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Sample records for accident risk factors

  1. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  2. Risk and resilience factors of persons exposed to accidents

    PubMed Central

    HERTA, DANA – CRISTINA; BRÎNDAS, PAULA; TRIFU, RALUCA; COZMAN, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Resilience encompasses factors promoting effective functioning in the context of adversity. Data regarding resilience in the wake of accidental trauma is still scarce. The aim of the current study is to comparatively assess adaptive, life – promoting factors in persons exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. persons exposed to other types of accidents, and to identify psychological factors of resilience and vulnerability in this context of trauma exposure. Methods We assessed 93 participants exposed to accidents out of 305 eligible patients from the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital and Cluj County Emergency Hospital. The study used Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and Life Events Checklist. Scores were comparatively assessed for RFL items, RFL scale and subscales in participants exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. participants exposed to other life – threatening accidents. Results Participants exposed to MVA and those exposed to other accidents had significantly different scores in 7 RFL items. Scores were high in 4 out of 6 RFL subscales for both samples and in most items comprising these subscales, while in the other 2 subscales and in some items comprising them scores were low. Conclusions Low fear of death, physical suffering and social disapproval emerge as risk factors in persons exposed to life – threatening accidents. Love of life, courage in life and hope for the future are important resilience factors after exposure to various types of life – threatening accidents. Survival and active coping beliefs promote resilience especially after motor vehicle accidents. Coping with uncertainty are more likely to foster resilience after other types of life – threatening accidents. Attachment of the accident victim to family promotes resilience mostly after MVA, while perceived attachment of family members to the victim promotes resilience after other types of accidents. PMID:27152078

  3. Accidents to preschool children: comparing family and neighbourhood risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reading, R; Langford, I H; Haynes, R; Lovett, A

    1999-02-01

    Accidental injury in young children is more common among poorer families and in deprived areas but little is known about how these factors interact. This paper describes a study to measure the contribution of individual family factors and area characteristics in determining risk of accidental injury among preschool children. We conducted a population based study of preschool accident and emergency attendances over two years in and around the city of Norwich, UK. Information on individual families was extracted from the district child health information system while "social areas" were constructed from adjacent census enumeration districts with homogeneous social and demographic characteristics. Statistical analysis was by multilevel modelling. Accidental injury rates were much higher in deprived urban neighbourhoods than in affluent areas but the multilevel analysis showed that, for all accidents, much of the variation in rates was accounted for by factors at the individual level i.e. male sex, young maternal age, number of elder siblings and distance from hospital, with a smaller, but independent, influence of living in a deprived neighbourhood. The model for more severe injuries was similar except single parenthood was now significant at the level of individuals and the effect of area deprivation was stronger. We conclude that preschool accidental injuries are influenced by factors operating at both the level of individual families and between areas. This evidence suggests that both social policy changes to improve child care among unsupported young families and targeting accident prevention measures at a local level towards deprived neighbourhoods would reduce accidents. PMID:10077280

  4. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today`s Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier!

  5. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

  6. Does the influence of risk factors on accident occurrence change over time?

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2016-06-01

    A large number of studies have been made to assess the relationship between risk factors and accident occurrence. A risk factor is any factor that makes an accident more likely to occur. Very many risk factors have been identified, for example, being under the influence of alcohol while driving, driving on slippery roads, entering complex junctions, or driving in hours of darkness. Few studies have been made to determine whether the associations between risk factors and accident occurrence remain stable over time. This paper presents examples of studies that have replicated estimates of risk. All these studies were made within a given country, using the same method, to ensure that estimates of risk are comparable. The risk factors included in the paper are: daylight, horizontal curves, junctions, road surface conditions, precipitation, drinking and driving and driver age. For all these risk factors, their association with accidents has changed over time, mostly becoming weaker. A protective factor, snow depth, is also included. Its protective effect has become smaller over time. Possible reasons for the weakening influence of risk factors are discussed. PMID:26974026

  7. [Risk factors for accidents during sports while serving in German armed forces].

    PubMed

    Gundlach, N; Sammito, S; Böckelmann, I

    2012-03-01

    In the German Armed Forces sports activities should bring the benefits of good health and trained fitness which are the hallmarks of sportsmen. In order to achieve this aim it is important to avoid accidents which negate the benefit of sports. Until today there appear to be no studies in existence which demonstrate the risk factors of sports activities undertaken while in military service. Equivalent studies on civilian sport activities are scarcely comparable. To find out risk factors for accidents with any period of recovery we followed sports accidents while on duty in a German barracks with 4,300 soldiers over a two-year period. Additionally we asked about the time needed for recovery from each accident, parameters of lifestyle, the body mass index and the possibility of a nightshift before each accident. We examined a minimum of 410 accidents. We found associations between the accidents studied and particular risk factors, including doing sports more than two times a week, being active in a fitness or sports club, having the accident together with another sportsman and doing a nightshift before the day of the accident. Bad ground conditions contributed to a large number of accidents. A body mass index of 25 and higher had a significantly prolonged time for recovery. To avoid accidents, sport and ground conditions should be adapted to each other. In addition, overweight people are not only compromised for cardiovascular and neurological diseases but also have a higher risk of needing a prolonged time for recovery, thus it is important that overweight should be avoided and not only just be treated. PMID:22422284

  8. [Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study].

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Francesco; Voller, Fabio; Berti, Alice; Silvestri, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents. PMID:23903036

  9. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    PubMed

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  10. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  11. FACTORS RELATED TO MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Chumpawadee, Urai; Homchampa, Pissamai; Thongkrajai, Pramote; Suwanimitr, Amorn; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2015-07-01

    Young motorcycle drivers in Thailand are at high risk for road traffic accidents. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with motorcycle accident risk behavior (MARB). We studied 372 randomly selected university students aged 18-22 years (mean 20.2 years; women comprised 68.0% of our participants), who attend a government university in northeastern Thailand. Each student was asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about MARB and factors associated with this behavior. The respondents had an average of 6.2 years (SD+3.09) motorcycle driving experience, 72.3% had a motorcycle driver's license and 83.0% had accident insurance. The prevalence of self-reported motorcycle accident injuries was 42.7%. Their major MARB were using a telephone while driving (69.3%), speeding (45.4%), driving with more than one passenger (40.1%), drunk driving (22.1%), and not wearing a helmet (23.3%). Factors related to MARB were: gender, with men engaged in risky behavior more often than women (p < 0.05); duration of motorcycle driving--drivers with > 5 years experience were more likely to engage in risky behavior (p < 0.05); and knowledge of safe driving, those with a greater knowledge of safe driving were more likely to drive safely (p < 0.001). Having a greater awareness of MARB was associated with lower risk of engaging in risky behavior (p < 0.001). Students who engaged in risky behavior were more likely to view it as normal behavior (p < 0.001) and less likely to have adequate self-control (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate a need to strengthen accident prevention programs for university students in northeastern Thailand. PMID:26867401

  12. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

  13. Risk Factors for Accident Death in the U.S. Army, 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Peterson, Christopher; Berglund, Patricia A.; Collins, Stacey; Cox, Kenneth; Hauret, Keith; Jones, Bruce; Kessler, Ronald C.; Mitchell, Colter; Park, Nansook; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.; Heeringa, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accidents are one of the leading causes of death among U.S. active duty Army soldiers. Evidence-based approaches to injury prevention could be strengthened by adding person-level characteristics (e.g., demographics) to risk models tested on diverse soldier samples studied over time. Purpose To identify person-level risk indicators of accident deaths in Regular Army soldiers during a time frame of intense military operations, and to discriminate risk of not-line-of-duty (NLOD) from line-of-duty (LOD) accident deaths. Methods Administrative data acquired from multiple Army/Department of Defense sources for active duty Army soldiers during 2004–2009 were analyzed in 2013. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify person-level sociodemographic, service-related, occupational, and mental health predictors of accident deaths. Results Delayed rank progression or demotion and being male, unmarried, in a combat arms specialty, and of low rank/service length increased odds of accident death for enlisted soldiers. Unique to officers was high risk associated with aviation specialties. Accident death risk decreased over time for currently deployed, enlisted soldiers while increasing for those never deployed. Mental health diagnosis was associated with risk only for previous and never-deployed, enlisted soldiers. Models did not discriminate NLOD from LOD accident deaths. Conclusions Adding more refined person-level and situational risk indicators to current models could enhance understanding of accident death risk specific to soldier rank and deployment status. Stable predictors could help identify high risk of accident deaths in future cohorts of Regular Army soldiers. PMID:25441238

  14. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  16. Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

    2012-05-01

    A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

  17. Assessment of the Effects of Rehabilitation After Cerebrovascular Accident in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension as Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tanovic, Edina; Selimovic, Senad; Tanovic, Haris

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of rehabilitation, to determine the prevalence of major risk factors in cerebrovascular accident and their consequences, as well as to propose measures and procedures that will affect the better rehabilitation. Methods: The survey analyzed: age, sex, duration of rehabilitation, activities in daily life through the Barthel index at admission and at discharge, presence of risk factors HTA and DM. The study included a total of 116 patients, the majority of patients are older than 61 years. We had 49% of male patients and 51% of female patients and they spent 31-40 days at the rehabilitation. Results: The most common risk factor is HTA (83%) and diabetes (33%). Most of the patients at admission had a BI from 0 to 4 (32.7%), and at discharge BI in the range 17-20 (36.2%). Statistical analysis shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between the BI at admission, BI at discharge and risk factors of HTA and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: the rehabilitation results in most patients is good results of rehabilitation. The most important risk factors in patients are HTA, DM and directly affect on results of rehabilitation. For the better results we should have energetic fight against risk factors for HTA and DM through primary and secondary prevention and patient education about early detection and treatment of these risk factors. PMID:24937938

  18. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  19. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  20. [Soft tissue calcifications in panoramic radiography. A risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents?].

    PubMed

    Ariayi, Ayesha Shekeba; Berndt, Dorothea; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a basic diagnostic tool in the dental field where calcifications are seen occasionally in the lateral parts of the x-ray. The differential diagnosis are carotid artery atheromas, calcified submandibular lymphnodes and sialoliths of the submandibular gland. 4007 panoramic radiographs (100%) from patients >40 years were scanned retrospectively. Special emphasis was given to the carotid artery territory (CAT). 225 soft tissue calcifications were found (5.6%). 144 patients had calcifications in the CAT (3.6%), 73 showed calcified submandibular lymphnodes (1.8%), and 8 (0.2%) sialoliths. The female to male ratio was 54.7%:45.3%. Pneumatic diseases were beside hypertension and smoking a risk factor for CAT calcification. Carotid artery atheromas are the main risk for cerebrovascular insults. Dentists can help to detect patients at risk for stroke. Their patients can be referred for further diagnostics (ultrasound). PMID:19954131

  1. [Accidents in a population of 350 adolescents and young adults: circumstances, risk factors and prediction of recurrence].

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniel; Ingrand, Pierre; Delamour, Magali; Ingrand, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Accidents among adolescents and young adults are a public health issue, and present two main characteristics: a strong association with sporting activities, and frequent recurrence. Sports accidents are generally relatively benign, but they show a marked tendency to recur Young people engaging in sporting activities do not generally exhibit psychological traits different from the general population. In contrast, the other types of accident, and particularly domestic and traffic accidents, appear to have specific features: they are often more serious, but above all they are associated with psychopathologic features, including depression, anxiety, disorders due to life events, and thrill-seeking These psychopathological features are strongly associated with recurrence. The authors describe a simple self-administered questionnaire (ECARR) designed to assess the risk of accident recurrence in this population. PMID:21513131

  2. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  3. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  4. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    PubMed

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. PMID:25247553

  5. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. PMID:26619285

  6. Psychological aspects of risk appraisal in asphyxiation accidents: a review of the factors influencing children’s perception and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Zigon, G; Corradetti, R; Morra, B; Snidero, S; Gregori, D; Passali, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Psychological aspects determining children’s behaviour in response to asphyxiation risk due to ingestion of foreign matter have been rarely and non-systematically examined in the literature. Aim of this report is to highlight – through a review of the most significant psychological research in the literature – which factors influence the behaviour, perception and assessments of children 0 to 14 years of age, in a risk situation. In particular, attention is focused on the direct experience of a child at risk, assuming that this experience can play a significant role in future dangerous situations. Outcomes of studies taken into consideration have highlighted the influence of age, sex, socio-economic status, parents’ role, peer group, personal traits, television and personal experience. The latter refutes the initial hypotheses, showing an unexpected and clearly negative effect on future evaluation and behaviour in response to similar contexts of asphyxiation risk. The implications for research on asphyxiation due to ingestion of foreign matter are examined. PMID:16116832

  7. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  8. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-11-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  9. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  10. Risk Estimation Methodology for Launch Accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.

    2014-02-01

    As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.

  11. [Risk of accidents for a Parisian pedestrian].

    PubMed

    Vayre, P

    2001-12-01

    The risk of accident for a parisian pedestrian is of reduced frequency and of moderate severity (terrorism and natural disasters not included) according to the statistics of 1999. This is due to security measures and the excellent organisation of assistance to wounded persons. The improvement in protection of pedestrians, even the disabled and elderly persons will soon make Paris the best protected megalopolis of our continent. Pedestrians are involved in 28% of accidents on public streets with a mortality of 1.2%, with serious injuries in 12.6% of the cases. Injuries without collision occur in 57% of the cases. 18% of the wounded older than 75 years with 1.8% of deaths and 66% of severe injury. Accidents related to public transportation represent a very slight risk of 0.00044%. By modification of the concept of transportation and its materials over a five year period there is a decrease in the number of the victims (-3.75%), in spite of the increase of accidents (3.5%). For lone pedestrian being victims of aggression in public places, after a decrease of 10% in 1999, there is in 2001 an increase which raises the question of police proximity again. Over a five year period the RATP (subway authority) has noticed a 14.77% decrease of thefts and a 54.78% decrease in attacks... This makes the Parisian railnet (subway mostly) seven times less dangerous than the streets. PMID:11803819

  12. [Risk assessment expanded accident insurance for children].

    PubMed

    Sittaro, N A

    1998-08-01

    Disability is a well known and tragic event for children. While adults are an established group for specific disability insurance cover, children were often neglected in the past. Although parents, organizations and paediatricans are aware of the risk, children specific incidence rates for disability are hardly available. The only sufficient source for some statistical data are the accident statistics because they represent a substantial group of specific cause related disability for children. Incidence rates for disease related chronic severe impairment or disability in children are either derived by single disease research or actuarial calculation of the German Social Disability Registration. Based on this statistical background, an extended accident insurance for children was introduced in Germany covering both accidents and disabling diseases. The key limitation for all variations of this insurance are exclusion clauses for congential diseases and mental disorders. This insurance requires a new approach in underwriting of the health risks. Because of the substantial number of impaired children, a simple decline of substandard cases are unacceptable. The early experience or medical underwriting shows predominantly health impairments of the following types: allergies, bronchial asthma, ectopic eczema (neurodermitis), disorders of speech and articulation, vision disorders and mental impairments. The suggested solution for underwriting of substandard risks is the predetermination of the possible future maximum degree of disability. The need for underwriting guidelines is supported by the market impact of the new disability cover with thousands of insurance policies issued in the first month after introduction. PMID:9745365

  13. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:23928504

  14. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  15. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  16. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart disease and stroke. However, certain groups—including African Americans and older individuals—are at higher risk ... life expectancy found among minorities. As of 2007, African American men were 30% more likely to die ...

  17. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  18. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (<12,501lb) powered by 1-2 turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (p<0.001) in the "non-adherence to V Speeds" sub-category. For accidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold

  19. The Chornobyl Accident: A Comprehensive Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Poyarkov, Victor A.; Vargo, George J.; George J. Vargo

    2000-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive of the April 1986 Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its short and long-term effects in the fourteen years since the accident. Chapters include: cause and description of the accident; the Shelter constructed to contain the remains the destroyed reactor, radioactive wastes arising from the accident, environmental contamination, individual and collective radiation doses, societal aspects, economic impact and conclusions. Appendices on radiological units, the medical consequences of the accident, and a list of acronym and abbreviations are included.

  20. [Socioecological determinants of the risk of accidents in young pedestrians].

    PubMed

    Joly, M F; Foggin, P; Pless, I

    1991-01-01

    We studied all traffic accidents to pedestrians under age 15 which occurred on the Island of Montreal during an eighteen months period. Data were collected from eleven hospitals and completed with accident police records. A spatial quadrat analysis, a Comparative Accident Index, and a comparative analysis of the means of different socio-ecological variables between high and low risk accident areas revealed interesting patterns. The location of traffic accidents is not random but rather presents a particular spatial structure. High risk zones are characterized by dense population, fast-moving traffic, and the absence of parks. Accidents often take place on two-way streets, far from traffic lights, on dry surfaces, in good weather, and with good visibility. The socio-economic status of the victim's family as measured by education, income, and unemployment, tends to be low. More boys than girls are victims. Children are often injured while getting out of a car or crossing unconventionally. PMID:1754700

  1. Sleep Apnea Related Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents is Reduced by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Swedish Traffic Accident Registry Data

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Häbel, Henrike; Nerman, Olle; Grote, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The rate of MVAs in patients suspected of having OSA was determined and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was investigated. Design: MVA rate in patients referred for OSA was compared to the rate in the general population using data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Registry (STRADA), stratified for age and calendar year. The risk factors for MVAs, using demographic and polygraphy data, and MVA rate before and after CPAP were evaluated in the patient group. Setting: Clinical sleep laboratory and population based control (n = 635,786). Patients: There were 1,478 patients, male sex 70.4%, mean age 53.6 (12.8) y. Interventions: CPAP. Measurements and Results: The number of accidents (n = 74) among patients was compared with the expected number (n = 30) from a control population (STRADA). An increased MVA risk ratio of 2.45 was found among patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). Estimated excess accident risk was most prominent in the elderly patients (65–80 y, seven versus two MVAs). In patients, driving distance (km/y), EDS (Epworth Sleepiness score ≥ 16), short habitual sleep time (≤ 5 h/night), and use of hypnotics were associated with increased MVA risk (odds ratios 1.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 2.1, all P ≤ 0.03). CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with a reduction of MVA incidence (7.6 to 2.5 accidents/1,000 drivers/y). Conclusions: The motor vehicle accident risk in this large cohort of unselected patients with obstructive sleep apnea suggests a need for accurate tools to identify individuals at risk. Sleep apnea severity (e.g., apnea-hypopnea index) failed to identify patients at risk. Citation: Karimi M, Hedner J, Häbel H, Nerman O, Grote L. Sleep apnea related risk of motor vehicle accidents is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure: Swedish traffic accident registry data. SLEEP 2015;38(3):341–349. PMID

  2. Previous convictions or accidents and the risk of subsequent accidents of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Geneviève; Joly, Pierre; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2002-03-01

    The over-involvement of elderly drivers in collisions has a potentially adverse effect on highway safety. The question for most experts in traffic research is whether we can predict the individual risk of accidents and which variables are the best predictors, especially for this population. For a better understanding of the elderly drivers' problems, this study aimed to describe the most common types of accidents in the elderly population of drivers living in Quebec (> or = 65 years of age). The second objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between previous accidents or convictions and the risk of subsequent accidents. The results show that: (1) elderly drivers are characterised by error accidents involving more than one car, especially at intersections, (2) prior accidents are a better predictor for accident risk than prior convictions and (3) these trends steadily increase with each age group (drivers 65 years old to 80 years or more). The results are discussed in relation to the literature on risk behaviour of the elderly drivers. PMID:11829296

  3. Risk Communication as a Tool for Training Apprentice Welders: A Study about Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Severo, Luana de Oliveira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Turik, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The present study has aimed to identify the perceptions of apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed; identify types of occupational accidents involving apprentice welders; and report the development of a socioenvironmental education intervention as a tool for risk communication for apprentice welders. A quantitative study was performed with 161 apprentice welders in Southern Brazil in 2011. Data collection was performed via structured interviews with the apprentice welders about risk perception, occupational accidents, and time experienced in welding. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.9%), chemical (95%), physiological (86.3%), and biological (51.5%). In this sample, 39.7% of apprentice welders reported occupational accidents and 27.3% reported burning. The inferential analysis showed that the frequency of risk perception factors increases with the length of experience, and apprentice welders who have experienced accidents during welding activity perceive a higher amount of risk factors than those who have never experienced them. It is concluded that apprentice welders perceive risks and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their activity. PMID:23326211

  4. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    PubMed

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed. PMID:10487352

  5. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Jow, H.N.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D. ); Amos, C.N. ); Helton, J. ); Boyd, G. )

    1992-06-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a point estimate of risk, but to determine the distribution of risk, and to assess the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station. Much of this important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Source Term Panel.

  6. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, R.J.; Harper, F.T.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D. ); Murfin, W. ); Amos, C.N. )

    1992-03-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station were assessed. Much of the important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Structural Response Panel.

  7. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on this ... may help you live a longer, healthier life. Risk Factors You Cannot Change Some of your heart ...

  8. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR. PMID:27092639

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... surviving an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of developing MDS. Long-term ... Myelodysplastic Syndrome? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Myelodysplastic Syndrome Talking With ...

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of getting CML Age : The ... Myeloid (CML)? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid (CML) ...

  11. Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Philip; Albrecht, Sophie; Kecklund, Göran; Beckers, Debby G J; Leineweber, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:27082283

  12. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  13. Superstition, risk-taking and risk perception of accidents among South African taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Renner, Walter

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate taxi drivers' superstition and risk perception of accidents as well as risk-taking in an urban area in South Africa. One hundred and thirty drivers of minibuses, so-called "taxis" were interviewed on the basis of: (1) a superstition scale; (2) a risk-taking scale; (3) a list of perceived causes of road traffic accidents. Drivers showed largely superstitious attitudes and expressed a high degree of risk-taking behavior. Superstition was positively correlated with the number of self-reported accidents the drivers had been involved in and the number of accidents they had witnessed. Path analysis revealed a direct path from superstition to accident involvement while the influence of formal education was negligible. Risk-taking was inversely correlated with driving experience and the number of accidents witnessed but not so with the number of accidents involved in. There was no clear pattern of associations between superstition and risk-taking and perceived causes of accidents. Superstition and risk-taking were slightly and inversely correlated with each other. It is concluded that superstition represents an attitude that is associated with a driver's accident risk, and further research on superstitious attitudes among South African drivers is advocated. PMID:12729825

  14. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident

    PubMed Central

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk studies. Objectives: Here we propose a comprehensive systematic approach to estimating radiation doses for the evaluation of health risks resulting from a nuclear power plant accident, reflected in a set of seven guidelines. Discussion: Four major nuclear reactor accidents have occurred during the history of nuclear power production. The circumstances leading to these accidents were varied, as were the magnitude of the releases of radioactive materials, the pathways by which persons were exposed, the data collected afterward, and the lifestyle factors and dietary consumption that played an important role in the associated radiation exposure of the affected populations. Accidents involving nuclear reactors may occur in the future under a variety of conditions. The guidelines we recommend here are intended to facilitate obtaining reliable dose estimations for a range of different exposure conditions. We recognize that full implementation of the proposed approach may not always be feasible because of other priorities during the nuclear accident emergency and because of limited resources in manpower and equipment. Conclusions: The proposed approach can serve as a basis to optimize the value of radiation dose reconstruction following a nuclear reactor accident. Citation: Bouville A, Linet MS, Hatch M, Mabuchi K, Simon SL. 2014. Guidelines for exposure assessment in health risk studies following a nuclear reactor accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:1–5; http://dx.doi.org/10

  15. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident. PMID:21612010

  16. Risk factors associated with facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Batista, Anne Margareth; Ferreira, Fernanda de Oliveira; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05), univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20). Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%), with 393 (35.1%) charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772) and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329) as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989). Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317) and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936), respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports. PMID:22473346

  17. 77 FR 61446 - Proposed Revision Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors..., ``Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors.'' DATES: Submit comments by... No. ML081430087) concerning the review of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information and...

  18. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  19. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-02-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the lighting conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injured persons rate for the 0.5 km2 equally-sized areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results have shown a strong linear dependence between the low lighting conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accidents occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions, at the city entrances-exits, which represent also vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low lighting and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence enabled us to identify the high traffic accident risk areas in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

  20. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  1. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  2. Minimizing Accidents and Risks in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Joel

    The fundamental dilemma in adventure programming is eliminating unreasonable risks to participants without also reducing levels of excitement, challenge, and stress. Most accidents are caused by a combination of unsafe conditions, unsafe acts, and error judgments. The best and only way to minimize critical human error in adventure programs is…

  3. The exposure of young children to accident risk as pedestrians.

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, D. A.; Repetto-Wright, R.; Howarth, C. I.

    1996-01-01

    Pedestrian road accidents show a marked peak for children aged 5, 6 and 7 years with boys twice as involved as girls at these ages. Howarth et al (1974) described a framework in which measures of exposure were defined and related to the accident statistics to obtain estimates of absolute levels of risk for different categories of pedestrian in different traffic situations. The present paper describes a survey of children's exposure carried out to provide suitable data for this quantitative analysis. We interviewed a representative sample of Nottingham schoolchildren about their journeys in the previous 24 hours and recorded the number of roads crossed and the traffic densities of these roads. The measures of exposure obtained are presented in relation to the accompaniment of children on their journeys, the type of area in which they live, and time of day. Risk was assessed by relating exposure measures both to the national and local accident statistics. The analysis provides estimates of the risk to children of different ages and sex in their normal pattern of road crossing and in crossing roads of different traffic density and indicates that the accident statistics alone considerably underestimate the degree of risk to children under the age of eight. Interviews with a sample of the parents of the children suggest that children may provide a more accurate measure of their exposure than do their parents. PMID:9346080

  4. Importance of workshift in determining risk of fatal and lost work day injury accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of workshift as a mine accident risk factor has not been fully explored in any readily available analysis of national mine safety. This study begins to correct that deficiency by presenting frequency distributions of fatal and lost-time injury accidents segregated by workshift and elapsed time into the shift as experienced by US coal mine workers for the years 1978 to 1980. Variables of interest in the current analysis include time of accident, shift, mining method (i.e., surface vs underground), degree of injury (i.e., fatal vs lost-time), victim age, job title, nature of injury, machinery victim was operating or handling at the time of accident and source/nature of injury. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  6. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  7. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  8. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  9. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  10. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  11. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    PubMed Central

    AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

  12. A Case-Crossover Study of Sleep and Work Hours and the Risk of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Francesca; Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Marchetti, Riccardo; Sbrojavacca, Rodolfo; Barbone, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleepiness, prolonged wakefulness, and extended work hours have been associated with increased risk of injuries and road accidents. The authors' objective was to study the relation between those factors and road accidents using a case-crossover design, effective in estimating the risk of acute events associated with transient, short effect exposures. Design: Five hundred seventy-four injured drivers presenting for care after road accidents to the Emergency Room of Udine, Italy, were enrolled in the study from March 2007 to March 2008. Sleep, work, and driving patterns in the 48 h before the accident were assessed through an interview. Measurements and Results: The relative risk (RR) of accident associated with each exposure was estimated using the case-crossover matched pair interval approach. Sleeping ≥ 11 h daily was associated with a decrease of the RR, as was sleeping less than usual. Being awake ≥ 16 h and, possibly, working > 12 h daily were associated with increases in the RR. Conclusions: Extended work hours and prolonged wakefulness increase the risk of road accidents and suggest that awareness should be raised among drivers. The findings regarding acute sleep amount are less clear, possibly due to an effect of chronic sleep loss. Citation: Valent F; Di Bartolomeo S; Marchetti R; Sbrojavacca R; Barbone F. A case-crossover study of sleep and work hours and the risk of road traffic accidents. SLEEP 2010;33(3):349-354. PMID:20337193

  13. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  14. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females. PMID:22014923

  15. [Principles and methods of evaluation of radiation risk and pilots' health in accidents of nuclear power objects].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Davydov, B I; Soldatov, S K; Zuev, V G

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with methodic approaches to health state evaluation of pilots who participated in liquidation of events following accidents at nuclear power objects. The main approaches are indeterminancy principle for late radiation effects, economic approach to evaluation of radiation risk, principle of risks comparison, consideration of summarized effect of environmental factors, etc. Some authors' viewpoints are presented. PMID:10097562

  16. Risk Factors in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mustacchi, Piero

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, stroke accounts for 160,000 annual deaths; only 16% of the 1.8 million stroke survivors are fully independent. The incidence of stroke increases with age. Hemorrhagic strokes outnumber ischemic strokes before age 15. Japanese men in this country have a lower stroke mortality than their age peers in Japan. Excessive stroke mortality for US nonwhites may not be entirely due to the greater prevalence of hypertension among blacks. Hypertension emerges as the single most powerful and reversible risk factor in stroke and for survival after stroke. Impaired cardiac function is the second most important precursor of stroke. The recurrence of stroke in survivors is high. The frequency of completed stroke is high in persons with transient ischemic attacks, but not in those with asymptomatic carotid bruits. Other reversible risk factors are smoking, the use of oral contraceptives, alcoholic excess, a low level of physical activity, blood hyperviscosity and drug abuse. PMID:3898597

  17. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  18. Risk perception and occupational accidents: a study of gas station workers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

  19. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  20. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  1. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended. PMID:25179119

  2. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding or hurricanes have recently and dramatically hit several countries worldwide. Both direct and indirect consequences involved the population, causing on the one hand a high number of fatalities and on the other hand so relevant economical losses that the national gross product may be affected for many years. Loss of critical industrial infrastructures (electricity generation and distribution, gas pipelines, oil refineries, etc.) also occurred, causing further indirect damage to the population. In several cases, accident scenarios with large releases of hazardous materials were triggered by these natural events, causing so-called "Natech events", in which the overall damage resulted from the simultaneous consequences of the natural event and of the release of hazardous substances. Toxic releases, large fires and explosions, as well as possible long-term environmental pollution, economical losses, and overloading of emergency systems were recognised by post-event studies as the main issues of these Natech scenarios. In recent years the increasing frequency and severity of some natural hazards due to climate change has slowly increased the awareness of Natech risk as an emerging risk among the stakeholders. Indeed, the iNTeg-Risk project, co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program specifically addresses these scenarios among new technological issues on public safety. The present study, in part carried out within the iNTeg-Risk project, was aimed at the analysis and further development of methods and tools for the assessment and mitigation of Natech accidents. Available tools and knowledge gaps in the assessment of Natech scenarios were highlighted. The analysis mainly addressed the potential impact of flood, lightning and earthquake events on industrial installations where hazardous substances are present. Preliminary screening methodologies and more detailed methods based on

  3. Pedestrian fatality risk in accidents at unsignalized zebra crosswalks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Piotr; Szagała, Piotr; Wolański, Maciej; Zielińska, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Poland has the second worst pedestrian fatality rate in the European Union. In the years 2007-2012, 9101 pedestrians were killed and 71328 injured on Polish roads. Almost 30% of pedestrian injury accidents took place at unsignalized zebra crosswalks. Based on police accident database, the worst problem in terms of numbers of fatalities occurs in built-up areas, on two-way undivided roads and at mid-block locations. Especially at risk are older people - almost 73% of pedestrians killed were 55 years or older. In order to show the effect of various factors on pedestrian fatality risk, a binary logit model with interaction terms was developed. The model shows that the following factors increase the probability of pedestrian's death at unsignalized zebra crosswalks: darkness, especially with no street lighting, divided road, two-way road, non built-up area, mid-block crosswalk location and summer time period. Speed limit is a crucial factor: probability of death increases by 37% with every 10km/h rise in the speed limit. Fatality risk increases also with victim's age and is higher for male pedestrians. PMID:26322732

  4. Occupational accidents in the Netherlands: incidence, mental harm, and their relationship with psychosocial factors at work.

    PubMed

    van der Klauw, Marloes; Hengel, Karen Oude; Roozeboom, Maartje Bakhuys; Koppes, Lando L; Venema, Anita

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence of mental harm due to occupational accidents and the relation between psychosocial factors at work and the occurrence of occupational accidents in the Netherlands for the construction industry and health and welfare sector. Analyses revealed that occupational accidents in the construction industry more often involved physical harm, whereas accidents in the health and welfare sector relatively more often resulted in mental harm, in comparison to other sectors. Results showed that psychosocial factors were associated with occupational accidents in both sectors. For the construction industry, high time pressure and exposure to violence and harassment by colleagues or supervisors were associated with occupational accidents. For the health and welfare sector, low autonomy and exposure to violence and harassment by colleagues or supervisors or by people outside the organization were associated with occupational accidents. The present paper stresses the importance of also taking psychological consequences and psychosocial factors at work into account in assessing the occurrence of occupational accidents. PMID:25531558

  5. 77 FR 66649 - Proposed Revision to Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors... comment period. SUMMARY: On October 9, 2012 (77 FR 61446), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or...), Section 19.0 ``Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors.'' The NRC...

  6. Organizational factors related to occupational accidents in construction.

    PubMed

    Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices. PMID:22317355

  7. A route-specific system for risk assessment of radioactive materials transportation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.E.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    A low-cost, powerful geographic information system (GIS) that operates on a personal computer was integrated into a software system to provide route specific assessment of the risks associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive and hazardous materials in transportation accidents. The highway transportation risk assessment (HITRA) software system described here combines a commercially available GIS (TransCAD) with appropriate models and data files for route- and accident-specific factors, such as meteorology, dispersion, demography, and health effects to permit detailed analysis of transportation risk assessment. The HITRA system allows a user to interactively select a highway or railroad route from a GIS database of major US transportation routes. A route-specific risk assessment is then performed to estimate downwind release concentrations and the resulting potential health effects imposed on the exposed population under local environmental and temporal conditions. The integration of GIS technology with current risk assessment methodology permits detailed analysis coupled with enhanced user interaction. Furthermore, HITRA provides flexibility and documentation for route planning, updating and improving the databases required for evaluating specific transportation routes, changing meteorological and environmental conditions, and local demographics.

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  9. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  10. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José Rafael; Morris, Jane; Pikula, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for stroke prevention. Understanding of risk factors has advanced and several options are now available to treat modifiable risk factors. However, effective treatment remains a challenging task in clinical practice. Prevention begins with awareness of risk factors by patients and clinicians. Risk factor assessment along with overall stroke risk estimation should be part of evaluation of patients with stroke, and used with careful clinical judgment. In this review we discuss the impact of modifiable traditional vascular risk factors on ischemic stroke, interventions for stroke prevention, and evidence for early treatment of risk factors where available as well as areas of research progress. Emphasis should be paid in education of patients, the community and medical personnel. Future research in the field of genetic determinants of vascular risk factors and stroke will increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease and likely result in development of new therapies and individualized programs for stroke prevention. PMID:19124428

  11. A UK survey of driving behaviour, fatigue, risk taking and road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present research was to examine associations between poor driving behaviour (DB), driving when fatigued (DF), risk taking (RT) and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Design The study involved a cross-sectional online survey of clients of an insurance company. The survey measured DB (speeding, distraction, lapses of attention and aggression), RT and frequency of driving when fatigued (DF, driving late at night, prolonged driving, driving after a demanding working day and driving with a cold). Demographic, lifestyle, job characteristics and psychosocial factors were also measured and used as covariates. Setting Cardiff, UK. Sample 3000 clients of an insurance company agreed to participate in the study, and 2856 completed the survey (68% woman, 32% man; mean age: 34 years, range 18–74 years). Main outcome measures The outcomes were RTAs (requiring medical attention; not requiring medical attention), where the person was the driver. Results Factor analyses showed that DB, RT and fatigue loaded on independent factors. Logistic regressions showed that poor DB, frequently DF and taking risks predicted medical and non-medical RTAs. These effects were additive and those who reported poor DB, driving when fatigue and taking risks were twice as likely to have an RTA. These effects remained significant when demographic, lifestyle, medical, driving, work and psychosocial factors were covaried. Conclusions Poor DB, DF and RT predict RTAs. There are now short measuring instruments that can assess these, and driver education programmes must increase awareness of these risk factors. PMID:27540100

  12. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  13. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of a study, please call the Scleroderma Research Foundation at 1-800-441-CURE. Environmental Risk Some ... is both time consuming and expensive. The Scleroderma Research Foundation continues to fund and facilitate the most promising ...

  14. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Asgari Darian, Ali; Rahim, Fakher; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Nabi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82) were evaluated (92.4% male). Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44%) of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%). 610 (87.1%) cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53%) occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4%) cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1%) patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001). The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%), motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%), and car-motorcycle (13.14%) accidents (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  15. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  16. Suicide in peacekeepers: risk factors for suicide versus accidental death.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-08-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to suicide risk, even when controlling for mental health problems. No peacekeeping-related factor was associated with suicide. Preventive measures should focus on firearms control, improved detection systems for mental health problems in the military, and peer support through veterans' associations. PMID:16978097

  17. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Orriols, Ludivine; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Taillard, Jacques; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents. Results As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57–63.50, p<0.05). The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30–8.63, p<0.05), 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00–2.85, p<0.05), 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03–3.97, p<0.05), and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14–9.44, p<0.05). Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents. Conclusion Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers. PMID:25494198

  18. Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B.; Blower, D.F.

    1994-04-01

    Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

  19. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  20. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  1. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters. Experts` determination of structural response issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, R.J.; Harper, F.T.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Murfin, W.; Amos, C.N.

    1992-03-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ``so-called`` point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station were assessed. Much of the important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Structural Response Panel.

  2. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.C.; Breeding, R.J.; Jow, H.N.; Shiver, A.W. ); Helton, J.C. ); Smith, L.N. )

    1990-12-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. 39 refs., 174 figs., 133 tabs.

  3. Overview of critical risk factors in Power-Two-Wheeler safety.

    PubMed

    Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Yannis, George; Golias, John C

    2012-11-01

    Power-Two-Wheelers (PTWs) constitute a vulnerable class of road users with increased frequency and severity of accidents. The present paper focuses of the PTW accident risk factors and reviews existing literature with regard to the PTW drivers' interactions with the automobile drivers, as well as interactions with infrastructure elements and weather conditions. Several critical risk factors are revealed with different levels of influence to PTW accident likelihood and severity. A broad classification based on the magnitude and the need for further research for each risk factor is proposed. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of dealing with accident configurations, the data quality and availability, methods implemented to model risk and exposure and risk identification which are critical for a thorough understanding of the determinants of PTW safety. PMID:22579296

  4. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective if given quickly. Every minute counts! "Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms", NINDS. June 1, 2008. Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  5. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  6. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  7. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs.

  8. Study on the application of the Kent index method on the risk assessment of disastrous accidents in subway engineering.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Mingyang; Yang, Baohuai; Rong, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    With the development of subway engineering, according to uncertain factors and serious accidents involved in the construction of subways, implementing risk assessment is necessary and may bring a number of benefits for construction safety. The Kent index method extensively used in pipeline construction is improved to make risk assessment much more practical for the risk assessment of disastrous accidents in subway engineering. In the improved method, the indexes are divided into four categories, namely, basic, design, construction, and consequence indexes. In this study, a risk assessment model containing four kinds of indexes is provided. Three kinds of risk occurrence modes are listed. The probability index model which considers the relativity of the indexes is established according to the risk occurrence modes. The model provides the risk assessment process through the fault tree method and has been applied in the risk assessment of Nanjing subway's river-crossing tunnel construction. Based on the assessment results, the builders were informed of what risks should be noticed and what they should do to avoid the risks. The need for further research is discussed. Overall, this method may provide a tool for the builders, and improve the safety of the construction. PMID:23710136

  9. Assessment of the risk due to release of carbon fiber in civil aircraft accidents, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M. E.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    The risk associated with the potential use of carbon fiber composite material in commercial jet aircraft is investigated. A simulation model developed to generate risk profiles for several airports is described. The risk profiles show the probability that the cost due to accidents in any year exceeds a given amount. The computer model simulates aircraft accidents with fire, release of fibers, their downwind transport and infiltration of buildings, equipment failures, and resulting ecomomic impact. The individual airport results were combined to yield the national risk profile.

  10. Meeting report: suggestions for studies on future health risks following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Tomoko; Schonfeld, Sara J; Abe, Masafumi; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Deltour, Isabelle; Ishida, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohto, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Schüz, Joachim; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    In October 2013, the Radiation Medical Science Center of the Fukushima Medical University and the Section of Environment and Radiation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer held a joint workshop in Fukushima, Japan to discuss opportunities and challenges for long-term studies of the health effects following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This report describes four key areas of discussion -- thyroid screening, dosimetry, mental health, and non-radiation risk factors -- and summarizes recommendations resulting from the workshop. Four recommendations given at the workshop were to: 1) build-up a population-based cancer registry for long-term monitoring of the cancer burden in the prefecture; 2) enable future linkage of data from the various independent activities, particularly those related to dose reconstruction and health status ascertainment; 3) establish long-term observational studies with repeated measurements of lifestyle and behavioural factors to disentangle radiation and non-radiation factors; and 4) implement primary prevention strategies targeted for populations affected by natural disasters, including measures to better understand and address health risk concerns in the affected population. The workshop concluded that coordinated data collection between researchers from different institutes and disciplines can both reduce the burden on the population and facilitate efforts to examine the inter-relationships between the many factors at play. PMID:25889395

  11. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention 2014-2015 Alzheimer's Disease Progress Report: Advancing Research ...

  12. Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Pate-Cornell, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Safety regulations, firm size, and the risk of accidents in E&P operations on the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Iledare, O.O.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.; Dismukes, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    The current expanded role of smaller independent oil producers in the OCS has led to concern about the possibility of increased risk of accidents in E&P operations on the Gulf of Mexico OCS. In addition, questions have been posed concerning the effects of the Minerals Management Service`s (MMS) safety regulations and inspection program, firm size, and industry practices on the risk of accidents in E&P operations on the Gulf of Mexico OCS. The specific purposes of the study reported in this paper were to ascertain (1) whether any empirical justification exists for the widespread concern that an increase in independents relative share of E&P operations in the Gulf OCS region will be detrimental to safety, and (2) whether MMS policies and safety programs have reduced the frequency or severity of accidents on the OCS. Our statistical and descriptive analyses of data on accidents from MMS provide no statistical evidence to support the apprehension that an expanded role for independents in E&P activity constitutes any major threat to safety on the OCS. Further, the results of our econometrics analysis confirm the expectation that the more effective MMS inspectors are at detecting incidents of noncompliance the lower the rate of accidents on the OCS is, ceteris paribus. In addition the results indicate that the variability in platform exposure years--cumulative age of operating platform--in comparison to other factors explains a significant portion of the variation in accidents per operating platform. That is, the platform aging process provides more opportunity for accidents than any other contributing factors. Our econometrics analysis also suggests that, if the other factors contributing to offshore accidents are held constant, the responsiveness of accident rate to drilling activity is inelastic while the response of accident rate to production activity levels is elastic.

  14. Major chemical accidents in industrializing countries: the socio-political amplification of risk.

    PubMed

    de Souza Porto, M F; de Freitas, C M

    1996-02-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry, such as those that took place in Seveso (1976) and Bhopal (1984), may kill or injure thousands of people, cause serious health hazards and irreversible environmental damage. The aim of this paper is to examine the ever-increasing risk of similar accidents becoming a frequent ocurrence in the so-called industrializing countries. Using figures from some of the worst chemical accidents in the last decades, data on the Bhopal disaster, and Brazil's social and institutional characteristics, we put forward the hypothesis that present social, political and economic structures in industrializing countries make these countries much more vulnerable to such accidents and create the type of setting where--if and when these accidents occur--they will have even more catastrophic consequences. The authors argue that only the transformation of local structures, and stronger technical cooperation between international organizations, industrialized and industrializing countries could reduce this vulnerability. PMID:8868221

  15. Predictors of Suicide and Accident Death in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, Michael; Kessler, Ronald C.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.; Cox, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multicomponent study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce Army suicides and increase knowledge of risk and resilience factors for suicidality. OBJECTIVES To present data on prevalence, trends, and basic sociodemographic and Army experience correlates of suicides and accident deaths among active duty Regular Army soldiers between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, and thereby establish a foundation for future Army STARRS investigations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Analysis of trends and predictors of suicide and accident deaths using Army and Department of Defense administrative data systems. Participants were all members of the US Regular Army serving at any time between 2004 and 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Death by suicide or accident during active Army service. RESULTS The suicide rate rose between 2004 and 2009 among never deployed and currently and previously deployed Regular Army soldiers. The accident death rate fell sharply among currently deployed soldiers, remained constant among the previously deployed, and trended upward among the never deployed. Increased suicide risk was associated with being a man (or a woman during deployment), white race/ethnicity, junior enlisted rank, recent demotion, and current or previous deployment. Sociodemographic and Army experience predictors were generally similar for suicides and accident deaths. Time trends in these predictors and in the Army’s increased use of accession waivers (which relaxed some qualifications for new soldiers) do not explain the rise in Army suicides. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Predictors of Army suicides were largely similar to those reported elsewhere for civilians, although some predictors distinct to Army service emerged that deserve more in-depth analysis. The existence of a time trend in suicide risk among never-deployed soldiers argues indirectly against the view

  16. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  17. Effects of driver nationality and road characteristics on accident fault risk.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Golias, John; Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates the combined effect of driver nationality and several road characteristics (area type, at or not at junction, lighting conditions) on accident fault risk. Data from the national accident database of Greece are used to calculate accident relative fault risk rates under induced exposure assumptions. A log-linear analysis is then used to examine first- and higher-order effects within three or more variable groups. The examination of the second-order interaction among the accident fault risks of various driver nationalities at or not at junction was found to be significant. On the contrary, the respective combined effects of area type and lighting conditions were found to be non-significant. It was also shown that roadway features do not affect accident fault risk in a combined way. Results clearly indicate that foreign drivers in Greece are at increased risk. Moreover, foreign nationalities corresponding to permanent residents (i.e. Greeks and Albanians) appear to be at lower fault risk compared to foreign nationalities corresponding to tourists and visitors (e.g. EU Nationals). The effects of the various road characteristics do not modify these general trends. PMID:17729136

  18. Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

  19. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  20. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  1. Risk Factors For Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young; Tan, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recent literature on risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with an emphasis on genetic, comorbid diseases and environmental factors associated with CRS. Through identifying potential risk factors for CRS, we glean insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Recent findings demonstrate that genetics, comorbid medical conditions including airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and various demographic and environmental factors are associated with having a CRS diagnosis. Limitations of current studies include, variable application of disease definitions, lack of prospective longitudinal studies and a disproportionate focus on tertiary care populations. Summary CRS has a broad spectrum of associations ranging from genetics to comorbid diseases and environmental factors. These predisposing factors provide valuable information for possible designing therapeutic and preventive interventions. However, to better understand whether these associations cause CRS, further studies are needed to independently replicate findings, establish temporal relationships between exposure and disease onset, evaluate the influence of exposure dose on disease severity, and to understand the biological effects of these risk factors in the context of CRS. PMID:25479315

  2. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  3. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced. PMID:26739714

  4. A personal overview of accidents and risk management in the recreational diving industry.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Bret

    2010-09-01

    Recently the recreational diving industry has experienced an increase in accidents and fatalities (per capita, based on reliable estimates of diver populations). Many of these incidents have resulted from a degradation of training standards for 'performance-based' learning of skills and knowledge, both for students and the instructors, dive masters, and assistants who are responsible for their initial training and subsequent courses aimed at 'advanced' curricula. The industry has also seen a decline in the experience and practical expertise of diving leadership staff responsible for the management of resorts and liveaboard diving operations. The resulting incidents have led to a rise in legal actions and settlement costs or trial verdicts. The important contributing issues in accident causation are discussed. A fundamental lack of understanding of how to effectively use the tools of risk management (waivers and releases, defensive teaching, good record keeping), as well as inadequate pre-training screening that might eliminate some participants based on age, physical condition, or pre-existing medical issues, are contributing to this increase. These factors also complicate the efficient management of litigation through the courts. The costs associated with litigation are now causing increased insurance premiums, reduced scope of coverage for some activities, and outright denial to some seeking insurance. This paper provides a personal perspective based on a 40-year involvement in all aspects of the diving industry and extensive experience in the litigation process as a consultant and expert witness. PMID:23111912

  5. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures. PMID:9883305

  6. Punishment as a factor in preventing alcohol-related accidents.

    PubMed

    Ross, H L

    1993-07-01

    As a humanitarian and economic 'bad', infliction of punishment requires justification in terms of compensating achievements, as well as moral appropriateness. In the context of road accidents, there is evidence that increasing the certainty and swiftness of threatened punishment may deter risky behavior, although increasing the severity of the threat seems ineffective. These effects may be generalizable to other kinds of accidents, but empirical evidence is lacking. A further possibility for the justifiable use of punishment is in its application to negligent service of alcohol. PMID:8358271

  7. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  8. Application of Latin hypercube sampling to RADTRAN 4 truck accident risk sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, F.L.

    1994-12-31

    The sensitivity of calculated dose estimates to various RADTRAN 4 inputs is an available output for incident-free analysis because the defining equations are linear and sensitivity to each variable can be calculated in closed mathematical form. However, the necessary linearity is not characteristic of the equations used in calculation of accident dose risk, making a similar tabulation of sensitivity for RADTRAN 4 accident analysis impossible. Therefore, a study of sensitivity of accident risk results to variation of input parameters was performed using representative routes, isotopic inventories, and packagings. It was determined that, of the approximately two dozen RADTRAN 4 input parameters pertinent to accident analysis, only a subset of five or six has significant influence on typical analyses or is subject to random uncertainties. These five or six variables were selected as candidates for Latin Hypercube Sampling applications. To make the effect of input uncertainties on calculated accident risk more explicit, distributions and limits were determined for two variables which had approximately proportional effects on calculated doses: Pasquill Category probability (PSPROB) and link population density (LPOPD). These distributions and limits were used as input parameters to Sandia`s Latin Hypercube Sampling code to generate 50 sets of RADTRAN 4 input parameters used together with point estimates of other necessary inputs to calculate 50 observations of estimated accident dose risk.Tabulations of the RADTRAN 4 accident risk input variables and their influence on output plus illustrative examples of the LHS calculations, for truck transport situations that are typical of past experience, will be presented .

  9. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    SciTech Connect

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L.

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Crew Communication as a Factor in Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of air transport accidents caused by problems in crew communication and coordination was investigated. Communication patterns which are most effective in specific situations were determined. Methods to assess the effectiveness of crew communication patterns were developed. The results lead to the development of new methods training crews in effective communication and provide guidelines for the design of aviation procedures and equipment.

  11. Accident risks in nuclear facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning risk analysis and hazards evaluation of the design, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities. The citations also explore the risk and hazards of transporting radioactive materials to and from these facilities. Radiological calculations for environmental effects of nuclear accidents and the use of computer models in risk analysis are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Accident risks in nuclear facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning risk analysis and hazards evaluation of the design, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities. The citations also explore the risk and hazards of transporting radioactive materials to and from these facilities. Radiological calculations for environmental effects of nuclear accidents and the use of computer models in risk analysis are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Avalanche risk in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2014-08-01

    In Switzerland, the vast majority of avalanche accidents occurs during recreational activities. Risk analysis studies mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e. how many and where people are recreating. We compared the accident data (backcountry touring) with reports from two social media mountaineering networks - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. On these websites, users reported more than 15 000 backcountry tours during the five winters 2009/2010 to 2013/2014. We noted similar patterns in avalanche accident data and user data like demographics of recreationists, distribution of the day of the week (weekday vs. weekend) or weather conditions (fine vs. poor weather). However, we also found differences such as the avalanche danger conditions on days with activities and accidents, but also the geographic distribution. While backcountry activities are concentrated in proximity to the main population centres in the West and North of the Swiss Alps, a large proportion of the severe avalanche accidents occurred in the inner-alpine, more continental regions with frequently unfavorably snowpack structure. This suggests that even greater emphasis should be put on the type of avalanche problem in avalanche education and avalanche forecasting to increase the safety of backcountry recreationists.

  14. Risk factors for postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kutun, Suat; Ulucanlar, Haluk; Tarcan, Oguz; Demir, Abdullah; Cetin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine extended postoperative ileus and its risk factors in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, and discuss the techniques of prevention and management thereof the light of related risk factors connected with our study. Methods This prospective study involved 103 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, surgical operation conducted, excessive small intestine manipulation, opioid analgesic usage time, and systemic inflammation on the time required for the restoration of intestinal motility were investigated. The parameters were investigated prospectively. Results Regarding the factors that affected the restoration of gastrointestinal motility, resection operation type, longer operation period, longer opioid analgesics use period, longer nasogastric catheter use period, and the presence of systemic inflammation were shown to retard bowel motility for 3 days or more. Conclusion Our study confirmed that unnecessary analgesics use in patients with pain tolerance with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive small bowel manipulation, prolonged nasogastric catheter use have a direct negative effect on gastrointestinal motility. Considering that an exact treatment for postoperative ileus has not yet been established, and in light of the risk factors mentioned above, we regard that prevention of postoperative ileus is the most effective way of coping with intestinal dysmotility. PMID:22111079

  15. Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

    2011-05-01

    Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. PMID:21376918

  16. [Safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin-Hong; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Fu, Qing; Hung, Min-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    It was an urgent problem to determine short-term exposure safety concentration of genetic carcinogens in water pollution accident in China. Based on the hypothesis that the relationship between exposure dosage and carcinogenic risk was linear, the calculation process of genetic carcinogens safety concentration was put forwarded, and the method using life-time exposed safety concentration to calculate short-term exposure safety concentration was set up. Based on the statistical result of water pollution accident occurred in china during 2000-2010, arsenic was a major characteristic contaminate in water pollution accident. According to the method of short-term exposure safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens, the safety concentration of arsenic was 0.5 mg x L(-1), it showed that the method was feasible in emergence management of water pollution accident. PMID:22509565

  17. [Environmental Risk Factors for Dementia].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2016-07-01

    Owing to recent advancements in imaging techniques and biomarker research, the natural history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become clear from the very first preclinical stage. According to the study, more than 20 years before the onset of AD, Aβ starts to accumulate in the brain. This induces neurofibrillary tangle formation in the cerebral isocortex, leading to cognitive decline. If this process is suppressed, disease activity can be controlled. However, at this point, the best and most realistic way to deal with AD is to target the environmental factors that have been identified as risk factors by epidemiological studies. PMID:27395468

  18. Human factors and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.

    1996-11-01

    A case study was presented in the 1994 Abu Dhabi International Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC, 94) which discussed the importance of investigating human factors in the design of a high integrity protection system (HIPS) to be installed on an offshore high pressure gas platform, (SPE reference ADSPE 80). This paper will follow up on the design changes, installation and operation of the HIPS with emphasis on practical implications as a result of improper integration of human factors in the system reliability and risk assessment studies.

  19. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K.; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public’s attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies. PMID:24248341

  20. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  1. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. Objectives: In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. Patients and Methods: The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational) in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran) with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. Results: The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations) and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P < 0.02), personality trait of conscientiousness (P < 0.02), failure schema due to the parenting style of mother (P = 0.001), and perception of police commands (P < 0.002), played an important role in predicting driving behavior. Among social factors, perception of police regulations (P = 0.003), had an important effect on violations and mistakes. Among environmental and behavioral factors, major factors such as driving age (P = 0.001), drug and alcohol use (P = 0.001), having driver’s license (P = 0.013), records of imprisonment or committing a crime (P = 0.012) were also able to predict

  2. [The epidemiological analysis of monitoring of the immune status in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident for early identification of risk groups and diagnostics of oncological diseases. Report 2. Dependence of frequency and changes in the immune status on risk factors of radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaia, I V; Pashchenkova, Iu G; Feoktistov, V V; Nikonova, M F; Vikulov, G Kh; Bozheskaia, N V; Smirnova, N N

    2011-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms (MN) have been found to develop most frequently in the liquidators of entry into the ChNPP zones in 1986 (43.75%), as well as among the liquidators who worked for long, one quarter of whom participated in liquidation of the consequences of failure (LCF) in 1986. Specific features of the immune status depending on the timing of participation in LCF and the year of entry into the ChN PP zone have been established. Changes in the immune system in the persons with a confirmed diagnosis of MN who took both a non-permanent and permanent part in liquidating the consequences of the ChNPP failure in 1986 had the same character of deviations and differed in the magnitudes of deviations of immunological parameters. Continuous participation in the period of extreme conditions and a greater exposure to the radiation factor led to the increased content of CD8(+)-T-cells, CD16(+)-lymphocytes and activated T-lymphocytes, as well as to the reduced index of immune regulation, decreased content ofCD3-16/56+(NK)-cells (%) and the total IgE and to a greater deficiency of B-lymphocytes. Distinctions in the groups of liquidators who participated in LCF in 1986 and 1987 have been revealed. The greatest deviations in the IS indicators were found in liquidators-87. A similar effect came to light in case of a continuance in the ChNPP zones in 1986 and 1987; however, the degree of deviation of the content of CD4(+)-T-lymphocytes (41), CD8(+)-T-lymphocytes (1) and the immune regulation index (41) were remarkably higher in liquidators-87. A continuous stay in the ChNPP zones in 1987 led to the deficiency of CD4(+)-T-lymphocytes, increased values of CD8(+)-T-lymphocytes, a decreased index of CD4+/CD8+, as well as to the change in the ratio between NK-T and NK cells, increased numbers of CD95+, HLA-DR+ and activated T-lymphocytes, and a lower level of the total IgE. Long-term participation in LCF didn't cause any enhanced expression of cellular activation markers in

  3. [Motivation of the employer for accident prevention and rehabilitation through risk-justified premiums].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A L; Merz, R

    1989-01-01

    The Swiss workers' compensation law prescribes experience rating. Successful efforts of an employer to reduce the risk of accidents through adequate preventive measures on one hand, and on the other hand to keep subsequent costs of still occurring accidents low with quick, consistent and generous measures of rehabilitation, will therefore result in a lower insurance rate. The motivating influence and success of this self-responsibility is pointed out with the figures of a trading company who had been detached from a large risk-community due to bad results. The success with accident prevention and the very favourable ratio achievable of costs for medical treatment (as a measure for the severity of the injuries) to daily payments and costs for permanent disabilities is shown with the example of a construction machinery company. What relations and consecutive costs result from (partly conscious) neglect of rehabilitation is demonstrated with the figures of a construction company. PMID:2532438

  4. Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Conche, Florence; Tight, Miles

    2006-11-01

    This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of similar events may be prevented in the future. CCTV records of accidents could provide an independent perspective on an accident and have the potential to increase both the quality and quantity of information available to the safety researcher. This study focuses on an area of central Leeds in the UK and shows that an existing CCTV camera system used for urban traffic management reasons has the potential to record around a quarter of the accidents which occur in the area, based on patterns of past occurrence. Most city centres in the UK will have similar camera systems set-up. By the introduction of additional strategically placed cameras and replacement of existing cameras with ones dedicated to accident recording, this figure could be increased substantially. The paper also considers how effective cameras and video records will be as a means of identifying contributory factor information once an accident is recorded. The contributory factor classification used by a recently introduced system in Britain is assessed in terms of how visible each of the factors is likely to be on video and their relative frequency of occurrence. It is concluded that CCTV has a high potential to provide corroborative evidence about many of the most commonly occurring factors, and to throw further light on accident causation. PMID:16824454

  5. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses; Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T.; Helton, J.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community.

  6. Venomous mollusks: the risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: conidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; de Paula Neto, João Batista; Cobo, Válter José

    2006-01-01

    Mollusks of the genus Conus present a venomous apparatus composed of radulae, a chitin structure linked to glands, which injects potent neurotoxic peptides, causing serious human envenomation and even death, associated with the blockage of certain receptors and muscular paralysis. No reported envenomation has occurred in Brazil, but certain populations are at risk of accidents. PMID:17160331

  7. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies. PMID:17920847

  8. Risk Analysis for Public Consumption: Media Coverage of the Ginna Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwoody, Sharon; And Others

    Researchers have determined that the lay public makes risk judgments in ways that are very different from those advocated by scientists. Noting that these differences have caused considerable concern among those who promote and regulate health and safety, a study examined media coverage of the accident at the Robert E. Ginna nuclear power plant…

  9. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150.

  10. Documentation for RISKIN: A risk integration code for MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) output

    SciTech Connect

    Rollstin, J.A. ); Hong, Kou-John )

    1990-11-01

    This document has been prepared as a user's guide for the computer program RISKIN developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The RISKIN code generates integrated risk tables and the weighted mean risk associated with a user-selected set of consequences from up to five output files generated by the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Each MACCS output file can summarize the health and economic consequences resulting from up to 60 distinct severe accident source terms. Since the accident frequency associated with these source terms is not included as a MACCS input parameter a postprocessor is required to derived results that must incorporate accident frequency. The RISKIN code is such a postprocessor. RISKIN will search the MACCS output files for the mean and peak consequence values and the complementary cumulative distributive function (CCDF) tables for each requested consequence. Once obtained, RISKIN combines this data with accident frequency data to produce frequency weighted results. A postprocessor provides RISKIN an interface to the proprietary DISSPLA plot package. The RISKIN code has been written using ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 to maximize its portability.

  11. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP. PMID:26057539

  12. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents’ risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP. PMID:26057539

  13. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  14. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  15. Driving behaviors and accident risk under lifetime license revocation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Woo, T Hugh; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Tseng, I-Yen

    2011-07-01

    This study explored the driving behaviors and crash risk of 768 drivers who were under administrative lifetime driver's license revocation (ALLR). It was found that most of the ALLR offenders (83.2%) were still driving and only a few (16.8%) of them gave up driving completely. Of the offenders still driving, 67.6% experienced encountering a police roadside check, but were not detained or ticketed by the police. Within this group, 50.6% continued driving while encountering a police check, 18.0% of them made an immediate U-turn and 9.5% of them parked and exited their car. As to crash risk, 15.2% of the ALLR offenders had at least one crash experience after the ALLR had been imposed. The results of the logistic regression models showed that the offenders' crash risk while under the ALLR was significantly correlated with their personal characteristics (personal income), penalty status (incarceration, civil compensation and the time elapsed since license revocation), annual distance driven, and needs for driving (working, commuting and driving kids). Low-income offenders were more inclined to have a crash while driving under the ALLR. Offenders penalized by being incarcerated or by paying a high civil compensation drove more carefully and were less of a crash risk under the ALLR. The results also showed there were no differences in crash risk under the ALLR between hit-and-run offences and drunk driving offences or for offenders with a professional license or an ordinary license. Generally, ALLR offenders drove somewhat more carefully and were less of a crash risk (4.3 crashes per million km driven) than legal licensed drivers (23.1 crashes per million km driven). Moreover, they seemed to drive more carefully than drivers who were under short-term license suspension/revocation which previous studies have found. PMID:21545870

  16. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  17. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management-global radiocontamination and information disaster.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-06-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Fukushima Health Management Survey Project" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

  18. Risk assessment of severe accident-induced steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the basis, results, and related risk implications of an analysis performed by an ad hoc working group of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the containment bypass potential attributable to steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) induced by severe accident conditions. The SGTR Severe Accident Working Group, comprised of staff members from the NRC`s Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), undertook the analysis beginning in December 1995 to support a proposed steam generator integrity rule. The work drew upon previous risk and thermal-hydraulic analyses of core damage sequences, with a focus on the Surry plant as a representative example. This analysis yielded new results, however, derived by predicting thermal-hydraulic conditions of selected severe accident scenarios using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, flawed tube failure modeling, and tube failure probability estimates. These results, in terms of containment bypass probability, form the basis for the findings presented in this report. The representative calculation using Surry plant data indicates that some existing plants could be vulnerable to containment bypass resulting from tube failure during severe accidents. To specifically identify the population of plants that may pose a significant bypass risk would require more definitive analysis considering uncertainties in some assumptions and plant- and design-specific variables. 46 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs.

  19. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Comprehensive Health Risk Management—Global Radiocontamination and Information Disaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the “Fukushima Health Management Survey Project” for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management. PMID:25425958

  20. Coronary risk factors in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Primrose, D; Cran, G; Strain, J

    1993-01-01

    Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern Ireland are among the highest in the world. However, no data have been available to test the hypothesis that the high prevalence of CHD is reflected by the risk status of the childhood population. A randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 children aged 12 and 15 years was studied to obtain baseline information on blood pressure, lipid profile, cigarette smoking, family history, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary fat intake. Using available criteria thresholds, 15-23% displayed increased blood pressure, 12-25% had unfavourable lipid profiles, and 18-34% were overfat. In 15 year old children, 16-21% admitted being regular smokers, 26-34% displayed poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and 24-29% reported little physical activity in the previous week. Dietary analysis revealed relatively low polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios and high mean fat intakes, accounting for approximately 40% total daily energy. Despite the exclusion of family history from the analysis, 16% of the older children exhibited three or more risk factors. These results justify major concern about the level of potential coronary risk in Northern Ireland schoolchildren. Broadly based primary prevention strategies aimed at children are essential if future adult CHD mortality is to be reduced. PMID:8481039

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    PubMed Central

    Chiem, Binh; Nguyen, Victoria; Wu, Phillis L; Ko, Celine M; Cruz, Lee Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community. PMID:17156462

  2. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

  3. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  4. Concurrent Risk Factors for Adolescent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saner, Hilary; Ellickson, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examines the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in high school adolescents. Major risk factors include gender and deviant behaviors, committing nonviolent felonies, academic failure, and lack of parental affection and support. As risk factors increase, the likelihood of violent behavior increases. Impaired parental…

  5. The Human Factors of an Early Space Accident: Flight 3-65 of the X-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    The X-15 was a critical research vehicle in the early days of space flight. On November 15, 1967, the X-15-3 suffered an in-flight breakup. This 191st flight of the X-15 and the 65th flight of this third configuration was the only fatal accident of the X-15 program. This paper presents an analysis, from a human factors perspective, of the events that led up to the accident. The analysis is based on the information contained in the report of the Air Force-NASA Accident Investigation Board (AIB) dated January, 1968. The AIBs analysis addressed, primarily, the events that occurred subsequent to the pilots taking direct control of the reaction control system. The analysis described here suggests that all of the events that caused the accident occurred well before the moment when the pilot switched to direct control. Consequently, the analyses and conclusions regarding the causal factors of, and the contributing factors to, the loss of Flight 3-65 presented here differ from those of the AIB based on the same evidence. Although the accident occurred in 1967, the results of the presented analysis are still relevant today. We present our analysis and discuss its implications for the safety of space operations.

  6. [Health education as a factor in decreasing traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Niksić, D; Masić, I; Mehmedbegović-Zivanović, A

    1999-01-01

    Traffic security in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina is getting worse. Use of motor vehicles and frequency of roads are in constant increase. Import of cars of different types, models, ages and quality caused that we are among the countries with insufficiently developed traffic security. Critical group of the traffic participants consists of young people and children. Their behaviour in traffic depends on their knowledge and attitude gained at home and school. Goal of this paper is to point out the importance of health-education activities in traffic security development. Evaluation was performed among the school children in a transit area in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results show that school children have no enough knowledge about traffic rules; 13.4% of them don't know a single traffic sign. Even 19.9% of them got injured in traffic accidents, out of which 41.4% got injured while riding a bicycle and 22.4% as pedestrians. These initial results show that level of children's traffic culture can be raised only through systematic and permanent education within regular curriculum. Topics on traffic security should be an integral part of education programme, and presented through various subjects. PMID:10386049

  7. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

    2006-09-01

    Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection. PMID:16730627

  8. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Riding horses on roads can be dangerous, but little is known about accidents and near misses. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey, mostly attributed to speed. Whilst our findings confirmed factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around road rules, hand signals and road rage. This paper suggests strategies for improving the safety of horses, riders and other road users. Abstract Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles; (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses; (3) mandating personal protective equipment; (4) improving road signage; (5) comprehensive data collection; (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users; (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment

  9. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create

  11. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create

  12. Environmental risk management for radiological accidents: integrating risk assessment and decision analysis for remediation at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Yatsalo, Boris; Sullivan, Terrence; Didenko, Vladimir; Linkov, Igor

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the Tohuku earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, and led to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. Although the full extent of the contamination is not currently known, the highly complex nature of the environmental contamination (radionuclides in water, soil, and agricultural produce) typical of nuclear accidents requires a detailed geospatial analysis of information with the ability to extrapolate across different scales with applications to risk assessment models and decision making support. This article briefly summarizes the approach used to inform risk-based land management and remediation decision making after the Chernobyl, Soviet Ukraine, accident in 1986. PMID:21608109

  13. Using cost/risk procedures to establish recovery criteria following a nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tawil, J J; Strenge, D L

    1987-02-01

    In the event of a major accidental release of radionuclides at a nuclear power plant, large populated areas could become seriously contaminated. Local officials would be responsible for establishing radiation recovery criteria that would permit the evacuated population to return safely to their jobs and homes. The range of acceptable criteria could imply variations in property losses in the billions of dollars. Given the likely public concern over the health consequences and the enormity of the potential property losses, a cost/risk analysis can provide important input to establishing the recovery criteria. This paper describes procedures for conducting a cost/risk analysis of a site radiologically contaminated by a nuclear power plant accident. The procedures are illustrated by analyzing a hypothetically contaminated site, using software developed for determining the property and health effects of major reactor accidents. PMID:3818283

  14. [No traumatic labor accident risk in diabetic patient. View from the Spanish legislation].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, Ma Teófila; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez Íñiguez-de la Torre, Ma Victoria; López-González, Ángel Arturo; Terradillos-García, Ma Jesús; Piñaga-Solé, Montserrat; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Tejedo-Benedicto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish legislation includes the concept of industrial accidents and industrial damage since 1900, although since then in our country some legislative changes have been made, reaching the current Occupational Risk Prevention Law (ORPL) of 1995 and the legislation emanating from it. This is a controversial concept, if we talk about nontraumatic labor injury that carries consequences in the workplace, civil, criminal and contentious administrative disputes, and economic gains. It differs from others in both in qualifying risk and their benefits; the concept also exists in the other European Union countries and in different Spanish-American countries. Therefore the objective of the paper is to discuss the concept of traumatic industrial accident and non-traumatic labor injury in Spain from the point of view of our law and to establish future benchmarks with professionals of other countries around us for enabling collaboration and joint improvement of the safety and about the health of workers. PMID:21194519

  15. Comprehensive Health Risk Management after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, S

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima. PMID:26817782

  16. Statistical aspects of carbon fiber risk assessment modeling. [fire accidents involving aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, D.; Miller, D. R.; Soland, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The probabilistic and statistical aspects of the carbon fiber risk assessment modeling of fire accidents involving commercial aircraft are examined. Three major sources of uncertainty in the modeling effort are identified. These are: (1) imprecise knowledge in establishing the model; (2) parameter estimation; and (3)Monte Carlo sampling error. All three sources of uncertainty are treated and statistical procedures are utilized and/or developed to control them wherever possible.

  17. [Suicide risk factors among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pérez Barrero, Sergio Andrés

    2012-08-01

    The author offers a brief overview of suicide risk factors among the elderly such as depression, all manner of abuse of the elderly, as well as medical, psychological and social risk factors, etc. By way of conclusion, a practical guide to evaluate suicide risk among the elderly is provided. PMID:22899142

  18. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  19. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Havlícek, Jan; Kodym, Petr; Malý, Marek; Smahel, Zbyněk

    2002-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146) and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446) was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p < 0.0001). The value of the odds ratio (OR) suggests that subjects with latent toxoplasmosis had a 2.65 (C.I.95= 1.76–4.01) times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p < 0.0001), being low (OR = 1.86, C.I.95 = 1.14–3.03) for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16), higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59) for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64), and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66) for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem. PMID:12095427

  20. Potential risk factors for prolonged recovery following whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Osti, Orso L; Gun, Richard T; Abraham, George; Pratt, Nicole L; Eckerwall, Goran; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2005-02-01

    A retrospective analysis of insurance data was made of 600 individuals claiming compensation for whiplash following motor vehicle accidents. Three hundred randomly selected claimants who had settled their injury claims within 9 months of the accident were compared with 300 who had settled more than 24 months after the accident. We compared the two groups to identify possible risk factors for prolonged recovery, for which settlement time greater than 24 months was a marker. Variables considered included demographic factors, type of collision, degree of vehicle damage, workers compensation, prior claim or neck disability, treatment and time to settlement. Consulting a solicitor was associated with a highly significant, four-fold increase of late settlement of the claim. A concurrent workers' compensation claim, prior neck disability and undergoing physiotherapy or chiropractic treatment were weakly associated with late settlement. The degree of damage to the vehicle (as indicated by cost of repairs) was not a significant predictor of late settlement. Late settlement may be the direct effect of legal intervention, independent of the severity of the injury. Whilst the financial benefit to the claimant of consulting a solicitor is apparent, the benefit of prolonged disability is not. It may be to the advantage of both insurers and claimants if those likely to proceed to late settlement could be recognised early and their claims settled expeditiously. PMID:15160316

  1. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  2. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  3. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  4. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Marvin; Hoover, Mark D.; Nelson, Robert C.; Templeton, William; Bollinger, Lance; Anspaugh, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later time after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  5. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. ); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  6. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M.; Nelson, R. C.; Bollinger, L.; Hoover, M. D.

    1990-11-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  7. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

  8. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in Italy.

    PubMed

    Menotti, A

    1999-12-01

    In the 1950s the Italian population was known for its low mean levels of major cardiovascular risk factors and serum cholesterol in particular. A definite increase of those mean levels was associated, in the next 2 decades, with increasing death rates from cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart disease. Between the late 1970s and early 1990s cardiovascular death rates declined by over 40%. Large population surveys showed, between 1978 and 1987, small decreases in the mean levels of blood pressure (in both sexes), of smoking habits (in men), and of body weight (in women), while serum cholesterol remained stable. These changes mathematically explained about two-thirds of the observed decline in cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged people. In the late 1980s and early 1990s scattered population studies suggested a decline in mean population levels of serum cholesterol, at least in some areas of the country. More coordinated or systematic preventive campaigns were organized by the public health authorities. On the other hand activities of many small private organizations dealing with heart health likely explain the spread of knowledge, attitude, and practice in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Food industry started to produce low-fat products and to label foods with nutrition facts. Changes in food consumption in the beneficial direction started to be recorded in the late 1980s. The spread of antihypertensive treatment was partly favored by the National Health Service offering anti-hypertensive drugs at relatively low cost. Government regulations have more and more restricted the public areas where smoking is allowed. An increasing interest for prevention on the part of physicians is a recent issue, mainly bound to the success of some major controlled trials of hypocholesterolemic drugs. PMID:10641828

  10. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung

    2016-09-01

    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  11. Multiple Interacting Risk Factors: On Methods for Allocating Risk Factor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram; MacNicoll, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A persistent problem in health risk analysis where it is known that a disease may occur as a consequence of multiple risk factors with interactions is allocating the total risk of the disease among the individual risk factors. This problem, referred to here as risk apportionment, arises in various venues, including: (i) public health management, (ii) government programs for compensating injured individuals, and (iii) litigation. Two methods have been described in the risk analysis and epidemiology literature for allocating total risk among individual risk factors. One method uses weights to allocate interactions among the individual risk factors. The other method is based on risk accounting axioms and finding an optimal and unique allocation that satisfies the axioms using a procedure borrowed from game theory. Where relative risk or attributable risk is the risk measure, we find that the game-theory-determined allocation is the same as the allocation where risk factor interactions are apportioned to individual risk factors using equal weights. Therefore, the apportionment problem becomes one of selecting a meaningful set of weights for allocating interactions among the individual risk factors. Equal weights and weights proportional to the risks of the individual risk factors are discussed. PMID:25644783

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

  13. Chronobiologic perspectives of black time--Accident risk is greatest at night: An opinion paper.

    PubMed

    Reinberg, Alain; Smolensky, Michael H; Riedel, Marc; Touitou, Yvan; Le Floc'h, Nadine; Clarisse, René; Marlot, Michel; Berrez, Stéphane; Pelisse, Didier; Mauvieux, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Simon Folkard in 1997 introduced the phrase black time to draw attention to the fact that the risk of driving accidents (DA) is greater during the night than day in usually diurnally active persons. The 24 h temporal pattern in DA entails circadian rhythms of fatigue and sleep propensity, cognitive and physical performance, and behavior that are controlled, at least in part, by endogenous clocks. This opinion paper extends the concept of black time to reports of excess nighttime accidents and injuries of workers and nocturnal occurrence of certain man-caused catastrophes. We explore the chronobiology of work-related black time accidents and injuries taking into account laboratory and field investigations describing, respectively, circadian rhythms in cognitive performance and errors and mistakes by employees in the conduct of routine occupational tasks. Additionally, we present results of studies pertaining to 24 h patterns of both the number and relative risk (number of events per h/number of workers exposed per h) of work-related accidents (WRA) and injuries (WRI) as well as indices of performance and alertness of a self-selected homogenous survivor cohort of French firefighters (FFs) to explore two possible explanations of black time, namely, 24 h variation in sleep propensity/drossiness characterized by a nocturnal peak and circadian rhythms in cognitive performance characterized by a nocturnal trough. We propose the 24 h pattern of WRA and WRI, particularly of FFs and other highly skilled self-selected cohorts, is more strongly linked to circadian rhythms of fatigue and sleepiness than cognitive performance. Other possible explanations--suppressed expression of circadian rhythms and/or unmasking of ultradian periodicities in cognitive performance in specific circumstances, e.g., highly stressful work, competitive, or life-threatening settings, are also discussed. PMID:26181466

  14. Crew Communication as a Factor in Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J.; Linde, C.; Murphy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The crew communication process is analyzed. Planning and explanation are shown to be well-structured discourse types, described by formal rules. These formal rules are integrated with those describing the other most important discourse type within the cockpit: the command-and-control speech act chain. The latter is described as a sequence of speech acts for making requests (including orders and suggestions), for making reports, for supporting or challenging statements, and for acknowledging previous speech acts. Mitigation level, a linguistic indication of indirectness and tentativeness in speech, was an important variable in several hypotheses, i.e., the speech of subordinates is more mitigated than the speech of superiors, the speech of all crewmembers is less mitigated when they know that they are in either a problem or emergency situation, and mitigation is a factor in failures of crewmembers to initiate discussion of new topics or have suggestions ratified by the captain. Test results also show that planning and explanation are more frequently performed by captains, are done more during crew- recognized problems, and are done less during crew-recognized emergencies. The test results also indicated that planning and explanation are more frequently performed by captains than by other crewmembers, are done more during crew-recognized problems, and are done less during-recognized emergencies.

  15. [Effect of atmospheric factors on the presentation of cerebrovascular accidents].

    PubMed

    López del Val, L J; Rubio, E; Calatayud, V; López del Val, J A; Sánchez, E

    1991-02-01

    The concept of meteoropathy implicates the atmospheric properties as determining or at least provoking causes of different disease conditions. Thus, we know that changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity rate are associated with a higher incidence of stroke presentation. Considered as a whole, these three atmospheric factors have been associated with the several clinical diagnoses of stroke. A higher presentation rate of stroke has been found when the three following facts concurred: a reduction of 10 degrees (C) in the temperature of the preceding day, an increase of the atmospheric humidity rate from 20% to 60% on the day of stroke, and an increase in atmospheric pressure of 6 mlbs from the preceding day (s = 0.0000). In addition, a higher rate of presentation of stroke was found when the difference in atmospheric pressure was 16 mlbs between the day of stroke and the preceding one (s = 0.049). Also, when the atmosphere humidity rate increased from 20% to 60%, the difference in mean temperature between the day of stroke and the preceding one was 3 degrees (C), and the atmospheric pressure increased in 6 mlbs, the incidence of stroke was higher (s = 0.007). We compare these findings with those from other authors. PMID:1863464

  16. [Lifestyle-related risk factors for dementia].

    PubMed

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Kjeld; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2006-10-01

    Emerging knowledge about modifiable risk factors for dementia has given rise to interventions that can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia and the possible target periods for intervention extend from prenatal period to old age. Factors during early life such as nutrition, education, and parental socioeconomic status can influence the development of dementia later in life. From mid to late life, a physically, socially, and intellectually active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for dementia. Moreover, modification of cardiovascular risk factors during this period can potentially reduce risk for dementia. PMID:17032603

  17. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  18. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  19. [Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].

    PubMed

    Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

  20. Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Genn Saji

    2006-07-01

    The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition

  1. Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions

  2. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, Theodoros; Proestos, Yiannis; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We simulated atmospheric transport and decay, focusing on 137Cs and 131I as proxies for particulate and gaseous radionuclides, respectively. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes. We present risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations, deposition and doses to humans from the inhalation exposure of 131I. The estimated risks exhibit seasonal variability, with the highest surface level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere during winter.

  3. Sleepiness, attention and risk of accidents in powered two-wheelers.

    PubMed

    Bougard, Clément; Davenne, Damien; Espie, Stéphane; Moussay, Sébastien; Léger, Damien

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the role of "sleepiness at the wheel" in the occurrence of accidents has been increasingly highlighted with several national and international public health campaigns based on consensual research publications. However, one aspect of this phenomenon is rarely taken into account, i.e., the risk of sleep-induced accidents while riding powered two-wheelers (PTWs). PTWs are indeed involved in a high percentage of fatal accidents mostly with young male riders. The effects of sleepiness may be different in drivers and riders, partly because riders may be stimulated more by the road environment. But riders (differently from drivers) have also to maintain continuously a balance between their own stability and the need of following the road, even when they are directly exposed to adverse climatic conditions. We, therefore, gathered the limited scientific literature on this topic and tried to analyze how riders may be affected differently by sleepiness. Finally we provide some suggestions as to how this question may be better approached in the future. PMID:26140871

  4. [Nuclear accidents and iodine prophylaxis. Part 1: Risks due to irradiation of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Smeesters, P; Frühling, J; Van Bladel, L; Wambersie, A

    1998-12-01

    In the frame of the emergency procedures in the case of an accident in a nuclear plant, this paper presents a survey of the information available on the risks related to the irradiation of the thyroid gland. Attention is focused on thyroid cancer resulting from an exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine and especially and iodine-131. The consequences of the medical exposures as well as of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiations are recalled first. Then the recently available informations on the effects on the populations exposed after the Tchernobyl accident are analysed more in details. Ten years after the accident, the most striking and the least questionable effects is a significant increase of the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in children, in the areas most exposed to the initial radioactive clouds. Young children are particularly vulnerable to this type of cancer which is of aggressive nature and shows a short latency period. These observations justify an iodine prophylaxis for the populations living in the vicinity of nuclear plants. Special attention should be paid to the protection of young children. PMID:9916494

  5. Risk communication with Fukushima residents affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident at whole-body counting

    SciTech Connect

    Gunji, I.; Furuno, A.; Yonezawa, R.; Sugiyama, K.

    2013-07-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Tokai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have had direct dialogue as risk communication with Fukushima residents who underwent whole-body counting examination (WBC). The purpose of the risk communication was to exchange information and opinions about radiation in order to mitigate Fukushima residents' anxiety and stress. Two kinds of opinion surveys were performed: one survey evaluated residents' views of the nuclear accident itself and the second survey evaluated the management of WBC examination as well as the quality of JAEA's communication skills on risks. It appears that most Fukushima residents seem to have reduced their anxiety level after the direct dialogue. The results of the surveys show that Fukushima residents have the deepest anxiety and concern about their long-term health issues and that they harbor anger toward the government and TEPCO. On the other hand, many WBC patients and patients' relatives have expressed gratitude for help in reducing their feelings of anxiety.

  6. Comorbidity and radiation: methodological aspects of health assessment of persons exposed to the Chornobyl accident factors.

    PubMed

    Nosach, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity is one of the most challenging problems of a modern medicine. In a population exposed to the factors of the Chornobyl accident there is an obvious increase in the number of diseases occurring simultaneously against the background of rising prevalence of different classes of chronic medical nosology. The scientific data analysis are presented on the methodological approaches that can be used to create a specialized system for integrated assessment of the health of patients with comorbid disorders. Developing such a system it should be taken into account the trends of changes in the incidence, prevalence and structure of chronic disease, factors and regularities of comorbid disease in the cohorts of Chornobyl accident clean-up workers, evacuees and dwellers of contaminated territories. The system should provide a non-random selection of combinations (clusters) of the most common diseases with serious consequences for the survivors. PMID:25191728

  7. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  8. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers. PMID:24486771

  9. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives. PMID:26479376

  10. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  11. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  12. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Biwer, B M; Butler, J P

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often be as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per-kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessments for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations. PMID:10765454

  13. Genetic Insights into Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Many biochemical traits are recognised as risk factors, which contribute to or predict the development of disease. Only a few are in widespread use, usually to assist with treatment decisions and motivate behavioural change. The greatest effort has gone into evaluation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes, with substantial overlap as ‘cardiometabolic’ risk. Over the past few years many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought to account for variation in risk factors, with the expectation that identifying relevant polymorphisms would improve our understanding or prediction of disease; others have taken the direct approach of genomic case-control studies for the corresponding diseases. Large GWAS have been published for coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, and also for associated biomarkers or risk factors including body mass index, lipids, C-reactive protein, urate, liver function tests, glucose and insulin. Results are not encouraging for personal risk prediction based on genotyping, mainly because known risk loci only account for a small proportion of risk. Overlap of allelic associations between disease and marker, as found for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and heart disease, supports a causal association, but in other cases genetic studies have cast doubt on accepted risk factors. Some loci show unexpected effects on multiple markers or diseases. An intriguing feature of risk factors is the blurring of categories shown by the correlation between them and the genetic overlap between diseases previously thought of as distinct. GWAS can provide insight into relationships between risk factors, biomarkers and diseases, with potential for new approaches to disease classification. PMID:24659834

  14. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  15. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  16. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Adabag, A. Selcuk; Luepker, Russell V.; Roger, Véronique L.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy, continues. In this article, we review the incidence, temporal trends, and triggers of SCD, and its demographic, clinical, and genetic risk factors. We also discuss the available evidence supporting the use of public-access defibrillators. PMID:20142817

  17. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  18. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  19. Risk to the public from carbon fibers released in civil aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Because carbon fibers are strong, stiff, and lightweight, they are attractive for use in composite structures. Because they also have high electrical conductivity, free carbon fibers settling on electrical conductors can cause malfunctions. If released from the composite by burning, the fibers may become a hazard to exposed electrical and electronic equipment. As part of a Federal study of the potential hazard associated with the use of carbon fibers, NASA assessed the public risk associated with crash fire accidents of civil aircraft. The NASA study projected a dramatic increase in the use of carbon composites in civil aircraft and developed technical data to support the risk assessment. Personal injury was found to be extremely unlikely. In 1993, the year chosen as a focus for the study, the expected annual cost of damage caused by released carbon fibers is only $1000. Even the worst-case carbon fiber incident simulated (costing $178,000 once in 34,000 years) was relatively low-cost compared with the usual air transport accident cost. On the basis of these observations, the NASA study concluded that exploitation of composites should continue, that additional protection of avionics is unnecessary, and that development of alternate materials specifically to overcome this problem is not justified.

  20. Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956. PMID:21091078

  1. Radiation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, John E; Moulder, John E; Hopewell, John W

    2011-10-01

    Abstract population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7-6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. PMID:21091078

  2. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Haldeman PhD, Lauren A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  3. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  4. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  5. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  6. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

  7. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  8. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... an associate professor of pediatric endocrinology at the University of Virginia. In the past, he said, experts believed that a rapid increase in heart disease and stroke risk factors took place in women after menopause. They thought ...

  9. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted. PMID:27566328

  10. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  11. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of people who have diabetes die of some type of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic women are at especially high risk for dying ... aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart ... levels—you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. But you can take steps to ...

  12. Childhood myopia: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Recko, Matthew; Stahl, Erin Durrie

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamic interaction between the eye's growth and its ability to adapt to maintain vision has shown that childhood myopia is a significant prediction of progressive myopia and the potentially severe ocular comorbidities associated with it. It is important for us to better understand this process and its risk factors in order to better develop a prevention and treatment strategy. This article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and current therapeutic regimens for reducing myopic progression. PMID:25958656

  13. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  14. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  15. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  16. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  17. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  18. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  19. Aviation occupant survival factors: an empirical study of the SQ006 accident.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

    2010-03-01

    We present an empirical study of Singapore Airline (SIA) flight SQ006 to illustrate the critical factors that influence airplane occupant survivability. The Fuzzy Delphi Method was used to identify and rank the survival factors that may reduce injury and fatality in potentially survivable accidents. This is the first attempt by a group from both the public and private sectors in Taiwan to focus on cabin-safety issues related to survival factors. We designed a comprehensive survey based on our discussions with aviation safety experts. We next designed an array of important cabin-safety dimensions and then investigated and selected the critical survival factors for each dimension. Our findings reveal important cabin safety and survivability information that should provide a valuable reference for developing and evaluating aviation safety programs. We also believe that the results will be practical for designing cabin-safety education material for air travelers. Finally, the major contribution of this research is that it has identified 47 critical factors that influence accident survivability; therefore, it may encourage improvements that will promote more successful cabin-safety management. PMID:20159096

  20. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  1. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  2. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  3. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  4. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  5. [Epidemiology and risk factors in legionellosis].

    PubMed

    Povová, J; Zlámalová, R; Hozák, A; Martinková, I; Matějková, M; Janout, V

    2014-11-01

    Legionella was discovered in the first half of the 20th century. The main representative of the genus is the bacterial species Legionella pneumophila. Legionella can cause a mild disease with fever but also severe to fatal pneumonia. At highest risk are individuals with an underlying disease, immunosuppressed patients or individuals exposed to other risk factors (e.g. users of addictive substances). Information on the etiology and epidemiology of legionellosis is presented. Selected risk factors are described as well as preventive measures to be taken in water supply and cooling systems. In conclusion, emphasis is placed on the prevention. PMID:25523221

  6. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  7. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Traditional Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-04-01

    A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147

  8. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  9. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

  10. Seismic risk assessment at local level taking into account possible technological accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Seismic safety of population and urban territories is one of the most complicated problems of seismology and earthquake engineering worldwide. It is especially vital for the earthquake prone regions with high level of seismicity and high density of population. The paper contains the results of the recent study that was done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Extreme Situations Research Center and "Rosstrojizyskaniya" Ltd aimed at verification of engineering geological conditions, updating of previous map of seismic microzonation and seismic risk assessment for the Sochi City territory. The City is located in the Krasnodar area, which is characterized by a high density population and a rather high level of seismic hazard. According to maps of review seismic zoning of the Russian Federation territory, earthquakes with intensities I = 6-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur here. The City territory is located along the Black Sea shore and characterized by different level potential of landslides, mudflow, erosion and other geological hazardous processes. The Imeretinskaya valley, where future Olympic Games' facilities are under construction, are located within the marine terrace composed predominantly by gravel-pebble deposits with sand and clay with thickness more than 30 m; the bedrock at the depth of about 70 -90 m, the groundwater level encountered at depths of 0.2-4 m from the surface. According to recent seismic risk assessment at regional level for more that 60% of the Krasnodar area territory, the values of seismic risk computed taking into account the secondary technological accidents exceed the value of 1.0×10-5 1/year. Regional estimation of risk obtained for the Sochi City is equal to 35.0×10-5; contribution of technological risk to seismic one is about 5.0×10-5. The work is under way within the Russian Federal Program "Development of the Sochi City as a mountain resort in 2006 - 2014". The paper will present the results

  11. MADYMO simulation of children in cycle accidents: a novel approach in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, D S; Rosenberg, N M

    2013-10-01

    Head injuries are a significant cause of death and injury to child cyclists both on and off the road. Current evaluations of the effectiveness of cycle helmets rely on simplified mechanical testing or the analysis of aggregated accident statistics. This paper presents a direct evaluation of helmet efficacy by using computational modelling to simulate a range of realistic accident scenarios, including loss of control, collision with static objects and vehicle impact. A 6-year-old cyclist was modelled (as a Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy), in addition to a typical children's bicycle and a vehicle using the MADYMO dynamics software package. Simulations were performed using ranges of cyclist position, cycle speed and vehicle speed with and without a helmet that meets current standards. Wearing a cycle helmet was found to reduce the probability of head injuries, reducing the average probability of fatality over the scenarios studied from 40% to 0.3%. Similarly, helmet wearing reduced the probability of neck injuries (average probability of fatality reduced from 11% to 1%). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the severity of brain or neck injuries caused by rotational accelerations; in fact these were slightly reduced. Similarly, there was no evidence that increased cycling speed, such as might result from helmet related risk compensation, increased the probability of head injury. PMID:23954681

  12. The accident at Chernobyl; Health and environmental consequences and the implications for risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenemser, C. )

    1988-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl constituted the largest release of radioactivity ever recorded in a single technological accident. It was caused by a combination of design and management errors, and produced a highly variable pattern of fallout, strongly correlated with local rainfall. Even at 1500 km, fallout in some places far exceeded the levels recorded during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The burden of 31 acute deaths was surprisingly small, and was limited to emergency workers who had to cope with the fire at the plant. The cost of potential chronic health effects, including as many as 28,000 cancers worldwide, in contrast, is surprisingly large, and is localized in Soviet Europe and non-Soviet Europe in approximately equal parts. The author discusses how the pattern of dispersion and exposure due to Chernobyl demands reconsideration of emergency planning for nuclear power stations, not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the West. Revised emergency plans should involve the combination of decentralized and centralized response efforts capable of providing not only acute risk management but also adequate protection against chronic exposure, particularly via ingestion.

  13. Special committee review of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's severe accident risks report (NUREG--1150)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouts, H.J.C. ); Apostolakis, G.; Kastenberg, W.E. ); Birkhofer, E.H.A. , Koeln ); Hoegberg, L.G. ); LeSage, L.G. ); Rasmussen, N.C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Camb

    1990-08-01

    In April 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) published a draft report Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants,'' NUREG-1150. This report updated, extended and improved upon the information presented in the 1974 Reactor Safety Study,'' WASH-1400. Because the information in NUREG-1150 will play a significant role in implementing the NRC's Severe Accident Policy, its quality and credibility are of critical importance. Accordingly, the Commission requested that the RES conduct a peer review of NUREG-1150 to ensure that the methods, safety insights and conclusions presented are appropriate and adequately reflect the current state of knowledge with respect to reactor safety. To this end, RES formed a special committee in June of 1989 under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The Committee, composed of a group of recognized national and international experts in nuclear reactor safety, was charged with preparing a report reflecting their review of NUREG-1150 with respect to the adequacy of the methods, data, analysis and conclusions it set forth. The report which precedes reflects the results of this peer review.

  14. Risk factors and burden of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Clémence; Nguyen, Christelle; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common joint disorders worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing because of the growing aging of the population in developed and developing countries as well as an increase in risk factors leading to OA, particularly obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors of OA can be divided into person-level factors (age, gender, obesity, genetics and diet) and joint-level factors (injury, malalignment and abnormal loading of the joints) that interact in a complex manner. OA is the 11th cause of disability in the world. It is responsible for activity limitations, particularly walking, and affects participation and quality of life. Patients with OA are at greater risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, than the general population. This excess mortality is closely associated with disability level. Consequently, strategies to reduce burden through primary and secondary prevention programs are increasingly important. PMID:26904959

  15. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors.

    PubMed

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan's syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  16. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  17. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    PubMed

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians. PMID:23036388

  18. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort. PMID:7713546

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity. PMID:26690853

  20. Postoperative respiratory morbidity: identification and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C; Garrahy, P; Peake, P

    1982-04-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients admitted for general surgery were studied prospectively to evaluate the contribution of risk factors to postoperative respiratory morbidity (PORM). PORM was expressed both in terms of individual clinical features present on the second postoperative day (when the incidence was greatest), and as an aggregate score incorporating many clinical features. The importance of recognised risk factors, such as previous respiratory disease, cigarette smoking, upper abdominal procedures and the duration of surgery was confirmed, in that these factors were associated with some of the individual clinical features of PORM. The relative importance and independent contribution of these risk factors were assessed by their association with the aggregate score. A naso-gastric tube (NGT) present for 24 hours postoperatively was the factor more associated with PORM. The NGT identified patients at risk more clearly than, and independently of, the next most important factor, upper abdominal surgery. The duration of surgery did not contribute to PORM after the influence of NGT and site of surgery had been considered. Previous respiratory disease predisposed to PORM, and was best identified by, in order of importance, an observed productive cough, a reduced one second forced expiratory volume, and purulent sputum. After the incidence of these factors had been considered, cigarette smoking and a history of a chronic productive cough did not contribute further to PORM. PMID:6952867

  1. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  2. Mortality Risk amongst Nursing Home Residents Evacuated after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. Methods A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04–3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34–1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74–4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07–3.49). Conclusion High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. PMID:23555921

  3. [Safety value of contaminant in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Luo, Jin-Hong; Fu, Qing; Qin, Yan-Wen; Hu, Lin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    The acute human health risk assessment of contaminant in water pollution accident is a new study field of environmental sciences. This study established a model for calculating acute safety value of contaminant in water pollutant. The acute safety value of contaminant in mainly water pollution during 2000-2010 was calculated by this model. The safety value of sodium cyanide, cadmium, formaldehyde, ammonia, toluene, nitrobenzene, microcystin-LR were 0.1, 0.6, 8, 20, 6, 0.07, 0.004 mg x L(-1), respectively. The differences of safety value calculate methods between acute and chronic exposure were compared from the following aspects, the toxicology exposure end-point, allocation of intake, exposure sensitive subpopulation. PMID:22509564

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  5. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  6. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  7. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  8. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  9. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:26855649

  10. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  11. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:27376795

  12. Environmental risk factors for mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Yonit; Tur, Ethel

    2007-01-01

    The rising incidence rates of mycosis fungoides (MF) call for an explanation. Thus, environmental and lifestyle factors were speculated to play a role in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. It is thought that continuous activation of skin T helper lymphocytes leads to malignant transformation of a specific clone. Possible risk factors that have been implicated are occupational chemical exposure, radiation, drugs and infections. The carcinogenic process is probably multifactorial and multistep, combining the genetic predisposition of the individual and his immune status with various exogenous factors. Using advanced and accurate exposure assessment tools, recent epidemiological data indicate that occupational exposure to chemicals, primarily to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a major risk factor to develop MF in men (odds ratio 4.6), while exposure to pesticides, a subgroup of the aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a risk factor in both genders (odds ratio 6.8 for men and 2.4 for women). Apparently, concomitant infection with Staphylococcus aureus or with Borrelia species and chronic exposure to UVR are minor risk factors for the development of MF. Further assessment of occupational and environmental exposures is essential for the evaluation of their contribution to the etiology of MF. This will allow the application of preventive and surveillance measures along with adjustment of existing health policies. PMID:17641490

  13. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  14. A methodology for the quantitative risk assessment of major accidents triggered by seismic events.

    PubMed

    Antonioni, Giacomo; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2007-08-17

    A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of accidents triggered by seismic events in industrial facilities was developed. The starting point of the procedure was the use of available historical data to assess the expected frequencies and the severity of seismic events. Available equipment-dependant failure probability models (vulnerability or fragility curves) were used to assess the damage probability of equipment items due to a seismic event. An analytic procedure was subsequently developed to identify, evaluate the credibility and finally assess the expected consequences of all the possible scenarios that may follow the seismic events. The procedure was implemented in a GIS-based software tool in order to manage the high number of event sequences that are likely to be generated in large industrial facilities. The developed methodology requires a limited amount of additional data with respect to those used in a conventional QRA, and yields with a limited effort a preliminary quantitative assessment of the contribution of the scenarios triggered by earthquakes to the individual and societal risk indexes. The application of the methodology to several case-studies evidenced that the scenarios initiated by seismic events may have a relevant influence on industrial risk, both raising the overall expected frequency of single scenarios and causing specific severe scenarios simultaneously involving several plant units. PMID:17276591

  15. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  16. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  17. Risk factors for developing atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carson, Charlotte Giwercman

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD. This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these, using longitudinal data information and data analysis instead of the traditional cross-sectional approach (paper II & III). In paper II, we investigated the risk of developing AD and wheezy symptoms until age 2 years depending on duration of breastfeeding. We found an increased risk of AD, but a protective effect on wheezy disorders in infancy from exclusive breastfeeding. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of development of AD was significant after

  18. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Anne L; Kodjebacheva, Gergana

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is defined as a chronic progressive optic neuropathy, for which elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. In this review, we discuss the role of modifiable determinants, specifically socioeconomic status, nutritional intake, body mass index and obesity, exercise, smoking, and sleep apnea, in the presence of glaucoma. Preliminary studies suggest that associations may exist between these non-inherent factors and glaucoma although research had significant limitations. The mechanisms of influence are unknown or understudied. Research needs to incorporate the broader behavioral and social factors that may affect glaucoma status. PMID:19816585

  19. Surgical site infection risk factors and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Florschutz, Anthony V; Fagan, Ryan P; Matar, Wadih Y; Sawyer, Robert G; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative identification of the risk factors for surgical site infection and patient risk stratification are essential for deciding whether surgery is appropriate, educating patients on their individual risk of complications, and managing postoperative expectations. Early identification of these factors is also necessary to help guide both patient medical optimization and perioperative care planning. Several resources are currently available to track and analyze healthcare-associated infections, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons are exploring collaborative opportunities for the codevelopment of a hip and/or knee arthroplasty national quality measure for periprosthetic joint infection. PMID:25808971

  20. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  1. Occupational Asthma: Etiologies and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the available evidence pertaining to occupational, environmental, and individual factors that can affect the development of occupational asthma (OA). Increasing evidence suggests that exploration of the intrinsic characteristics of OA-causing agents and associated structure-activity relationships offers promising avenues for quantifying the sensitizing potential of agents that are introduced in the workplace. The intensity of exposure to sensitizing agents has been identified as the most important environmental risk factor for OA and should remain the cornerstone for primary prevention strategies. The role of other environmental co-factors (e.g., non-respiratory routes of exposure and concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants) remains to be further delineated. There is convincing evidence that atopy is an important individual risk factor for OA induced by high-molecular-weight agents. There is some evidence that genetic factors, such as leukocyte antigen class II alleles, are associated with an increased risk of OA; however, the role of genetic susceptibility factors is likely to be obscured by complex gene-environment interactions. OA, as well as asthma in general, is a complex disease that results from multiple interactions between environmental factors and host susceptibilities. Determining these interactions is a crucial step towards implementing optimal prevention policies. PMID:21738881

  2. Pilot Human Factors in Stall/Spin Accidents of Supersonic Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of pilot human factors related to stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft. The military specifications for flight at high angles of attack are examined. Several pilot human factors problems related to stall/spin are discussed. These problems include (1) unsatisfactory nonvisual warning cues; (2) the inability of the pilot to quickly determine if the aircraft is spinning out of control, or to recognize the type of spin; (3) the inability of the pilot to decide on and implement the correct spin recovery technique; (4) the inability of the pilot to move, caused by high angular rotation; and (5) the tendency of pilots to wait too long in deciding to abandon the irrecoverable aircraft. Psycho-physiological phenomena influencing pilot's behavior in stall/spin situations include (1) channelization of sensory inputs, (2) limitations in precisely controlling several muscular inputs, (3) inaccurate judgment of elapsed time, and (4) disorientation of vestibulo-ocular inputs. Results are given of pilot responses to all these problems in the F14A, F16/AB, and F/A-18A aircraft. The use of departure spin resistance and automatic spin prevention systems incorporated on recent supersonic fighters are discussed. These systems should help to improve the stall/spin accident record with some compromise in maneuverability.

  3. Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. PMID:21094332

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors following renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain at an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared to the general population, although rates are lower than those patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Death with a functioning graft is most commonly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and therefore this remains an important therapeutic target to prevent graft failure. Conventional CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction remain a major influence on CVD in RTRs. However it is now recognised that the morbidity and mortality from CVD are not entirely accounted for by these traditional risk-factors. Immunosuppression medications exert a deleterious effect on many of these well-recognised contributors to CVD and are known to exacerbate the probability of developing diabetes, graft dysfunction and hypertension which can all lead on to CVD. Non-traditional CV risk factors such as inflammation and anaemia have been strongly linked to increased CV events in RTRs and should be considered alongside those which are classified as conventional. This review summarises what is known about risk-factors for CVD in RTRs and how, through identification of those which are modifiable, outcomes can be improved. The overall CV risk in RTRs is likely to be multifactorial and a complex interaction between the multiple traditional and non-traditional factors; further studies are required to determine how these may be modified to enhance survival and quality of life in this unique population. PMID:26722646

  5. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research. PMID:25997167

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  7. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  8. NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  9. Health risk assessment of major accidents with toxic chemicals for disaster preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Torn, P.

    1991-01-01

    Health risks of major accidents with toxic chemicals need to be defined by: (i) nature, (ii) number and (iii) severity. (ad i) Health effects are conveniently categorized by nature into local (L)/systemic (S) and immediate (1)/delayed (2) (health effects). (ad ii) Derivation of population responses generally is unfeasible, instead exposure bands can be specified by effect-level. (ad iii) The continuum of health effects should be described in a global disability scale. The 4 D'-scale seems most appropriate: death (D{sub 1}), disability (D{sub 2}), discomfort (D{sub 3}), detectability (D{sub 4}). For use in disaster response health risk specifications should furthermore be: (1) transparent, (2) in line with the overall situational analysis and (3) congruent with mitigation. (-ad 1) Transparency can be improved by selecting one main sign/symptom by effect level for field instructions. (-ad 2) Situational analysis initially involves the source-area (what effect levels are found near the source ) and the outer limits of the effect area (feedback from telephone complaints mostly D{sub 4}). Otherwise, knowledge is needed of the ratio of exposures that lead to consecutive effect levels to assess the overall health impact by interpolation. Finally, the need to recognize high risk situations is emphasized: e.g. data bases with distributions of dispersion constraints (urban areas), penetration potentials into the housing-stock, concentrations of groups at high-risk (over time). (-ad 3) Mitigation is divided into: (a) protection of the public in a threatened area and (b) medical assistance.

  10. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  11. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  12. Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

  13. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  14. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  15. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  16. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  17. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  18. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  19. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-01

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth. PMID:22015005

  20. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    PubMed

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  2. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  3. Temporal uncertainty analysis of human errors based on interrelationships among multiple factors: a case of Minuteman III missile accident.

    PubMed

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin; Zhao, Tingdi

    2016-01-01

    In traditional approaches of human reliability assessment (HRA), the definition of the error producing conditions (EPCs) and the supporting guidance are such that some of the conditions (especially organizational or managerial conditions) can hardly be included, and thus the analysis is burdened with incomprehensiveness without reflecting the temporal trend of human reliability. A method based on system dynamics (SD), which highlights interrelationships among technical and organizational aspects that may contribute to human errors, is presented to facilitate quantitatively estimating the human error probability (HEP) and its related variables changing over time in a long period. Taking the Minuteman III missile accident in 2008 as a case, the proposed HRA method is applied to assess HEP during missile operations over 50 years by analyzing the interactions among the variables involved in human-related risks; also the critical factors are determined in terms of impact that the variables have on risks in different time periods. It is indicated that both technical and organizational aspects should be focused on to minimize human errors in a long run. PMID:26360211

  4. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meli, Giampiero; Ottl, Birgit; Paladini, Angela; Cataldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Schizophrenia could be considered the most severe of all psychiatric disorders. It shows a heterogeneous clinical picture and presents an etiopathogenesis that is not cleared sufficiently. Even if the etiopathogenesis remains a puzzle, there is a scientific consensus that it is an expression of interaction between genotype and environmental factors. In the present article, following a study of literature and the accumulated evidence, the role of prenatal and perinatal factors in the development of schizophrenia will be revised and synthesized. We think that better knowledge of the risk factors could be helpful not only for better comprehension of the pathogenesis but especially to optimize interventions for prevention of the disorder. PMID:22646662

  5. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  6. Cancer risk estimation in Belarussian children due to thyroid irradiation as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.E.; Sergeeva, N.V.

    1996-07-01

    The thyroid doses received by the juvenile population of Belarus following the Chernobyl accident ranged up to about 10 Gy. The thyroid cancer risk estimate recommended in NCRP Report No. 80 was used to predict the number of thyroid cancer cases among children during 1990-1992 in selected Belarussian regions and cities. The results obtained using this risk estimate show an excess of thyroid cancer cases being registered vs. the predicted cases. Thyroid cancer incidence rate among boys under investigation is higher than among girls in the postaccident period. The excess of the observed over the expected incidence in the general juvenile population is caused by the high thyroid cancer incidence rate among boys. These results, which can be considered part of the first stage of a thorough thyroid cancer risk estimation after the Chernobyl accident, demonstrate the critical need to complete these studies in depth. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Computation of cross sections and dose conversion factors for criticality accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Devine, R T

    2004-01-01

    In the application of criticality accident dosemeters the cross sections and fluence-to-dose conversion factors have to be computed. The cross section and fluence-to-dose conversion factor for the thermal and epi-thermal contributions to neutron dose are well documented; for higher energy regions (>100 keV) these depend on the spectrum assumed. Fluence is determined using threshold detectors. The cross sections require the folding of an expected spectrum with the reaction cross sections. The fluence-to-dose conversion factors also require a similar computation. The true and effective thresholds are used to include the information on the expected spectrum. The spectra can either be taken from compendia or measured at the facility at which the exposures are to be expected. The cross sections can be taken from data computations or analytic representations and the fluence-to-dose conversion factors are determined by various standards making bodies. The problem remaining is the method of computation. The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods for computing these factors: analytic and Monte Carlo. PMID:15353697

  8. Verification the data on critical facilities inventory and vulnerability for seismic risk assessment taking into account possible accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2015-04-01

    The paper contains the results of the recent study that has been done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences and Extreme Situations Research Center within the Russian Academy of Sciences Project "Theoretical and Methodological basis for seismic risk assessment taking into account technological accidents at local level; constructing the seismic risk maps for the Big Sochi City territory including the venue of Olympic Games facilities." The procedure of critical facilities inventory and vulnerability verification which makes use of space images and web technologies in social networks is presented. The numerical values of the criteria of accidents at fire and chemical hazardous facilities triggered by strong earthquakes are obtained. The seismic risk maps for Big Sochi City territory including the Olympic Games venue constructed taking into account new data on critical facilities obtained with application panorama photos of these facilities, space images of high resolution and web technologies. The obtained values of individual seismic risk taking into account secondary technological accidents exceed the values seismic risk without taking secondary hazard, return period T= 500 years, at 0.5-1.0 10-51/year.

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  10. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...

  11. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoyan; Subramanian, Subha; Willinger, Christine M; Chen, George; Juhasz, Peter; Courchesne, Paul; Chen, Brian H; Li, Xiaohang; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Fox, Caroline S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Muntendam, Pieter; Fuster, Valentin; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, Ivana; Sookoian, Silvia C; Pirola, Carlos J; Gordon, Neal; Adourian, Aram; Larson, Martin G; Levy, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This study tested metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor changes over time to uncover mechanistic links between metabolomics dysregulation and metabolic risk. PMID:26908103

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor ... in the stomach and intestine while they are teenagers. They also have a high risk of cancer, ...

  13. Review on risk factors of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chou, P

    1991-08-01

    This article reviews risk factors of cervical cancer which have been studied in the following aspects: (1) sociodemographic factors including educational level, urbanizational level, socioeconomic status, race and marriage; (2) sexual activity including age at first marriage, age at first coitus, multiple marriage, multiple sexual partners, broken marriage, unstable sex relationship, syphilis/gonorrhea history, coital frequency, multiple pregnancies and age at menarche; (3) factors related to husband including circumcision, sperm, smegma, previous wife with cervical cancer and occupations entailed mobility of husband and periods away from home; (4) psychosocial factors including stressful emotional status, deprived economic background and discontent home situation; (5) virus including herpes simplex type 2 and papilloma virus; (6) other factors including smoking, barrier and oral contraceptives. PMID:1654190

  14. Estimating Loss-of-Coolant Accident Frequencies for the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Eide; D. M. Rasmuson; C. L. Atwood

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintains a set of risk models covering the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. These standardized plant analysis risk (SPAR) models include several loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiating events such as small (SLOCA), medium (MLOCA), and large (LLOCA). All of these events involve a loss of coolant inventory from the reactor coolant system. In order to maintain a level of consistency across these models, initiating event frequencies generally are based on plant-type average performance, where the plant types are boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. For certain risk analyses, these plant-type initiating event frequencies may be replaced by plant-specific estimates. Frequencies for SPAR LOCA initiating events previously were based on results presented in NUREG/CR-5750, but the newest models use results documented in NUREG/CR-6928. The estimates in NUREG/CR-6928 are based on historical data from the initiating events database for pressurized water reactor SLOCA or an interpretation of results presented in the draft version of NUREG-1829. The information in NUREG-1829 can be used several ways, resulting in different estimates for the various LOCA frequencies. Various ways NUREG-1829 information can be used to estimate LOCA frequencies were investigated and this paper presents two methods for the SPAR model standard inputs, which differ from the method used in NUREG/CR-6928. In addition, results obtained from NUREG-1829 are compared with actual operating experience as contained in the initiating events database.

  15. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  16. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  17. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  18. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Paul P.; Keane, Pearse A.; O'Neill, Evelyn C.; Altaie, Rasha W.; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M.; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:20339564

  19. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-01

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  20. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early. PMID:26490090

  1. Risk factors for dementia with Lewy bodies

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Brendon P.; Orr, Carolyn F.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Ferman, Tanis J.; Roberts, Rosebud; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Parisi, Joseph; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Methods: We identified 147 subjects with DLB and sampled 2 sex- and age-matched cognitively normal control subjects for each case. We also identified an unmatched comparison group of 236 subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 19 candidate risk factors in the study cohort. Results: Compared with controls, subjects with DLB were more likely to have a history of anxiety (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) (7.4; 3.5–16; p < 0.0001), depression (6.0; 3.7–9.5; p < 0.0001), stroke (2.8; 1.3–6.3; p = 0.01), a family history of Parkinson disease (PD) (4.6; 2.5–8.6; p < 0.0001), and carry APOE ε4 alleles (2.2; 1.5–3.3; p < 0.0001), but less likely to have had cancer (0.44; 0.27–0.70; p = 0.0006) or use caffeine (0.29; 0.14–0.57; p < 0.0001) with a similar trend for alcohol (0.65; 0.42–1.0; p = 0.0501). Compared with subjects with AD, subjects with DLB were younger (72.5 vs 74.9 years, p = 0.021) and more likely to be male (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) (5.3; 3.3–8.5; p < 0.0001), have a history of depression (4.3; 2.4–7.5; p < 0.0001), be more educated (2.5; 1.1–5.6; p = 0.031), have a positive family history of PD (5.0; 2.4–10; p < 0.0001), have no APOE ε4 alleles (0.61; 0.40–0.93; p = 0.02), and to have had an oophorectomy before age 45 years (7.6; 1.5–39; p = 0.015). Conclusion: DLB risk factors are an amalgam of those for AD and PD. Smoking and education, which have opposing risk effects on AD and PD, are not risk factors for DLB; however, depression and low caffeine intake, both risk factors for AD and PD, increase risk of DLB more strongly than in either. PMID:23892702

  2. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  3. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  4. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  5. Treatment Efficacy and Risk Factors of Neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shigang; Cheng, Yan; Liao, Yali; Zhang, Zhelin; Yin, Xuhua; Shi, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to analyze the risk factors and treatment efficacy of neurobrucellosis. Material/Methods A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey was carried out in 557 patients with brucellosis by specially trained neurologic clinicians. Sixty-six patients with neurobrucellosis were treated with doxycycline, rifampicin, and ceftriaxone sodium as standard medication and evaluated for efficacy on a regular basis. Results (1) Symptoms improved in most patients after 6 weeks of treatment, which demonstrated a favorable efficacy. (2) Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey suggested that sex, nationality, and regional distribution were not related to nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P>0.05), whereas age and duration of disease were related factors. Increased age as well as a prolonged duration of disease were risk factors for nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P<0.05). Conclusions (1) Doxycycline, rifampicin, and third-generation cephalosporins should be considered both standard and first-choice medications for neurobrucellosis. Treatment should last for at least 6 weeks. Standardized, sufficient, and combined medication is recommended for better efficacy and prognosis. (2) Age and duration of disease are risk factors for neurobrucellosis, whereas sex, nationality, and regional distribution are not. Older patients with a prolonged duration of disease are more likely to develop neurobrucellosis. PMID:27018084

  6. Treatment Efficacy and Risk Factors of Neurobrucellosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shigang; Cheng, Yan; Liao, Yali; Zhang, Zhelin; Yin, Xuhua; Shi, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to analyze the risk factors and treatment efficacy of neurobrucellosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey was carried out in 557 patients with brucellosis by specially trained neurologic clinicians. Sixty-six patients with neurobrucellosis were treated with doxycycline, rifampicin, and ceftriaxone sodium as standard medication and evaluated for efficacy on a regular basis. RESULTS (1) Symptoms improved in most patients after 6 weeks of treatment, which demonstrated a favorable efficacy. (2) Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey suggested that sex, nationality, and regional distribution were not related to nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P>0.05), whereas age and duration of disease were related factors. Increased age as well as a prolonged duration of disease were risk factors for nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS (1) Doxycycline, rifampicin, and third-generation cephalosporins should be considered both standard and first-choice medications for neurobrucellosis. Treatment should last for at least 6 weeks. Standardized, sufficient, and combined medication is recommended for better efficacy and prognosis. (2) Age and duration of disease are risk factors for neurobrucellosis, whereas sex, nationality, and regional distribution are not. Older patients with a prolonged duration of disease are more likely to develop neurobrucellosis. PMID:27018084

  7. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

  8. Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18–26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45–4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses’ intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

  9. Benzodiazepine Misuse in the Elderly: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Management.

    PubMed

    Airagnes, Guillaume; Pelissolo, Antoine; Lavallée, Mélanie; Flament, Martine; Limosin, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZD) inappropriate use (i.e., misuse and overuse) is a worldwide public health problem. Despite current knowledge about increased sensitivity to side effects in the elderly, that should lead to more caution, only a third of BZD prescriptions in this age group are considered appropriate. The most frequent inadequate situations are excessive duration and/or dosage of a medical prescription or self-medication, especially in a context where it would be contraindicated, e.g., long-acting BZD in the elderly. Polypharmacy and comorbidities are major risk factors. Consequences of BZD inappropriate use are falls, delirium and other cognitive dysfunction, acute respiratory failure, car accidents, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms. An emerging concern is a potentially increased risk of dementia. Contrary to most clinicians' belief, discontinuation of chronic BZD use in elderly patients is feasible, with adequate psychotherapeutic or pharmacological strategies, and can lead to long-term abstinence. Brief cognitive therapy mostly relies on psychoeducation and motivational enhancement and is particularly useful in this context. Further research is needed, notably in three areas: (1) assessing the impact of public health programs to prevent BZD inappropriate use in the elderly, (2) developing alternative strategies to treat anxiety and insomnia in elderly patients, and (3) exploring the association between chronic BZD use and dementia. PMID:27549604

  10. Risk factors for depression after a disaster.

    PubMed

    Person, Cheryl; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2006-09-01

    Environmental stressors such as mass disasters may contribute to an increased prevalence of depression within the population affected. We examined the prevalence of probable major depression and risk factors for depression in the 6-month period after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center among New York City (NYC) metropolitan residents. A total of 2700 persons who were representative of the NYC metropolitan area were included in this cross-sectional telephone survey. The prevalence of probable major depression in the 6 months after the attacks was 9.4%. Multivariate logistic regression covariates associated with the likelihood of probable major depression included being directly affected by the attacks, having a perievent panic attack, experiencing multiple life stressors, and having been exposed to previous traumatic events. Mass traumatic event exposure appears to be an independent environmental risk factor for depression in the postdisaster context; specific reactions such as perievent panic attacks may have prognostic value. PMID:16971817

  11. Bacterial meningitis: a new risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Mehrabi-Tavana, Ali; Izadi, Morteza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohammad Javad; Ataee, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to discuss a possible new risk factor for the bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid collected from 270 patients was assayed. An enzyme immunosorbent assay for the detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxins A to E was used. RESULTS: The results indicated that the frequency of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) was 35 (20.46%). An important finding of this research was that the CoNS isolates produced enterotoxin C and D or enterotoxin C and E. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of enterotoxin-producing Coagulase Negative Staphylococci isolated from CSF patients. Therefore, these enterotoxins probably act as risk factors in the bacterial invasion into central nervous system. PMID:22091233

  12. Trends in major risk factors. Cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D.

    1984-01-01

    The object of this paper is to examine the role of smoking as a risk factor in coronary heart disease, starting with a brief history of smoking in the U.K. and a reminder of the epidemiological evidence linking smoking and cardiovascular disease. This is followed by a more detailed look at the trends in consumption of tobacco and the major factors influencing those trends, together with an outline of the main components of a smoking control policy designed to combat our epidemic of smoking-induced disease. PMID:6694941

  13. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  14. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

  15. Engaging Physicians in Risk Factor Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk factor improvement achieved. Additionally, on an eligible subset of these patients, we asked physicians to actively refer to population management programs those patients they determined could benefit from nurse or health coach interventions, advising us as to which components of their treatment plan they wished us to address. The 6-month intervention period exhibited a 10-fold improvement in the trend rate of risk factor management success when compared to the prior 6-month period for the same patients. A net of 96 distinct risk factor improvements were achieved by the 546 patients during the intervention period, whereas 9 net risk factor improvements occurred in the comparison period. This difference in improvement trends was statistically significant at P < 0.01. Of the 546 study participants, a subset of 187 members was eligible for participation in OptumHealth care management programs. Physicians identified 80 of these 187 eligible members as appropriate targets for program intervention. Representing ourselves as “calling on behalf” of the physician practices, we established contact with 50 referred members; 43 members (86%) actively enrolled in our programs. This enrollment rate is 2 to 3 times the rate of enrollment through our standard program outreach methods. We conclude that physician-directed population management with aligned incentives offers promise as a method of achieving important health and wellness goals. (Population Health Management 2010

  16. Engaging physicians in risk factor reduction.

    PubMed

    Springrose, James V; Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A; Schmidt, Eric J

    2010-10-01

    OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk factor improvement achieved. Additionally, on an eligible subset of these patients, we asked physicians to actively refer to population management programs those patients they determined could benefit from nurse or health coach interventions, advising us as to which components of their treatment plan they wished us to address. The 6-month intervention period exhibited a 10-fold improvement in the trend rate of risk factor management success when compared to the prior 6-month period for the same patients. A net of 96 distinct risk factor improvements were achieved by the 546 patients during the intervention period, whereas 9 net risk factor improvements occurred in the comparison period. This difference in improvement trends was statistically significant at P < 0.01. Of the 546 study participants, a subset of 187 members was eligible for participation in OptumHealth care management programs. Physicians identified 80 of these 187 eligible members as appropriate targets for program intervention. Representing ourselves as "calling on behalf" of the physician practices, we established contact with 50 referred members; 43 members (86%) actively enrolled in our programs. This enrollment rate is 2 to 3 times the rate of enrollment through our standard program outreach methods. We conclude that physician-directed population management with aligned incentives offers promise as a method of achieving important health and wellness goals. PMID:20879906

  17. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  18. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  19. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010–2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results. We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions. We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  20. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  1. Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Swain, Subhashisa; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Nair, N Sreekumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression) was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0), presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02) and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73) and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67) were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as

  2. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures. PMID:25974053

  3. Risk of thyroid follicular adenoma among children and adolescents in Belarus exposed to iodine-131 after the Chornobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Nadyrov, Eldar A; Polyanskaya, Olga N; McConnell, Robert J; O'Kane, Patrick; Lubin, Jay; Hatch, Maureen; Little, Mark P; Brenner, Alina V; Veyalkin, Ilya V; Yauseyenka, Vasilina V; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir V; Minenko, Viktor F; Demidchik, Yuri E; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Rozhko, Alexander V

    2015-11-01

    Several studies reported an increased risk of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodines, chiefly iodine-131 ((131)I), after the 1986 Chornobyl (Ukrainian spelling) nuclear power plant accident. The risk of benign thyroid tumors following such radiation exposure is much less well known. We have previously reported a novel finding of significantly increased risk of thyroid follicular adenoma in a screening study of children and adolescents exposed to the Chornobyl fallout in Ukraine. To verify this finding, we analyzed baseline screening data from a cohort of 11,613 individuals aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Belarus (mean age at screening = 21 years). All participants had individual (131)I doses estimated from thyroid radioactivity measurements and were screened according to a standardized protocol. We found a significant linear dose response for 38 pathologically confirmed follicular adenoma cases. The excess odds ratio per gray of 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.41, 13.1) was similar in males and females but decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure (P < 0.01), with the highest radiation risks estimated for those exposed at <2 years of age. Follicular adenoma radiation risks were not significantly modified by most indicators of past and current iodine deficiency. The present study confirms the (131)I-associated increases in risk of follicular adenoma in the Ukrainian population and adds new evidence on the risk increasing with decreasing age at exposure. PMID:26443421

  4. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.; Reif, J.S.; Keefe, T.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Pritzl, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between various risk factors and adenocarcinoma of the lung was evaluated in a case-control study. Subjects were selected from the Colorado Central Cancer Registry from 1979-1982 in the Denver metropolitan area. A total of 102 (50 males and 52 females) adenocarcinoma case interviews and 131 (65 males and 66 females) control interviews were completed. The control group consisted of persons with cancers of the colon and bone marrow. The risk estimates associated with cigarette smoking were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49) and females (OR = 3.95) and were found to increase significantly (p less than 0.01) with increasing levels of cigarette smoking for both males and females. For adenocarcinoma in females, the age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios at different levels of passive smoke exposure followed an increasing overall trend (p = 0.05). After additional adjustment for potential confounders, prior cigarette use remained the most significant predictor of risk of adenocarcinoma among males and females. Analysis restricted to nonsmoking females revealed a risk of adenocarcinoma of 1.68 (95% confidence interval (Cl) = 0.39-2.97) for passive smoke exposure of four or more hours per day. Neither sex showed significantly elevated risk for occupational exposures, although males bordered on significance (OR = 2.23, 95% Cl = 0.97-5.12). The results suggest the need to develop cell type-specific etiologic hypotheses.

  5. First Annual Report: NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Fabiani, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents particularly focused on consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases much larger than can be handled practically by human experts. This report presents the approach that is currently expected to be used in processing and analyzing the data for identifying decrements in aircraft performance and examining their relationships to decrements in crewmember performance due to fatigue. The decisions on the approach were based on samples of both the numerical and textual data that will be collected during the four studies planned under the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP). Results of preliminary analyses of these sample data are presented in this report.

  6. Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onat, A

    2001-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common in both genders; close to 60% of men have the smoking habit, while obesity is common among Turkish women leading to a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in them. These factors probably account for the unanticipated fact that Turkish adults have the pattern of causes of death similar to a developed population, although the process of industrialization is ongoing, the structure of its population is young and overall cholesterol levels are comparatively low. The age-standardized coronary heart disease death rate is estimated to rank among the highest in Europe. The leading independent predictors of coronary events and death [systolic blood pressure, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, followed by diabetes and (central) obesity] are related to the metabolic syndrome, estimated to prevail in 3-4% of adults aged 30 or over, and to underlie one-eighth of cases of coronary disease. Since several adverse factors exhibit a rising trend, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease must assume a much higher priority in various issues in Turkey than it currently does. PMID:11368991

  7. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P < 0.001), with peak risk among persons born in winter. Relative to persons born in summer (June-August), incidence rate ratios for AML were 1.72 (95 % CI 1.25-2.38; P = 0.001) for winter (December-February), 1.37 (95 % CI 0.99-1.90; P = 0.06) for spring (March-May), and 1.27 (95 % CI 0.90-1.80; P = 0.17) for fall (September-November). Other risk factors for AML included high fetal growth, high gestational age at birth, and low maternal education level. These findings did not vary by sex or age at diagnosis. Sex, birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML. PMID:26113060

  8. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  9. Identification of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, M.; Jackson, R.; Eckert, G.; Swigonski, N.; Chin, J.; Zandona, A. Ferreira; Ando, M.; Stookey, G.K.; Downs, S.; Zero, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction. PMID:21173434

  10. Risk Factors for Idiopathic Optic Neuritis Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Li, Kaijun; He, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 30–50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION) patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence. Methods Clinical data on hospitalized patients diagnosed with ION between January 2003 and January 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on factors that might cause ION recurrence. In total, 115 ION cases (32 recurrent and 83 non-recurrent cases) with complete data were analyzed. The length of the follow-up period ranged from 12 to 108 months (median: 42 months). Results The univariate analysis showed that the recurrence rate for unilateral ION was higher than that for bilateral ION (40% vs. 12%, p = 0.001). Underlying diseases had a significant impact on recurrence (p<0.001): the recurrence rates due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO), multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelinating lesions alone of the central nervous system, and unknown causes were 89%, 70%, 41%, and 8.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors causing relatively high recurrence rates included NMO (odds ratio [OR], 73.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 740.9), MS (OR, 33.9; 95% CI, 5.2 to 222.2), and demyelinating lesions alone (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.4), unilateral involvement (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.3), relatively low initial glucocorticoid dosage (equivalent to ≤100 mg prednisone/day) (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 17.9). Conclusion Underlying diseases, laterality (unilateral or bilateral), and initial glucocorticoid dosage are important risk factors of ION recurrence. Clinical physicians are advised to treat ION patients with a sufficient dose of glucocorticoid in the initial treatment stage to reduce the recurrence risk. PMID:25255372

  11. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999

  12. Erosion—diagnosis and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition: The interplay of chemical, biological and behavioural factors is crucial and helps explain why some individuals exhibit more erosion than others. The erosive potential of erosive agents like acidic drinks or foodstuffs depends on chemical factors, e.g. pH, titratable acidity, mineral content, clearance on tooth surface and on its calcium-chelation properties. Biological factors such as saliva, acquired pellicle, tooth structure and positioning in relation to soft tissues and tongue are related to the pathogenesis of dental erosion. Furthermore, behavioural factors like eating and drinking habits, regular exercise with dehydration and decrease of salivary flow, excessive oral hygiene and, on the other side, an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g. chronic alcoholism, are predisposing factors for dental erosion. There is some evidence that dental erosion is growing steadily. To prevent further progression, it is important to detect this condition as early as possible. Dentists have to know the clinical appearance and possible signs of progression of erosive lesions and their causes such that adequate preventive and, if necessary, therapeutic measures can be initiated. The clinical examination has to be done systematically, and a comprehensive case history should be undertaken such that all risk factors will be revealed. PMID:18228059

  13. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy. Spring peaks of suicide are highly replicated, but their origin is poorly understood. Preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that seasonal spring peaks in aeroallergens are associated with seasonal spring peaks in suicide. Our research in Brown Norway rats demonstrates that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens induces anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors as well as allergy-related helper T-cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, it is possible that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens, which peak in spring, may be conducive to seasonal exacerbation of suicide risk factors such as anxiety, depression, hostility/ aggression, and sleep disturbance. Connecting allergy with suicide and suicide risk factors adds to previous neurologic literature connecting allergy with migraines and seizure disorders. Our recent report of Th2 (allergy-mediating) cytokine expression in the orbito-frontal cortex of suicide victims should lead to future studies to test the hypothesis that mediators of allergic inflammation in the nasal cavities may result in Th2 cytokine expression in the brain, influencing affect and behavioral modulation. Certain medications used to treat allergy can exacerbate suicide risk factors, potentially worsening suicide risk and even triggering suicide. Systemic (but not topical) corticosteroids have been associated with manic and depressive episodes and mixed mood states. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration started investigating the

  14. Risk factors of γ-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.

    PubMed

    Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

  15. Risk Factors and Comorbidities for Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    A number of comorbidities and risk factors complicate the successful management of onychomycosis. Underlying conditions and patient characteristics, such as tinea pedis, age, and obesity, contribute to risk, whereas comorbidities, such as diabetes and psoriasis, can increase susceptibility to the disease. There are limited data on treatment effectiveness in these patients. Here, the authors review post hoc analyses of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, in mild-to-moderate onychomycosis and present new data in terms of age and obesity. The only post hoc analysis to report significant differences so far is gender, where female patients do much better; however, the reasons are unclear. The authors report significant differences in terms of efficacy in obese patients who do not respond as well as those with normal body mass index (P=0.05) and in patients who have their co-existing tinea pedis treated compared to those in whom co-existing tinea pedis was not treated (P=0.025). Although there is a trend to reduced efficacy in older patients and those with co-existing diabetes, differences were not significant. More research is needed in onychomycosis patients with these important risk factors and comorbidities to fully evaluate the treatment challengse and possible solutions. PMID:26705439

  16. Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

    2015-02-01

    This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan. PMID:24827576

  17. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters. Experts` determination of source term issues: Volume 2, Revision 1, Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Jow, H.N.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Amos, C.N.; Helton, J.; Boyd, G.

    1992-06-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a point estimate of risk, but to determine the distribution of risk, and to assess the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station. Much of this important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Source Term Panel.

  18. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  19. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use. PMID:26611139

  20. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available. PMID:27621236

  1. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis.

  2. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90) and 71% (95%CI 44–90%). Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea. PMID:23126504

  3. Risk factors affecting dental implant survival.

    PubMed

    Vehemente, Valerie A; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Daher, Shadi; Muftu, Ali; Dodson, Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    Given the predictability of dental implant success, the attention of the scientific community is moving from descriptions of implant success toward a more detailed analysis of factors associated with implant failure. The purposes of this study were (1) to estimate the 1- and 5-year survival of Bicon dental implants and (2) to identify risk factors associated with implant failure in an objective, statistically valid manner. To address the research purposes, we used a retrospective cohort study design and a study sample composed of patients who had one or more implants placed. The predictor variables were grouped into the following categories: demographic, health status, anatomic, implant fixture-specific, prosthetic, perioperative, and ancillary variables. The major outcome variable of interest was implant failure defined as implant removal. Overall implant survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Risk factors for implant failure were identified using the Cox proportional hazard regression models. The study sample was composed of 677 patients who had 677 implants randomly selected for analysis. The overall 1- and 5-year survival of the Bicon implant system was 95.2% and 90.2%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate model, both tobacco use (P = .0004) and single-stage implant placement (P = .01) were statistically associated with an increased risk for failure. The results of these analyses suggest that the overall survival of the Bicon dental implant is comparable with other current implant systems. In addition, after controlling for covariates, we identified 2 exposures associated with implant survival, tobacco use and implant staging. Of interest, both of these exposures are under the clinician's control. PMID:12498449

  4. Cardiometabolic risk factors and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Arthur R; Lavie, Carl J; Dinicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James; Morin, Daniel P; Khatib, Sammy; Abi-Samra, Freddy M; Messerli, Franz H; Milani, Richard V

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide; it is a significant risk factor for stroke and embolization, and has an impact on cardiac function. Despite its impact on morbidity and mortality, our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease process is still incomplete. Over the past several decades, there has been evidence to suggest that AF has a significant correlation with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Furthermore, AF appears to be more closely related to specific components of MetS compared with others. This article provides an overview of the various components of MetS and their impact on AF. PMID:24448257

  5. Childhood incontinence: risk factors and impact.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol

    Continence problems in children can persist into later childhood and have a serious effect on quality of life. Research into its causes and impact is scarce, and useful resources are limited. A Medical Research Council grant is funding a project at the University of Bristol, which aims to improve understanding of the risk factors and outcomes of continence problems in children and adolescents. This article outlines the initial findings, which could help in the production of resources for parents, children and young people. PMID:27386707

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Janevska, Dafina; Chaloska-Ivanova, Viktorija; Janevski, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most often primary cancer of the liver and is one if the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The incidence of HCC has geographic distribution with the highest levels in countries with developing economies. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have poor prognosis despite the achievements in surgery techniques and other therapeutic procedures and it is a reason why continuous attention should be paid to this issue. This article provides an overview of this disease based on an extensive review of relevant literature. The article summarizes the current risk factors, diagnosis, staging and the management of HCC. PMID:27275318

  7. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  8. Effect of roadway geometrics and environmental factors on rural freeway accident frequencies.

    PubMed

    Shankar, V; Mannering, F; Barfield, W

    1995-06-01

    This paper explores the frequency of occurrence of highway accidents on the basis of a multivariate analysis of roadway geometrics (e.g. horizontal and vertical alignments), weather, and other seasonal effects. Based on accident data collected in the field, a negative binomial model of overall accident frequencies is estimated along with models of the frequency of specific accident types. Interactions between weather and geometric variables are proposed as part of the model specifications. The results of the analysis uncover important determinants of accident frequency. By studying the relationship between weather and geometric elements, this paper offers insight into potential measures to counter the adverse effects of weather on highway sections with challenging geometrics. PMID:7639921

  9. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone cancer? What are the risk factors for bone cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Osteosarcomas Children with certain rare inherited syndromes have an ...

  12. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  13. Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-02-01

    Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time

  14. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Di Legge, Silvia; Koch, Giacomo; Diomedi, Marina; Stanzione, Paolo; Sallustio, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors) clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:23213626

  15. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  16. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care. PMID:27568314

  17. Genetic risk factors in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, L; Morgan, K; Kalsheker, N

    1998-01-01

    Following a brief introduction and discussion of the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease, the main emphasis of this review article will be the genetic factors that have been implicated in this disease. These can be divided into two main categories. First, the three genes in which mutations are known to result in early onset autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease will be discussed. These are well characterised but account for only a small proportion of Alzheimer's disease cases. Late onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease is more common and evidence suggests that there is a genetic component to this type of disease. A number of genetic risk factors have been implicated that might increase the risk of developing sporadic disease. Many of these are controversial and studies have shown conflicting results, which are discussed in this section. Finally, a brief discussion of some of the mechanisms suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is included. It is hoped that this will show why particular genes have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and how they might be able to influence the development of the disease. PMID:10193509

  18. Risk factors in selected patients undergoing femoral embolectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D. J.; Davies, A. H.; Horrocks, M.

    1989-01-01

    Mortality rates after femoral embolectomy (FE) in patients with an acutely ischaemic leg vary from 20-40%. In the last 3 years we have adopted a policy of proceeding directly to femoral embolectomy in those patients with a strong clinical suspicion of an embolus. Where doubt exists about the diagnosis, arteriography is performed in combination with local streptokinase, balloon dilatation and/or reconstruction. In a prospective study between September 1984 and March 1987, 43 patients underwent femoral embolectomy with a limb salvage rate of 87%. The early mortality (within 30 days) was 16%, the late mortality was 26%, with a mean follow-up of 22 months. Of the seven patients who died within 30 days, one had a successful embolectomy but died from a cerebrovascular accident. The remaining six failed to improve clinically, all had poor backbleeding and no return of the peripheral pulses. None of these patients had an amputation. We recommend that femoral embolectomy be performed in those patients with a short history of ischaemia (less than 72 h), a risk factor suggesting an embolic source and no past history of intermittent claudication. If all three criteria are not met, arteriography should be performed with a view to fibrinolytic therapy or vascular reconstruction. In those patients who have had a failed embolectomy or where the circulation cannot be restored promptly, despite fibrinolytic therapy and/or distal reconstruction, early major amputation may be life-saving. PMID:2774451

  19. Whether ionizing radiation is a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Volovik, Sergij V; Manton, Kenneth G; Bazyka, Dimitry A; Flor-Henry, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The neural diathesis-stressor hypothesis of schizophrenia, where neurobiological genetic predisposition to schizophrenia can be provoked by environmental stressors is considered as a model of the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Analysis of information from electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Current Contents, Elsevier BIOBASE) and hand-made search was carried out. There are comparable reports on increases in schizophrenia spectrum disorders following exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of atomic bombing, nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident, environmental contamination by radioactive waste, radiotherapy, and also in areas with high natural radioactive background. The results of experimental radioneurobiological studies support the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation causes brain damage with limbic (cortical-limbic) system dysfunction and impairment of informative processes at the molecular level that can trigger schizophrenia in predisposed individuals or cause schizophrenia-like disorders. It is supposed that ionizing radiation can be proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The hypothesis that ionizing radiation is a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders can be tested using data from the Chernobyl accident aftermath. Implementation of a study on schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Chernobyl accident victims is of significance for both clinical medicine and neuroscience. PMID:16272077

  20. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    PubMed

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

  1. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a risk factor for skin cancer, while smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung and several ... affected. Factors with uncertain or unproven effects Smoking Smoking may increase the risk of getting a carcinoid tumor of the small ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  4. Risk Factors for Drug Use in Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested relevance of risk-factor model for predicting drug use among rural seventh graders (n=235). Nineteen of 20 risk factors were significantly related to at least 1 category of drug use. Subset of 10 risk factors was significantly associated with prevalence and frequency of use of cigarettes, beer and wine, hard liquor, marijuana, and other…

  5. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  6. Human factors identification and classification related to accidents'causality on hand injuries in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Macías, Aide; Prado-León, Lilia Roselia

    2012-01-01

    The causes of occupational accidents from the perspective of human factors have been a subject which has received little attention into the field of scientific research. The aim of this research was to identify and classify the human factors that influence human errors and failures that cause accidents and injuries specifically on hands. Available studies related to the topic have been developed mainly for aerospace applications and are found insufficient to explain accidents causalities in the manufacturing industry. This research was developed in the assembly industry of automotive harnesses and was conducted following a mixed Cognitive Anthropological approach. This study was developed in two phases. During the first qualitative phase, participants freely listed their knowledge to identify elements of the cultural domain, then and in the second phase they performed the successive pile sort technique for the collection data to classify elements in the cultural domain. Statistical models like Cluster Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling were applied for results' validation purposes. As results, 70 different human factors were identified and in the second phase they were classified into 4 main categories which were: human error, unsafe conditions, individual factors, and organizational factors. Statistical methods validated these results. PMID:22317198

  7. Energy choices and risk beliefs: is it just global warming and fear of a nuclear power plant accident?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael; Truelove, Heather Barnes

    2011-05-01

    A survey of 3,200 U.S. residents focused on two issues associated with the use of nuclear and coal fuels to produce electrical energy. The first was the association between risk beliefs and preferences for coal and nuclear energy. As expected, concern about nuclear power plant accidents led to decreased support for nuclear power, and those who believed that coal causes global warming preferred less coal use. Yet other risk beliefs about the coal and nuclear energy fuel cycles were stronger or equal correlates of public preferences. The second issue is the existence of what we call acknowledged risk takers, respondents who favored increased reliance on nuclear energy, although also noting that there could be a serious nuclear plant accident, and those who favored greater coal use, despite acknowledging a link to global warming. The pro-nuclear group disproportionately was affluent educated white males, and the pro-coal group was relatively poor less educated African-American and Latino females. Yet both shared four similarities: older age, trust in management, belief that the energy facilities help the local economy, and individualistic personal values. These findings show that there is no single public with regard to energy preferences and risk beliefs. Rather, there are multiple populations with different viewpoints that surely would benefit by hearing a clear and comprehensive national energy life cycle policy from the national government. PMID:21143259

  8. The dynamic nature of risk perceptions after a fatal transit accident.

    PubMed

    Wernstedt, Kris; Murray-Tuite, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, two trains of Washington, DC's Metrorail system collided, resulting in nine deaths and 50 serious injuries. Based on a multiwave survey of Metrorail users in the months after the crash, this article reports how the accident appears to have (1) changed over time the tradeoffs among safety, speed, frequency of service, cost, and reliability that the transit users stated they were willing to make in the postaccident period and (2) altered transit users' concerns about safety as a function of time and distance from the accident site. We employ conditional logit models to examine tradeoffs among stated preferences for system performance measures after the accident, as well as the influence that respondent characteristics of transit use, location, income, age, and gender have on these preference tradeoffs. As expected, respondents appear averse to longer headways between trains, longer travel durations, higher travel costs, a higher number of late trains, and a higher number of fatalities. The models also show evidence of higher aversion to fatalities from transit system operation among females compared to males. In addition, respondents less experienced with Metrorail travel and those with lower household incomes show higher aversion to fatalities, and this aversion increases as a subject's psychological distance from the accident site decreases. Contrary to expectations shaped by previous studies, aversion to fatalities appears to have increased between the early months after the accident and the end of the survey period, and the expected relationship between age and aversion to fatalities is not statistically significant. PMID:25264264

  9. Catalog of PRA dominant accident sequence information

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, N.G.; Krantz, E.A.; Poloski, J.P.; Shapiro, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    Information concerning the dominant accident sequences from twelve published probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) is cataloged in this report, which is published as a part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP). The purpose of this report is to provide users of PRA information a single reference document. The cataloged results include plant operation information, core-melt frequency, event tree models, dominant factors affecting core-melt and sequence frequencies, and a description of each dominant accident sequence. The report provides a consistent set of insights on the factors that drive the dominant accident sequences. ASEP has reconstructed the PRA fault tree models at the system or train level of detail and requantified the sequence likelihoods to provide the consistent insights. This work provides the information for the other ASEP activities on accident likelihood assessment for the operating and near-term operating plants.

  10. Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marie, Isabelle; Gehanno, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a complex pathogenesis. Although, there is a growing evidence that environmental factors have an impact on alterations and modulation of epigenetic determinants, resulting in SSc onset and progression. A marked correlation has thus been found between SSc onset and occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the following organic solvents: white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene, and ketones; the risk associated with high cumulative exposure to silica and organic solvents further appears to be strongly increased in SSc. Altogether, occupational exposure should be systematically checked in all SSc patients at diagnosis, as (1) exposed patients seem to develop more severe forms of SSc and (2) the identification of the occupational agents will allow its interruption, which may lead to potential improvement of SSc outcome. By contrast, based on current published data, there is insufficient evidence that exposure to other chemical agents (including notably pesticides as well as personal care such as silicone and hair dye), physical agents (ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, electric and magnetic fields), and biological agents (infections and diet, foods, and dietary contaminants) is a causative factor of SSc. Further investigations are still warranted to identify other environmental factors that may be associated with SSc onset and progression. PMID:26141606

  11. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of

  12. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  13. Competing hazards with shared unmeasured risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hill, D H; Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

    1993-01-01

    "The present paper develops a generalization of the standard discrete-time competing hazards model that allows for the types of stochastic dependencies resulting from shared unmeasured risk factors. An empirical example is provided using the process by which young women form their first conjugal residential union, with married and unmarried cohabitation representing the competing alternatives. The results suggest considerable and significant similarity of the alternatives in terms of the unmeasurables. It is also shown that, as a result, the independence assumption leads to substantially biased estimates of the net marriage and net cohabitation survival functions." The data concern a cohort of white children born in Detroit, Michigan, in 1961 and their mothers, followed up to 1985. PMID:12318164

  14. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  15. Calciphylaxis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nigwekar, Sagar U.; Kroshinksy, Daniela; Nazarian, Rosalynn M.; Goverman, Jeremy; Malhotra, Rajeev; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Kamdar, Mihir M.; Steele J.R., David; Thadhani, Ravi I.

    2015-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition that has continued to challenge the medical community since its early descriptions in the scientific literature many decades ago. It is predominantly seen in chronic kidney failure patients treated with dialysis (uremic calciphylaxis) but is also described in patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and with normal renal function. In this In Practice feature, we review the available medical literature regarding risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of both uremic and non-uremic calciphylaxis. High quality evidence for the evaluation and management of calciphylaxis is lacking at this time due to its rare incidence, poorly understood pathogenesis, and the relative paucity of collaborative research efforts. We hereby provide a summary of recommendations developed by the Massachusetts General Hospital's Multi-disciplinary Calciphylaxis Team for calciphylaxis patients. PMID:25960299

  16. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes. PMID:25574886

  17. Relation between diagnosis of atheromatous plaque from orthopantomographs and cardiovascular risk factors. A study of cases and control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Bonet, Carmen; Leco-Berrocal, Isabel; Fernández-Cáliz, Fernando; Martínez-González, José-María

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years the use of orthopantomography has been proposed as a low-cost, reliable and non-invasive diagnostic medium for detecting atheromatous plaque. The purpose of this study was to correlate the presence of carotid calcifications (atheroma) in orthopantomographs with specific risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents (previous cerebrovascular accidents, arterial hypertension, and diabetes). Material and Methods The methods used in this observational study of cases and control subjects followed STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) recommendations. The study analyzed a total of 1,602 panoramic radiographs taken for dental diagnostic purposes between January 2010 and February 2014. The main variables analyzed were the incidence of atheromatous plaque and other cardiovascular risk factors. Epidat 3.1 statistical software was used to determine minimum sample sizes and the results were analyzed using PASW (Predictive Analytics Software) Statistics 10.0.0. Results For all the variables analyzed, the correlation between radiographic detection of atheromatous plaque and the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was found to be statistically significant (RR>1.5). Conclusions The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to the incidence of radiopaque lesions at the carotid artery bifurcation, indicating the presence of atheromatous plaque. Key words:Orthopantomography, atheromatous plaque, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes, arterial hypertension. PMID:26595828

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  19. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  20. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  1. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  2. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  3. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium Facility`s evaluation basis fire operational accident. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brumburgh, G. P.

    1995-02-27

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous programmatic activities involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of improved and/or unique fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed in July 1994 to address operational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environmental. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EBF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility.

  4. Endovascular stents: market vigilance and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; Abbate, M; D'Avenio, G; Morbiducci, U; Del Gaudio, C; Barbaro, V

    2004-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing the safety and reliability level of coronary stents, we analyzed data collected from accident reports drawn from the MAUDE database (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database) of the FDA from 1996 to 2000. This analysis allowed us to highlight problems related to the use of coronary stents by means of the analysis of these reports at different levels, beginning from the causes that can lead to a certain type of accident up to the possible complication related to that event. Moreover we analyzed the procedure outcomes in terms of stent position inside the patient's body and the possible therapies adopted to solve the problems. The results showed that the most probable event that can lead to an accident is the stent separation from the balloon which, alone, turns up in a number of cases equal to the sum of all the others. This result highlights the importance of the technical skill of the operators accomplished by special training and of the importance of clarity and completeness in the instructions for the use of the device. Another critical point is the reliability of the device which must guarantee an adequate safety level when it is used according to the instructions. PMID:14984183

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L.; Forester, J.; Johnson, J.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  6. Evaluating risk factor assumptions: a simulation-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microsimulation models are an important tool for estimating the comparative effectiveness of interventions through prediction of individual-level disease outcomes for a hypothetical population. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions targeted toward high risk groups, the mechanism by which risk factors influence the natural history of disease must be specified. We propose a method for evaluating these risk factor assumptions as part of model-building. Methods We used simulation studies to examine the impact of risk factor assumptions on the relative rate (RR) of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality for a cohort with a risk factor compared to a cohort without the risk factor using an extension of the CRC-SPIN model for colorectal cancer. We also compared the impact of changing age at initiation of screening colonoscopy for different risk mechanisms. Results Across CRC-specific risk factor mechanisms, the RR of CRC incidence and mortality decreased (towards one) with increasing age. The rate of change in RRs across age groups depended on both the risk factor mechanism and the strength of the risk factor effect. Increased non-CRC mortality attenuated the effect of CRC-specific risk factors on the RR of CRC when both were present. For each risk factor mechanism, earlier initiation of screening resulted in more life years gained, though the magnitude of life years gained varied across risk mechanisms. Conclusions Simulation studies can provide insight into both the effect of risk factor assumptions on model predictions and the type of data needed to calibrate risk factor models. PMID:21899767

  7. Management of vascular risk factors in the hypertensive patient.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S H

    1990-10-01

    Understanding of the multiple risk factors for premature vascular degeneration is essential for the most effective management of the hypertensive patient. High blood pressure is the most important single predictor of coronary heart disease risk in general clinical practice in the UK. However, hypertension is only a marker of an apparent excess of other risk factors for coronary heart disease among hypertensive patients. The global management of the patient is further complicated for two reasons. First, many of the risk factors are complexly interrelated, either biologically or by lifestyle. Second, the attempted correction of one factor is fraught with the potential for aggravation of the others. The benefits to the coronary and vascular risk profile from lowering blood pressure may be offset, partially or completely, by the aggravation of other risk factors by the antihypertensive drug used. Optimum management of the hypertensive patient can only be achieved when all the risk factors for coronary heart disease in that individual are modified. PMID:2148191

  8. Factors Associated with Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…

  9. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  10. Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Leila; Salam, Hasan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon but severe complication of ocular trauma. We aimed to identify the incidence of post traumatic endophthalmitis and its contributing risk factors in Feiz hospital (Isfahan, Iran) from 2006 until 2010. Medical records of 1042 patients with open globe injury were analyzed and data were collected including age, sex, location of being injured, visual acuity (VA), time from injury to hospitalization and to repair, site of ophthalmic injury and the presence of foreign body. The frequency of post-traumatic endophthalmitis was about 2.1% (N = 22) of all patients. Nine of 22 cases with endophthalmitis were under 8 years. The visual acuity at the time of admission was seen to be contributed to high rate of endophthalmitis. Intraocular foreign body was detected in 139 patients; and the rate of endophthalmitis was 5% among these patients. Statistical analysis showed significant relationship between presence of foreign body and higher rate of endophthalmitis. Also, duration of hospitalization was significantly different between two study groups (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of other studied variables. Patients with low age, low visual acuity at admission, presence of intraocular foreign body and long duration of hospital stay had a higher risk of endophthalmitis after the repair of the globe. Compared to the reports of other large institutions, we can attribute the low incidence rate of endophthalmitis in our institution to the early use of systemic antibiotics such as gentamycin and cephalosporins in the first hour of hospitalization until discharge. PMID:25363107

  11. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

  12. Factors affecting the integrity of PWR pressure vessels during overcooling accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel in a pressurized water reactor is normally subjected to temperatures and pressures that preclude propagation of sharp, crack-like defects that might exist in the wall of the vessel. However, if certain postulated accidents, referred to as overcooling accidents, were to occur, the pressure vessel could be subjected to severe thermal shock while the pressure is substantial. As a result, vessels containing high concentrations of copper and nickel, which enhance radiation embrittlement, may possess a potential for extensive propagation of preexistent inner-surface flaws prior to the vessel's normal end of life. A fracture-mechanics analysis for a typical postulated accident and also related thermal-shock experiments indicate that very shallow surface flaws that extend through the cladding into the base material could propagate. This is of particular concern because shallow flaws appear to be the most probable and presumably are the most difficult to detect.

  13. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  14. Fighting Gum Disease: Risk Factors, Treatment and Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Fighting Gum Disease Risk Factors, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Risk ... out whether it offers this service. Latest NIH Research Researchers supported by the National Institute of Dental ...

  15. Heart Disease Risk Factors | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents You Can Reduce Your Risk Certain traits, conditions, or habits may raise your ...

  16. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  17. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  18. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  19. [Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gallardo, Ma Teresa; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando

    2005-01-01

    Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children. PMID:16259293

  20. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  1. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

  2. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Suhrabi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life, self esteem and interpersonal relationships and it may often be responsible for psychopathological disturbances. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors for Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women with Kurdish culture from western Iran . Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey which included 400 women aged 18–50 years old, married, from Ilam-IR, who were interviewed as per the Iranian version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The subjects were randomly selected from 4 primary health centres. Results: According to the findings, 185 (46.2%) women reported FSD. Prevalence of FSD increased with age, from 22% in women aged <20 years to 75.7% in women aged 40-50 years. FSD was detected as a desire problem in 45.3% of women, an arousal problem in 37.5%, a lubrication problem in 41.2%, an orgasm problem in 42.0%, a satisfaction problem in 44.5% and a pain problem in 42.5%. The educational level was inversely correlated with the risk of FSD (OR: 1.54 ,95% CI: 1.09-2.13). Patients with FSD were significantly more likely to be older than 40 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.12-2.68), who had sexual intercourse fewer than 3 times a week (OR:1.85, 95% CI: 1.23-1.99), who had been married for 10 years or more (OR:1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-1.97), who had 3 children or more (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.97-1.24), who had husbands aged 40 years or more (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.35-2.37) and who were unemployed (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63). No significant differences were detected in smoking history, residences and contraception methods used (p>0.05). Conclusion: FSD needs to be recognized as a significant public health problem in Kurd women. Further research, particularly studies on awareness and competency of physicians in the management of FSD, is required. PMID:24551663

  3. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents in the coming decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-11-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 yr (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential dosages to humans from the inhalation and the exposure to ground deposited radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest during boreal winter due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and reduced mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  4. Global Risk from the Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides by Nuclear Power Plant Accidents in the Coming Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed, our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  5. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents in the coming decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-05-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed, our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Volume 6, Part 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L.; Mubayi, V.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analyses, and uncertainty analysis. The internal event analysis is documented in Volume 2. The internal fire and internal flood analysis are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associated, Inc. A phased approach was used in the level 2/3 PRA program, however both phases addressed the risk from only mid-loop operation. The first phase of the level 2/3 PRA was initiated in late 1991 and consisted of an Abridged Risk Study. This study was completed in May 1992 and was focused on accident progression and consequences, conditional on core damage. Phase 2 is a more detailed study in which an evaluation of risk during mid-loop operation was performed. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6. This report, Volume 6, Part 2, consists of five appendices containing supporting information for: the PDS (plant damage state) analysis; the accident progression analysis; the source term analysis; the consequence analysis; and the Melcor analysis. 73 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients' EHRs, we are able to construct a patient's clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient's risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients' clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient's risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  8. Risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma--current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Xie, Li; Yang, Wan-Shui; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Shan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disorder worldwide which ranks 5th and 7th most common cancer among men and women. In recent years, different incidence trends have been observed in various regions, but the reasons are not completely understood. However, due to the great public efforts in HCC prevention and alternation of lifestyle, the roles of some well documented risk factors played in hepatocarcinogenesis might have changed. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma including well established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin and alcohol, as well as possible risk factors such as coffee drinking and other dietary agents. PMID:22631642

  9. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  10. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  11. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Coronary risk factors in patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Nasser; Alikhah, Hossein; Abadan, Younes

    2011-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) risk increases with increasing number of risk factors. This study was aimed to assess different coronary risk factors among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery patients. A total of 700 patients younger than 45 or older than 65 years and underwent CABG in Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center since 2003 to 2007 were enrolled. We examined the probable differences of CAD risk factors between male and female groups and age groups. We also assessed the change of risk factors presentation in last 5 years. There was not significant difference between risk factor numbers in <45 and >65 years groups, but smoking and dyslipidemia was more prevalent in patients < 45 than > 65 years old. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in patients > 65 old than < 45 years old; also differences were found between males and females patients, so that dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension were more prevalent in women than men. Some risk factors were recognized as acting more on one gender than the other. Also, the majority of patients have one or more risk factors, but different age and gender groups may have different risk factors that suggest the need for exact programming for appropriate prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in all groups. PMID:21913494

  13. Selected Risk Factors in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Anthony G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined stress, depression, attempted suicide, and knowledge of common signs of potential suicide among 3,803 eighth and tenth graders. Found females at greater risk of suicide attempts than males. Both males and females who engaged in sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk than abstainers; such differences were more…

  14. Manual accidents, biological risk control, and quality indicators at a children’s hospital in north-east Italy

    PubMed Central

    Parco, Sergio; Vascotto, Fulvia; Simeone, Roberto; Visconti, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in health care carries the risk of transmission of infected blood to patients by hospital workers and to other health personnel in the form of occupational infections. Conscientious application of the standard precautions is the main method used to avoid needle stick injuries, contamination of skin and mucous membranes, cuts with sharp tools, and inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. The aim of this work was to investigate in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-east Italy, the enhancement carried out to prevent situations of biologic risk for health care workers, and to verify the related laboratory analyses. Methods Biological accidents occurring during the years 2012–2013 in the departments of oncology and pediatric-obstetric surgery, and in the intensive care unit at Burlo Garofolo Children’s Hospital in Trieste (a large town in Friuli Venezia Giulia) were reviewed, and a new panel of tests was introduced for patients and health care workers, to also detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and aspartate transaminase and immunoglobulin G. All tests were submitted for external quality assessment. Results In total, 230 nosocomial events were reported by health care workers in the above-mentioned hospital departments in 2012–2013. There were 158 accidents in 2012, including 55 accidental needle stick injuries (34.81%), 59 blood splashes (37.34%), and 44 cuts with infected instruments (27.84%). The risk of sustaining a cut was related to movement error during surgery when the appropriate procedure was not followed or when devices were being assembled and passed between doctors and nurses. Most accidents happened among physicians compared to nurses; the high percentage of needle stick injuries (34.81%) versus nurses (25.94%) were due to incorrect recapping of needles after use. No cases of health care workers being infected with HCV, HBV, or HIV were identified. In 2013, the

  15. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Marcus, Bess H; Blair, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women

  16. Applying hierarchical loglinear models to nonfatal underground coal mine accidents for safety management.

    PubMed

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Adiguzel, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Underground mining is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries and mining remains the most hazardous occupation. Categorical analysis of accident records may present valuable information for preventing accidents. In this study, hierarchical loglinear analysis was applied to occupational injuries that occurred in an underground coal mine. The main factors affecting the accidents were defined as occupation, area, reason, accident time and part of body affected. By considering subfactors of the main factors, multiway contingency tables were prepared and, thus, the probabilities that might affect nonfatal injuries were investigated. At the end of the study, important accident risk factors and job groups with a high probability of being exposed to those risk factors were determined. This article presents important information on decreasing the number accidents in underground coal mines. PMID:24934420

  17. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  18. Risk factors of chronic daily headache or chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Jin; Chu, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a common neurological condition that affects 1-4 % of the general population. Most individuals with CDH originally suffered from episodic headaches, but over time, this developed into CDH. Although the pathophysiology of CDH is not fully understood, recent clinical and epidemiological studies suggest some risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of transformation from episodic headaches. If risk factors can be identified, they could provide a base for aggressive preventive intervention and thus decrease the transformation from episodic headaches to eventual CDH. In this article, we review and summarize the current data on risk factors for CDH. PMID:25416458

  19. [Risk factors for arterial hypertension among machinery construction workers].

    PubMed

    Zakhar'eva, S V; Pasechnaia, N A

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied prevalence of arterial hypertension, its risk factors in workers of major machinery construction enterprise, who have prolonged contact with a complex of low-intensity occupational hazards. Findings are reliably higher prevalence of arterial hypertension among the workers vs. reference group, relative risk of arterial hypertension responding to exposed factor. PMID:16491856

  20. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels. PMID:26478562

  1. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  2. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  3. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  4. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  5. Risk Factors for Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Susan; Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2006-01-01

    This study introduces potential risk factors for victimization and perpetration of sexual harassment among teens not previously studied. The first set of analyses compared histories of perpetration and victimization by gender, as well as the relationship between risk factors and perpetration or victimization. For girls (r = 0.544) and boys (r =…

  6. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk ... whether certain children are more likely to develop tics following a group A ß-hemolytic streptococcal (“strep”) ...

  7. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  8. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Robert Svendsen, Erik; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealiing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. PMID:25862700

  9. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Robert Svendsen, Erik; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealiing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. PMID:25862700

  10. Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Factors: Plasma Erythropoietin as a Risk Factor for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gholamhossein, Yaghoobi; Asghar, Zarban

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with levels of plasma erythropoietin and other plasma parameters. Methods It was examined a representative sample of 180 type 2 diabetes patients aged 40 to 79 years. Ophthalmic examination including a funduscopic examination, performed by an experienced ophthalmologist and the retinal finding were classified according to the grading system for diabetic retinopathy of ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study). It was measured the levels of plasma erythropoietin, cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoproteins A and B, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) in 88 DR patients and 92 controls without DR. Risk factors correlated with DR were compared between groups. Results The study group of 180 patients included 72 males and 108 females. The mean age of the patients with and without DR was 57.36 ± 8.87 years and 55.33 ± 8.28 years, respectively. Of the 88 patients with DR, only 9 (10%) had proliferative DR and the rest suffered from non-proliferative DR. The mean plasma levels of erythropoietin in proliferative DR group showed a significant difference in comparison to other groups. The mean plasma levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoproteins A and B, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were not significantly different in the three groups except for HbA1C. The absolute relative risk (ARR) also showed that erythropoietin was an increasing risk for proliferative DR (ARR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.060 to 1.420; odds ratio,1.060). Conclusions Of the factors studied, erythropoietin level showed significant increase in proliferative DR group. The stepwise raised in mean plasma erythropoietin level which demonstrates significant correlation with proliferative DR versus remaining two groups, will be an indication of its role in proliferative DR. PMID:25276078

  11. Distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides released by Fukushima nuclear accident at the northwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen; He, Jianhua; Lin, Wuhui; Li, Yiliang; Men, Wu; Wang, Fenfen; Huang, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand the impact of Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) on the marine environment, seawater and a composite squid (Ommastrephe bartrami) sample were collected on the monitoring cruise XT01 during June 16-July 4, 2011. The concentration levels of Cesium-134, Cesium-137, Strontium-90, Silver-110 m, Cobalt-58 and Cobalt-60 were measured both for the seawater and squid samples. The elevated activity levels of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 were found in the sampling area. Cesium-134 and Silver-110 m, which were usually undetectable before FNA, were also found in the squid sample, with the activity levels of 1.65 ± 0.13 Bq/kg-wet and 0.07 ± 0.01 Bq/kg-wet, respectively. The radiological assessment result showed that the radioactive release from the FNA would not have a significant adverse effect on marine biota at the population level. PMID:25644751

  12. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. PMID:24418410

  13. Estimates of radiation dose and health risks to the United States population following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.; Smith, J.M.; Norwood, D.L.; Porter, C.R.

    1988-09-01

    Estimates of both individual and collective doses received by the United States population following the Chernobyl accident have been made by using the data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System. Radionuclides associated with the debris first were measured in precipitation and surface air particulates at Portland, OR and Olympia, WA on 5 May 1986. Iodine-131 was the most consistently measured nuclide in all media, although several Cs and Ru isotopes also were observed. Strontium and any actinides notably were absent from the samples at the lower level of detection. The highest calculated individual-organ dose due to intake during May and June 1986 was 0.52 mSv to the infant thyroid in the state of Washington. This was predominantly (98%) from the ingestion of milk. The maximum U.S. collective dose equivalent to any organ was calculated to be 3,300 person-Sv to the thyroid. Risk estimates project three excess lung cancer deaths and an additional four deaths due to cancers of thyroid, breast and leukemia in the U.S. population over the next 45 y from exposure during the May-June 1986 interval. The only long-lived radionuclide measured in milk samples following the accident was 137Cs. We estimate 20 excess fatalities from the ingestion of 137Cs in milk during all subsequent years, with six of these due to lung cancer and the majority of the remainder distributed approximately equally among cancers of the thyroid, breast, liver and leukemia. A total of 100 excess fatalities from all dietary components was estimated. Because of the uncertainty of risk estimates from data such as those available for this study, all calculated values carry a range of uncertainty from a minimum of one-half the calculated value to a maximum of two times the calculated value.

  14. Perception of Radiation Risk by Japanese Radiation Specialists Evaluated as a Safe Dose Before the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Miura, Miwa; Ono, Koji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    From October to December 2010, just before the radiological accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 71 radiation professionals from radiation facilities in Japan were asked what they considered as a "safe dose" of radiation for themselves, their partners, parents, children, siblings, and friends. Although the 'safe dose' they noted varied widely, from less than 1 mSv y to more than 100 mSv y, the average dose was 35.6 mSv y, which is around the middle point between the legal exposure dose limits for the annual average and for any single year. Similar results were obtained from other surveys of members of the Japan Radioisotope Association (36.9 mSv y) and of the Oita Prefectural Hospital (36.8 mSv y). Among family members and friends, the minimum average "safe" dose was 8.5 mSv y for children, for whom 50% of the responders claimed a "safe dose" of less than 1 mSv. Gender, age and specialty of the radiation professional also affected their notion of a "safe dose." These findings suggest that the perception of radiation risk varies widely even for radiation professionals and that the legal exposure dose limits derived from regulatory science may act as an anchor of safety. The different levels of risk perception for different target groups among radiation professionals appear similar to those in the general population. The gap between these characteristics of radiation professionals and the generally accepted picture of radiation professionals might have played a role in the state of confusion after the radiological accident. PMID:27115222

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  16. Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam. PMID:24587031

  17. Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L.

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  19. Benchmarking on the evaluation of major accident-related risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Luciano; Contini, Sergio

    2009-03-15

    This paper summarises the main results of a European project BEQUAR (Benchmarking Exercise in Quantitative Area Risk Assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries). This project is among the first attempts to explore how independent evaluations of the same risk study associated with a certain chemical establishment could differ from each other and the consequent effects on the resulting area risk estimate. The exercise specifically aimed at exploring the manner and degree to which independent experts may disagree on the interpretation of quantitative risk assessments for the same entity. The project first compared the results of a number of independent expert evaluations of a quantitative risk assessment study for the same reference chemical establishment. This effort was then followed by a study of the impact of the different interpretations on the estimate of the overall risk on the area concerned. In order to improve the inter-comparability of the results, this exercise was conducted using a single tool for area risk assessment based on the ARIPAR methodology. The results of this study are expected to contribute to an improved understanding of the inspection criteria and practices used by the different national authorities responsible for the implementation of the Seveso II Directive in their countries. The activity was funded under the Enlargement and Integration Action of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), that aims at providing scientific and technological support for promoting integration of the New Member States and assisting the Candidate Countries on their way towards accession to the European Union. PMID:18657363

  20. Kindergarten Risk Factors, Cognitive Factors, and Teacher Judgments as Predictors of Early Reading in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the predictive value of risk factors, cognitive factors, and teachers' judgments in a sample of 462 kindergartners for their early reading skills and reading failure at the beginning of Grade 1. With respect to risk factors, enrollment in speech-language therapy, history of dyslexia or speech-language problems in the family,…

  1. A real-time, dynamic early-warning model based on uncertainty analysis and risk assessment for sudden water pollution accidents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dibo; Ge, Xiaofan; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin; Loáiciga, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    A real-time, dynamic, early-warning model (EP-risk model) is proposed to cope with sudden water quality pollution accidents affecting downstream areas with raw-water intakes (denoted as EPs). The EP-risk model outputs the risk level of water pollution at the EP by calculating the likelihood of pollution and evaluating the impact of pollution. A generalized form of the EP-risk model for river pollution accidents based on Monte Carlo simulation, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, and the risk matrix method is proposed. The likelihood of water pollution at the EP is calculated by the Monte Carlo method, which is used for uncertainty analysis of pollutants' transport in rivers. The impact of water pollution at the EP is evaluated by expert knowledge and the results of Monte Carlo simulation based on the analytic hierarchy process. The final risk level of water pollution at the EP is determined by the risk matrix method. A case study of the proposed method is illustrated with a phenol spill accident in China. PMID:24781332

  2. Time dependence of the {sup 137}Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, B.; Cuculeanu, V.

    1994-08-01

    On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of {sup 137}Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA`s recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The role of exogenous risk factors of antituberculosis treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    LESNIC, EVELINA; USTIAN, AURELIA; POP, CARMEN MONICA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The Republic of Moldova reports the highest incidence of tuberculosis and the lowest treatment success rate among European region countries. In most of the patients the antituberculosis treatment failure is correlated with social risk factors (low socio-economical state, epidemiological danger characteristics) and biological factors (young age, male sex, physiological conditions, associated diseases). Clinical factors (advanced forms of tuberculosis, chronic evolution, immune disturbances), therapeutic factors (treatment errors and interruptions, individualized regimens) and administrative factors (drug interruption in supply, suboptimal treatment quality) prevail in regions with defficient in health care delivery. The association of risk factors has a higher impact than the severity of one risk factor. The risk factor assessment is very important before initiation of the treatment, for establishing the plan of risk reduction measures for increasing the success rate. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of exogenous risk factors on antituberculosis treatment failure. Methods The study was conducted on 201 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment failure and 105 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who successfully finished the antituberculosis treatment. Selected cases were investigated according national standards. Results The treatment failure occurred in patients belonging to socially disadvantaged groups, patients with harmful habits (alcohol abuse, drug use, active smoking), patients from infectious clusters. Migration, homelessness and detention releasing imperil the quality of treatment, thus predisposing to the treatment failure. Social, educational support and the substitutive therapy and withdrawal techniques (tobacco, alcohol, psycho-active substances) must be implemented in the high risk groups in order to diminish the risk of treatment failure and to increase the treatment success rate. Conclusions The study of

  4. Prioritizing risk factors to identify preventive interventions for economic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Foster, Rachel H; Hadorn, David; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore a risk factor approach for identifying preventive interventions that require more in-depth economic assessment, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods A three-step approach was employed to: (i) identify the risk factors that contribute most substantially to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); (ii) re-rank these risk factors based on the availability of effective preventive interventions warranting further cost-effectiveness analysis (and in some instances on evidence from existing cost-effectiveness analyses); and (iii) re-rank these risk factors in accordance with their relative contribution to health inequalities. Health inequalities between the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand were used by way of illustration. Findings Seven of the top 10 risk factors prioritized for research on preventive interventions in New Zealand were also among the 10 risk factors most highly ranked as contributing to DALYs in high-income countries of the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region. The final list of priority risk factors included tobacco use; alcohol use; high blood pressure; high blood cholesterol; overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. All of these factors contributed to health inequalities. Effective interventions for preventing all of them are available, and for each risk factor there is at least one documented cost-saving preventive intervention. Conclusion The straightforward approach to prioritizing risk factors described in this paper may be applicable in many countries, and even in those countries that lack the capacity to perform additional cost-effectiveness analyses, this approach will still make it possible to determine which cost-effective interventions should be implemented in the short run. PMID:22423159

  5. August 2003 heat wave in France: risk factors for death of elderly people living at home.

    PubMed

    Vandentorren, S; Bretin, P; Zeghnoun, A; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Croisier, A; Cochet, C; Ribéron, J; Siberan, I; Declercq, B; Ledrans, M

    2006-12-01

    The August 2003 heat wave in France resulted in many thousands of excess deaths particularly of elderly people. Individual and environmental risk factors for death among the community-dwelling elderly were identified. We conducted a case-control survey and defined cases as people aged 65 years and older who lived at home and died from August 8 through August 13 from causes other than accident, suicide, or surgical complications. Controls were matched with cases for age, sex, and residential area. Interviewers used questionnaires to collect data. Satellite pictures provided profiles of the heat island characteristics around the homes. Lack of mobility was a major risk factor along with some pre-existing medical conditions. Housing characteristics associated with death were lack of thermal insulation and sleeping on the top floor, right under the roof. The temperature around the building was a major risk factor. Behaviour such as dressing lightly and use of cooling techniques and devices were protective factors. These findings suggest people with pre-existing medical conditions were likely to be vulnerable during heat waves and need information on how to adjust daily routines to heat waves. In the long term, building insulation and urban planning must be adapted to provide protection from possible heat waves. PMID:17028103

  6. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  7. Inflammatory arthritis as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    John, Holly; Kitas, George

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity is a significant issue for the inflammatory arthritides (IA). There is a wealth of mortality studies showing increased cardiovascular mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the evidence suggests that the same is likely to be true of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). CVD co-morbidity is due to ischaemic pathologies driven by accelerated atherosclerosis and relates to the increased prevalence and clustering of classical risk factors, which may also be affected by treatments for IA, and their interplay with novel risk factors, namely systemic inflammation. Currently we are unable to quantify the contribution that classical and novel risk factors make to an individuals' CVD risk and specific algorithms need to be developed and validated in RA, PsA and AS to facilitate clinical management. Furthermore, large clinical trials are required to assess the effect of lifestyle modifications, primary prevention strategies and effective immunosuppression on hard CVD endpoints. However, in the meantime, a pragmatic approach should be adopted towards CVD risk management. Consensus opinion has generated guidelines for the management of CVD risk in IA and we discuss the importance of assessing each individual for CVD risk and establishing a system for routine risk factor identification alongside a commitment to treat identified risk factors to specific targets. PMID:22841864

  8. Clarifying dementia risk factors: treading in murky waters.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Halima; Oh, Esther S

    2016-07-01

    In light of the growing burden of dementia, continued research into risk factors and potential contributors to disease development is essential. Clearly established risk factors can not only inform our understanding of disease pathophysiology and treatments but also identify potential preventive strategies. While age and the ApoE4 allele have consistently been shown to increase risk of developing dementia (Kukull et al., 2002), other risk factors have been less studied or have had inconsistent findings. The study by Booker and colleagues (Booker et al., 2016) re-examines proposed late-life medical risk factors for incident dementia in a large population-based case-control study. This important contribution is best interpreted in the context of existing research. PMID:27225941

  9. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. PMID:24499962

  10. Falls risk factors in the hospital setting: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Evans, D; Hodgkinson, B; Lambert, L; Wood, J

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the best available evidence on the factors that increase the risk of patients falling during hospitalization. Studies included in the review were those that involved adult patients in hospital, that attempted to identify risk factors for falling, and used a cohort or case-control research design. The search strategy covered all major databases and including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Current Contents, Psyclit, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results were summarized by a narrative discussion, identifying risk factors that were commonly identified in a range of practice settings. Eighteen papers met the review inclusion criteria and are reported in this paper. Factors associated with an increased risk of falling include impaired mental status, special toileting needs, impaired mobility, and a history of falling. While findings are contradictory, it appears that both medications and advanced age will also influence a patient's risk of falling. PMID:11811346

  11. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wu, P C; Lang, J H; Ge, W J; Hartge, P; Brinton, L A

    1992-02-01

    A study in Beijing, China of 112 pathologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 224 age-matched community controls enabled evaluation of risk in relation to reproductive, medical, familial, and selected lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of full-term pregnancies and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to nulliparous women, subjects with one, two, or three full-term pregnancies were at 50%, 70%, or 90% reduced risks, respectively (P for trend less than 0.01). A positive correlation was found between the number of ovulatory years and risk, with a 2.6-fold increased risk for women with 30 or more compared to less than 10 ovulatory years (P for trend less than 0.01). Infertility, as estimated in various ways, was also found to be an important risk factor. When parity was taken into account, age at first pregnancy was not related to ovarian cancer risk. No protective effect was associated with mumps virus infection. In contrast, risk increased significantly as serum mumps virus antibody titres increased (P for trend less than 0.01). An elevated risk was found in women with a history of long-term (greater than 3 months) application of talc-containing dusting powder to the lower abdomen and perineum (Relative risk 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-10.63). These findings suggest that Chinese women have risk factors similar to those of occidental women. PMID:1544753

  12. Interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation. Assessment of risk factors

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.S.; Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Gluckman, E.; Kay, H.E.; Kolb, H.J.; Hartz, A.J.; Rimm, A.A.

    1986-02-01

    Data from 932 patients with leukemia who received bone marrow transplants were analyzed to determine factors associated with an increased risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis. Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 268 patients for a 2-year actuarial incidence of 35 +/- 4% (SD) and with a mortality rate of 24%. Six factors were associated with an increased risk: use of methotrexate rather than cyclosporine after transplantation (relative risk, 2.3; p less than 0.0002); older age (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); presence of severe graft-versus-host disease (relative risk, 1.9; p less than 0.003); long interval from diagnosis to transplantation (relative risk, 1.6; p less than 0.002); performance ratings before transplantation of less than 100% (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); and high dose-rates of irradiation in patients given methotrexate after transplantation (relative risk, 3.2; p less than 0.03). The risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis ranged from 8% in patients with none of these adverse risk factors to 94% in patients with all six. These findings may help to identify patients at high risk for this complication.

  13. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Lucia

    2015-01-14

    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis. PMID:25593453

  14. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108

  15. [Risk factors for delirium tremens: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Thiercelin, N; Rabiah Lechevallier, Z; Rusch, E; Plat, A

    2012-01-01

    Delirium tremens (DT) is the most severe complication from alcohol withdrawal. Risk factors for DT (before the withdrawal begins) and early predictive factors for the development of the withdrawal syndrome towards DT (once withdrawal has started) are not clearly established. We reviewed the literature from PubMed/Medline database to identify risk factors for DT. Twenty-one studies were been selected. Three only were prospective. The most commonly identified risk factors included personal history of DT, seizures, presence of acute somatic comorbidity especially infectious, presence of early withdrawal symptoms, and genetic predisposition. Most of these risk factors are still debated and prospective studies might appear useful considering the DT prevalence and the absence of consensual both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. PMID:21920639

  16. Factors attributed to fatal occupational accidents in a period of 5 years preceding the Athens 2004 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Katsakiori, Panagiota; Manatakis, Emmanuel; Goutsos, Stavros; Athanassiou, George

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors attributed to occupational fatalities occurring in the region of East Attica, Greece, in all industry types over a 5-year period preceding the 2004 Olympic Games. Questionnaires, based on the attribution theory, were completed by labor inspectors and were analyzed with principal component analysis. The results showed that most accidents occurred in the construction industry due to large-scale civil works, which took place in East Attica prior to the 2004 Olympic Games. Poor work practices arising from lack of orientation and job training, performance pressure and workers' inexperience associated with knowledge- and skill-based errors were revealed by the questionnaire as the most common factors attributed to occupational fatalities. Our findings help to identify areas where prevention efforts should be directed to effectively manage safety in Greece. PMID:18954538

  17. Risk factors in dengue shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thein, S; Aung, M M; Shwe, T N; Aye, M; Zaw, A; Aye, K; Aye, K M; Aaskov, J

    1997-05-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence predominantly, but not exclusively, from Thailand suggesting that the risk of developing dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is greatest following an anamnestic dengue infection, particularly if the most recent infection was with dengue 2 virus, there continues to be debate about the justification for these claims. This report describes a five-year, prospective study in two townships (suburbs) in Yangon (Rangoon) Myanmar (Burma) in which attempts were made to confirm the data from an earlier prospective study in Thailand and to address some of the criticism of earlier studies. This investigation found the incidence of anamnestic dengue infections in DSS patients to be significantly higher than in the community from which they were drawn and a significantly higher risk of developing DSS following an anamnestic infection (particularly with dengue 2 virus) than following a primary infection with any serotype. PMID:9180609

  18. Tritium accident containment within a large fusion enclosure: cost, benefit, and risk considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Containment of a tritium accident within a large fusion device building will be difficult and costly. Complete containment is impossible, and with this fact in mind, the global dispersion and health effects of tritium are reviewed. Atmospheric tritium emissions lead to an estimated population dose to the Northern Hemisphere of 5.6 x 10/sup -3/ man-rem/Ci, which may also be interpreted as 1 cancer fatality per MCi. Updating the NRC $1000 per man-rem criterion to 1982 costs gives 9.5 $/y per Ci/y as the unit annual health benefit rate from averting tritium release at a continuous rate. Present worth considerations lead to an estimate of $100 per Ci/y for the maximum capital investment justified per expected curie per year of tritium release averted. A simplified enclosure model is used to explore the trade-off between processing capacity and recycle time with the health cost of residual tritium release included in the analysis.

  19. Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students.

    PubMed

    Mongiello, Lorraine Laccetti; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Jones, Hollie

    2016-10-01

    All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease. PMID:26169506

  20. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27313880

  1. Epidemiology, Traditional and Novel Risk Factors in Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Mack, Molly; Gopal, Ambarish

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality has been declining in the United States and in regions where health care systems are relatively advanced. Still, CAD remains the number one cause of death in both men and women in the United States, and coronary events have increased in women. Many traditional risk factors for CAD are related to lifestyle, and preventative treatment can be tailored to modifying specific factors. Novel risk factors also may contribute to CAD. Finally, as the risk for CAD is largely understood to be inherited, further genetic testing should play a role in preventative treatment of the disease. PMID:26567971

  2. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  3. Meat consumption as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  4. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  5. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  6. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1 year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  7. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Turrone, Rosanna; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Bianchi, Marta; Poli, Loris; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Premi, Enrico; Formenti, Anna; Bigni, Barbara; Cosseddu, Maura; Cottini, Elisabetta; Berg, Daniela; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive deficits and incident dementia in the general population, but their role on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. The present study addresses the single and cumulative effect of vascular risk factors on cognition in PD patients, taking clinical confounders into account. Standardized neuropsychological assessment was performed in 238 consecutive PD patients. We evaluated the association of single and cumulative vascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and heart disease), with the diagnosis of PD normal cognition (PDNC, n = 94), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 111), and dementia (PDD, n = 33). The association between single neuropsychological tests and vascular risk factors was evaluated with covariance analyses adjusted for age at onset, educational levels, gender, disease duration, and motor performance. Age, educational levels, disease duration, and motor function were significantly different between PDNC, PD-MCI, and PDD. Heart disease was the only vascular factor significantly more prevalent in PDD compared with PDNC in adjusted analyses. Performance of tests assessing executive and attention functions were significantly worse in patients with hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes (p <  0.05). Heart disease is associated with dementia in PD, suggesting a potential window of intervention. Vascular risk factors act especially on attention and executive functions in PD. Vascular risk stratification may be useful in order to identify PD patients with a greater risk of developing dementia. These findings need to be verified in longitudinal studies. PMID:26890741

  8. Military risk factors for cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Dallas P; Friedl, Karl E; Weiner, Michael W

    2013-11-01

    Delayed neurological health consequences of environmental exposures during military service have been generally underappreciated. The rapidly expanding understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis now makes it possible to quantitate some of the likely long-term health risks associated with military service. Military risk factors for AD include both factors elevated in military personnel such as tobacco use, traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other nonspecific risk factors for AD including, vascular risk factors such as obesity and obesity-related diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome), education and physical fitness. The degree of combat exposure, Vietnam era Agent Orange exposure and Gulf War Illness may also influence risk for AD. Using available data on the association of AD and specific exposures and risk factors, the authors have conservatively estimated 423,000 new cases of AD in veterans by 2020, including 140,000 excess cases associated with specific military exposures. The cost associated with these excess cases is approximately $5.8 billion to $7.8 billion. Mitigation of the potential impact of military exposures on the cognitive function of veterans and management of modifiable risk factors through specifically designed programs will be instrumental in minimizing the impact of AD in veterans in the future decades. PMID:23906002

  9. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  10. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  11. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigate the effects of 51 genetic variants identified in previous GWAS on breast cancer risk. The independent effect of these genetic variants was assessed by creating a summed genetic risk score (GRS) after adjustment for body mass index and the Gail model risk factors for breast cancer. Results The GRS was an independent predictor of breast cancer risk in Chinese women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of breast cancer for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the GRS were 1.26 (0.90 to 1.76), 1.47 (1.06 to 2.04) and 1.75 (1.27 to 2.41) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In addition to established risk factors, the GRS improved the classification of 6.2% of women for their absolute risk of breast cancer in the next five years. Conclusions Genetic variants on top of conventional risk factors can improve the risk prediction of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:24941967

  12. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk. PMID:27565403

  13. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  14. Occupational risk factors for developing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Hall, N

    1996-08-01

    We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries or occupations. A case-referent study of 149 male tuberculosis (TB) patients reported to the New Jersey Health Department from 1985 to 1987 and 290 referents was performed. Standardized interviews were conducted via the telephone or in person. Increased risk of TB was highest in heavy drinkers (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 1.99-5.59) and those who had a history of living with someone who had a history of TB (OR = 10.92, 95% CL 4.92-24.22). Occupations and industries associated with elevated risk for TB included: four silica-using industries-quarrying (OR = 3.96, 95% CL 0.36-44.02), pottery and related products (OR = 1.99, 95% CL 0.49-8.06), nonmetallic mineral and stone products (OR = 4.00, 95% CL 0.72-22.10), and ship and boat building and repair (OR = 1.84, 95% CL 0.76-4.43); hospitals (OR = 2.10, 95% CL 1.08-4.10); light truck drivers (OR = 2.49, 95% CL 1.30-4.77); agriculture (OR = 2.31, 95% CL 0.82-6.50); eating and drinking establishments (OR = 2.83, 95% CL 1.11-7.20); and janitors/cleaners (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.63-6.31). Except for janitors/cleaners, these elevated odds ratios remained for the above occupations/industries after controlling for alcohol or a history of having lived with someone with tuberculosis. Limitations of the study include a poor response rate (38%) and the exclusion of women from the study. PMID:8844044

  15. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  16. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  17. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  18. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P < 0.001). The model-assigned 10-year risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors. PMID:26012643

  19. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  20. Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children: Risk Factors and Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Numis, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity or mortality in children and as a financial burden for families and society. Recent studies have identified and confirmed presumptive risk factors and have identified novel associations with childhood arterial ischemic stroke. A better understanding of these risk factors for stroke in children, which differ from the atherosclerotic risk factors in adults, is the first step needed to improve strategies for stroke prevention and intervention and ultimately minimize the physical, mental and financial burden of AIS. Here, we discuss recent advances in research for selected childhood stroke risk factors, highlighting the progress made in our understanding of etiologic mechanisms and pathophysiology, and address the future directions for acute and long-term treatment strategies for pediatric stroke. PMID:24384876