. 70.6% (79%) of the athletes under (over) 20 years were male, 29.4% (21%) female (p < 0.05). Topographically the lower extremities represent the most affected body region in all sports (runners 84.4%, soccer players 60.2%). Most accidents occur on a Sunday. The most common diagnosis is contusion, most commonly in martial arts (60.8%), followed by horse riding (51%). There is an astonishing dominance of soccer accidents given the fact that this study records all athletes, not just club athletes, unlike insurance studies. Important preventive measures would be a comprehensive biological training prophylaxis and the provision of communication of age-specific accident prevention proposals for the mainly affected sports. PMID:20052829

  6. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  7. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  8. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. PMID:26707071

  9. Accident sequence analysis for sites producing and storing explosives.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A; Aneziris, Olga; Konstandinidou, Myrto; Giakoumatos, Ieronymos

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a QRA-based approach for assessing and evaluating the safety of installations handling explosive substances. Comprehensive generic lists of immediate causes and initiating events of detonation and deflagration of explosive substances as well as safety measures preventing these explosions are developed. Initiating events and corresponding measures are grouped under the more general categories of explosion due to shock wave, explosion due to mechanical energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, and electromagnetic radiation. Generic accident sequences are developed using Event Trees. This analysis is adapted to plant-specific conditions and potentially additional protective measures are rank-ordered in terms of the induced reduction in the frequency of explosion, by including also uncertainty. This approach has been applied to 14 plants in Greece with very satisfactory results. PMID:19819362

  10. Accident sequence analysis for sites producing and storing explosives.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A; Aneziris, Olga; Konstandinidou, Myrto; Giakoumatos, Ieronymos

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a QRA-based approach for assessing and evaluating the safety of installations handling explosive substances. Comprehensive generic lists of immediate causes and initiating events of detonation and deflagration of explosive substances as well as safety measures preventing these explosions are developed. Initiating events and corresponding measures are grouped under the more general categories of explosion due to shock wave, explosion due to mechanical energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, and electromagnetic radiation. Generic accident sequences are developed using Event Trees. This analysis is adapted to plant-specific conditions and potentially additional protective measures are rank-ordered in terms of the induced reduction in the frequency of explosion, by including also uncertainty. This approach has been applied to 14 plants in Greece with very satisfactory results.

  11. Observational measures of implementer fidelity for a school-based preventive intervention: development, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wendi; West, Jennifer; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Teisl, Michael; Brown, C Hendricks; Forgatch, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in first-third graders with elevated aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer-child dyad on adherence (content) and competence (quality). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (competence, 68 %; adherence, 41 %); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw adherence and competence scores shared 46 % of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (adherence) and quality (competence) of program delivered predicted children's enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after 6 months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods. PMID:24736951

  12. [Traffic accidents--the national killer].

    PubMed

    Shemer, Joshua

    2004-02-01

    Traffic accidents are the most prevalent cause of death in developed countries between the ages of 1-33 years. In spite of a low motorization level in Israel, the rate of injury per 100,000 residents in Israel (2.8) was higher than in the US (1.8), NZ (1.7), Canada (1.7), Japan (1.3) and most European countries. The worst injuries were among pedestrians; particularly children aged 1-9 years and elderly (70+ years). In the past decade there have been significant advances in trauma care in Israel. Major strides included the foundation of trauma centers in hospitals, the establishment of the National Council for Trauma and the National Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine Research at the Gertner Institute that coordinates the national trauma registry. One of the primary aims of the registry was to provide data to support decision-makers in setting national policy for accident prevention. The Israeli Police Department provides data on traffic accident victims to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) which publishes the national figures. In their article in this edition of the journal, Dr Peleg and Dr. Aharonson-Daniel present a grave concern regarding the fact that details of over 50% of hospitalized traffic accident victims were not reported to the CBS by the police, including data on the severely injured casualties. Traffic accidents are a major cause of loss of life and disability, creating a heavy economic burden on the state and the health care system. Hence, the authors recommend establishing a national database which will combine data from medical and other sources and present the complete comprehensive picture of traffic accident injuries. Such a database will improve the decision-making process, providing more focused data to enhance the preparation and dissemination of appropriate injury prevention policies.

  13. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-08

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  14. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  15. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  16. [The first and the second pneumonic plague in Manchuria and the preventive measure of Japanese colonial authorities (1910-1921)].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    During the first plague epidemic in Manchuria (1910-1911), Japanese Government-General in Korea had not reported a plague patient at all in official. This did not mean the preventive measure of colonial authorities was successful. Their prevention program and measure were operated inadequately. They focused on instigative and sometimes irrelevant aspects such as rat removal to restore order in the colony. The quarantine facility was insufficient so that some people could not be effectively isolated. The reason pneumonic plague did not spread from Manchuria to Korea was mostly because Chinese coolie did not enter Korea. The colonial government promulgated Jeonyeombyeong Yebangryeong (Preventive Regulation of Contagious Disease) in June 5, 1915. This regulation aimed at unitary control by police and was strengthened 10-day quarantine. After the March First Movement, the colonial government tried to change imperial policy to cultural policy. The military police and civilian police were bifurcated and governors took charge of health administration. However, sanitary police still played important role for preventive measure. The preventive policy of colonial government experienced important change from cholera epidemic between 1919 and 1920. The death toll of two years had exceeded 20,000 people. During the cholera outbreak of two years, quarantine and isolation were emerged as important tools to prevent disease transmission, and were well-appointed more now than before. To prevent cholera epidemic, the colonial government strengthened house-to-house inspection as well as seaport quarantine, train quarantine, passenger quarantine. House-to-house inspection detected sixty percentage of cholera patients. When the second Manchurian plague spread in Korea in 1920-1921, this plague was known to Korean people as pneumonic plague. The colonial government propagated and educated pneumonic plague, and urged to wear a mask through Heuksabyeong Yebang Simdeuk (The Notandum for

  17. Parental Bereavement after Suicide and Accident: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Monique; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares differences in the bereavement process for 30 survivors of suicide versus 30 survivors of car accidents. Indicates suicide survivors were more depressed than accident survivors at the first measure but not at the second measure. Survivors of suicide experienced greater feelings of shame and had experienced more life events after the death…

  18. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  19. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  20. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  1. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. PMID:26878632

  2. [Importance of environmental and preventive measures in the control of asthma in the child].

    PubMed

    García Martínez, J

    2000-01-01

    Among the different factor (allergens, pollutants, infections) related to the genesis of asthma, only the allergens are capable of generating the type of inflammation that is characteristic to the illness, thus being able to take into account the etiological factors of the said illness. The role of the aerial allergens in the development and seriousness of asthma has been shown, the patients improvement if he is separated from the allergen (high altitudes for people allergic to mites). Even with important methodological difficulties, in controlled clinical tests we have been able to establish the effectiveness of the antiallergenic measures in the handling of asthma, if they are effective in the reduction of the allergenic charge. Avoiding allergens for primary and secondary prevention has a logical and clinical basis but tests on a longer term are necessary and using a larger number of patients before making final conclusions. With respect to the tertiary prevention, several controlled clinical tests have demonstrated the efficiency in the reduction of the allergenic charge and the effectiveness in handling asthma. In addition to eliminating or reducing the contact with pets and pollen when indicated, we should also try to reduce the charge of the mites (an etiological factor in more than 80% of asthma in almost all the patients). It is recommended to use impermeable or semi-permeable covers on mattresses and pillows, to avoid upholstered furniture (at least in the patients bedroom), carpets and rugs and to wash bed linen with hot water, to air the room daily and to avoid exposure to tobacco smoke. There are doubts regarding the efficiency and the safety, on a long term basis, of insecticides, and their use is not recommended according to the latest advice on the handling of asthma.

  3. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China.

  4. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  5. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  6. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    conceptualizing the influence of different driving behaviors so as to enrich our understanding of the role of human factors in road accidents and consequently develop effective countermeasures to prevent traffic accidents involving motorcycles.

  7. Personality profile among symptomatic and recovered patients with neck sprain injury, measured by MCMI-I acutely and 6 months after car accidents.

    PubMed

    Borchgrevink, G E; Stiles, T C; Borchgrevink, P C; Lereim, I

    1997-04-01

    The relationships between personality and psychiatric symptoms and long-lasting physical symptoms were assessed in 88 neck sprain patients injured in car accidents. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I) was completed at time of occurrence (intake) and 6 months after the injury. The neck sprain patients were divided into three subgroups according to symptoms 6 months after the accident. In addition, the total neck sprain group was compared with three other subject groups. The results indicated that the three neck sprain subgroups did not differ on the MCMI-I neither at intake nor 6 months later. The total neck sprain patients group was significantly different from patients with major depression on all scales of the MCMI-I, but not significantly different compared to patients with localized musculoskeletal pain. Compared to a group of health personnel, there were only a few significant differences. The study does not support the view that premorbid personality traits can predict outcome for neck sprain patients.

  8. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-12-18

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34-0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor.

  9. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

  10. Internal radiocesium contamination of adults and children in Fukushima 7 to 20 months after the Fukushima NPP accident as measured by extensive whole-body-counter surveys.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Satou, Hideo; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident contaminated the soil of densely-populated regions in Fukushima Prefecture with radioactive cesium, which poses significant risks of internal and external exposure to the residents. If we apply the knowledge of post-Chernobyl accident studies, internal exposures in excess of a few mSv/y would be expected to be frequent in Fukushima.Extensive whole-body-counter surveys (n = 32,811) carried out at the Hirata Central Hospital between October, 2011 and November, 2012, however show that the internal exposure levels of residents are much lower than estimated. In particular, the first sampling-bias-free assessment of the internal exposure of children in the town of Miharu, Fukushima, shows that the (137)Cs body burdens of all children (n = 1,383, ages 6-15, covering 95% of children enrolled in town-operated schools) were below the detection limit of 300 Bq/body in the fall of 2012. These results are not conclusive for the prefecture as a whole, but are consistent with results obtained from other municipalities in the prefecture, and with prefectural data.

  11. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  12. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  13. [DYNAMICS OF DENTAL CARIES' INDEXES IN CHILDREN WITH DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES].

    PubMed

    Kaskova, L F; Marchenko, K V; Berezhnaja, E E; Amosova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dentition anomalies in children and adolescents according to different authors, ranging from rising 50.8 to 81%. Anomalies of dental systems lead to aesthetic and functional disturbances affecting the child's psyche, and often lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. So, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamics of dental caries' indexes in children with dentoalveolar anomalies under the influence of preventive measures. We observed 50 children aged 12, who were divided into four groups. The most effective prophylactic complex in terms of reduction of growth of caries (59.4%) was the one that involved the use of "Tooth Mousse" (applying to the surface of the teeth 5 minutes after eating one time a day, in the morning after brushing teeth), "Osteovit" (one tablet three times a day), "Pektodent--dentifrice? (dental cleaning powder twice a day--in the morning and evening). This complex creates conditions for increasing the resistance of hard dental tissues, resulting in low levels of intensity of caries in children.

  14. [Socioecological determinants of the risk of accidents in young pedestrians].

    PubMed

    Joly, M F; Foggin, P; Pless, I

    1991-01-01

    We studied all traffic accidents to pedestrians under age 15 which occurred on the Island of Montreal during an eighteen months period. Data were collected from eleven hospitals and completed with accident police records. A spatial quadrat analysis, a Comparative Accident Index, and a comparative analysis of the means of different socio-ecological variables between high and low risk accident areas revealed interesting patterns. The location of traffic accidents is not random but rather presents a particular spatial structure. High risk zones are characterized by dense population, fast-moving traffic, and the absence of parks. Accidents often take place on two-way streets, far from traffic lights, on dry surfaces, in good weather, and with good visibility. The socio-economic status of the victim's family as measured by education, income, and unemployment, tends to be low. More boys than girls are victims. Children are often injured while getting out of a car or crossing unconventionally. PMID:1754700

  15. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  16. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  17. [Basic measures for prevention of the epidemiological consequences of a natural disaster in the North Caucasus in 2002].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I; Briukhanova, G D; Malashikhin, N T; Vovk, Iu I; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Koval'chuk, I V; Fedosova, G N

    2003-01-01

    The system of organizational and prophylactic measures, carried out with a view to prevent epidemiological aggravations in connection with the natural calamity in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation in 2003, is described. Proposals on the improvement of the system of preventive measures, including the monitoring of the epidemiological, sanitary and hygienic situation, personnel training, technical provision, the cooperation of different services and departments, capable of ensuring the liquidation of the consequences of emergency situations of the natural character, are made. PMID:14716967

  18. Scuba diving accidents in Sweden 1960--1976.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, K; Lidholm, S O; Maehly, A C

    1978-01-01

    Thirty "scuba" diving accidents (29 of them fatal) which occurred in Sweden during 1960--76 are listed. Nine of these are described in some detail. The probable causes of these accidents are evaluated, and suggestions for prophylactic measures are made.

  19. Hypodermis Tension Loop: A New Preventative Measure for Lead Migration in the Morbidly Obese.

    PubMed

    Wahezi, Sayed E; Shah, Jay M

    2015-11-01

    Electrode migration/displacement is reported to be the most common complication of spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implantation, with the literature reporting incidences from 13.2% to 22.6%. There have been numerous publications describing techniques preventing lead migration, with most involving tying leads to skin and fascia for trial and permanent leads, respectively. However, few have addressed how to prevent migration in the case of hypermobile tissue seen in the morbidly obese. We describe the creation of subcutaneous tension loops to prevent lead migration. PMID:26606026

  20. Measurements of gamma (γ)-emitting radionuclides with a high-purity germanium detector: the methods and reliability of our environmental assessments on the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Komiyama, Chiyo; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The severe accident of Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant due to the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake in 11 March 2011 caused wide contamination and pollution by radionuclides in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. In the current JPR symposium, a group of plant scientists attempted to examine the impact of the radioactive contamination on wild and cultivated plants. Measurements of gamma (γ) radiation from radionuclides in "Fukushima samples", which we called and collected from natural and agricultural areas in Fukushima prefecture were mostly done with a high-purity Ge detector in the Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University. In this technical note, we describe the methods of sample preparation and measurements of radioactivity of the samples and discuss the reliability of our data in regards to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency test (IAEA proficiency test).

  1. A model of genetic guidance for hemoglobinopathy patients and laboratory diagnosis of family members as educational and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tatiana Dela-Sávia; Freire, Adriana Sousa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; García-Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. Objetive: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. Methods: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. Results: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies(2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. Conclusion: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services. PMID:23125541

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  3. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  4. "MARK I" MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS OCCURRING AS A RESULT OF PRODUCT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for assessing progress in pollution prevention resulting from product redesign, reformulation or replacement is described. The method compares the pollution generated by the original product with that from the modified or replacement product, taking into account, if...

  5. [Facial plastic surgery as preventive measures for psychic lesions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stellmach, R

    1981-06-26

    Facial plastic surgery offers numerous possibilities of removing disfigurements and deformities of the face and thus preventing or curing psychic lesions. The causes of such disturbances are pointed out. In selected examples the relevant aspects in childhood, in adults and in advanced age are emphasized. Up-to-date advances in microsurgical grafting methods and a more aggressive technique in neck-lifting show that successful plastic surgery of the face always has preventive or curative effects on psychic lesions. PMID:6789178

  6. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    PubMed

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities. PMID:27412981

  7. Update on age-appropriate preventive measures and screening for Canadian primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tawnya; Bouchard, Manon; Mavriplis, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the best available age-appropriate, evidence-based guidelines for prevention and screening in Canadian adults. Quality of evidence The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations are the primary source of information, supplemented by relevant US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations when a Canadian task force guideline was unavailable or outdated. Leading national disease-specific or specialty-specific organizations’ guidelines were also reviewed to ensure the most up-to-date evidence was included. Main message Recommended screening maneuvers by age and sex are presented in a summary table highlighting the quality of evidence supporting these recommendations. An example of a template for use with electronic medical records or paper-based charts is presented. Conclusion Whether primary care providers use a dedicated preventive health visit or opportunistic preventive counseling and screening in their patient encounters, this summary of evidence-based recommendations can help maximize efficiency and prevent important omissions and unnecessary screening. PMID:26884526

  8. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  9. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  10. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  11. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.; Morrisete, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded and maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board for 1964 to 1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964 to 1975 provided a basis for comparison. The purpose was to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in trends and cause-effect relationships reported in the earlier study. The increasing numbers have been tied to measures of activity to produce accident rates which in turn were analyzed in terms of change. Where anomalies or unusually high accident rates were encountered, further analysis was conducted to isolate pertinent patterns of cause factors and/or experience levels of involved pilots. The bulk of the effort addresses accidents in the landing phase of operations. A detailed analysis was performed on controlled/uncontrolled collisions and their unique attributes delineated. Estimates of day vs. night general aviation activity and accident rates were obtained.

  12. A qualitative evaluation of the post accident notification system to health visitors.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L

    1996-01-01

    Childhood accidental injuries are a major public health problem, whether measured in terms of morbidity or mortality, and accident prevention is subsequently a priority issue. The Accident and Emergency Notification System to health visitors provides them with vital information and statistics with which to plan accident prevention work, both on an individual basis or in group work. This small study aimed to look at this system from the health visitor's perspective and explore the action taken. The grounded theory approach was used to uncover the processes used by the health visitors. Data were collected using unstructured interviews and by writing notes. These were transcribed on the same day as recorded. Nine categories were identified and an analysis of the processes involved when receiving the notification slip is presented. The categories included 'knowing the family', 'age and development', 'pressure of work' and 'gut feeling/extra sensory perception'. This study is a small contribution to our understanding of the processes involved in everyday health visiting practice.

  13. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  14. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  15. Assessment of Critical Care Provider’s Application of Preventive Measures for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Abchuyeh, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani-Cherati, Jamshid; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of guidelines for the prevention of Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been shown to have a significant effect in reducing the incidence of VAP. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of the preventive strategies for VAP in ICUs of university hospitals of Sari, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 600 beds/day in the ICUs of university hospitals of Sari from April to June 2012. Sampling was done by availability technique in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU. The implementation of the preventive measures was assessed by a standard checklist with previously approved validity and reliability. Results The percentage of implementing each of the measures was as follows: sterile suction, 88.44%; semi-recumbent position, 76.8%; oral hygiene, 58.45%; using heat and moisture exchanges (HMEs), 58%; controlling cuff pressure, 46.8%; hand hygiene, 32.8%; using anti-coagulants, 26.8% and physiotherapy, 25.5%. Closed suction system, continuous drainage of subglottic secretions and kinetic beds were not used at all. Conclusion The overall mean percentage of implementing preventive measures was low and required designing integrated guidelines by considering the conditions of the ICUs in each country, as well as educating and encouraging the staffs to use the recommended guidelines. PMID:26435967

  16. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  17. [Medication errors with concentrated potassium intravenous solutions: Data of the literature, context and prevention].

    PubMed

    Charpiat, B; Magdinier, C; Leboucher, G; Aubrun, F

    2016-01-01

    Accidental direct intravenous injection of a concentrated solution of potassium often leads to patient death. In France, recommendations of healthcare agencies to prevent such accidents cover only preparation and intravenous infusion conditions. Accidents continue to occur in French hospitals. These facts demonstrate that these recommendations are insufficient and ineffective to prevent such deaths, especially those occurring during a catheter flushing. This article reviews the measures able to reduce the number of accidents. Countries which removed concentrated ampoules from ward stocks observed a decrease of the number of accidental deaths. This withdrawal, recommended by the World Health Organization, is now part of standards in studies aimed at determining the safety of care in hospitals. However, removal alone is insufficient to eliminate the risk. The combination with other measures should be considered. These measures are the provision of a combination of diluted intravenous ready to use solutions, the promotion of the oral route with tablets and oral solutions for potassium replenishment and to make available products with safeguards to prevent single shot intravenous injection. Studies aimed at determining the consequences on preventing concentrated potassium accidents of a widespread distribution of isotonic sodium chloride pre-filled ready-to-use syringes for catheter flushing should be performed. PMID:26298848

  18. Accidental firearm fatalities. Forensic and preventive implications.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Billeb, E; Koops, E

    2002-12-01

    Out of a total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from Münster and Hamburg, Germany, 32 cases (5.1%) were accidental. The accidents were self-inflicted in 3 cases while another person fired the gun in the remaining 29 cases. More than half of the victims were younger than 25 years and 75% were male. A single gunshot injury was present in all cases and the head was struck in 47% but a detailed analysis of the entrance wound sites did not show any preferential anatomical sites. A surprising finding was the presence of five contact or near contact gunshots (16%). The reasons for these and most other accidents were extreme carelessness when handling a firearm, the involvement of children or adolescents or a foolish behaviour with a gun intended to impress others. Gun-cleaning accidents occurred rarely and there were no major technical defects of the weapons. Preventive measures should concentrate on strict inaccessibility of guns to children and on increased educational efforts to subgroups at risk such as hunters and members of the armed forces. A single non-contact gunshot injury from a long-barrelled firearm can be considered typical for an accident but the great variety and the possible presence of "disguised" suicides and homicides requires a careful forensic investigation including inspection of the scene and reconstruction of the events. It is recommended that a case should always be considered to be non-accidental in the beginning of an investigation. PMID:12461643

  19. [Skateboard and rollerskate accidents].

    PubMed

    Lohmann, M; Petersen, A O; Pedersen, O D

    1990-05-28

    The increasing popularity of skateboards and rollerskates has resulted in an increased number of contacts with the casualty department in Denmark after accidents. As part of the Danish share in the EHLASS project (European Home and Leisure Surveillance System), 120,000 consecutive contacts with the casualty departments were reviewed. Out of these 516 were due to accidents with skateboards and rollerskates (181/335). A total of 194 of these injuries (38%) were fractures and 80% of these were in the upper limbs. Twenty fractures required reposition under general anaesthesia and two required osteosynthesis. Nine patients were admitted for observation for concussion. One patient had sustained rupture of the spleen and splenectomy was necessary. A total of 44 patients were admitted. None of the 516 patients had employed protective equipment on the injured region. Considerable reduction in the number of injuries could probably be produced by employment of suitable protective equipment.

  20. [Risk-taking behavior and accidents in adolescence in developed countries].

    PubMed

    Tursz, A; Courtecuisse, V; Jeanneret, O; Sand, A

    1986-01-01

    Injuries due to accidents are the primary cause of fatalities among adolescents. Between the ages of 10 and 19, mortality caused by accidents augments significantly, and there is an excess of male mortality, increasing with age. This mortality has remained virtually unchanged over the past 25 years, except for a small narrowing of rate differences by sex. Traffic accidents, particularly those involving motorcycles, are the leading cause of accident fatalities. Though not easily assessed, morbidity due to accidents is probably very high, especially among males. Sports accidents are the most frequent. Adolescents appear to be particularly exposed to some risks, but also tend to be careless about safety. Risk-taking is a source of rewards: pleasure, self-affirmation, sense of independence; but it is described by some authors as self-destructiveness, death from accidents reflecting suicidal tendencies. Paradoxical results of prevention have been observed in this age group.

  1. Critical care nurses' knowledge of measures to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Lan; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Li-Yu

    2014-08-01

    We queried critical care nurses at a hospital about their level of knowledge of interventions designed to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The mean score was 7.87 ± 1.36 (65.6%) among 133 questionnaires. Multivariate analysis revealed that intensive care unit (ICU) license (P = .03) and ranking of registered nurses (RNs) (P = .041) were significantly associated with higher knowledge level (≥8 correct answers of 12 items) of respondents. This surveillance study revealed that non-ICU-licensed nurses and junior RNs lack the knowledge necessary to prevent VAP in critical care settings.

  2. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  3. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  4. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  5. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  6. Stopping Burnout before It Starts: Prevention Measures at the Preservice Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, John G.; Greer, Bonnie B.

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of teacher burnout can be fostered at the preservice level by (1) the development of realistic expectations, (2) encouragement of detached concern, (3) a better understanding of classroom successes and failures, and (4) an introduction to stress reduction strategies. (Author/DB)

  7. The Development of an Instrument to Measure School Readiness for a Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David B.; Myford, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to understand how environmental characteristics of a school influence the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Although researchers have discussed the importance of conducting needs assessments before implementing interventions, few of these types of assessments focus on the relational aspect. Furthermore, few assessments have the…

  8. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... capabilities, the type of gas being transported, operating pressure, the rate of potential release,...

  9. UF6 overfilling prevention at Eurodif production Georges Besse plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reneaud, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    Risk of overfilling exists on different equipments of Georges BESSE Plant: cylinders, desublimers and intermediate tanks. The preventive measures are composed of technical devices: desublimers weighing, load monitoring alarms, automatic controls ... and procedures, training, safety organization. In thirteen years of operation, some incidents have occurred but none of them has caused any personal injuries. They are related and discussed. The main factors involved in the Sequoyah fuel facility accident on 1/4/1986 have been analyzed and taken into account.

  10. Approaches to Measuring the Extent and Impact of Environmental Change in Three California Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L.; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions. PMID:20935262

  11. South African underwater diving accidents, 1969-1976.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, P G

    1976-12-25

    Since 1969 a survey of diving accidents involving South African amateur divers was undertaken. The South African Underwater Union diving accident report form was used, and various State agents (SA Police and inquest courts) and individual divers and club instructors were questioned. This survey covers the period up to the end of June 1976. Data acquired during the 8-year period 1969 - 1976 are compared. A conservative estimate from the number of certificates issued to club divers indicates a 25% increase in diver population, while the number of fatilities has decreased from 0,1% in 1971 to 0,016% in 1976, indicating the importance of accident reporting in determining safety trends. In general, a change in pattern is observed during the last 4 years, showing more SCUBA than breath-hold fatalities. The formation of the Decompression Sickness and Diving Accidents Investigation Panel as a further measure to decrease fatal diving accidents is discussed.

  12. [A study on fall accident].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, M J

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35

  13. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  14. Preventive measures in the tertiary care of spinal cord injured people.

    PubMed

    Bedbrook, G; Beer, N I; McLaren, R K

    1985-04-01

    There are complications of spinal cord paralysis peculiar to the extended care period. These may be motor skeletal, neurogenic, visceral and psychogenic. If practised regularly, prevention can be very effective in reducing the disability in all groups. Limb oedema, joint contractures, myasthenia and pain can be materially reduced by regular activity, maintaining joint mobility and the use of recreational motor skeletal activities. Urinary tract infection and decubiti can be largely eliminated by careful attention to anti-bacterial suppression and better hygiene, both personal and at home. Decubiti can be eliminated by regular skin care and eliminating friction and pressure. Most episodes of such complications can be effectively prevented and treated by the expert home visiting nurse. Social complications and drug abuse are areas of increasing concern. These can be kept to a minimum by regular assessment and, most importantly, when diagnosed early by the home visiting professional. PMID:4000694

  15. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. Method: systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results: the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. Conclusions: care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. PMID:27598378

  16. [Relevance of "psychopathy"-- concepts from the Hare measure for preventive detention].

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Elmar; Kunert, Hanns Jürgen; Herpertz, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    Preventive detention can be ordered, if a person falls back into crime repeatedly and shows a "disposition to commit substantial offences". In the trial and at subsequent points of time expert opinions supporting this personal disposition have to be obtained. However up to now it is not clear on which basis such statements should be made. On the basis of a retrospective investigation of the author's own expert opinions the paper discusses the relevance of Hare's psychopathy concept for opinions on criminal disposition.

  17. Moving cystic fibrosis care from rescue to prevention by embedding adherence measurement in routine care.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Martin J; Hoo, Zhe Hui

    2014-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis [CF] is a chronic disease in which preventative treatment with nebulised antibiotics can reduce pulmonary exacerbations that otherwise require rescue therapy. However, adherence is low. Making adherence to maintenance treatment visible is a crucial step towards improving adherence. In this article, we discuss how adherence data can be used to support Quality Improvement in CF through behaviour change in both people with cystic fibrosis and their clinical teams. PMID:24835307

  18. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  19. n-hexane polyneuropathy in Japan: a review of n-hexane poisoning and its preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Y

    1993-07-01

    n-Hexane is used in industry as a solvent for adhesive, dry cleaning, and vegetable oil extraction. In 1963, the first case of severe polyneuropathy suspected to be caused by n-hexane was referred to us. Case studies, animal experiments, and field surveys on n-hexane poisoning were conducted, and preventive measures like threshold limit value revision and biological monitoring were also studied. I review a brief history of our investigations on n-hexane poisoning and its preventive measures in Japan. n-Hexane could cause overt polyneuropathy in workers exposed to more than 100 ppm time-weighted average concentrations [TWA]. The present threshold limit value of 40 ppm in Japan is considered low enough to prevent subclinical impairment of peripheral nerve caused by n-hexane. Urinary 2,5-hexanedione could be a good indicator for biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. About 2.2 mg/liter of 2,5-hexanedione measured by our improved method corresponds to exposure of 40 ppm (TWA) of n-hexane.

  20. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

  1. Aircraft accident survivors as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Dodge, R E

    1983-02-01

    This is a study of the reliability of aircrash survivors as witnesses. Some of their statements are compared to known facts at the time of the crash, including the time of the accident and the weather conditions. Other facts are compared between the survivors, such as the mood of the passengers immediately post-crash. The KLM-Pan Am accident in the Canary Islands is used as the study accident. A suggestion for future use of survivors' statements is tendered.

  2. Preventive and treatment measures to reduce drug abuse: summary of responses to a survey of national programmes. United Nations Secretariat.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes the salient points extracted from the responses of 67 Governments to a survey of national drug-abuse prevention and treatment programmes. The results of the survey were presented in more detail in E/CN.7/673, which was considered by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its seventh special session in February 1982. Most responses indicated that heavy reliance was placed on control and drug law enforcement to reduce the availability of illicit drugs. Some concern was expressed over the possibility that drug information or drug education that was ill-conceived or inaccurately targeted might arouse curiosity and experimentation. There had been relatively little in-depth evaluation of the effectiveness of either preventive or treatment measures that had been undertaken. The involvement of voluntary organizations, families, communities and groups of "high-risk" youth was generally regarded, however, as an essential feature of successful preventive and treatment work. A few responses indicated that the maintenance of heroin or other opiate addicts had been successful in reducing drug-related crime and other undesirable behaviour. Preventive education was most effective when presented within the broader context of health education, as well as civics or similar studies within the curriculum of schools and universities. School programmes were more effective when they involved communities. A considerable effort had been made to train medical personnel and those likely to come into professional contact with persons at risk. Shortages of trained staff and other resources were frequently mentioned as inhibiting factors.

  3. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H; Amico, K Rivet; Morrow, Kathleen M; Moench, Thomas; Friend, David R; Friedland, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. Discussion The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings) and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1) adherence support – sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2) self-reported psychometric measures – creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3) more objective measurement of adherence – real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion. Coordinating research

  4. Wheelchair-based mobile measurement of behavior for pressure sore prevention.

    PubMed

    Grip, J C; Merbitz, C T

    1986-03-01

    A recently developed device which provides continuous, direct monitoring of the pressure relief performance of persons confined to wheelchairs is reported. A custom portable computer records the data, which is transferred for analysis to an Apple IIe. The mobile computer can also signal the patient to relieve pressure on the basis of preset criteria and the patient's performance. Teaching lift-offs to prevent ischial pressure sores is the object. Data collected with the device are used clinically and for research. Examples of such data are presented. The benefits of the device are reviewed.

  5. Accidents among children under five years old: a general practice based study in north Staffordshire.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Y H; Jones, P W

    1993-01-01

    Information about accidental injury among children under five years old was obtained prospectively by studying children registered with one general practice (total list size 9425) who presented at the surgery and/or the accident and emergency department at the North Staffordshire Hospital Centre during a 12 month period. Details were obtained from answers to a questionnaire sent to parents within two weeks of a child's accident. Of 511 children under five years of age, 100 children (57 boys, 43 girls) had 120 accidents. The maximum number of accidents occurred in the second year of life. Parents took their children directly to the casualty department in 105 (85%) accidents. Eighty six children had only one accident and four children required hospital admission. The most common cause of injury was a fall (56%). The majority of accidents happened at home (79%), and occurred between 09.00 hours and 21.00 hours (88%). Children identified in the study following an accident were matched with other children in the practice of the same age and sex who had not had an accident. Information about the families and social factors were compared. Children who had accidents had younger mothers and were more likely to have a sibling who had had an accident in the previous year. Socioeconomic factors were not significantly different between the cases and the controls. Similar numbers of families in the study and control groups had items of safety equipment and had good awareness and knowledge of accident prevention. The results of this study cast doubt on the value of safety equipment and knowledge alone in child accident prevention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8323803

  6. A systematic review of relapse measurement in randomized controlled trials of relapse prevention in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, John F M; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Cotton, Sue M; Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah

    2010-06-01

    The prevention of relapse is an important treatment goal in first-episode psychosis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the gold standard methodology for evaluating interventions for relapse prevention. Properly designed RCTs which include relapse as a treatment outcome should rigorously operationalize psychotic relapse. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate according to six criteria the operationalization of relapse in RCTs of clinical innovations for the prevention of relapse in first-episode psychosis. Through a systematic literature search of relevant RCTs in first-episode psychosis patients, eight pharmacological and eight non-pharmacological trials, published between 1982 and 2009, were identified. Readmission to a psychiatric hospital was the most common definition of psychotic relapse. Five studies did not measure relapse using any standardized or validated observer-rated instruments. The majority of the studies did not specify a duration criterion for relapse. Only three studies satisfied six criteria for the adequate operationalization of relapse. These results raise concerns regarding the internal and external validity of these research findings. There is an urgent need for a standardized, universally adopted set of criteria for psychotic relapse with appropriate specification of measurement instruments for use in future RCTs. PMID:20347266

  7. Comparison of subjective symptoms and hot prevention measures in summer between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, a survey on subjective symptoms and hot prevention measures in summer was conducted in 204 male traffic control workers and 115 male construction workers. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR 1-2 and RMR 2-4, respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on age, occupational career, working habit, present or past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the heat, and subjective symptoms in the summer. Daily working hours in the sunshine of the traffic control workers were significantly longer than those of the construction workers. Prevalence rates of changing clothes frequently, avoiding direct exposure of face and neck to sunlight using towel like materials, and wearing sunglasses in the traffic control workers were significantly lower than the construction workers. Prevalence rates of symptoms in the upper extremities in the traffic control workers were significantly lower than those in the construction workers. Prevalence of work difficulty due to hot weather during work in the traffic control workers was significantly lower than the construction workers. On the basis of the results obtained, some preventive countermeasures to improve working environment are presented.

  8. Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident.

    PubMed Central

    Sehmer, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians regularly treat victims of rear-end vehicle accidents. This article describes how taking a detailed history of the accident and understanding the significance of the physical events is helpful in understanding and anticipating patients' morbidity and clinical course. Eight questions to ask patients are suggested to help physicians understand the severity of injury. PMID:8495140

  9. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  10. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:27573783

  11. [Implementation and evaluation of error prevention measures in surgical clinics: Results of a current online survey].

    PubMed

    Rothmund, Matthias; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Siebert, Hartmut; Ansorg, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, more than 3,000 surgeons completed an online questionnaire asking for the prevalence and efficiency of instruments to prevent adverse events within surgical departments in Germany. About 90 % of the respondents stated that perioperative checklists, preoperative marking of the surgical site and the documentation of hospital infections had been implemented in their institution; and 75 % of the institutions had introduced critical incident reporting systems (CIRS), morbidity and mortality conferences and identification bracelets for patients. The surgeons were asked to rank the different instruments for the prevention of adverse events. According to the respondents, preoperative marking of the surgical site and the use of checklists were at the top of the efficacy ranking, followed by an introductory course for surgeons starting work in a hospital or when new devices became available. Only 50 % of the responding surgeons perceived CIRS as being efficient. Overall, the answers showed that instruments to increase patient safety were commonly available in surgical departments. On the other hand, there is still room for improvement in daily practice. PMID:26354140

  12. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1987-11-20

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  13. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  14. The Effect of Preventive Conservation Measures on the Technical Condition of A Religious Building Located in the Mining Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barycz, Stanisław; Firek, Karol; Kocot, Wojciech; Malinowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the case study of a historical religious building located in the area of "Bogdanka" S.A. Coal Mine. As the building lacked adequate resistance to the expected effects of mining, the Mine undertook efforts so that it was fully protected against mining impacts before the commencement of mining operations. A preventive conservation system was used, consisting of an external stiffening reinforced concrete plate at the ground level and a system of steel tie rods established at the level of vault supports. The article assesses the effect of undertaken preventive conservation measures on the current technical condition of the building. The basis for the assessment was the extent of damage to the building confirmed after the occurrence of impacts from the performed mining operations combined with the analysis of ground deformation.

  15. Measures to prevent emissions of PCDDS/DFs and co-planar PCBs from crematories in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Takaoka, M; Fujiwara, T; Takeyama, H; Eguchi, S

    2001-01-01

    In this study, PCDDs/DFs and co-planar PCBs concentrations in flue gases from 17 crematories and in fly ashes and bottom ashes (mainly bone) from several crematories were measured to grasp the present state of PCDDs/DFs emissions from crematories. The effects of several factors were discussed to prevent PCDDs/DFs emissions from crematories. Total concentration (normalized by 12% O2) of PCDDs/DFs was ranged from 4.9 to 1200 ng/m3 N, and toxic equivalent concentration was ranged from 0.064 to 24 ng TEQ/m3 N. As the results obtained in this research, the following measures to reduce PCDDs/DFs emission are recommended for existing crematories: (1) keeping the temperature at 800 degrees C in main/secondary chambers during a whole cremation, and (2) lowering the temperature in the dust collector. For newly installed crematories, following measures to prevent PCDDs/DFs emission including the measures for existing ones are recommended: (1) connecting one secondary chamber to one main chamber, (2) installing the high efficiency dust collector and reducing dust concentration to less than 0.01 g/m3 N, and (3) installing the sampling point for monitoring of PCDDs/DFs.

  16. Factors affecting the use of anti-malaria preventive measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to malaria-endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Shin; Hu, Susan C; Hsu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Kwo-Liang; Chen, Kou-Huang; Yu, Mei-Ching; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of anti-malaria preventive measures (AMPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from malaria-endemic countries, attended by either the Taipei or Tainan Immigrant Service Center, Taiwan, and who reported a history of returning to their country of origin within the preceding year during the malarious season in their country of origin were enrolled in the study. Complete information was collected from 316 immigrants, with a response rate of 87% (316/364). The mean age of the subjects was 38.1 years (SD = 9.9). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pre-travel consultation; more than 40% reported that they did not use measures to prevent insect bites. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, travel consultation before travel, lower perceived susceptibility to malaria, higher perceived severity of malaria infection, higher perceived benefit for taking measures, and higher self-efficacy for taking measures significantly predicted the use of AMPMs during the return to their country of origin (R(2) = 0.20; F = 50.42; P < 0.001). A high proportion of immigrants were not using appropriate AMPMs when they returned to their country. Educational approaches should be targeted toward immigrants who return to visit their country of origin.

  17. Prevention of future incidents and investigational lines

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Miguel J.; Zapatero, José; López, Mario

    2011-01-01

    All radiation devices in use nowadays are subject to cause serious incidents and accidents, with potential risks in exposed population groups. These risks may have immediate or long term health implications. The detection of radioactive incidents is a procedure that should be systematized in economically developed societies. International organizations may provide support to other states in the event of a radioactive incident. Prevention, mitigation and treatment of the radiation effects are done by anticipating the moment of exposure and by establishing new efforts for investigation of radioprotective products. In this article we will analyze the causes of radiological incidents, the means to detect them, and the current preventive and therapeutic procedures available, with special emphasis on new biodosimetry methods for triage and investigational radioprotective drugs. Finally, we will explore the most efficient measures, for future prevention. PMID:24376973

  18. Early Intake of Radiocesium by Residents Living Near the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Accident. Part 1: Internal Doses Based on Whole-body Measurements by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kurihara, Osamu; Kunishima, Naoaki; Nakano, Takashi; Tani, Kotaro; Hachiya, Misao; Momose, Takumaro; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011 resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment (I: 142.9 PBq, Cs:12.4 PBq). This study presents the results of internal doses to 174 residents living near the FDNPP at the time of the accident based on whole-body (WB) measurements performed by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period between 27 June and 28 July 2011. The 174 subjects consisted of 125 adults (≥18-y) and 49 children (<18-y) and included 90 persons of Namie town, one of the municipalities heavily contaminated with the radionuclides. The number of subjects with significant detection of both Cs and Cs was relatively small: 28.8% for the adults and 4.1% for the children. A significant gender difference in the Cs detection rate (males > females) was observed in the adults but not the children. In this study, the committed effective dose (CED) from Cs and Cs was calculated based on individual WB contents (Cs) corrected against body size, the observed body content ratio of Cs to Cs, and the assumed intake scenario (namely, acute inhalation of Type F compounds on 12 March 2011 when the first explosive event occurred at the site of the FDNPP). The 90th-percentile CED value for the adults was around 0.1 mSv and the maximum CED (0.63 mSv) was found in an elderly male. Comparable CED results were obtained in other WB measurements subsequently performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in a similar manner to that of the NIRS, suggesting that the contribution of ingestion to the WB content observed would be trivial for most of the JAEA subjects. The intake ratio of I to Cs was evaluated to be 3~5 based on the I thyroid measurement data of Tokonami et al. Using the average intake ratio of 3.8, the resulting median and maximum thyroid-equivalent doses to the adult subjects of this study were estimated at 3.5 mSv and 84 mSv, respectively. PMID:27682904

  19. Early Intake of Radiocesium by Residents Living Near the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Accident. Part 1: Internal Doses Based on Whole-body Measurements by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kurihara, Osamu; Kunishima, Naoaki; Nakano, Takashi; Tani, Kotaro; Hachiya, Misao; Momose, Takumaro; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011 resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment (I: 142.9 PBq, Cs:12.4 PBq). This study presents the results of internal doses to 174 residents living near the FDNPP at the time of the accident based on whole-body (WB) measurements performed by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period between 27 June and 28 July 2011. The 174 subjects consisted of 125 adults (≥18-y) and 49 children (<18-y) and included 90 persons of Namie town, one of the municipalities heavily contaminated with the radionuclides. The number of subjects with significant detection of both Cs and Cs was relatively small: 28.8% for the adults and 4.1% for the children. A significant gender difference in the Cs detection rate (males > females) was observed in the adults but not the children. In this study, the committed effective dose (CED) from Cs and Cs was calculated based on individual WB contents (Cs) corrected against body size, the observed body content ratio of Cs to Cs, and the assumed intake scenario (namely, acute inhalation of Type F compounds on 12 March 2011 when the first explosive event occurred at the site of the FDNPP). The 90th-percentile CED value for the adults was around 0.1 mSv and the maximum CED (0.63 mSv) was found in an elderly male. Comparable CED results were obtained in other WB measurements subsequently performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in a similar manner to that of the NIRS, suggesting that the contribution of ingestion to the WB content observed would be trivial for most of the JAEA subjects. The intake ratio of I to Cs was evaluated to be 3~5 based on the I thyroid measurement data of Tokonami et al. Using the average intake ratio of 3.8, the resulting median and maximum thyroid-equivalent doses to the adult subjects of this study were estimated at 3.5 mSv and 84 mSv, respectively.

  20. Measures for the prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sarti, Elsa; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2003-06-01

    Taeniosis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium are public health problems in many developing countries. Many studies of this parasitic zoonosis have focused on clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, surveillance, epidemiology and risk factors analysis. More recently projects on community and mass intervention strategies had been conducted in several rural areas worldwide focused on pig vaccination, pig cysticercosis treatment, human mass treatment, infrastructure development, as well as health education campaigns. Their advantages, disadvantages and public health impact have been published. This document discusses the feasibility and limitations of these interventions in order to assist countries in selection the best strategy for the prevention and control of this disease; we emphasized the specific strategies that might be recommended in different demographical situations.

  1. [Efficacy of preventive measures for reducing professional disorders due to pumice powder].

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Martino L; Spatari, G; Barbaro, M

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the incidence of pumice pneumoconiosis in the period 1970-2002 allows to evaluate the positive effects, particularly on the deadly forms of the disease, of the technical interventions aimed at reducing dusts. The main interventions in the field of the workmanship of pumice were made at the beginning of 70s, with the introduction of electrofilters in the working cycle and the change of the pumice desiccation system, from plate ovens to closed-cycle rotating ovens. This eliminated the need for manual shedding of pumice stones on oven plates. That duty had caused, between 70s and 80s, an high incidence of deadly forms of pneumoconiosis, which dramatically decreased with the reduction of workers exposed to the above risk. A comparison between the period 1970-75 (before preventive technical interventions) and the period 1976-2002 clearly shows an evident decrease both of deadly forms of pneumoconiosis and of acceptance of appeals for professional silicosis.

  2. Factors associated with hamstring injuries. An approach to treatment and preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Worrell, T W

    1994-05-01

    Following hamstring strain, rehabilitation is often prolonged and frustrating for the athlete and for the sports medicine clinician. Though the initial treatment of rest, ice, compression and elevation is accepted for muscle strains, no consensus exists for rehabilitation of hamstring muscle strains. This lack of agreement concerning rehabilitation of hamstring injury represents our lack of understanding of the mechanism of injury and the factors that contribute to hamstring strain. A hamstring rehabilitation model is proposed that is based on our current understanding of the aetiological factors that contribute to hamstring muscle strain. The influence and interaction of hamstring strength, flexibility, warm-up and fatigue are aetiological factors that should be addressed in the rehabilitation and prevention of hamstring strains. The rehabilitation model is, however, not without limitations and speculations. Further research is needed to clarify the etiological factors of hamstring strain and the efficacy of different rehabilitation protocols.

  3. Is accounting for acute care beds enough? A proposal for measuring infection prevention personnel resources.

    PubMed

    Gase, Kathleen A; Babcock, Hilary M

    2015-02-01

    There is still little known about how infection prevention (IP) staffing affects patient outcomes across the country. Current evaluations mainly focus on the ratio of IP resources to acute care beds (ACBs) and have not strongly correlated with patient outcomes. The scope of IP and the role of the infection preventionist in health care have expanded and changed dramatically since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project) recommended a 1 IP resource to 250 ACB ration in the 1980s. Without a universally accepted model for accounting for additional IP responsibilities, it is difficult to truly assess IP staffing needs. A previously suggested alternative staffing model was applied to acute care hospitals in our organization to determine its utility.

  4. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640410

  5. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. UV-induced occupational skin cancer: possibilities of secondary individual prevention in the "Dermatologist's Procedure".

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Blome, Otto; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig

    2013-07-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a "quasi occupational disease" according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII typically develops on chronically UV-damaged skin from actinic keratoses. After the Medical Scientific Committee of the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has confirmed the legal criteria for acknowledging UV-induced SCC as an occupational disease, it is expected that the condition will be added to the official list of occupational diseases issued by the Federal Government in the near future. The Social Accident Insurance is required by law (§3 Occupational Disease Regulation) to prevent these tumors by "all appropriate means". There are excellent therapeutic and preventive measures for the management of actinic keratoses to avoid the development of SCC. The "Dermatologist's Procedure" according to §§ 41-43 of the agreement between the Social Accident Insurance and the Federal Medical Association was established in Germany in 1972 to take preventive measures in insured persons with skin lesions possibly developing into an occupational disease, or worsening it, or leading to a recurrence of it This procedure proved to be very successful in the prevention of severe and/or recurring skin diseases forcing a worker to leave his job. On the basis of this agreement, the Social Accident Insurance has the instruments to independently provide preventive measures for the new occupational skin disease SCC induced by natural UV light according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII.

  7. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544

  8. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  9. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  10. [The efficacy of the health and hygiene measures in the cleanup of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Zholus, B I; Novozhilov, G N; Greben'kov, S V; Romanovich, I K

    1993-04-01

    Sanitary-hygienic measures which were carried out in units during liquidation of the Chernobyl disaster consequences have assured favourable hygienic conditions and promote the accomplishing of their mission. Questions of accommodation, water supply and meals were efficiently resolved. Most complicated were the problems of territory clearing, personnel decontamination, as well as bath and laundry service in field conditions at radioactive contamination zones. Basic trends of prophylactic work were as following: hygienic normalization and regulations, sanitary-epidemiologic control and anti-epidemic measures.

  11. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.

    2014-10-01

    Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

  12. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  13. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  14. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovitch, O; Prister, B; Nasvit, O; Los, I; Berkovski, V

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned from the Chernobyl example. PMID:8655324

  15. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovitch, O; Prister, B; Nasvit, O; Los, I; Berkovski, V

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned from the Chernobyl example.

  17. [Psychological support for road accident participants: the program implementation outcome].

    PubMed

    Mikuczewska-Wośko, Aleksandra; Biłyj, Dorota; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    Road accident belongs to one of the categories of traumatic events, and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The most common psychological consequences of road traffic accidents are the emotional disorders, cognitive deficits (disorders concentration of attention and memory function), impaired social relationships, troubles with performing work duties and physical symp-toms of stress. The article discusses the program of psychological support given to the participants of road accidents, conducted in Wroclaw, its theoretical assumptions and the mode of its implementation. Basic theoretical assumptions of the program are inter alia based on the theories of H. Selye and R. Lazarus. The authors of this article also refer to the so-called therapeutic process of education designed by Everly and Rosenfeld, who recommend that the process of developing self-responsibility be used for therapeutic purposes. This requires clarifying the exact nature of the problem, and then looking for possible remedies. The program is open to all road accident participants (victims, perpetrators, witnesses) and their families. Classes are designed to combine theory (lectures) and practice (exercises). Anxiety and cognitive processes, as well as relaxation training, interpersonal training (eg, assertiveness) and kinesiology are the major areas of activities. Psychological support provided for road accident participants is of intervention--and preventive nature; intervention, as it relates to the consequences ofa specific stressogenic event, namely a road accident; preventive, as it serves the overriding purpose--the improvement of road safety. This article presents the main findings of the program, the results of the survey evaluation, and proposals to develop psychological operations aimed at the road accidents participants.

  18. Simulation of a beyond design-basis-accident with RELAP5/MOD3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses, parametric and sensitivity studies, performed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 computer code for the 4th IAEA Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). The test, conducted on the PMK-2 facility in Budapest, involved simulation of a Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440 type pressurized water reactor. According to the scenario, the unavailability of the high pressure injection system led to a beyond design basis accident. For prevention of core damage, secondary side bleed-and-feed accident management measures were applied. A brief description of the PMK-2 integral type test facility is presented, together with the profile and some key phenomenological aspects of this particular experiment. Emphasis is placed on the ability of the code to predict the main trends observed in the test and thus, an assessment is given for the code capabilities to represent the system transient.

  19. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  20. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended.

  1. Rubella in the Russian Federation: epidemiological features and control measures to prevent the congenital rubella syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Semerikov, V. V.; Lavrentyeva, I. N.; Popov, V. F.; Fletcher, M. A.; Kolotov, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the epidemiology of clinical rubella in the Perm region of the Russian Federation from 1979-97 showed that the incidence was about 220 cases per 100,000 population. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) accounted for 15% of birth defects and for about 3.5 cases of CRS per 1000 live births per year. Surveys of the seroepidemiology of rubella infection revealed that the susceptibility rate among pregnant women (i.e. rubella virus antibody haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay titres < 10) was 16.5%. As serum rubella antibody HAI titres > or = 10 both prevented infection in pregnant women and protected their foetuses, serological testing has been introduced into the routine antenatal services. Pre-existing rubella antibodies were found not to interfere with the immune response to vaccination, so selective immunization was provided to girls approaching puberty and to women of childbearing age. A programme of epidemiological surveillance is being developed to define tactics for the widescale introduction of rubella vaccination. PMID:11117959

  2. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. PMID:26316421

  3. [The role of information as a preventive drug measure among youth at risk].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila van der Meer; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Ribeiro, Luciana Abeid; Nappo, Solange Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Illicit drug consumption among youngsters is a public health concern that requires attention. However, little research has highlighted the importance of "drug information availability" among protection factors. The objective of the study is to identify, from the point of view of youngsters at risk, what factors could prevent them to try illicit drugs, focusing on the importance of "drug information availability". An intentional sample was selected, composed by 62 youngsters divided into two groups: (NU) non illicit users N=32 and (U) users N=30. The sample was recruited through key-informants and snowball and each participant was submitted to an in-depth semi-structured interview. According to NU, "drug information availability" was reported as the main protector factor. Family-based information was the main source of knowledge followed by observation of the drug negative consequences on lives of friends who have already consumed illicit drugs in a regular-basis. Among users, a lack of drug knowledge or availability of partial information was reported. Among youngsters at risk, drug information availability is the main protection factor against experimental and regular drug consumption. Family based information was reported as its main source. PMID:21503474

  4. Measuring the progress of capacity building in the Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D; Sosa Hernandez, Cristabel; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Reed, Shandy; Montemurro, Genevieve; Lytvyak, Ellina; MacLellan-Wright, Mary-Frances

    2014-07-01

    The Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention (APCCP) represents practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and community organizations working together to coordinate efforts and advocate for policy change to reduce chronic diseases. The aim of this research was to capture changes in the APCCP's capacity to advance its goals over the course of its operation. We adapted the Public Health Agency of Canada's validated Community Capacity-Building Tool to capture policy work. All members of the APCCP were invited to complete the tool in 2010 and 2011. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A group process for reaching consensus provided context to the survey responses and contributed to a participatory analysis. Significant improvement was observed in eight out of nine capacity domains. Lessons learned highlight the importance of balancing volume and diversity of intersectoral representation to ensure effective participation, as well as aligning professional and economic resources. Defining involvement and roles within a coalition can be a challenging activity contingent on the interests of each sector represented. The participatory analysis enabled the group to reflect on progress made and future directions for policy advocacy. PMID:24334541

  5. Comparison between direct measurements and modeled estimates of external radiation exposure among school children 18 to 30 months after the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hayano, Ryugo; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-20

    After a major radioactive incident, accurate dose reconstruction is important for evaluating health risks and appropriate radiation protection policies. After the 2011 Japan Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed the level of agreement between the modeled and directly measured dose and estimated the uncertainties. The study population comprised 520 school children from Minamisoma city, located 20 km north of the nuclear plant. The annual dose 18–30 months after the incident was assessed using two approaches: estimation using the model proposed by the Japanese government and direct measurement by radiation dosemeters. The ratio of the average of modeled and measured doses was 3.0 (standard deviation (SD): 2.0). The reduction coefficient, an index for radiation attenuation properties, was 0.3 (SD: 0.1) on average, whereas the value used in the government model was 0.6. After adjusting for covariates, the coefficient had a significant negative correlation with the air dose rate in the dwelling location (p < 0.001), indicating that stronger building shielding effects are valuable in areas with higher air contamination levels. The present study demonstrated that some overestimation may have been related to uncertainties in radiation reduction effects, and that the air contamination level might provide a more important indicator of these effects.

  6. Should prophylactic measures to prevent postpolypectomy bleeding after resection of large colorectal polyps be used?

    PubMed

    Gómez, Estanislao J; Izcovich, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Post-polypectomy bleeding after colonoscopy with resection of large colorectal polyps can cause significant morbidity (readmission for monitoring, transfusion, repeat endoscopy and therapy) and a significant cost to hospitals and insurers. Nevertheless prophylactic endoscopic measures could reduce risk of post-polypectomy bleeding. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including 10 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded prophylactic endoscopic measures could be effective in reducing post-polypectomy bleeding after resection of large colorectal polyps. PMID:27513877

  7. Should prophylactic measures to prevent postpolypectomy bleeding after resection of large colorectal polyps be used?

    PubMed

    Gómez, Estanislao J; Izcovich, Ariel

    2016-08-03

    Post-polypectomy bleeding after colonoscopy with resection of large colorectal polyps can cause significant morbidity (readmission for monitoring, transfusion, repeat endoscopy and therapy) and a significant cost to hospitals and insurers. Nevertheless prophylactic endoscopic measures could reduce risk of post-polypectomy bleeding. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including 10 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded prophylactic endoscopic measures could be effective in reducing post-polypectomy bleeding after resection of large colorectal polyps.

  8. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Zibit, Melanie J.; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Cui, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Methods: Students in grades 2–5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results: There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00594997 PMID

  9. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  10. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  11. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  12. A Measure for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Johnson, Stephanie A.; Sawilowksy, Shlomo S.

    2002-01-01

    The Teen Attitude Pregnancy Scale (TAPS) was developed to measure teen attitudes and intentions regarding teenage pregnancy. The model demonstrated good internal consistency and concurrent validity for the samples in this study. Analysis revealed evidence of validity for this model. (JDM)

  13. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in large incisional hernia repair to prevent abdominal compartmental syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ANGELICI, A.M.; PEROTTI, B.; DEZZI, C.; AMATUCCI, C.; MANCUSO, G.; CARONNA, R.; PALUMBO, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The repair of large incisional hernias may occasionally lead to a substantial increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and rarely to abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) with subsequent respiratory, vascular, and visceral complications. Measurement of the IAP has recently become a common practice in monitoring critical patients, even though such measurements were obtained in the early 1900s. Patients and Methods A prospective study involving 54 patients undergoing elective abdominal wall gap repair (mean length, 17.4 cm) with a tension-free technique after incisional hernia was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not urinary pressure for indirect IAP measurement is a reliable method for the early identification of patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. IAP measurements were performed using a Foley catheter connected to a HOLTECH® medical manometer. IAP values were determined pre-operatively, after anesthetic induction, upon patient awakening, upon patient arrival in the ward after surgery, and 24 h after surgery before removing the catheter. All patients were treated by the same surgical team using a prosthetic composite mesh (PARIETEX®). Results Incisional hernia repair caused an increase in the mean IAP score of 2.68 mmHg in 47 of 54 patients (87.04%); the IAP was decreased in two patients (3.7%) and remained equal in five patients before and 24 h after surgery (9.26%). FEV-1, measured 24 h after surgery, increased in 50 patients (92.6%), remained stable in two patients (3.7%), and decreased in two patients (3.7%). The mean increase in FEV-1 was 0.0676 L (maximum increase = 0.42 L and minimum increase = 0.01 L) in any patient who developed ACS. Conclusions Measurement of urinary bladder pressure has been shown to be easy to perform and free of complications. Measurement of urinary bladder pressure can also be a useful tool to identify patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. PMID:27142823

  14. A case-control study of non-fatal traffic accidents on hospital patients in Bangkok metropolis.

    PubMed

    Böhning, D; Na Ayutha, R S

    1997-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from road traffic accidents in Bangkok metropolis is high with a trend strictly increasing in time, thus establishing one of the major public health problems and targets of the Kingdom of Thailand. An unmatched case-control study was undertaken to evaluate various risk patterns connected with the occurrence of traffic accidents. 350 cases were sampled from five major hospitals distributed over the Bangkok Metropolitan area and 350 controls were included from out-patients of Rajawithi hospital. The major interest in this case-control analysis is to estimate relative risk (through odds ratio) and measure statistical significance of association between road traffic accident and the following risk factors: the demographic risk factors are age (age between 15 and 19 years has odds ratio of 8.25 [1.01, 67.72]; age above 40 is baseline), marital status (single has odds ratio of 2.74 [1.26, 5.95]; baseline is not-single), sex (males have an odds ratio of 2.05 [0.51, 8.24], occupation (salespersons have an odds ratio of 4.27 [1.47, 12.46]; baseline are office workers); the driving related exposure factors type of vehicle (motorbikers have an odds ratio of 6.22 [2.82, 13.78]; baseline are other vehicle drivers), driving time per day (odds ratio 1.35 [0.88, 2.09]) and the number of accidents in the last three years (odds ratio of 4.36 [2.51, 7.58]); the behavioral factors one hour before driving such as the consumption of alcohol (odds ratio 3.01 [1.53, 5.94]; baseline in no alcohol) and the consumption of a lot of food (odds ratio of 0.07 [0.03, 0.16]; baseline is not eating a lot before driving). The odds ratios for traffic accident when being under allergic medication and the consumption of tranquilizer were not significant. The results are consistent with current results in traffic accident research and point to target groups for potential prevention programmes in traffic accident prevention. PMID:9499466

  15. Ritual buffoonery: a social preventive measure against childhood mortality in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fassin, D; Badji, I

    1986-01-18

    adoptive village -- usually where the woman has relatives and which has a reputation for effectiveness in Preventing infant death or miscarriage or restoring fertility -- is made by village consensus. A common situation is described in which a woman goes to her adoptive village with her newborn baby. During the years of "kanaalen," she becomes the community buffoon who always has to play the clown. Also, she must do any ridiculous task requested of her. The group also has obligations towards her: she is the guest in every house and her child is under their protection. She is punished for all wrongdoing. If the villagers fail to respect the social code, by not using her new name or by reminding her of her indignity, they have to perform a reparative ritual, at which a goat is sacrificed. When the child is ill, he is treated with herbal remedies and a ceremony is held to ward off the evil forces. When the mother is ill, there is no protecting ritual. After the child is weaned, between ages 3-5, a final ceremony is held, a final ceremony is held to untie the threads symbolizing her attachment to the altar and now symbolizing her return to a normal life. She will maintain some constraints all her life. Knowledge of how these societies try to prevent and cure illness and misfortune would be a preliminary condition for public health programs. PMID:2867357

  16. Ritual buffoonery: a social preventive measure against childhood mortality in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fassin, D; Badji, I

    1986-01-18

    adoptive village -- usually where the woman has relatives and which has a reputation for effectiveness in Preventing infant death or miscarriage or restoring fertility -- is made by village consensus. A common situation is described in which a woman goes to her adoptive village with her newborn baby. During the years of "kanaalen," she becomes the community buffoon who always has to play the clown. Also, she must do any ridiculous task requested of her. The group also has obligations towards her: she is the guest in every house and her child is under their protection. She is punished for all wrongdoing. If the villagers fail to respect the social code, by not using her new name or by reminding her of her indignity, they have to perform a reparative ritual, at which a goat is sacrificed. When the child is ill, he is treated with herbal remedies and a ceremony is held to ward off the evil forces. When the mother is ill, there is no protecting ritual. After the child is weaned, between ages 3-5, a final ceremony is held, a final ceremony is held to untie the threads symbolizing her attachment to the altar and now symbolizing her return to a normal life. She will maintain some constraints all her life. Knowledge of how these societies try to prevent and cure illness and misfortune would be a preliminary condition for public health programs.

  17. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  18. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning. PMID:23226111

  19. The Pepcon Disaster-Causative Factors and potential Preventive and Mitigative Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H E; Alvares, N J

    2003-07-25

    On May 4, 1988, the PEPCON plant experienced three major and several smaller explosions that caused over $70 million in property damage and caused two deaths. The PEPCON plant produced Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), a major ingredient for rocket fuel. The PEPCON plant and the nearby Kidd Marshmallow plant were totally destroyed by the detonations. The initiating event for the explosions was a fire that originated in the Batch Dryer Building and spread to adjacent storage. Several factors combined to cause the AP in the major storage fields to detonate, the most important being lack of adequate separation between storage units. Welding and flame cutting procedure with poor fire watch protocol was the prime candidate for fire ignition. There were no automatic fire suppression systems at the plant. Buildings including the Batch Dryer Building were made of combustible building material (fiberglass). There was poor housekeeping and no control of AP dust generation. AP was stored in combustible polyethylene drums, aluminum tote bins, 30-gallon steel storage drums and fiber reinforced tote bags. There were high-density storage practices. In addition, a contributing factor to the rapid fire-spread was that the wind that day was blowing directly from the batch dryer building to the storage areas. This paper claims that if codes, standards, and well-known hazard identification safety techniques were implemented at PEPCON, then the disaster would have been averted. A limited scope probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to establish the effectiveness of various preventive and mitigative features that could have been deployed to avert the disaster. The major hazard at the PEPCON site was fire and explosion involving the processing, production and storage of AP, which was then and is currently stored as a class 4 oxidizer. Since minute quantities of contamination can cause AP to be detonable by shock, there has been an ongoing debate concerning its reclassification to a class

  20. Exercise-induced hyperthermia may prevent accurate core temperature measurement by tympanic membrane thermometer.

    PubMed

    Yeo, S; Scarbough, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on brain and deep trunk temperature measurement in order to determine the optimal temperature site of the body for varying nursing practices in outpatient clinical settings. Eight women, 18 to 50 years old (30.9 +/- 12.6; mean +/- SD), participated in the study. Subjects were asked to perform their regular aerobic exercise in a natural environment while body temperature (ear and rectal) and heart rate (HR) were measured simultaneously and repeatedly before, during, and after exercise. Glass mercury rectal thermometers were used for measurement of deep trunk temperature, an infrared tympanic membrane thermometer for measurement of brain temperature, and a portable heart rate monitor for monitoring heart rate. Rectal temperature was higher than ear temperature for all but one of the 40 pairs of observation. The time pattern varied for the two modes of temperature (F = 9.67; df 4,28; p < .001). Rectal temperature changed over time (F = 7.86; df 4,28; p < .002), and ear temperature did not (F = 1.5; df 4,28; p = .25), indicating that ear temperature did not respond to exercise. While rectal temperature was strongly correlated with HR (r = .60), ear temperature did not correlate either with rectal temperature (r = .02) or with HR (r = .08). Thus deep trunk temperature responds to exercise at moderate levels. On the other hand, ear temperature does not increase due to exercise. Ear temperature is not a valid indicator of trunk temperature during and immediately after exercise.