Science.gov

Sample records for accidental conditions contribution

  1. Computational modeling for hexcan failure under core distruptive accidental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H.; Shimizu, A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the development of computational modeling for hexcan wall failures under core disruptive accident conditions of fast breeder reactors. A series of out-of-pile experiments named SIMBATH has been analyzed by using the SIMMER-II code. The SIMBATH experiments were performed at KfK in Germany. The experiments used a thermite mixture to simulate fuel. The test geometry of SIMBATH ranged from single pin to 37-pin bundles. In this study, phenomena of hexcan wall failure found in a SIMBATH test were analyzed by SIMMER-II. Although the original model of SIMMER-II did not calculate any hexcan failure, several simple modifications made it possible to reproduce the hexcan wall melt-through observed in the experiment. In this paper the modifications and their significance are discussed for further modeling improvements.

  2. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals.

  3. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  4. Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tim; Poon, Patrick

    2006-06-14

    Although there is general consensus that the hippocampus is not critically involved in the acquisition of fear conditioned to an explicit conditioned stimulus (CS), the extent to which the hippocampus participates in contextual fear conditioning remains unclear. To further characterize the potential role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning, the present experiments examined the effect of excitotoxic lesions of dorsal hippocampus on the acquisition of a novel contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which a unimodal (olfactory) cue served to disambiguate discrete "contexts" within a single behavioral training chamber. Selective lesions of dorsal hippocampus severely attenuated olfactory contextual conditioning without affecting conditioning to an explicit auditory or olfactory CS. Additional experiments indicate that these contextual conditioning deficits cannot be attributed to a lesion-induced decrement in olfactory perception, a preferential impairment of "weak" forms of conditioning, or hyperactivity. Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli.

  5. Discriminative evaluative conditioning in the long-term after severe accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Oe, Misari; Schumacher, Sonja; Schnyder, Ulrich; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Wilhelm, Frank H; Kuelen, Eveline; Martin-Soelch, Chantal

    2016-06-30

    Impairments in classical fear conditioning and deficits in discriminative learning are observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether similar impairments can be found with types of discriminative learning other than classical conditioning, such as evaluative conditioning (EC), in which the valence of a stimulus can be transferred to other stimuli. In this study, we investigated whether EC is also influenced by traumatic experiences independently of presence of PTSD. We tested 14 accident survivors with remitted PTSD, 14 survivors without PTSD, and 16 non-trauma controls. We used behavioral measures, psychophysiological indicators, and subjective ratings for tasks. General effects of learning were observed across groups and conditioning/extinction. Trauma controls had slower reaction times (RTs) to the aversive conditioned stimulus compared to appetitive conditioned and neutral stimuli, as well as slower RTs and increased accuracy during conditioning than during extinction. Remitted PTSD participants showed opposite results, demonstrating decreased accuracy and slower RTs during conditioning as compared to during extinction. No discriminative effect was found in the non-trauma controls and the remitted PTSD participants. These results suggest that a traumatic experience influences EC, and that this influence differs between individuals who have and have not developed PTSD after traumatic exposure.

  6. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Minka, Ndazo S; Ayo, Joseph O

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher (p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  7. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minka, Ndazo S.; Ayo, Joseph O.

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher ( p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the results of atmosphere dispersion modeling using CALPUFF code that are based on computational simulation to evaluate the environmental characteristics of the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP) in west area of UAE. According to meteorological data analysis (2012~2013), the winds from the north(7.68%) and west(9.05%) including NNW(41.63%), NW(28.55%), and WNW(6.31%) winds accounted for more than 90% of the wind directions. East(0.2%) and south(0.6%) direction wind, including ESE(0.31%), SE(0.38%), and SSE(0.38%) were rarely distributed during the simulation period. Seasonal effects were not showed. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and night-time was observed. Approximately 87% of the wind speed was distributed below 5.4m/s (17%, 47% and 23% between the speeds of 0.5-1.8m/s 1.8-3.3m/s and 3.3-5.4m/s, respectively) during the annual period. Seasonal wind speed distribution results presented very similar pattern of annual distribution. Wind speed distribution of day and night, on the other hand, had a discrepancy with annual modeling results than seasonal distribution in some sections. The results for high wind speed (more than 10.8m/s) showed that this wind blew from the west. This high wind speed is known locally as the 'Shamal', which occurs rarely, lasting one or two days with the strongest winds experienced in association with gust fronts and thunderstorms. Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs) dispersion test were simulated under hypothetic severe accidental condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. From the test cases, east-south area of the BNPP site was mainly influenced by 137Cs dispersion. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. Surface roughness tests were performed for the analysis of topographic conditions. According to the surface condition, there are various surface roughness length. Four types

  9. Mexico: The Accidental Narco?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    2011, Small Wars Foundation June 30, 2011 Mexico: The Accidental Narco ? by Paul Rexton Kan The Obama Administration’s National Security...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mexico: The Accidental Narco ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Accidental Narco In the face of stalemate, there is the danger of an “accidental narco ” syndrome developing in Mexico. Unlike the balloon effect of

  10. Cerebellar vermis contributes to the extinction of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Utz, A; Thürling, M; Ernst, T M; Hermann, A; Stark, R; Wolf, O T; Timmann, D; Merz, C J

    2015-09-14

    The cerebellum is known to contribute to the acquisition and retention of conditioned motor and emotional responses. Eyeblink conditioning and fear conditioning have been studied in greatest detail. Whereas a considerable number of studies have shown that the cerebellum is also involved in extinction of conditioned eyeblink responses, the likely contribution of the cerebellum to extinction of conditioned fear responses has largely been ignored. In the present study, we analyzed functional brain imaging data (fMRI) of previous work investigating extinction of conditioned fear in 32 young and healthy men, in which event-related fMRI analysis did not include the cerebellum. This dataset was analyzed using a spatial normalization method optimized for the cerebellum. During fear acquisition, an unpleasant electric shock (unconditioned stimulus; US) was paired with one of two pictures of geometrical figures (conditioned stimulus; CS+), while the other picture (CS-) was never paired with the US. During extinction, CS+ and CS- were presented without the US. During the acquisition phase, the fMRI signal related to the CS+ was significantly higher in hemispheric lobule VI in early compared to late acquisition (p<.05, permutation corrected). During the extinction phase, the fMRI signal related to the contrast CS+>CS- was significantly higher within the anterior vermis in early compared to late extinction (p<.05, permutation corrected). The present data show that the cerebellum is not only associated with the acquisition but also with the extinction of conditioned fear.

  11. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  12. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  13. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  14. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  15. Do Environmental Conditions Contribute to Narcosis Onset and Symptom Severity?

    PubMed

    Lafère, P; Balestra, C; Hemelryck, W; Guerrero, F; Germonpré, P

    2016-12-01

    Although many factors contributing to inert gas narcosis onset and severity have been put forward, the available evidence is not particularly strong. Using objective criteria, we have assessed brain impairment associated with narcosis under various environmental diving conditions. 40 volunteers performed a no-decompression dive (33 m for 20 min) either in a dry chamber, a pool or open sea. They were assessed by critical flicker fusion frequency before the dive, upon arriving at depth, 5 min before ascent, on surfacing and 30 min post-dive. Compared to the pre-dive value, the mean value of each measurement was significantly different. An increase of flicker fusion to 105.00±0.69% when arriving at depth is followed by a decrease to 94.05±0.65%. This impairment persists when surfacing and 30 min post-dive, decreasing further to 96.36±0.73% and 96.24±0.73%, respectively. Intragroup comparison failed to demonstrate any statistical difference. When objectively measured narcosis may not be influenced by external factors other than pressure and gas. This might be of importance for training to avoid any over- or underestimation of the severity of narcosis based only on subjective symptoms.

  16. Accidental hypothermia in severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it.

  17. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  18. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  19. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  20. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  1. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cardis, E

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed.

  2. [My accidental discovery].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    gleaned from my one accidental discovery.

  3. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  5. History of accidental hypothermia☆

    PubMed Central

    Guly, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. PMID:21036455

  6. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    PubMed

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish.

  7. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  8. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  9. [Management of hypothermia -- Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Sobczyk, Dorota; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sanak, Tomasz; Hymczak, Hubert; Kapelak, Bogusław; Drwiła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the years 2009–2012 the Polish National Statistics Department reported 1836 deaths due to exposure to excessive natural cold. The Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre (CLHG, Centrum Leczenia Hipotermii Glebokiej) was set up in Krakow in 2013. It is a unit functioning within the structure of the Cardiac Surgery Clinic, established in order to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of patients in the advanced stages of severe hypothermia. Early identification of hypothermia, binding algorithm and coordination leading to extracorporeal rewarming, are the most important elements in the deep hypothermia management.

  10. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  11. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  12. Differential contribution of dorsal and ventral hippocampus to trace and delay fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Esclassan, Frederic; Coutureau, Etienne; Di Scala, Georges; Marchand, Alain R

    2009-01-01

    Trace conditioning relies on the maintained representation of a stimulus across a trace interval, and may involve a persistent trace of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and/or a contribution of contextual conditioning. The role of hippocampal structures in these two types of conditioning was studied by means of pretraining lesions and reversible inactivation of the hippocampus in rats. Similar levels of conditioning to a tone CS and to the context were obtained with a trace interval of 30 s. Neurotoxic lesions of the whole hippocampus or reversible muscimol inactivation of the ventral hippocampus impaired both contextual and tone freezing in both trace- and delay-conditioned rats. Dorsal hippocampal injections impaired contextual freezing and trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning. No dissociation between trace and contextual conditioning was observed under any of these conditions. Altogether, these data indicate that the ventral and dorsal parts of the hippocampus compute different aspects of trace conditioning, with the ventral hippocampus being involved in fear and anxiety processes, and the dorsal hippocampus in the temporal and contextual aspects of event representation.

  13. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  14. Contribution of Atmospheric Diffusion Conditions to the Recent Improvement in Air Quality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaicun; Su, Liangyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed hourly mass concentration observations of PM2.5 (particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm) at 512 stations in China from December 2013 to May 2015. We found that the mean concentrations of PM2.5 during the winter and spring of 2015 Dec. 2014 to Feb. 2015 and Mar. 2015 to May 2015) decreased by 20% and 14% compared to the previous year, respectively. Hazardous air-quality days decreased by 11% in 2015 winter, with more frequent good to unhealthy days; and the good and moderate air-quality days in 2015 spring increased by 9% corresponding to the less occurrence of unhealthy conditions. We compared the atmospheric diffusion conditions during these two years and quantified its contribution to the improvement of air quality during the first half of 2015 over China. Our results show that during the 2015 winter and spring, 70% and 57% of the 512 stations experienced more favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions compared to those of previous year. Over central and northern China, approximately 40% of the total decrease in PM2.5 during the 2015 winter can be attributed to the favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions. The atmospheric diffusion conditions during the spring of 2015 were not as favorable as in winter; and the average contributions of the atmospheric conditions were slight. PMID:27805030

  15. Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200 000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), β-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased.

  16. Contribution of Atmospheric Diffusion Conditions to the Recent Improvement in Air Quality in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaicun; Su, Liangyuan

    2016-11-01

    This study analyzed hourly mass concentration observations of PM2.5 (particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm) at 512 stations in China from December 2013 to May 2015. We found that the mean concentrations of PM2.5 during the winter and spring of 2015 Dec. 2014 to Feb. 2015 and Mar. 2015 to May 2015) decreased by 20% and 14% compared to the previous year, respectively. Hazardous air-quality days decreased by 11% in 2015 winter, with more frequent good to unhealthy days; and the good and moderate air-quality days in 2015 spring increased by 9% corresponding to the less occurrence of unhealthy conditions. We compared the atmospheric diffusion conditions during these two years and quantified its contribution to the improvement of air quality during the first half of 2015 over China. Our results show that during the 2015 winter and spring, 70% and 57% of the 512 stations experienced more favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions compared to those of previous year. Over central and northern China, approximately 40% of the total decrease in PM2.5 during the 2015 winter can be attributed to the favorable atmospheric diffusion conditions. The atmospheric diffusion conditions during the spring of 2015 were not as favorable as in winter; and the average contributions of the atmospheric conditions were slight.

  17. Paternal genetic contribution to offspring condition predicted by size of male secondary sexual character

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, B. C.; Merila, J.; Qvarnström, A.; Gustafsson, L.; Ellegren, H.

    1997-01-01

    Whether females can obtain genetic benefits from mate choice is contentious, and the main problem faced by previous studies of natural populations is that many factors other than paternal genes contribute to offspring fitness. Here, we use comparisons between sets of naturally occurring maternal half-sibling collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, to control for this problem. We show, first, that there are paternal genetic effects on nestling fledging condition, a character related to fitness in this species. Further, the magnitude of the paternal genetic contribution to this character is related to the size of a condition-dependent male secondary sexual character. Our results demonstrate that genetic benefits from mate choice can be predicted by the size of a secondary sexual character, and therefore provide direct support for indicator models of sexual selection.

  18. Daytime and nighttime groundwater contributions to soils with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xuguang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Shi, Wenjuan

    2015-12-01

    Contributions of groundwater to the soil-water balance play an important role in areas with shallow water tables. The characteristics of daytime and nighttime water flux using non-weighing lysimeters were studied from June to September 2012 and 2013 in the extremely arid Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. The study consisted of nine treatments: three surface conditions, bare soil and cotton plants, each with water tables at depths of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m; and plastic mulch with a water table at 1.5 m but with three percentages of open areas (POAs) in the plastic. The groundwater supply coefficient (SC) and the groundwater contribution (GC) generally varied with surface conditions. Both SC and GC decreased in the bare-soil and cotton treatments with increasing depth of the groundwater. Both SC and GC increased in the plastic-mulch treatment with increasing POA. Average nighttime GCs in the bare-soil treatments in July and August (the midsummer months) were 50.8-60.8 and 53.2-65.3 %, respectively, of the total daily contributions. Average nighttime GCs in the cotton treatments in July and August were 51.4-60.2 and 51.5-58.1 %, respectively, of the total daily contributions. The average GCs in June and September, however, were lower at night than during the daytime. Soil temperature may thus play a more important role than air temperature in the upflow of groundwater.

  19. Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Case history number 97: Core rewarming by peritoneal irrigation in accidental hypothermia with cacdiac arrest. Anesth Analg 1966; 56:574-577. 85. Lint-n...Intractable ventricular fibrillation associated with profound accidental hypothermia - Successful treatment with ;irtial cardiopulmonary bypass . N Engl...5 B. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHERMIC DIVER ................ 6 C. FIELD TREATMENT OF HYPOTHERMIA. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 D

  20. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  1. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae.

  2. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  3. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique

    2010-06-01

    In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  4. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  5. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  6. Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-07-15

    Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare

  7. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions.

  8. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  9. Non-Gaussian initial conditions in ΛCDM: Newtonian, relativistic, and primordial contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

    2014-04-10

    The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ΛCDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f {sub NL}.

  10. Region-specific contribution of the ventral tegmental area to heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Lee W; Szczytkowski, Jennifer L; Saurer, Timothy B; Lebonville, Christina; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

    2014-05-01

    Dopamine receptor stimulation is critical for heroin-conditioned immunomodulation; however, it is unclear whether the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to this phenomenon. Hence, rats received repeated pairings of heroin with placement into a distinct environmental context. At test, they were re-exposed to the previously heroin-paired environment followed by systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment to induce an immune response. Bilateral GABA agonist-induced neural inactivation of the anterior, but not the posterior VTA, prior to context re-exposure inhibited the ability of the heroin-paired environment to suppress peripheral nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α expression, suggesting a role for the anterior VTA in heroin-conditioned immunomodulation.

  11. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    PubMed

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities.

  12. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  13. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    PubMed Central

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

  14. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  15. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  16. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  17. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  18. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  19. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels in Aplysia: Contribution to classical conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qizong; Kuzyk, Pavlo; Antonov, Igor; Bostwick, Caleb J.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability, but less is known about their possible roles in synaptic plasticity and memory circuits. Here, we characterized the HCN gene organization, channel properties, distribution, and involvement in associative and nonassociative forms of learning in Aplysia californica. Aplysia has only one HCN gene, which codes for a channel that has many similarities to the mammalian HCN channel. The cloned acHCN gene was expressed in Xenopus oocytes, which displayed a hyperpolarization-induced inward current that was enhanced by cGMP as well as cAMP. Similarly to its homologs in other animals, acHCN is permeable to K+ and Na+ ions, and is selectively blocked by Cs+ and ZD7288. We found that acHCN is predominantly expressed in inter- and motor neurons, including LFS siphon motor neurons, and therefore tested whether HCN channels are involved in simple forms of learning of the siphon-withdrawal reflex in a semiintact preparation. ZD7288 (100 μM) significantly reduced an associative form of learning (classical conditioning) but had no effect on two nonassociative forms of learning (intermediate-term sensitization and unpaired training) or baseline responses. The HCN current is enhanced by nitric oxide (NO), which may explain the postsynaptic role of NO during conditioning. HCN current in turn enhances the NMDA-like current in the motor neurons, suggesting that HCN channels contribute to conditioning through this pathway. PMID:26668355

  20. Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations contribute to the adaptation of cavefish to nutrient-poor conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aspiras, Ariel C.; Rohner, Nicolas; Martineau, Brian; Borowsky, Richard L.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of morphological evolution, the genetic underpinnings of behavioral and physiological evolution remain largely unknown. Here, we study the metabolic changes that evolved in independently derived populations of the Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. A hallmark of cave environments is scarcity of food. Cavefish populations rely almost entirely on sporadic food input from outside of the caves. To survive under these conditions, cavefish have evolved a range of adaptations, including starvation resistance and binge eating when food becomes available. The use of these adaptive strategies differs among independently derived cave populations. Although all cavefish populations tested lose weight more slowly than their surface conspecifics during restricted rations, only a subset of cavefish populations consume more food than their surface counterparts. A candidate gene-based screen led to the identification of coding mutations in conserved residues of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene, contributing to the insatiable appetite found in some populations of cavefish. Intriguingly, one of the mutated residues has been shown to be linked to obesity in humans. We demonstrate that the allele results in both reduced maximal response and reduced basal activity of the receptor in vitro. We further validate in vivo that the mutated allele contributes to elevated appetite, growth, and starvation resistance. The allele appears to be fixed in cave populations in which the overeating phenotype is present. The presence of the same allele in multiple caves appears to be due to selection from standing genetic variation present in surface populations. PMID:26170297

  1. Conditioned place preference for social interaction in rats: contribution of sensory components.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Kai; Klement, Sabine; Eggart, Vincent; Mayr, Michael J; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    A main challenge in the therapy of drug dependent individuals is to help them reactivate interest in non-drug-associated activities. We previously developed a rat experimental model based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley rat (1) reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training and (2) prevented the reinstatement of cocaine CPP. In the present study, we investigated which of the sensory modalities of the composite stimulus "social interaction" contributes most to the rats' preference for it. If touch was limited by steel bars spaced at a distance of 2 cm and running across the whole length of a partitioning, CPP was still acquired, albeit to a lesser degree. If both rats were placed on the same side of a partitioning, rats did not develop CPP for social interaction. Thus, decreasing the available area for social interaction from 750 to 375 cm(2) prevented the acquisition of CPP to social interaction despite the fact that animals could touch each other more intensely than through the bars of the partitioning. When touch was fully restricted by a glass screen dividing the conditioning chambers, and the only sensory modalities left were visual and olfactory cues, place preference shifted to place aversion. Overall, our findings indicate that the major rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus "social interaction" is touch (taction).

  2. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  3. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  4. Expansion of the piriform cortex contributes to corticothalamic pathfinding defects in Gli3 conditional mutants.

    PubMed

    Amaniti, Eleni-Maria; Fu, Chaoying; Lewis, Sean; Saisana, Marina; Magnani, Dario; Mason, John O; Theil, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The corticothalamic and thalamocortical tracts play essential roles in the communication between the cortex and thalamus. During development, axons forming these tracts have to follow a complex path to reach their target areas. While much attention has been paid to the mechanisms regulating their passage through the ventral telencephalon, very little is known about how the developing cortex contributes to corticothalamic/thalamocortical tract formation. Gli3 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor widely expressed in telencephalic progenitors which has important roles in corticothalamic and thalamocortical pathfinding. Here, we conditionally inactivated Gli3 in dorsal telencephalic progenitors to determine its role in corticothalamic tract formation. In Emx1Cre;Gli3(fl/fl) mutants, only a few corticothalamic axons enter the striatum in a restricted dorsal domain. This restricted entry correlates with a medial expansion of the piriform cortex. Transplantation experiments showed that the expanded piriform cortex repels corticofugal axons. Moreover, expression of Sema5B, a chemorepellent for corticofugal axons produced by the piriform cortex, is similarly expanded. Finally, time course analysis revealed an expansion of the ventral pallial progenitor domain which gives rise to the piriform cortex. Hence, control of lateral cortical development by Gli3 at the progenitor level is crucial for corticothalamic pathfinding.

  5. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

  6. The neurobiology of thalamic amnesia: Contributions of medial thalamus and prefrontal cortex to delayed conditional discrimination.

    PubMed

    Mair, Robert G; Miller, Rikki L A; Wormwood, Benjamin A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Onos, Kristen D; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-07-01

    Although medial thalamus is well established as a site of pathology associated with global amnesia, there is uncertainty about which structures are critical and how they affect memory function. Evidence from human and animal research suggests that damage to the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior, mediodorsal (MD), midline (M), and intralaminar (IL) nuclei contribute to different signs of thalamic amnesia. Here we focus on MD and the adjacent M and IL nuclei, structures identified in animal studies as critical nodes in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related pathways that are necessary for delayed conditional discrimination. Recordings of PFC neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed non-matching-to position (DNMTP) task revealed discrete populations encoding information related to planning, execution, and outcome of DNMTP-related actions and delay-related activity signaling previous reinforcement. Parallel studies recording the activity of MD and IL neurons and examining the effects of unilateral thalamic inactivation on the responses of PFC neurons demonstrated a close coupling of central thalamic and PFC neurons responding to diverse aspects of DNMTP and provide evidence that thalamus interacts with PFC neurons to give rise to complex goal-directed behavior exemplified by the DNMTP task.

  7. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  8. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the

  9. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  10. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  11. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  12. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  13. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  14. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  15. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-08-26

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution.

  16. Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary. PMID:6655419

  17. Sequence Learning in Infancy: The Independent Contributions of Conditional Probability and Pair Frequency Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitch, Stuart; Lewkowicz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to perceive sequences is fundamental to cognition. Previous studies have shown that infants can learn visual sequences as early as 2 months of age and it has been suggested that this ability is mediated by sensitivity to conditional probability information. Typically, conditional probability information has covaried with frequency…

  18. Fatal accidental inhalation of bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211).

    PubMed

    Lerman, Y; Winkler, E; Tirosh, M S; Danon, Y; Almog, S

    1991-03-01

    Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) is a widely used fire extinguishing agent. Several cases of sudden death in teenagers associated with BCF abuse have been reported. BCF is used as a fire extinguisher in battle tanks. Two young previously healthy male soldiers were accidentally exposed to BCF in a battle tank. The tank driver died, but the gunner survived the event with no medial complications. It is concluded that BCF should be used in confined chambers only after the evacuation of all personnel.

  19. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  20. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856

  1. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological…

  2. Accidents waiting to happen: the contribution of latent conditions to patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, C M

    2006-01-01

    Poor design of elements in a healthcare system produce the latent conditions which result in patient safety incidents. A better understanding of these elements and specific healthcare design challenges will result in improved patient safety. PMID:17142613

  3. Dissociable hippocampal and amygdalar D1-like receptor contribution to discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach learning.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Ryals, Curtis

    2016-02-15

    Pavlovian conditioning is an elementary form of reward-related behavioral adaptation. The mesolimbic dopamine system is widely considered to mediate critical aspects of reward-related learning. For example, initial acquisition of positively-reinforced operant behavior requires dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) activation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the ventral subiculum (vSUB). However, the role of D1R activation in these areas on appetitive, non-drug-related, Pavlovian learning is not currently known. In separate experiments, microinfusions of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (3.0 nmol/0.5 μL per side) into the amygdala and subiculum preceded discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach (dPCA) training sessions. D1-like antagonism in all three structures impaired the acquisition of discriminated approach, but had no effect on performance after conditioning was asymptotic. Moreover, dissociable effects of D1-like antagonism in the three structures on components of discriminated responding were obtained. Lastly, the lack of latent inhibition in drug-treated groups may elucidate the role of D1-like in reward-related Pavlovian conditioning. The present data suggest a role for the D1 receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus in learning the significance of conditional stimuli, but not in the expression of conditional responses.

  4. Entorhinal cortex contribution to contextual fear conditioning extinction and reconsolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado

    2014-04-01

    During contextual fear conditioning a rat learns a temporal contiguity association between the exposition to a previously neutral context (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) as a footshock. This condition determines in the rat the freezing reaction during the subsequent re-exposition to the context. Potentially the re-exposition without US presentation initiates two opposing and competing processes: reconsolidation and extinction. Reconsolidation process re-stabilizes and strengthens the original memory and it is initiated by a brief re-exposure to context. Instead the extinction process leads to the decrease of the expression of the original memory and it is triggered by prolonged re-exposure to the context. Here we analyzed the entorhinal cortex (ENT) participation in contextual fear conditioning reconsolidation and extinction. The rats were trained in contextual fear conditioning and 24h later they were subjected either to a brief (2 min) reactivation session or to a prolonged (120 min) re-exposition to context to induce extinction of the contextual fear memory. Immediately after the reactivation or the extinction session, the animals were submitted to bilateral ENT TTX inactivation. Memory retention was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured 72 h after TTX administration. The results showed that ENT inactivation both after reactivation and extinction session was followed by contextual freezing retention impairment. Thus, the present findings point out that ENT is involved in contextual fear memory reconsolidation and extinction. This neural structure might be part of parallel circuits underlying two phases of contextual fear memory processing.

  5. Computational search for hypotheses concerning the endocannabinoid contribution to the extinction of fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fear conditioning, in which a cue is conditioned to elicit a fear response, and extinction, in which a previously conditioned cue no longer elicits a fear response, depend on neural plasticity occurring within the amygdala. Projection neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) learn to respond to the cue during fear conditioning, and they mediate fear responding by transferring cue signals to the output stage of the amygdala. Some BLA projection neurons retain their cue responses after extinction. Recent work shows that activation of the endocannabinoid system is necessary for extinction, and it leads to long-term depression (LTD) of the GABAergic synapses that inhibitory interneurons make onto BLA projection neurons. Such GABAergic LTD would enhance the responses of the BLA projection neurons that mediate fear responding, so it would seem to oppose, rather than promote, extinction. To address this paradox, a computational analysis of two well-known conceptual models of amygdaloid plasticity was undertaken. The analysis employed exhaustive state-space search conducted within a declarative programming environment. The analysis reveals that GABAergic LTD actually increases the number of synaptic strength configurations that achieve extinction while preserving the cue responses of some BLA projection neurons in both models. The results suggest that GABAergic LTD helps the amygdala retain cue memory during extinction even as the amygdala learns to suppress the previously conditioned response. The analysis also reveals which features of both models are essential for their ability to achieve extinction with some cue memory preservation, and suggests experimental tests of those features. PMID:23761759

  6. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  7. Distinct Contributions of Median Raphe Nucleus to Contextual Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. C. B.; Cruz, A. P. M.; Avanzi, V.; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; Brandão, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Ascending 5-HT projections from the median raphe nucleus (MRN), probably to the hippocampus, are implicated in the acquisition of contextual fear (background stimuli), as assessed by freezing behavior. Foreground cues like light, used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical fear conditioning, also cause freezing through thalamic transmission to the amygdala. As the MRN projects to the hippocampus and amygdala, the role of this raphe nucleus in fear conditioning to explicit cues remains to be explained. Here we analyzed the behavior of rats with MRN electrolytic lesions in a contextual conditioning situation and in a fear-potentiated startle procedure. The animals received MRN electrolytic lesions either before or on the day after two consecutive training sessions in which they were submitted to 10 conditioning trials, each in an experimental chamber (same context) where they. received foot-shocks (0.6 mA, 1 sec) paired to a 4-sec light CS. Seven to ten days later, the animals were submitted to testing sessions for assessing conditioned fear when they were placed for five shocks, and the duration of contextual freezing was recorded. The animals were then submitted to a fear-potentiated startle in response to a 4-sec light-CS, followed by white noise (100 dB, 50 ms). Control rats (sham) tested in the same context showed more freezing than did rats with pre- or post-training MRN lesions. Startle was clearly potentiated in the presence of light CS in the sham-lesioned animals. Whereas pretraining lesions reduced both freezing and fear-potentiated startle, the post-training lesions reduced only freezing to context, without changing the fear-potentiated startle. In a second experiment, neurotoxic lesions of the MRN with local injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate or the activation of 5-HT1A somatodendritic auto-receptors of the MRN by microinjections of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy- 2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) before the training sessions also

  8. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  9. Context conditioning and extinction in humans: differential contribution of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Simone; Kroll, Alexander; Lipinski, Slawomira J; Wessa, Michèle; Ridder, Stephanie; Christmann, Christoph; Schad, Lothar R; Flor, Herta

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the role of the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a contextual conditioning and extinction paradigm provoking anxiety. Twenty-one healthy persons participated in a differential context conditioning procedure with two different background colours as contexts. During acquisition increased activity to the conditioned stimulus (CS+) relative to the CS− was found in the left hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The amygdala, insula and inferior frontal cortex were differentially active during late acquisition. Extinction was accompanied by enhanced activation to CS+ vs. CS− in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The results are in accordance with animal studies and provide evidence for the important role of the hippocampus in contextual learning in humans. Connectivity analyses revealed correlated activity between the left posterior hippocampus and dACC (BA32) during early acquisition and the dACC, left posterior hippocampus and right amygdala during extinction. These data are consistent with theoretical models that propose an inhibitory effect of the mPFC on the amygdala. The interaction of the mPFC with the hippocampus may reflect the context-specificity of extinction learning. PMID:19200075

  10. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological adaptation. The sample includes 76 Spanish couples who completed validated questionnaires measuring predictors, i.e., self-efficacy and positive contributions, and adaptation outcomes i.e., stress, anxiety, depression and psychological well-being. Multilevel analysis revealed many actor and some partner effects of parental self-efficacy and positive contributions to be important determinants of adaptation above and beyond child and sociodemographic factors, and as such, these effects should be targeted in clinical intervention programs.

  11. Sundowner Winds Contributing to Intensifying Dry Conditions in Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macarewich, S. I.; Carvalho, L. V.; Hall, T.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme downslope wind and warming events, locally termed as "sundowners," are notorious for accelerating the spread of wildfires in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, California. Unique topographic features characterize the terrain of this region: about 100 km of narrow coastal plains run approximately east-west, and are bordered by a steep mountain range (exceeding elevations of 1200 m), which runs parallel to the coastline. Named for their typical onset during the early to late afternoon, Sundowners are foehn winds associated with gusty winds down the lee slope of the mountains and canyons, abnormal rapid drop in relative humidity and rise in temperature. Some Sundowner events can exceed wind speeds of gale force and temperatures of 40°C (~100°F). Not only do these events disrupt the marine-influenced weather regime, they also cause significant damage to agriculture, threaten urban landscapes, and coincide with nearly every major wildfire. Sundowners are mesoscale phenomena that develop as a result of a north to south pressure gradient at the Santa Ynez Mountains. Here, Sundowners are identified using the Montecito remote operated weather station (MTIC1) from December 1999 to February 2014. The MTIC1 is located within a mountain pass where Sundowner winds are most significant. A Sundowner database, provided by the National Weather Service, is used to identify the events. We show that recordings of maximum temperatures, sustained wind speeds, wind gusts, and minimum relative humidity indicate that Sundowner events are increasing in frequency and intensity, particularly in spring. When compared to normal conditions, Sundowner conditions produce a significant increase in evapotranspiration and net radiation that can increase drought conditions in the region. This study examines environmental impacts and discusses potential drivers of Sundowner behavior.

  12. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske E-mail: markus.rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  13. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  14. Ground Shock Effects from Accidental Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    2,640 2.47 x 10_1+ Limestone 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* Sandstone 2,240 2.10 x 10_l+ Shale 2,320 2.17 x 10-*4 Concrete 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* 19 Table 4...and compact soils Sandstone and cemented soils Shale and marl Limestone-chalk Metamorphic rocks Volcanic rocks Sound plutonic rocks Jointed...Accidental Explosions," Dept. of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-1300 (also NAVFAC P-397, AFM 88-22), Washington, DC, June 1969. 2. R. E. Crawford

  15. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  16. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  17. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  18. The normal flora may contribute to the quantitative preponderance of myeloid cells under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shi; LiHua, Hu

    2011-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the innate immune cells derived from myeloid lineage absolutely outnumber the lymphoid cells. At present, two theories are attributed to the maintenance of haemopoiesis: the asymmetric cell division and the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment or "niche". However, the former only explains the self-renewal of haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the start of haemopoietic differentiation but fails to address the inducers of cell fate decisions; the latter has to admit that the hematopoietic cytokines, despite their significance in the maintenance of haemopoiesis, have no specific effect on lineage commitment. Given these flaws, the advantageous mechanism of myeloid haemopoiesis has not yet been uncovered in the current theories. The discoveries that bacterial components (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and intestinal decontamination affect the mobilization of HSC trigger the interest in normal flora, which together with their components may have an effect on haemopoiesis. In the experiments in dogs and mice, researchers documented that the generation of myeloid cells has undergone changes in the bone marrow and periphery when antibiotics are used to regulate the normal intestinal flora and the concentration of its components. However, the same changes are not involved in lymphoid cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that in human body normal flora and its components are a driving force to maintain myeloid haemopoiesis under physiological conditions. To account for the selectiveness in haemopoiesis, these facts should be taken into consideration, such as HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) functionally expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRR), and both of them can self-migrate or be recruited by normal flora or its components into periphery. Dynamically monitoring the myeloid haemopoiesis may provide an important complementary program that precludes the abuse of antibiotics, which prevents diseases triggered by the imbalance of normal

  19. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  20. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  1. Chlorite reactivity and contribution to flow path modifications under conditions relevant for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, L. E.; Yang, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Voltolini, M.; Banuelos, J. L.; Anovitz, L. M.; Bourg, I. C.; Steefel, C. I.

    2013-12-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals, such as chlorite, have been identified as key reactants with CO2 in caprock and reservoir formations and have been frequently shown to coat pores and even govern connected microporosity in these formations. Some studies have linked the total amount of CO2 trapped as carbonate minerals to the abundance of chlorite, glauconite, and smectite. However, the reactivity of these minerals under the conditions and timescales relevant for geologic sequestration of CO2 is largely unknown. When these minerals occur along a fracture leakage pathway, dissolution and precipitation reactions may create self-sealing or self-enhancing leakage pathways. In this presentation, we describe experiments that probe the reactivity of chlorite and its potential to alter connected porosity and either enhance or seal fracture leakage pathways. Our experiments use a network of capillary tubes packed with chlorite to mimic the case where a CO2-acidified brine flows through a fracture and reacts with iron-bearing clays in the caprock matrix. Before and after reaction, the chlorite-filled capillaries are imaged using 3D X-ray synchrotron microtomography at three points along the column to track changes in the pore structure. During the experiment, effluent ion concentrations are tracked using ICP-MS to infer mineralogical changes. The packed capillaries are imaged periodically during the experiment using Raman Spectroscopy to interpret the evolution of minerals along the tube length. Alteration of nanoporosity is assessed through TEM imaging or SAXS. Our experiments reveal how the couplings between mass transport, weathering reactions, and pore structure alteration affect the geochemical evolution of fracture permeability.

  2. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  3. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes.

  4. Contributions of the stochastic shape wake model to predictions of aerodynamic loads and power under single wake conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Doubrawa, P.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Wang, H.; ...

    2016-10-03

    The contribution of wake meandering and shape asymmetry to load and power estimates is quantified by comparing aeroelastic simulations initialized with different inflow conditions: an axisymmetric base wake, an unsteady stochastic shape wake, and a large-eddy simulation with rotating actuator-line turbine representation. Time series of blade-root and tower base bending moments are analyzed. We find that meandering has a large contribution to the fluctuation of the loads. Moreover, considering the wake edge intermittence via the stochastic shape model improves the simulation of load and power fluctuations and of the fatigue damage equivalent loads. Furthermore, these results indicate that the stochasticmore » shape wake simulator is a valuable addition to simplified wake models when seeking to obtain higher-fidelity computationally inexpensive predictions of loads and power.« less

  5. Contributions of the stochastic shape wake model to predictions of aerodynamic loads and power under single wake conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Doubrawa, P.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Wang, H.; Churchfield, M. J.

    2016-10-03

    The contribution of wake meandering and shape asymmetry to load and power estimates is quantified by comparing aeroelastic simulations initialized with different inflow conditions: an axisymmetric base wake, an unsteady stochastic shape wake, and a large-eddy simulation with rotating actuator-line turbine representation. Time series of blade-root and tower base bending moments are analyzed. We find that meandering has a large contribution to the fluctuation of the loads. Moreover, considering the wake edge intermittence via the stochastic shape model improves the simulation of load and power fluctuations and of the fatigue damage equivalent loads. Furthermore, these results indicate that the stochastic shape wake simulator is a valuable addition to simplified wake models when seeking to obtain higher-fidelity computationally inexpensive predictions of loads and power.

  6. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  7. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  8. Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

  9. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  10. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  11. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  12. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  13. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  14. Reduce accidental releases of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, D.

    1996-09-01

    With final publication of the Risk Management Program (RMP), operating companies must take action to lessen the likelihood of accidental hazardous chemical releases. Now, companies must extensively investigate how raw materials and products are managed within the process and storage facilities. Protection at high costs is not profitable. At the same time, not enough protection is also costly should a release invoke substantial property damage or loss of life. Modern ways to confine regulated compounds include inherently safer technologies (ISTs) and active mitigation technologies. These new designs and added options can improve protection against more likely release scenarios. Using the guidelines, HPI operators manage both compliance and cost of compliance when developing safety programs for RMP.

  15. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  16. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals.

  17. Acetylcholine release in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during cocaine seeking: conditioned and unconditioned contributions to reward and motivation.

    PubMed

    You, Zhi-Bing; Wang, Bin; Zitzman, Dawnya; Wise, Roy A

    2008-09-03

    Microdialysis was used to assess the contribution to cocaine seeking of cholinergic input to the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system in ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA acetylcholine (ACh) was elevated in animals lever pressing for intravenous cocaine and in cocaine-experienced and cocaine-naive animals passively receiving similar "yoked" injections. In cocaine-trained animals, the elevations comprised an initial (first hour) peak to approximately 160% of baseline and a subsequent plateau of 140% of baseline for the rest of the cocaine intake period. In cocaine-naive animals, yoked cocaine injections raised ACh levels to the 140% plateau but did not cause the initial 160% peak. In cocaine-trained animals that received unexpected saline (extinction conditions) rather than the expected cocaine, the initial peak was seen but the subsequent plateau was absent. VTA ACh levels played a causal role and were not just a correlate of cocaine seeking. Blocking muscarinic input to the VTA increased cocaine intake; the increase in intake offset the decrease in cholinergic input, resulting in the same VTA dopamine levels as were seen in the absence of the ACh antagonists. Increased VTA ACh levels (resulting from 10 microM VTA neostigmine infusion) increased VTA dopamine levels and reinstated cocaine seeking in cocaine-trained animals that had undergone extinction; these effects were strongly attenuated by local infusion of a muscarinic antagonist and weakly attenuated by a nicotinic antagonist. These findings identify two cholinergic responses to cocaine self-administration, an unconditioned response to cocaine itself and a conditioned response triggered by cocaine-predictive cues, and confirm that these cholinergic responses contribute to the control of cocaine seeking.

  18. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  19. Comparative analysis of near-present and future synoptic conditions and their contribution to precipitation in central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacostas, Theodore S.; Bampzelis, Dimitrios; Karipidou, Symela; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Pakalidou, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    differences in the frequencies of the synoptic conditions during the future period is examined on a yearly and seasonal basis. The contribution of each synoptic condition on the annual precipitation amounts are estimated for the near-present period, which coupled with the altered frequencies of the synoptic conditions for the future period, result to the future projected annual precipitation amounts. Possible decrease in precipitation amounts is indicated during the future period, as a result of the reduction in the frequencies of certain synoptic conditions associated with high amount of precipitation during the near-present conditions. Acknowledgments: This research work is part of DAPHNE project (11SYN_8_1088_TPE) which is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek National Funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Enterpreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).

  20. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Xingang; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature. PMID:27827842

  1. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  2. Sex differences in the contribution of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in trigeminal ganglia under an acute muscle pain condition

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Katelyn; Saloman, Jami L.; Zhang, Youping; Ro, Jin Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether functional subunits of the ATP-dependent K+ channel (KATP) are expressed in trigeminal ganglia (TG), which contains sensory neurons that innervate oral and facial structures. We also investigated whether direct activation of the KATP effectively attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity in the context of an acute orofacial muscle pain condition. The KATP expression in TG and behavioral studies were conducted in age matched male and female Sprague Dawley rats. RT-PCR experiments showed that the mRNAs for the inwardly rectifying pore-forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, as well as the regulatory sulphonylurea subunits, SUR1 and SUR2, were reliably detected in TG. Subsequent western blot analysis confirmed that proteins for all 4 subunits are expressed in TG, and showed that Kir6.2 is expressed at a significantly higher level in male TG compared to that of female rats. This observation was confirmed by the immunohistochemical demonstration of higher percentages of Kir6 positive masseter afferents in female rats. Masseteric injection of capsaicin evokes a time dependent increase in masseter sensitivity to noxious mechanical stimulation. A specific KATP agonist, pinacidil, dose-dependently attenuated the capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male rats. The dose of pinacidil (20µg) that completely blocked the capsaicin responses in male rats was ineffective in female rats regardless of their estrus phases. Only at the highest dose (300µg) we used, pinacidil was partially effective in female rats. Similarly, another KATP agonist, diazoxide which targets different KATP subunits also showed sex specific responses in attenuating capsaicin-induced masseter hypersensitivity. These data suggested that sex differences in functional KATP expression in TG may underlie sex specific responses to KATP agonists. The present study provided novel information on sex differences in KATP expression in TG and its contribution under an orofacial

  3. A non-cold-inducible cold shock protein homolog mainly contributes to translational control under optimal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Mega, Ryosuke; Kim, Kwang; Shinkai, Akeo; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Nakagawa, Noriko

    2012-03-01

    Cold shock proteins (Csps) include both cold-induced and non-cold-induced proteins, contrary to their name. Cold-induced Csps are well studied; they function in cold acclimation by controlling transcription and translation. Some Csps have been reported to contribute to other cellular processes. However, the functions of non-cold-induced Csps under optimal growth conditions remain unknown. To elucidate these functions, we used transcriptome and proteome analyses as comprehensive approaches and have compared the outputs of wild-type and non-cold-induced Csp-deletion mutant cells. As a model organism, we selected Thermus thermophilus HB8 because it has only two csp genes (ttcsp1 and ttcsp2); ttCsp1 is the only non-cold-induced Csp. Surprisingly, the amount of transcripts and proteins upon deletion of the ttcsp1 gene was quite different. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the deletion of ttcsp1 did not affect the amount of transcripts, although the ttcsp1 gene was constantly expressed in the wild-type cell. Nonetheless, proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of many proteins were significantly altered when ttcsp1 was deleted. These results suggest that ttCsp1 functions in translation independent of transcription. Furthermore, ttCsp1 is involved in both the stimulation and inhibition of translation of specific proteins. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of ttCsp1 at 1.65 Å. This is the first report to present the structure of a non-cold-inducible cold shock protein. We also report the nucleotide binding affinity of ttCsp1. Finally, we discuss the functions of non-cold-induced Csps and propose how they modulate the levels of specific proteins to suit the prevailing environmental conditions.

  4. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Wei, Shiping

    2017-04-05

    As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1kg HTO and 1000kg dust release) and 34-52years for case 2 (1kg HTO and 10kg-100kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation.

  5. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  6. Measuring the Contribution of Agricultural Conservation Practices to Observed Trends and Recent Condition in Water Quality Indicators in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Miltner, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the last three decades, significant investments made to upgrade wastewater infrastructure and manage pollution from diffuse sources have resulted in measurably improved water quality and biological conditions in Ohio's rivers and streams. Conservation measures to reduce soil loss appear to have contributed significantly to the improvement witnessed over the last two decades and should therefore be continued. Within the most recent timeframe examined, little difference was found in either total phosphorus or suspended sediment concentration in relation to conservation measures, indicating that the environmental benefits of measures targeting soil loss may be approaching an asymptote. Conservation measures targeting livestock and forage management, however, appear to have reduced nitrogen concentrations within the recent time frame. An examination of the interrelationships between habitat quality, conservation measures, and land use indicated that water quality was generally mediated by interactions with stream habitat quality. However, the positive effect of habitat quality was reduced in catchments draining fine-textured soils. The implication of these latter two findings suggest that proscriptively adding natural function to the large network of ditched and maintained conveyances draining agricultural lands would substantially improve water quality, but management at the field level is necessary to minimize phosphorus losses.

  7. Probabilistic safety analysis for urgent situations following the accidental release of a pollutant in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, P.; Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Vendel, F.; Dubourg, V.; Yalamas, T.

    2014-10-01

    This paper is an original contribution to uncertainty quantification in atmospheric transport & dispersion (AT&D) at the local scale (1-10 km). It is proposed to account for the imprecise knowledge of the meteorological and release conditions in the case of an accidental hazardous atmospheric emission. The aim is to produce probabilistic risk maps instead of a deterministic toxic load map in order to help the stakeholders making their decisions. Due to the urge attached to such situations, the proposed methodology is able to produce such maps in a limited amount of time. It resorts to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) using wind fields interpolated from a pre-established database that collects the results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This enables a decoupling of the CFD simulations from the dispersion analysis, thus a considerable saving of computational time. In order to make the Monte-Carlo-sampling-based estimation of the probability field even faster, it is also proposed to recourse to the use of a vector Gaussian process surrogate model together with high performance computing (HPC) resources. The Gaussian process (GP) surrogate modelling technique is coupled with a probabilistic principal component analysis (PCA) for reducing the number of GP predictors to fit, store and predict. The design of experiments (DOE) from which the surrogate model is built, is run over a cluster of PCs for making the total production time as short as possible. The use of GP predictors is validated by comparing the results produced by this technique with those obtained by crude Monte Carlo sampling.

  8. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities imposed upon trustees by applicable law. The trust or fund must be set up in such a way that in no... contribution of 10 percent of profits and giving the employer discretion to add to that amount up to 20 percent of profits, or for a minimum contribution of 5 percent of compensation and discretion to increase...

  9. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non-Accidental Mortality in the United States, 1993–2005

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, James Lewis; Cascio, Wayne E.; Percy, Madelyn S.; Reyes, Jeanette; Neas, Lucas M.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms, but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America. The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century. Objectives: We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005. Methods: Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location, are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993–2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditional logistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-accidental). Results: We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% CI: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% CI: 1.1, 12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1; p = 0.023) over lags 0–5 compared with referent days. Significant associations with non-accidental mortality were estimated for California (lag 2 and 0–5 day) and Arizona (lag 3), for cardiovascular mortality in the United States (lag 2) and Arizona (lag 3), and for other non-accidental mortality in California (lags 1–3 and 0–5). Conclusions: Dust storms are associated with increases in lagged non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. Citation: Crooks JL, Cascio WE, Percy MS, Reyes

  10. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  12. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  13. Contributions of the amygdala central nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey to freezing and instrumental suppression in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    McDannald, Michael A

    2010-07-29

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning animals receive pairings of a neutral cue and an aversive stimulus such as an electric foot-shock. Through such pairings, the cue will come to elicit a central state of fear that produces a variety of autonomic and behavioral responses, among which are conditioned freezing and suppression of instrumental responding, termed conditioned suppression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) has been strongly implicated in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. However, previous work suggests different roles for the CeA and vlPAG in fear learning maybe revealed when fear is assessed with conditioned freezing or conditioned suppression. To further explore this possibility we gave rats selective lesions of either the CeA or vlPAG and trained them in Pavlovian first-order fear conditioning as well as Pavlovian second-order fear conditioning. We concurrently assessed the acquisition of conditioned freezing and conditioned suppression. We found that vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired both first- and second-order conditioned freezing. VlPAG lesions did not impair, and CeA lesions only transiently impaired, first-order conditioned suppression. However, both vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired second-order conditioned suppression. These results suggest that the CeA and vlPAG are critically important to expressing fear through conditioned freezing but play different and less critical roles in expressing fear through conditioned suppression.

  14. Contributions of the amygdala central nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey to freezing and instrumental suppression in Pavlovian fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    McDannald, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning animals receive pairings of a neutral cue and an aversive stimulus such as an electric foot-shock. Through such pairings, the cue will come to elicit a central state of fear that produces a variety of autonomic and behavioral responses, among which are conditioned freezing and suppression of instrumental responding, termed conditioned suppression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) have been strongly implicated in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. However, previous work suggests different roles for the CeA and vlPAG in fear learning may be revealed when fear is assessed with conditioned freezing or conditioned suppression. To further explore this possibility we gave rats selective lesions of either the CeA or vlPAG and trained them in Pavlovian first-order fear conditioning as well as Pavlovian second-order fear conditioning. We concurrently assessed the acquisition of conditioned freezing and conditioned suppression. We found that vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired both first- and second-order conditioned freezing. VlPAG lesions did not impair, and CeA lesions only transiently impaired, first-order conditioned suppression. However, both vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired second-order conditioned suppression. These results suggest that the CeA and vlPAG are critically important to expressing fear through conditioned freezing but play different and less critical roles in expressing fear through conditioned suppression. PMID:20298722

  15. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  16. Great Expectations: The Implementation of Integrated Care and Its Contribution to Improved Outcomes for People with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There are great expectations regarding the potential contribution of integrated care interventions to improved outcomes, but so far the evidence is mixed. In this dissertation, we focussed on why, when and how some integrated care interventions contribute to improved outcomes, while others do not. To this purpose, we developed the COMIC Model for studying the Context, Outcomes and Mechanisms of Integrated Care interventions. Evaluations that make use of the COMIC Model take into account the context in which an intervention is implemented and can thereby provide insights into why an intervention does (not) work and how the intervention and/or the context can be changed to achieve improved outcomes.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system.

  18. Spontaneous Absorption of Cerebral Air Embolus Developed Accidentally during an Intra-arterial Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE), although infrequent, is a complication that can occur at any time during an invasive medical procedure. We experienced two cases of CAAE during cerebral angiography accidentally. The author reports the two cases of CAAE wherein air emboli dissolved spontaneously and immediately under normal atmospheric pressure, not under therapeutic hyperbaric environment. One of the cases shows entire dissolution of the air embolus on the moving image. This report shows that arterial air embolus can be absorbed spontaneously, and air embolus size is one of the factors that influence air embolus dissolution besides hyperbaric oxygen condition. PMID:28184351

  19. Effect of accidental steam entry on gas-cooled fast reactor integral neutronics parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Morman, J.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Robinson, W.R.; Bennett, E.F.

    1980-10-01

    A possible accident scenario in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is the leakage of secondary steam into the core. A full-scale experimental study of the physics effects of such an accidental condition has been performed on the zero power reactor (ZPR)-9 critical facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The results of integral neutronics measurements performed on the simulated steam-flooded GCFR core are reported, and comparisons with corresponding results for the reference GCFR core presented. Results of calculations of these parameters with ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and standard design methods are also presented. 26 refs.

  20. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  1. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  2. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  3. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  4. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  5. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  6. Cell-cell and cell-surface interactions mediated by cellulose and a novel exopolysaccharide contribute to Pseudomonas putida biofilm formation and fitness under water-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lindsey; Li, Xiaohong; Halverson, Larry J

    2011-05-01

    The composition of the exopolysaccharide matrix of Pseudomonas putida mt2 biofilms is relatively undefined as well as the contributions of each polymer to ecological fitness. Here, we describe the role of two putative exopolysaccharide gene clusters, putida exopolysaccharide A (pea) and bacterial cellulose (bcs) in biofilm formation and stability, rhizosphere colonization and matrix hydration under water-limiting conditions. Our findings suggest that pea is involved in the production of a novel glucose, galactose, and mannose-rich polymer that contributes to cell-cell interactions necessary for pellicle and biofilm formation and stability. In contrast, Bcs plays a minor role in biofilm formation and stability, although it does contribute to rhizosphere colonization based on a competition assay. We show that pea expression is highly induced transiently under water-limiting conditions but only slightly by high osmolarity, as determined by qRT-PCR. In contrast, both forms of water stress highly induced bcs expression. Cells deficient in making one or more exopolysaccharide experienced greater dehydration-mediated cell-envelope stress, leading to increased alginate promoter activity. However, this did not lead to increased exopolysaccharide production, except in bcs or pea mutants unable to produce alginate, indicating that P. putida compensates by producing, presumably more Pea or Bcs exopolysaccharides, to facilitate biofilm hydration. Collectively, the data suggest that Pea and Bcs contribute to biofilm formation and in turn their presence contributes to fitness under water-limiting conditions, but not to the extent of alginate.

  7. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Bonuses... of profits, or for a minimum contribution of 5 percent of compensation and discretion to increase...

  8. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  9. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  10. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  11. Angiotensin Type 1a Receptors on Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Neurons Contribute to the Expression of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Robert C.; Garrett, Jacob C.; Keifer, Orion P.; Linares, Andrea; Couling, Leena; Speth, Robert C.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Marvar, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Although generally associated with cardiovascular regulation, angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1aR) blockade in mouse models and humans has also been associated with enhanced fear extinction and decreased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, respectively. The mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown, but may involve alterations in the activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing cells, which are known to be involved in fear regulation. To test the hypothesis that AT1aR signaling in CRFergic neurons is involved in conditioned fear expression, we generated and characterized a conditional knockout mouse strain with a deletion of the AT1aR gene from its CRF-releasing cells (CRF-AT1aR(−/−)). These mice exhibit normal baseline heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety, and locomotion, and freeze at normal levels during acquisition of auditory fear conditioning. However, CRF-AT1aR(−/−) mice exhibit less freezing than wild type mice during tests of conditioned fear expression—an effect that may be caused by a decrease in the consolidation of fear memory. These results suggest that central AT1R activity in CRF-expressing cells plays a role in the expression of conditioned fear, and identify CRFergic cells as a population on which AT1R antagonists may act to modulate fear extinction. PMID:26257395

  12. Fimbria-fornix and entorhinal cortex differential contribution to contextual and cued fear conditioning consolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Elisabetta; Liuzzo, Antonino; Bucherelli, Corrado

    2013-04-10

    The Fimbria-Fornix (FF) and Entorhinal Cortex (EC) are the primary interfaces between the hippocampus and, respectively, subcortical structures and cortical areas. Their mnemonic role has been repeatedly proposed. In order to investigate their role in fear conditioning, FF and EC were subjected to bilateral fully reversible tetrodotoxin (TTX) inactivation during consolidation in adult male Wistar rats that had undergone training for fear conditioning to an acoustic stimulus (CS) and context. TTX was stereotaxically injected into animals of different groups at increasing post-acquisition delays. Memory was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured during retention testing, performed 72 and 96 h after TTX administration in a counterbalanced manner. The results showed that FF inactivation, performed immediately after conditioning, did not disrupt consolidation of either contextual or auditory fear memory. On the contrary, EC inactivation performed at the same time was followed by both contextual and CS fear response retention impairment. EC inactivation performed 1.5h post-acquisition impaired only contextual fear response retention. EC inactivation performed 24h after acquisition training had no effect on the consolidation process. The present findings show a clearly different role of FF and EC in fear conditioning consolidation in the rat. The results are discussed in relation to their known connections with the hippocampus.

  13. Angiotensin type 1a receptors on corticotropin-releasing factor neurons contribute to the expression of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Hurt, R C; Garrett, J C; Keifer, O P; Linares, A; Couling, L; Speth, R C; Ressler, K J; Marvar, P J

    2015-09-01

    Although generally associated with cardiovascular regulation, angiotensin II receptor type 1a (AT1a R) blockade in mouse models and humans has also been associated with enhanced fear extinction and decreased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, respectively. The mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown, but may involve alterations in the activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing cells, which are known to be involved in fear regulation. To test the hypothesis that AT1a R signaling in CRFergic neurons is involved in conditioned fear expression, we generated and characterized a conditional knockout mouse strain with a deletion of the AT1a R gene from its CRF-releasing cells (CRF-AT1a R((-/-)) ). These mice exhibit normal baseline heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety and locomotion, and freeze at normal levels during acquisition of auditory fear conditioning. However, CRF-AT1a R((-/-)) mice exhibit less freezing than wild-type mice during tests of conditioned fear expression-an effect that may be caused by a decrease in the consolidation of fear memory. These results suggest that central AT1a R activity in CRF-expressing cells plays a role in the expression of conditioned fear, and identify CRFergic cells as a population on which AT1 R antagonists may act to modulate fear extinction.

  14. Contribution of Nano- to Microscale Roughness to Heterogeneity: Closing the Gap between Unfavorable and Favorable Colloid Attachment Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, Anna; Pazmino, Eddy; Assemi, Shoeleh; Johnson, William P

    2017-02-21

    Surface roughness has been reported to both increase as well as decrease colloid retention. In order to better understand the boundaries within which roughness operates, attachment of a range of colloid sizes to glass with three levels of roughness was examined under both favorable (energy barrier absent) and unfavorable (energy barrier present) conditions in an impinging jet system. Smooth glass was found to provide the upper and lower bounds for attachment under favorable and unfavorable conditions, respectively. Surface roughness decreased, or even eliminated, the gap between favorable and unfavorable attachment and did so by two mechanisms: (1) under favorable conditions attachment decreased via increased hydrodynamic slip length and reduced attraction and (2) under unfavorable conditions attachment increased via reduced colloid-collector repulsion (reduced radius of curvature) and increased attraction (multiple points of contact, and possibly increased surface charge heterogeneity). Absence of a gap where these forces most strongly operate for smaller (<200 nm) and larger (>2 μm) colloids was observed and discussed. These observations elucidate the role of roughness in colloid attachment under both favorable and unfavorable conditions.

  15. The contribution of negative reproductive experiences and chronic medical conditions to depression and pain among Israeli women.

    PubMed

    Sarid, Orly; Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Cwikel, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study of 302 Israeli women sought to investigate the associations among stressful reproductive experiences (e.g. fertility problems, abortions, and traumatic births), chronic medical conditions, pain, and depression. The specific aims of the study were to examine (1) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and pain on depressive symptoms and (2) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms on pain. Our findings corroborate with previous studies demonstrating that depression and pain are two interrelated, but different phenomena, which have both common and distinct risk factors. The findings are discussed in the light of stress and adaptation theories that point to the long-term effects of stressful life events on emotional and physiological aspects such as depression and pain.

  16. The Accidental Faculty: Adjunct Instructors in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Alicia B.

    In 1998, the proportion of full-time faculty at U.S. community colleges was reported to be 36%, versus 64% part time. Adjunct faculty are attractive to community colleges primarily because they provide low-cost labor. The conditions under which many community college adjunct faculty work can contribute to their marginalization as a kind of…

  17. Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

  18. Contribution of loading conditions and material properties to stress shielding near the tibial component of total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony G; James Raso, V; Liggins, A B; Amirfazli, A

    2007-01-01

    This communication reports important preliminary results of a parametric analysis into the stress shielding effects of loading conditions and material properties of a total knee replacement (TKR) prosthesis. A previously developed finite element (FE) model of the proximal tibia that incorporated orthotropic and heterogeneous bone properties was used. Tibiofemoral joint compression and soft tissue (ligament and muscle) forces were also included to better represent the loading condition in the tibia. Stress shielding effects were studied for a prosthesis similar to a commercially available model. Results from the model show that the hypothesis of relatively higher Young's modulus of implant compared to bone as the primary cause of stress shielding is not sufficiently descriptive. Loading conditions as a result of altered bone or implant condylar surface geometry, load placement on the condylar surface, and load pattern created by the TKR are at least as important or, in some cases, more important factors in observed stress shielding immediately post-operation. This finding can be used to focus new implant design on altered loading conditions as well as material selection.

  19. Assessing School Council Contribution to the Enabling Conditions for Instructional Capacity Building: "An Urban District in Kentucky"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Wade Kenneth; Keedy, John L.

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the enabling conditions related to building instructional capacity created by the councils in three high-performance schools in an urban district. The authors collected the data through observation, interview, and document mining. School-level data were sorted inductively into themes through constant comparative analysis.…

  20. Effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Maugard, Anaïs; Wasserman, Edward A; Castro, Leyre; Fagot, Joël

    2014-07-01

    Relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. Relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. This study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing in nonhuman primates. Using a procedure that entailed both expanding and contracting sets of pictorial items, we trained 13 baboons on a two-alternative forced-choice task, in which they had to distinguish horizontal from vertical relational patterns. In Experiment 1, monkeys engaged in item-based processing with a small training set size, and they progressively engaged in relation-based processing as training set size was increased. However, in Experiment 2, overtraining with a small stimulus set promoted the processing of item-based information. These findings underscore similarities in how humans and nonhuman primates process higher-order stimulus relations.

  1. Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

    2014-10-01

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research.

  2. Sleep complaints in middle-aged women and men: the contribution of working conditions and work-family conflicts.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Arber, Sara

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine how physical working conditions, psychosocial working conditions and work-family conflicts are associated with sleep complaints, and whether health behaviours explain these associations. We used pooled postal questionnaire surveys collected in 2001-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Participants were classified as having sleep complaints if they reported sleep complaints at least once a week on average (24% of women and 20% of men). Independent variables included environmental work exposures, physical workload, computer work, Karasek's job strain and work-family conflicts. Age, marital status, occupational class, work arrangements, health behaviours and obesity were adjusted for. Most working conditions were associated strongly with sleep complaints after adjustment for age only. After adjustment for work-family conflicts, the associations somewhat attenuated. Work-family conflicts were also associated strongly with women's [odds ratio (OR) 5.90; confidence interval (CI) 4.16-8.38] and men's sleep (OR 2.56; CI 1.34-4.87). The associations remained robust even after controlling for unhealthy behaviours, obesity, health status, depression and medications. Physically strenuous working conditions, psychosocial job strain and work-family conflicts may increase sleep complaints. Efforts to support employees to cope with psychosocial stress and reach a better balance between paid work and family life might reduce sleep complaints. Sleep complaints need to be taken into account in worksite health promotion and occupational health care in order to reduce the burden of poor sleep.

  3. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    PubMed

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies.

  4. Adaptive, but not condition-dependent, body shape differences contribute to assortative mating preferences during ecological speciation.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Ryan; Drexler, Shannon; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Tobler, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Assortative mating is critical for reproductive isolation during speciation; however, the mechanisms underlying mating preferences are often unknown. Assortative mating can be mediated through preferences for condition-dependent and adaptive ("magic") traits, but rigorously testing these hypotheses has been impeded by trait covariation in living organisms. We used computer-generated models to examine the role of body shape in producing association preferences between fish populations undergoing ecological speciation in different habitat types. We demonstrate that body shape can serve as an adaptive trait (variation in head size between populations) and a condition-dependent signal (variation in abdominal distention among individuals). Female preferences for stimuli varying in only one aspect of body shape uncovered evidence for body shape as a magic trait across population pairs, but no evidence for body shape serving as a condition-dependent signal. Evolution of preferences only in females from one habitat type as well as stronger preferences in sympatric nonsulfidic as opposed to allopatric nonsulfidic populations suggests that reinforcement may have played a role in producing the observed patterns.

  5. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature.

  6. [Accidental out-of-hospital deliveries].

    PubMed

    Bouet, P-E; Chabernaud, J-L; Duc, F; Khouri, T; Leboucher, B; Riethmuller, D; Descamps, P; Sentilhes, L

    2014-03-01

    Unexpected out-of-hospital delivery accounts for 0.5% of the total number of delivery in France. The parturient is placed under constant multiparametric monitoring. Fetus heart rate is monitored thanks to fetal doppler. A high concentration mask containing a 50-to-50 percent mix of O(2) and NO performs analgesia. Assistance of mobile pediatric service can be required under certain circumstances such as premature birth, gemellary pregnancy, maternal illness or fetal heart rate impairment. Maternal efforts should start only when head reaches the pelvic floor, only if the rupture of the membranes is done and the dilation is completed. The expulsion should not exceed 30 min. Episiotomy should not be systematically performed. A systematic active management of third stage of labour is recommended. Routine care such as warming and soft drying can be performed when the following conditions are fulfilled: clear amniotic liquid, normal breathing, crying and a good tonus. Every 30 seconds assessment of heart rate, breathing quality and muscular tonus then guide the care. The redaction of birth certificate is a legal obligation and rests with the attending doctor.

  7. Class-conditional feature modeling for ignitable liquid classification with substantial substrate contribution in fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopatka, Martin; Sigman, Michael E; Sjerps, Marjan J; Williams, Mary R; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Forensic chemical analysis of fire debris addresses the question of whether ignitable liquid residue is present in a sample and, if so, what type. Evidence evaluation regarding this question is complicated by interference from pyrolysis products of the substrate materials present in a fire. A method is developed to derive a set of class-conditional features for the evaluation of such complex samples. The use of a forensic reference collection allows characterization of the variation in complex mixtures of substrate materials and ignitable liquids even when the dominant feature is not specific to an ignitable liquid. Making use of a novel method for data imputation under complex mixing conditions, a distribution is modeled for the variation between pairs of samples containing similar ignitable liquid residues. Examining the covariance of variables within the different classes allows different weights to be placed on features more important in discerning the presence of a particular ignitable liquid residue. Performance of the method is evaluated using a database of total ion spectrum (TIS) measurements of ignitable liquid and fire debris samples. These measurements include 119 nominal masses measured by GC-MS and averaged across a chromatographic profile. Ignitable liquids are labeled using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1618 standard class definitions. Statistical analysis is performed in the class-conditional feature space wherein new forensic traces are represented based on their likeness to known samples contained in a forensic reference collection. The demonstrated method uses forensic reference data as the basis of probabilistic statements concerning the likelihood of the obtained analytical results given the presence of ignitable liquid residue of each of the ASTM classes (including a substrate only class). When prior probabilities of these classes can be assumed, these likelihoods can be connected to class probabilities. In order to

  8. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhil A; Kundargi, Vinay S; Patil, Siddangouda B; Biradar, Ashok N; Desai, Anup S

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  9. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

  10. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  11. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures.

  12. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  13. The airway sensory impact of nicotine contributes to the conditioned reinforcing effects of individual puffs from cigarettes⋆

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Bechara, Antoine

    2005-01-01

    Puffs from cigarettes are the fundamental unit of smoking reward. Here, we examined the extent to which reward from puffs can be derived from the airway sensory effect of nicotine, in the absence of a direct central nervous system effect of nicotine. We did this by assessing the self-reported reward obtained from individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes within 7 s of inhalation, which is before nicotine had an opportunity to reach the brain. We also assessed the self-reported strength of airway sensations elicited by the puffs. We found that nicotinized puffs were rated as both stronger and more rewarding than denicotinized and unlit puffs. We also found that the extent to which nicotine elicited reward was directly correlated with the extent to which nicotine elicited airway sensations. This indicates that the airway sensory effects of nicotine contribute to the reward from puffs, above and beyond the reward derived from the airway sensory effects of non-nicotine constituents. These findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that use puffs as experimental units to examine nicotine reward. They also have implications for the use of denicotinized and low nicotine cigarettes as aids to smoking cessation. PMID:15996724

  14. Long-term change in surface air temperature over Eurasian continent and possible contribution from land-surface conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Jeong, J. H.; Shim, T.

    2015-12-01

    Summertime heat wave over Eurasia is induced by various climatic factors. As internal and external factors are changing under an abrupt climate change, the variability of heat waves exhibits radical changes. In this study, the long-term change in heat wave characteristics over Eurasia for the last several decades was examined and the impact of land-atmosphere interaction modulated by soil moisture variability on the change was investigated. Through the empirical orthogonal functions(EOF) analysis, the principle spatio-temporal pattern of Eurasian heat wave during July-August was objectively detected. The leading pattern (1st EOF mode) of the variability was found be an overall increase in heat waves over eastern Europe and east Asia (Mongol to northern part of China), which seems to be associated mainly with the global warming signal but with interannual variability as well. Through performing JULES(Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model simulation forced with observational atmospheric forcings, soil moisture and energy flux at surface were estimated, and the impacts of land-atmosphere interaction on the heat wave variability was investigated based on the estimated land surface variables and temperature observations. It is found that there is a distinct dry soil condition accompanying with East Asian heat waves. The dry condition leads to an increase in sensible heat flux from land surface to atmosphere and resulting near-surface warming, which is followed by warm-core high - a typical characteristics of a heatwave sustained by land-atmosphere interaction. This result is consistent with an distinct increase in heatwave in recent years. By using the hindcast of long-range prediction model of KMA, GloSea5, the seasonal predictability of heatwave was examined. GloSea5 reasonably well simulates the spatial pattern of Eurasian heatwaves variability found in observations but shows modest skill in simulating accurate year-to-year variability. This result

  15. Meteo-climatic conditions influence the contribution of endotoxins to PM10 in an urban polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Traversi, D; Alessandria, L; Schilirò, T; Chiadò Piat, S; Gilli, G

    2010-02-01

    A decrease in inhalable particulate matter (PM10) pollution is a top priority in urban areas of northern Italy. The sources of PM10 are both anthropogenic and natural. The former have been broadly investigated while the latter are less well known. Endotoxins are natural compounds of PM10 and are potentially toxic. Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Their health effects are linked to environmental exposure. The effects mainly consist of respiratory symptoms, including pulmonary function decline. The occurrence of endotoxins has been proven in several occupational environments where organic materials supply an optimal substrate for bacteria growth. Knowledge about the presence of these contaminants in the environment is limited. The aim of this work is to evaluate the endotoxin levels of PM10 in the urban air of Turin, and to investigate the influence of seasonal and meteo-climatic factors. The sampling was conducted from January to December 2007. Endotoxin determination was performed by an LAL assay after extraction optimization. The PM10 levels ranged from 11.90 to 104.74 microg/m(3) (48.28 +/- 23.09) while the endotoxin levels ranged between 0.09 and 0.94 EU/m(3) (0.42 +/- 0.23). The seasonal trends of PM10 and endotoxin are inversely proportional. There is a statistically significant correlation between endotoxin and temperature (r = 0.532 p < 0.01), as well as between endotoxin and relative humidity (r = -0.457 p < 0.01). However, temperature has a predominant role. We observed that urban endotoxin concentrations are narrow in range and that the contribution of endotoxins to the total PM10 is only two millionths.

  16. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative.

  17. Contribution of oocyte source and culture conditions to phenotypic and transcriptomic variation in commercially produced bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Dany; Vigneault, Christian; Lemay, Alexandra; Breton, Lévéke; Gagné, Dominic; Laflamme, Isabelle; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bovine embryo production is practiced worldwide for commercial purposes. A major concern of embryo suppliers is the impact of in vitro production systems on embryo quality. In the present study, we compared Buffalo Rat Liver cell coculture with semidefined, medium-based culture, oocytes recovered postmortem with those obtained from live animals, and in vitro with in vivo embryo development. Gene expression levels in expanded blastocysts were measured using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. The systems were similar in terms of blastocyst yield and rate of development, whereas embryo productivity was greater for immature oocytes collected in vivo. Although immature oocytes collected in vivo had greater developmental competence, they yielded blastocysts that were indistinguishable (in terms of level of gene expression) from embryos derived from immature oocytes recovered postmortem. Culture conditions had a significant impact on gene expression, particularly among genes involved in lipid metabolism. Numerous uncharacterized novel transcript regions were also influenced by in vitro treatments. In conclusion, ovum pick-up combined with in vitro culture in semidefined medium provided a high blastocyst yield, without the deleterious effects associated with coculture.

  18. Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Frederic

    valeur de temperature corrigee, une verification prealable ayant permis de determiner la precision du TES a 0,5 °C, nous avons determine la precision relative des deux autres methodes par rapport a celle du TES. Pour les deux methodes TISI et ITR, la correction de temperature radiative a donne un ecart moyen similaire de l'ordre de --1,2 °C, avec une etendue d'ecart allant de ---0,5 a --2,2 °C. L'experience realisee a permis de presenter un prototype operationnel de mesure de la temperature de surface permettant en meme temps la caracterisation de la surface mesuree. L'extraction de ces deux types d'informations a partir d'une meme serie de mesures est une innovation. La banque d'emissivite spectrale mesuree sur le terrain est aussi une contribution de ce projet. Teledetection -- Infrarouge thermique -- Temperature de surface -- Neige -- Glace -- Meteorologie routiere

  19. Glutamate receptor antagonist infusions into the basolateral and medial amygdala reveal differential contributions to olfactory vs. context fear conditioning and expression

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and to context fear and fear conditioning by infusing into these areas the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5, the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX, or vehicle prior to either odor-shock pairings or fear-potentiated startle testing. Pre-training AP5 infusions into the basolateral amygdala disrupted fear conditioning to the odor but not the context conditioned stimulus (CS). Pre-test NBQX infusions disrupted fear-potentiated startle to the odor but not context CS. Neither compound blocked fear conditioning when infused into the medial amygdala prior to training, but pre-test NBQX infusions did block fear-potentiated startle. The results confirm and extend recent findings suggesting a role for the basolateral amygdala in olfactory fear and fear conditioning, reveal an unexpected dissociation of the basolateral amygdala's involvement in discrete cue versus context fear and fear conditioning, and implicate for the first time the medial amygdala in fear-potentiated startle. PMID:15774945

  20. The contribution of working conditions and social support to the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders among male and female employees.

    PubMed

    Plaisier, Inger; de Bruijn, Jeanne G M; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2007-01-01

    Poor working conditions may be an important source of stress and may therefore contribute to the development of depressive and anxiety disorders. Social support may act as a buffer and protect against the development of depression or anxiety in the face of poor working conditions. With longitudinal data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), the effect of working conditions and social support on the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders was examined among 2646 working men and women, aged 18 through 65 years. Three dimensions of self reported working conditions were assessed: psychological demands, decision latitude and job security. Social support was assessed through validated scales for daily emotional support. About 10.5% of working women and 4.6% among working men developed an incident depressive and/or anxiety disorder over 2 years. Psychological demands predicted the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in both men and women (RR per score increase=2.29, 95% CI: 1.44-3.63), whereas decision latitude and job security did not. Social support protected against the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders. This effect was stronger for men compared to women. Social support did not buffer the unfavorable mental effect of working conditions. Women were more likely to report low levels of decision latitude, whereas men reported higher psychological demands. Working conditions did not explain sex differences in the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders.

  1. Non-accidental properties underlie human categorization of complex natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dandan

    2013-01-01

    Humans can categorize complex natural scenes quickly and accurately. Which scene properties enable us to do this with such apparent ease? We extracted structural properties of contours (orientation, length, curvature) and contour junctions (types and angles) from line drawings of natural scenes. All of these properties contain information about scene category that can be exploited computationally. But, when comparing error patterns from computational scene categorization with those from a six-alternative forced-choice scene categorization experiment, we found that only junctions and curvature made significant contributions to human behavior. To further test the critical role of these properties we perturbed junctions in line drawings by randomly shifting contours. As predicted, we found a significant decrease in human categorization accuracy. We conclude that scene categorization by humans relies on curvature as well as the same non-accidental junction properties used for object recognition. These properties correspond to the visual features represented in area V2. PMID:24474725

  2. Ex situ testing method to characterize cathode catalysts degradation under simulated start-up/shut-down conditions - A contribution to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, A.; Toth, G.; Kundu, S.; Colmenares, L. C.; Behm, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The paper introduces a novel ex situ test procedure that was developed to quantify the ageing of catalyst layers under critical automotive fuel cell conditions during start-up/shut-down phases. It is based on liquid electrolyte measurements, using a thin film catalyst electrode. The overall degradation under start-up/shut-down conditions is assessed by the decay in electrochemically active surface area. Furthermore, contributions from different processes leading to catalyst degradation such as Pt dissolution and Pt particle growth/agglomeration can be separated. Finally, using a differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) set-up, also the extent and role of carbon corrosion under these conditions is accessible. The potential of this, compared to in situ fuel cell stack tests, rather fast and less costly ex situ test procedure is demonstrated in measurements using a commercial, graphitized carbon-supported Pt catalyst. The results of the degradation test and in particular the contributions from different degradation processes such as Pt dissolution, Pt particle growth/agglomeration and carbon corrosion during different stages of catalyst ageing are discussed.

  3. Who Can Afford Health Care? Evaluating the Socio-Economic Conditions and the Ability to Contribute to Health Care in a Post-Conflict Area in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Methodology Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Findings The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Conclusions Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care. PMID:24204819

  4. Relative contribution of shoot and ear photosynthesis to grain filling in wheat under good agronomical conditions assessed by differential organ δ13C

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Araus, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    During grain filling in C3 cereals, the shoot (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play major roles as sources of assimilates. However, both the cost and the intrusive nature of most of the methodologies available to investigate this have prevented conclusive results being obtained. This study compared the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in its natural abundance in mature kernels with the δ13C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, glumes, and awns to assess the relative contribution of the shoot (understood as the whole set of photosynthetic organs below the peduncle) and ear to grain filling in a set of highly productive wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, under good agronomic conditions. In overall terms, the contribution of the ear was greater in comparison with that of the shoot. The specific contribution of the flag leaf blade to grain filling was also assessed by comparing the δ13C of grains with the δ13C of the water-soluble fraction of the flag leaf and the awns. The contribution of the flag leaf was minor, ranging between 3 and 18%. Complementary analyses performed such as gas-exchange rates and the accumulated water-soluble carbohydrates in both organs and light intercepted by the canopy at different strata suggested that the ear has a photosynthetic capacity at least comparable to that of the flag leaf. In this sense, selection for a higher contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield in breeding programmes could be addressed with the use of stable isotopes. PMID:25053645

  5. Outcome of accidental peritoneal dialysis catheter holes or tip exposure.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Douglas M; Wilcox, Jennifer E

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are at risk for acute peritonitis. One risk factor is accidental exposure of the catheter to a non-sterile surface. We studied catheter exposures in 17 pediatric patients receiving PD who developed 16 holes and 12 other accidental exposures. The rate of exposures was 3.7 events/100 patient-months. After exposure, the mean counts (+ or - standard error) of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells, and neutrophils were 39.8 + or - 19.3, 9.5 + or - 7.1, and 24.2 + or - 5.3/mm(3), respectively. There was a trend towards higher peritoneal fluid WBC in patients with holes than in those with exposures (60.1 + or - 34.8 vs. 15.4 + or - 5.1/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.2). The initial peritoneal fluid WBC count was significantly higher if there was a positive culture than a negative culture (165.0 + or - 132.6 vs. 20.3 + or - 6.4/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.01). The percentage of neutrophils was higher in patients with a positive culture than in those with a negative culture (54.7 + or - 14.1 vs. 19.1 + or - 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Of the 28 patients, 27 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotics, as per the protocol at that time. Among those treated, 7% developed a positive culture (all staphylococcal species) while 93% had a negative culture. We conclude that following accidental exposure of the peritoneal dialysis catheter: (1) the prevalence of peritonitis is low; (2) measuring peritoneal fluid WBC provides treatment guidance; (3) if treatment is initiated, it should be applied intraperitoneally and include activity against Gram-positive organisms.

  6. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  7. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  9. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse.

  10. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant.

  11. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat.

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to "accidental" falls in the elderly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Mazzella, Francesca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Ungar, Andrea; Masotti, Giulio; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Falls in the elderly are commonly and often wrongly identified as "accidental". We report a case of an elderly woman admitted to first aid for a trauma due to an accidental fall. Geriatric multidisciplinary evaluation revealed mild cognitive impairment associated with depressive symptoms; both findings made the anamnesis uncertain. Syncope algorithm was applied and "tachy-brady form of sick sinus syndrome" was diagnosed. Differential diagnosis between "accidental" and "apparently accidental" falls in elderly patients is very difficult but a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation can clarify the correct diagnosis.

  13. Apnoea and brain swelling in non-accidental head injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Stoodley, N; Cobley, C; Coles, L; Kemp, K; Geddes, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI. Methods: Retrospective case series (1992–98) with case control analysis of 65 children under 2 years old, with an SDH secondary to NAHI. Outcome measures were presenting symptoms, associated injuries and apnoea at presentation, brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemic changes on neuroimaging, and clinical outcome (KOSCHI). Results: Twenty two children had a history of apnoea at presentation to hospital. Apnoea was significantly associated with hypoxic ischaemic brain damage. Severe symptoms at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling/hypoxic ischaemic damage were significantly associated with a poor prognosis. Eighty five per cent of cases had associated injuries consistent with a diagnosis of non-accidental injury. Conclusions: Coma at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemia all predict a poor outcome in an infant who has suffered from SDH after NAHI. There is evidence of associated violence in the majority of infants with NAHI. At this point in time we do not know the minimum forces necessary to cause NAHI. It is clear however that it is never acceptable to shake a baby. PMID:12765909

  14. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  15. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are used in meat industry for “humane killing” of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. Case Report: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third. The wound was treated with multiple debridements, negative pressure wound therapy and intravenous antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Conclusion: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are weapons used in meat industry for slaughtering animals. Wounds inflicted by bolt guns have specific morphological feature, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Most of the time wound will be infected at presentation. Lesions caused by these weapons are likely to have a more serious character than is to be expected from the size of the entrance wound. The mainstay of treatment is liberal wound exploration, multiple debridement’s and intra venous antibiotics based on culture reports to treat infection and prevent morbidity. PMID:28164044

  16. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema following accidental electrocution in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Sankar, Jhuma; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2011-04-19

    Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to electrocution is an underdiagnosed clinical entity. The authors report a toddler who presented with symptoms and signs of respiratory failure following accidental electrocution. His chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates and cardiac involvement was ruled out by echocardiography. The child was managed symptomatically and discharged in a stable condition. The cause of pulmonary oedema in this child was thought to be neurogenic in origin as cardiac and pulmonary causes were ruled out. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is an uncommonly recognised entity which occurs with any neurological or non-neurological event stimulating the vasomotor centres. There are divergent theories to explain the cause for this rare phenomenon but none has been proved. The authors chose to report this case to highlight this uncommon complication of electrocution hitherto unreported in children.

  17. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  18. [Secondary medullary aplasia from accidental radiation:therapeutic options and evolution of the concept].

    PubMed

    de Revel, T; Fagot, T; Souleau, B; Dormont, D; Nedellec, G

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow grafting following accidental irradiation exposure should be viewed in the perspective of a severe myeloablative syndrome linked to high medullary damage for a dose range higher than 6-8 Gy, resulting in very late or no recovery. Prognosis will depend on the presence or absence of radio-combined injuries, the toxicity of the transplant procedure, and the risk of rejection induced by insufficient percritical immunosuppression. It is in this context that new cell therapy modalities, which combine enhanced peripheral hematopoietic cell engraftment and high immunosuppressive conditioning regimen with low extrahematological toxicity, inducing early and stable mixed lymphomyeloid chimerism with minimal morbidity, can be considered. Such an approach is being evaluated in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies at high risk of transplant-related mortality using conventional bone marrow methods.

  19. Cardiac thrombus developing after an accidental high-voltage electric shock in a child.

    PubMed

    Akın, Alper; Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Gözü Pirinççioğlu, Ayfer; Yavuz, Celal

    2015-01-01

    Electric shock is a condition that may affect various organ systems and potentially cause death. Cardiac findings vary from asymptomatic mild injury to fatal myocardial involvement. Herein we present a five-year-old boy with a cardiac thrombus developing after an accidental electrical shock. Cardiac arrhythmias and evidence of ischemia have been reported after electric shock; we were, however, unable to identify an earlier case report of intracardiac thrombosis related to electric shock. Findings such as elevated cardiac enzymes and systolic dysfunction, which indicate myocardial damage following electric shock, were present in our patient. We think that the cardiac thrombus might have resulted from the myocardial damage and the slowed intracardiac blood flow related to systolic dysfunction. As the thrombus was thought to have been formed through known mechanisms, it was treated traditionally. However, further data regarding the etiology and management of such thrombi is needed.

  20. Surface expression of hippocampal NMDA GluN2B receptors regulated by fear conditioning determines its contribution to memory consolidation in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Cai, Wei; Yu, Jie; Liu, Shu-Su; Zhuo, Min; Li, Bao-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2016-01-01

    The number and subtype composition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) at synapses determines their functional properties and role in learning and memory. Genetically increased or decreased amount of GluN2B affects hippocampus-dependent memory in the adult brain. But in some experimental conditions (e.g., memory elicited by a single conditioning trial (1 CS-US)), GluN2B is not a necessary factor, which indicates that the precise role of GluN2B in memory formation requires further exploration. Here, we examined the role of GluN2B in the consolidation of fear memory using two training paradigms. We found that GluN2B was only required for the consolidation of memory elicited by five conditioning trials (5 CS-US), not by 1 CS-US. Strikingly, the expression of membrane GluN2B in CA1was training-strength-dependently increased after conditioning, and that the amount of membrane GluN2B determined its involvement in memory consolidation. Additionally, we demonstrated the increases in the activities of cAMP, ERK, and CREB in the CA1 after conditioning, as well as the enhanced intrinsic excitability and synaptic efficacy in CA1 neurons. Up-regulation of membrane GluN2B contributed to these enhancements. These studies uncover a novel mechanism for the involvement of GluN2B in memory consolidation by its accumulation at the cell surface in response to behavioral training. PMID:27487820

  1. Orexin A-mediated AKT signaling in the dentate gyrus contributes to the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sui-Jun; Cui, Yu; Huang, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Jin-Xiang; Xin, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), a critical brain region contributing to learning and memory, is involved in the addiction and relapse to abused drugs. Emerging studies also suggest the role of orexin signaling in the rewarding behavior induced by repeated exposure to opiates. In the present study, we investigated the dynamic adaptation of orexin signaling in the DG and its functional significance in the acquisition, expression, maintenance of and relapse to rewarding behavior induced by morphine. Repeated place conditioning with morphine significantly increased the orexin A content released from the lateral hypothalamic area projecting neurons into the DG. Local infusions of orexin A into the DG sensitized the acquisition of and relapse to the conditioned place preference induced by morphine. The application of the orexin receptor type 1 (OXR1) antagonist SB334867 significantly abolished the acquisition, expression and maintenance of the conditioned place preference induced by repeated exposure to morphine. Furthermore, the significant increase of the phosphorylation of AKT in the DG was associated with preference for the morphine-paired chamber in rats, which was reversed by the local administration of an OXR1 antagonist. Thus, these findings suggested that the dynamic upregulation of orexin A signaling, via the AKT pathway in the DG, may promote the acquisition and maintenance of opioid-induced craving behaviors and may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effect of subsequent opioids.

  2. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  3. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Yanina S; Monteoliva, Mariela I; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L; Laróvere, Laura E; Alvarez, María E

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro.

  4. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Yanina S.; Monteoliva, Mariela I.; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L.; Laróvere, Laura E.; Alvarez, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  5. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  6. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  7. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  8. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  9. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    PubMed

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  10. Clinical Signs and Pathology of Accidental Monensin Poisoning in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. N.; Crowe, S. P.; Harries, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical signs and postmortem findings in sheep from two flocks accidentally poisoned with monensin are described. Clinical signs began within 24 hours of exposure to monensin. In the acute stages they consisted of lethargy, stiffness, muscular weakness, a stilted gait and recumbency. Feed refusal was seen in one flock but not in the second. Subacute to chronic clinical signs were decreased muscle volume of the rump and thigh. When forced to run, chronically affected sheep had a stilted, stiff legged, rocking horse gait. Gross postmortem changes were not always visible. Where visible, they affected skeletal muscles and consisted of pale streaking, with atrophy in the chronic stages. Lesions were most severe in muscles of the rump and hind limbs. Microscopically myofiber swelling and hyalinization were seen with interstitial mononuclear cell reaction and extensive sarcoplasmic mineralization in some cases. Chronic lesions consisted of fibrosis and myofiber atrophy. In lambs less than one month old, diffuse gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the only finding. PMID:17422198

  11. [Complex pelvic trauma caused by an accidental side split].

    PubMed

    Heinermann, J D B; Hessmann, M H; Rommens, P M

    2005-04-01

    Complex pelvic ring fractures are defined as injuries of the pelvic ring in association with lesions of the pelvic organs or the pelvic soft tissues. These injuries are typically caused by high-energy accidents. In contrast to the typical mechanism of injury a case is described in which a low energy trauma led to a complex pelvic ring trauma. An obese woman suffered an open-book injury of the pelvis with severe open urogenital soft-tissue damage by accidentally doing forced splits. Primary stabilization of the pelvic ring with external fixation and secondary internal fixation with a double-plate osteosynthesis of the symphysis led to a good clinical outcome concerning the osseous lesion. The urogenital injuries with rupture of the bladder, the urethra and the vagina led despite immediate urological management to an incontinence, which finally required definitive urine drainage via an ileum conduit.

  12. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile.

  13. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  14. Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

  15. Realization of unidirectional transmission under accidental degenerated Dirac point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Qun; Zhang, Yichi; Poo, Yin; Ma, HuiFeng; Wu, Ruixin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a good unidirectional transmission (UT) with high transmission efficiency without breaking time-reversal symmetry both theoretically and experimentally. By adjusting the topological structure and designing the component of all-dielectric photonic crystal, an accidental degenerated Dirac point is built at Γ point. We obtained simultaneous zero permittivity and zero permeability. Truncating the PC into a bow-tie shape, we observed a total reflection in one direction but a total transmission in the opposite direction. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data verifies such model supports a good UT even considering the material's loss. Due to the PC's scale invariance, this kind of UT can be conveniently exploited into terahertz or optical frequency, providing a great promising application to optical communication and optical circuit.

  16. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  17. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  18. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  19. The use of conditional probability functions and potential source contribution functions to identify source regions and advection pathways of hydrocarbon emissions in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yulong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    In this study, we demonstrate the utility of conditional probability functions (CPFs), potential source contribution functions (PSCFs), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HAC) to identify the source region and transport pathways of hydrocarbons measured at five photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) near the Houston Ship Channel from June to October 2003. In contrast to scatter plots, which only show the pair-wise correlation of species, commonality in CPF figures shows both correlation and information on the source region of the species in question. In this study, we use over 50 hourly volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and surface wind observations to show that VOCs with similar CPF patterns likely have common transport pathways. This was established with the multivariate technique, which uses the hierarchical clustering analysis to define clusters of VOCs having similar CPF patterns. This method revealed that alkenes, and in particular those with geometric isomers such as cis-/ trans-2-butene and cis-/ trans-2-pentene, have similar CPF patterns and hence, a common area of origin. The alkane isomers often show CPF patterns among themselves, and similarly, aromatic compounds often show similar patterns. We also show how calculated trajectory information can be used in the PSCF analysis to produce a graphic picture that identifies specific geographic areas associated with a given VOC (or other pollutant). The use of these techniques in the chemically and meteorologically complex environment of Houston, Texas, suggests its further utility in other areas with relatively simpler conditions.

  20. Conditional deletion of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 reveals that astrocytic GLT-1 protects against fatal epilepsy while neuronal GLT-1 contributes significantly to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Petr, Geraldine T; Sun, Yan; Frederick, Natalie M; Zhou, Yun; Dhamne, Sameer C; Hameed, Mustafa Q; Miranda, Clive; Bedoya, Edward A; Fischer, Kathryn D; Armsen, Wencke; Wang, Jianlin; Danbolt, Niels C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Aoki, Chiye J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is the major glutamate transporter in the brain, and is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, but at lower levels also in excitatory terminals. We generated a conditional GLT-1 knock-out mouse to uncover cell-type-specific functional roles of GLT-1. Inactivation of the GLT-1 gene was achieved in either neurons or astrocytes by expression of synapsin-Cre or inducible human GFAP-CreERT2. Elimination of GLT-1 from astrocytes resulted in loss of ∼80% of GLT-1 protein and of glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes. This loss was accompanied by excess mortality, lower body weight, and seizures suggesting that astrocytic GLT-1 is of major importance. However, there was only a small (15%) reduction that did not reach significance of glutamate uptake into crude forebrain synaptosomes. In contrast, when GLT-1 was deleted in neurons, both the GLT-1 protein and glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes were virtually unaffected. These mice showed normal survival, weight gain, and no seizures. However, the synaptosomal glutamate uptake capacity (Vmax) was reduced significantly (40%). In conclusion, astrocytic GLT-1 performs critical functions required for normal weight gain, resistance to epilepsy, and survival. However, the contribution of astrocytic GLT-1 to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes is less than expected, and the contribution of neuronal GLT-1 to synaptosomal glutamate uptake is greater than expected based on their relative protein expression. These results have important implications for the interpretation of the many previous studies assessing glutamate uptake capacity by measuring synaptosomal uptake.

  1. Water deficit effects on solute contribution to osmotic adjustment as a function of leaf ageing in three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars performing differently in arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Bajji, M; Lutts, S; Kinet, J -M.

    2001-03-01

    A greenhouse study was carried out using three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars differing in their field performances under arid conditions (Kabir 1, poor yield stability; Omrabi 5, high yield stability and Haurani, landrace well adapted to drought). Water stress was imposed by withholding water at the seedling stage. Water potential (Psi(w)), relative water content (RWC), stomatal resistance (SR), and changes in solute concentrations were quantified: (1) as a function of leaf development during the stress period; and (2) in young expanded and growing leaves harvested at the end of the stress treatment. Psi(w), RWC and SR were almost unaffected by leaf age in controls. In contrast, solute concentrations appeared to vary in the course of leaf development. During the stress treatment, Psi(w) and RWC decreased and SR increased in all cultivars; the changes were most often largest in Omrabi 5, lowest in Haurani and intermediate in Kabir 1. Water stress also increased sugar and proline concentrations and decreased nitrate levels. Young expanded and growing leaves differed in terms of Psi(w), RWC and osmotic adjustment (OA). The capacity of OA was greater in growing than in expanded leaves, especially in the two cultivars best adapted to aridity, and allowed turgor maintenance in these genotypes. Sugars were the main solutes that contributed to OA particularly in growing leaves followed by proline and then quaternary ammonium compounds. The contributions of these organic solutes to OA tended to be higher in Omrabi 5 and in Haurani than in Kabir 1. Inorganic solutes, however, did not seem to play an important role in OA despite their high proportion in total solutes.

  2. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-10-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place.

  3. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal,...

  4. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal,...

  5. In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources.

    PubMed

    Burgherr, Peter

    2007-02-09

    This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag state, hull type, tanker age, accident cause and sensitivity of location). Results show that the total number and volume of tanker spills have significantly decreased since the 1970s, which is in contrast to increases in maritime transport of oil and to popular perceptions following recent catastrophic events. However, many spills still occur in ecologically sensitive locations because the major maritime transport routes often cross the boundaries of the Large Marine Ecosystems, but the substantially lower total spill volume is an important contribution to potentially reduce overall ecosystem impacts. In summary, the improvements achieved in the past decades have been the result of a set of initiatives and regulations implemented by governments, international organizations and the shipping industry.

  6. User`s guide to federal accidental release databases

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Chapter II of the guide provides a list of the databases featured in this document, and outlines some general search strategies to assist the user in formulating a search and choosing the appropriate databases. Chapter III includes brief, descriptive profiles of seven federal accidental release databases maintained by the National Response Center (NRC), EPA, DOT, OSHA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Each profile is two to four pages in length and briefly describes the database for those unfamiliar with the specific characteristics of the database. Additional databases not featured in the these profiles are described at the end of Chapter III. Chapter IV provides a quick cross reference to the databases and to information of interest (e.g., chemicals covered, number of records). By reviewing Chapter IV`s comparison of different databases, users of this guidance document may be better equipped to choose the database that best meets their information needs. Chapter V discusses the value of and possible pilot project for linking the databases to enable comparative analysis.

  7. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    PubMed

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  8. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  9. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  10. [Arachnoid cyst and tension headache: symptom or accidental finding?].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, M; Niedermaier, N; Lowitzsch, K

    2002-08-01

    We report a 34 year old male patient presenting with occipital headache and bilateral shoulder and neck pain. Cranial MRT discloses a large arachnoid cyst ventral to the medulla oblongata. The cyst displaces the caudal medulla oblongata dorsally to an angle of almost 90 degrees without causing myelopathy. Physical examination reveals normal neurological findings without any sign of brainstem lesions or lesions of the medulla oblongata. Orthopedic evaluation shows mild functional abnormalities as expected in tension headache. Multiple electrophysiologic investigations such as motor-, somatosensory-, and acoustic-evoked potentials, masseter and brain stem reflexes, and electromyography of the left M. trapezius were performed and reveal normal results. MR-angiography discloses displacement of the left vertebral artery to the right without stenosis.We discuss the possibility of a causal connection between the cystic lesion and the reported symptoms. Considering the findings based on a review of the available literature we conclude that the pain syndrome is very likely unrelated to the arachnoid cyst. The latter is herewith an accidental finding in a patient with tension headache, and underlines the importance of thoroughfull clinical examination to avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

  11. Comparative toxicology of intentional and accidental heroin overdose.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-07-01

    The demographic and toxicological characteristics of deliberate (SUI, n = 50) and accidental (ACC, n = 927) fatal heroin overdose cases were examined. SUI cases were more likely to be female, had lower body mass indices, were more likely to be enrolled in treatment and less likely to have hepatic pathology. The median blood morphine concentration of SUI cases was significantly higher than that of ACC cases (0.70 vs. 0.40 mg/L, p < 0.001). Blood morphine concentrations of >1 mg/L were seen among 38.0% of SUI cases compared to 13.9% of ACC cases. Being a member of the SUI group remained a significant independent predictor of higher morphine concentrations after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (p < 0.001), other significant predictors being the absence of alcohol (p < 0.001), the presence of methadone (p < 0.05), and the presence of cocaine (p < 0.05). The current data are consistent with the view that suicide forms a small, but distinct, category of heroin overdose cases, rather than overdose being a parasuicidal phenomenon per se.

  12. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  13. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  14. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Tadmor, J

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  15. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  16. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, N; Armada, E; Duque, E; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2015-02-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms [a consortium of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] were assayed and compared to Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Bacillus megaterium (Bm) or Pseudomonas putida (Psp) and non-inoculation on Trifolium repens in a natural arid soil under drought conditions. The autochthonous bacteria Bt and the allochthonous bacteria Psp increased nutrients and the relative water content and decreased stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, proline and APX activity, indicating their abilities to alleviate the drought stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake and the relative water content, particularly when associated with specific bacteria minimizing drought stress-imposed effects. Specific combinations of autochthonous or allochthonous inoculants also contributed to plant drought tolerance by changing proline and antioxidative activities. However, non-inoculated plants had low relative water and nutrients contents, shoot proline accumulation and glutathione reductase activity, but the highest superoxide dismutase activity, stomatal conductance and electrolyte leakage. Microbial activities irrespective of the microbial origin seem to be coordinately functioning in the plant as an adaptive response to modulated water stress tolerance and minimizing the stress damage. The autochthonous AM fungi with Bt or Psp and those allochthonous Ri with Bm or Psp inoculants increased water stress alleviation. The autochthonous Bt showed the greatest ability to survive under high osmotic stress compared to the allochthonous strains, but when single inoculated or associated with Ri or AM fungi were similarly efficient in terms of physiological and nutritional status and in increasing plant drought tolerance, attenuating and compensating for the detrimental effect of water limitation.

  17. Long-Term Fate Mapping Using Conditional Lentiviral Vectors Reveals a Continuous Contribution of Radial Glia-Like Cells to Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Pascual-Brazo, Jesus; Libbrecht, Sarah; Reumers, Veerle; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-01-01

    Newborn neurons are generated throughout life in two neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Stimulation of adult neurogenesis is considered as an attractive endogenous repair mechanism to treat different neurological disorders. Although tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, important questions remain unanswered, regarding the identity and the behavior of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus. We previously showed that conditional Cre-Flex lentiviral vectors can be used to label neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and to track the migration of their progeny with non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Here, we applied these Cre-Flex lentiviral vectors to study neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus with bioluminescence imaging and histological techniques. Stereotactic injection of the Cre-Flex vectors into the dentate gyrus of transgenic Nestin-Cre mice resulted in specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells. The labeled cell population could be detected with bioluminescence imaging until 9 months post injection, but no significant increase in the number of labeled cells over time was observed with this imaging technique. Nevertheless, the specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells, combined with histological analysis at different time points, allowed detailed analysis of their neurogenic potential. This long-term fate mapping revealed that a stable pool of labeled nestin-positive neural stem cells continuously contributes to the generation of newborn neurons in the mouse brain until 9 months post injection. In conclusion, the Cre-Flex technology is a valuable tool to address remaining questions regarding neural stem cell identity and behavior in the dentate gyrus. PMID:26600383

  18. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  19. Accidental infusion leakage at subgalea in infants: report of 6 cases

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Ning, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration remains the commonest iatrogenic injury within infants care. We report a series of 6 infants affected by accidental infusion leakage occurring in subgalea. They were applied wet-hot compresses by sterile gauze, and topically administrated mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (MPS) cream following hot compress. There was no skin impairment in all cases. Early recognition and appropriate care for topical skin are essential to minimize the extent of accidental infusion leakage. PMID:26550108

  20. Useful methods in preventing accidental falls from the bed in children at the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tzu-Hui; Liu, Min-Cih; Yang, Jia-Yu; Syu, Wei-Yiu; Wu, Han-Ping

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics of children in the pediatric emergency department (PED) who accidentally fall off the crib and to establish useful preventive measures. This prospective research analyzed pediatric patients who accidentally fell off their beds in the observational unit (OU) of the PED from July 2005 to June 2006 (first period). From July 2006 to February 2007 (second period), the causes of children falling off the crib in the first year were analyzed and five related preventive methods were instituted in the OU. From July 2007 to March 2008 (third period), the preventive methods were enhanced to achieve zero-event of accidental falls in the PED. The differences between patients falling off the bed among the three periods were then compared. This study collected 7,281 children admitted to the OU during the first period and recorded 15 cases of accidental falls. After performing the preventive methods in 6,232 patients in the second period, three events of accidental falls were noted. In the third period, there was no accident in the 5,225 patients admitted to the PED. Comparing the occurrences of children falling off the bed among the three periods, accidental falls significantly decreased in the third period (p < 0.001). Effective methods can be instituted to prevent children from falling off the bed, especially in the PED.

  1. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  2. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  3. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  4. Targeting of observations for accidental atmospheric release monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc

    2009-12-01

    In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is acutely required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. Yet, the accuracy of the forecasted plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. Inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques should help in that respect. However the plume can locally be thin and could avoid a significant part of the radiological monitoring network surrounding the plant. Deploying mobile measuring stations following the accident could help to improve the source term estimation. In this paper, a method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by coupling a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling with an observation targeting strategy. The targeting design strategy consists in seeking the optimal locations of the mobile monitors at time t + 1 based on all available observations up to time t. The performance of the sequential assimilation with and without targeting of observations has been assessed in a realistic framework. It focuses on the Bugey nuclear power plant (France) and its surroundings within 50 km from the plant. The existing surveillance network is used and realistic observational errors are assumed. The targeting scheme leads to a better estimation of the source term as well as the activity concentrations in the domain. The mobile stations tend to be deployed along plume contours, where activity concentration gradients are important. It is shown that the information carried by the targeted observations is very significant, as compared to the information content of fixed observations. A simple test on the impact of model error from meteorology shows that the targeting strategy is still very useful in a more uncertain context.

  5. Study of criteria influencing the success rate of DNA swabs in operational conditions: A contribution to an evidence-based approach to crime scene investigation and triage.

    PubMed

    Baechler, S

    2016-01-01

    DNA is nowadays swabbed routinely to investigate serious and volume crimes, but research remains scarce when it comes to determining the criteria that may impact the success rate of DNA swabs taken on different surfaces and situations. To investigate these criteria in fully operational conditions, DNA analysis results of 4772 swabs taken by the forensic unit of a police department in Western Switzerland over a 2.5-year period (2012-2014) in volume crime cases were considered. A representative and random sample of 1236 swab analyses was extensively examined and codified, describing several criteria such as whether the swabbing was performed at the scene or in the lab, the zone of the scene where it was performed, the kind of object or surface that was swabbed, whether the target specimen was a touch surface or a biological fluid, and whether the swab targeted a single surface or combined different surfaces. The impact of each criterion and of their combination was assessed in regard to the success rate of DNA analysis, measured through the quality of the resulting profile, and whether the profile resulted in a hit in the national database or not. Results show that some situations-such as swabs taken on door and window handles for instance-have a higher success rate than average swabs. Conversely, other situations lead to a marked decrease in the success rate, which should discourage further analyses of such swabs. Results also confirm that targeting a DNA swab on a single surface is preferable to swabbing different surfaces with the intent to aggregate cells deposited by the offender. Such results assist in predicting the chance that the analysis of a swab taken in a given situation will lead to a positive result. The study could therefore inform an evidence-based approach to decision-making at the crime scene (what to swab or not) and at the triage step (what to analyse or not), contributing thus to save resource and increase the efficiency of forensic science

  6. Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

  7. The analemma criterion: accidental quasi-satellites are indeed true quasi-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the Solar system, a quasi-satellite is an object that follows a heliocentric path with an orbital period that matches almost exactly with that of a host body (planetary or not). The trajectory is of such nature that, without being gravitationally attached, the value of the angular separation between host and quasi-satellite as seen from the Sun remains confined within relatively narrow limits for time-spans that exceed the length of the host's sidereal orbital period. Here, we show that under these conditions, a quasi-satellite traces an analemma in the sky as observed from the host in a manner similar to that found for geosynchronous orbits. The analemmatic curve (figure-eight-, teardrop-, ellipse-shaped) results from the interplay between the tilt of the rotational axis of the host and the properties of the orbit of the quasi-satellite. The analemma criterion can be applied to identify true quasi-satellite dynamical behaviour using observational or synthetic astrometry and it is tested for several well-documented quasi-satellites. For the particular case of 15810 (1994 JR1), a putative accidental quasi-satellite of dwarf planet Pluto, we show explicitly that this object describes a complex analemmatic curve for several Plutonian sidereal periods, confirming its transient quasi-satellite status.

  8. A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Wenwen; Huang, Yan; Gui, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH) is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4%) and apathy (45.0%). As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%). In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH. PMID:26978382

  9. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  10. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  11. Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

  12. Barriers to seeking care for accidental bowel leakage: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Rebecca G.; Wise, Meg E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Fewer than 50 % of women with urinary incontinence (UI) and 30 % of women with accidental bowel leakage (ABL) seek care. We sought to describe barriers to care seeking for ABL to inform development of an instrument to measure these barriers. Methods We recruited women with ABL with varied prior care-seeking experiences to participate in focus groups and cognitive interviews so we could understand factors that may have prevented or delayed care seeking. Focus groups continued until thematic saturation was reached using conventional content analysis. Final themes were established and characterized by comparing within and across the focus groups and with previously described UI and ABL care-seeking barriers. Cognitive interviews were confirmatory. Results Thirty-nine women (aged 46–85) participated in six focus groups and ten cognitive interviews; 89 % were white, 8 % African American, and 3 % Latina. We identified 12 barriers to seeking care for ABL: (1) Lack of knowledge about the condition; (2) Lack of knowledge about treatment; (3) Fear of testing/treatment; (4) Normative thinking; (5) Avoidance/ denial; (6) Life impact; (7) Embarrassment/shame; (8) Self-blame; (9) Stigma; (10) Isolation; (11) Provider barriers; (12) Access limitations. These 12 barriers encompassed three overarching themes: the internalized self in relation to ABL; perceptions about ABL and its treatments; and interaction with the healthcare system. Conclusions ABL care-seeking barriers are similar to those described for UI, with the notable addition of lack of knowledge that ABL is a medical condition experienced by others. Interventions to promote access to effective treatments for ABL should include information about prevalence and treatability. PMID:27844123

  13. Accidental benzene release risk assessment in an urban area using an atmospheric dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Son C. H.; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Ganghan; Kim, Dongmin; Park, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Cho, Gi-Hyoug

    2016-11-01

    This study applied the American Meteorological Society and Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) to assess the risk caused by an accidental release and dispersion of the toxic chemical benzene in the vicinity of a highly populated urban area. The modeling domain encompasses the Korean megacity of Ulsan, which includes two national industrial complexes and is characterized by a complex coastal terrain. Multiple AERMOD simulations were conducted for an assumed emission scenario using background wind data from August between 2009 and 2013. The series of experiments produced the spatial accident probability patterns for different concentration levels during daytime and nighttime scenarios based on the corresponding dominant wind patterns. This study further quantifies the potential accident risk based on the number of affected individuals by combining the accident probability with the indoor and outdoor population estimates. The chemical gas dispersion characteristics depend on various local meteorological conditions, such as the land-sea breeze direction, which alternates between daytime and nighttime, and the atmospheric stability. The results reveal that benzene dispersion affects a much larger area during the nighttime owing to the presence of a nocturnal stable boundary layer with significant temperature stratification. The affected area is smaller during the daytime owing to decreased stability and enhanced vertical mixing in the boundary layer. The results include a high degree of uncertainty during the nighttime owing to weak wind speeds and the lack of a prevailing wind direction, which impact the vulnerable area. However, vulnerable areas are more effectively identified during the daytime, when more consistent meteorological conditions exist. However, the potential risk becomes much lower during the nighttime owing to a substantial reduction of the outdoor population.

  14. Dorsal versus ventral hippocampal contributions to trace and contextual conditioning: differential effects of regionally selective NMDA receptor antagonism on acquisition and expression.

    PubMed

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Ree, Fredrick; Chia, Chester; Otto, Tim

    2012-07-01

    The dorsal and ventral subregions of the hippocampus likely play dissociable roles in some forms of learning. For example, we have previously demonstrated that temporary inactivation of ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus dramatically impaired the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, while temporary inactivation of dorsal, but not ventral, hippocampus impaired spatially guided reinforced alternation (Czerniawski et al. (2009) Hippocampus 19:20-32). Importantly, emerging data suggest that lesions, temporary inactivation, and NMDA receptor antagonism within these subregions can produce quite different patterns of behavioral effects when administered into the same region. Specifically, while neither lesions nor temporary inactivation of dorsal hippocampus impair the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, learning in this paradigm is severely impaired by pre-training administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist dl-2-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) in dorsal hippocampus; the effect of NMDA receptor antagonism within ventral hippocampus on the acquisition and expression of trace conditioning, or on learning in general, has not yet been systematically explored. The present study extends our previous work examining the differential effect of lesions or inactivation of the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subregions by systematically examining the effect of regionally selective pre-training or pre-testing administration of APV on the acquisition and expression of trace and contextual fear conditioning. The results of these studies demonstrate that while pre-training NMDA receptor antagonism within either the dorsal or ventral subregion of the hippocampus impaired the acquisition of both trace and contextual conditioning, pre-testing NMDA receptor antagonism within ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus impaired the expression of previously-acquired trace and contextual fear conditioning. These data suggest that selectively manipulating the integrity of individual subregions

  15. Was the rocket invented or accidentally discovered? Some new observations on its origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Frank H.; Neufeld, Michael J.; Dougherty, Kerrie

    2012-08-01

    The history of spaceflight would not have been possible without a single object, the rocket—one of the most complex engineering feats in human history. However, a closer examination of the earliest history of the basic rocket, a gunpowder-propelled device developed in China around 900 years ago, suggests that it originated as an accidental discovery rather than as a deliberately planned invention. This paper will examine the evidence in support of the idea of accidental discovery, including new observations on the earliest concepts of rocket motion, not only in China but also in the West.

  16. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    PubMed

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC.

  17. Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

  18. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  19. A curious autopsy case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a motor vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, T; Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Seno, H; Ishii, A; Suzuki, O

    2000-10-01

    A 26-year-old man was found dead in his car. All doors and windows were locked inside. The ignition key was in the "on" position; but the engine was not running and the fuel tank was empty. His post-mortem lividity was cherry-pink, and marked congestion was observed in the lungs and brain macroscopically. Massive intracardiac blood containing a small amount of cruor was found in the heart. In histological examination of the heart, partial disarrangement or necrosis was found in the myocardium. The liver cells showed derangement and degenerative changes, with focal lymphocyte infiltration in the portal regions, although they were not severe. The chemical tests showed that the blood concentration of carboxyhemoglobin was 46.6%. Stimulants were also detected from his blood and urine; the concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine were 3.25 and 0.84 microg/ml, respectively, for his cardiac blood. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to judge that the cause of his death was carbon monoxide poisoning; the cardiomyopathy and the presence of stimulants in blood might facilitate his death. Upon careful investigation of his car, it was disclosed that exhaust gas, leaked from small holes of the exhaust pipe due to rust-through, invaded the interior through four holes on the floor of the car during parking with the engine being on for the purpose of air-conditioning of the interior. It is very common to commit suicide by introducing exhaust gas into an interior of a closed motor car, but the present accidental case of carbon monoxide poisoning in a car seems rare and worthwhile reporting.

  20. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  1. Analysis of Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Co-Culture and Contribution of Experimental Conditions into Interpretation of the Results.

    PubMed

    Kandarakov, O F; Kopantseva, E E; Belyavsky, A V

    2016-11-01

    A series of experiments on co-culturing of Mel IL melanoma cells and mesenhymal stem cells showed that these cells do not influence proliferation of each other, but we observed weaker adhesion of stromal stem cells to plastic in cocultures where with melanoma cells were grown on mesenhymal stem cells feeder. Cell proliferation was also considerably influenced by experimental conditions, which should be taken into account for correct interpretation of obtained results. The principles of experiments on co-culturing of cancer and stromal cells are formulated that take into account the most important factors influencing cell behavior and minimize the probability of artifact results. It was concluded that co-culturing conditions cells significantly affect the experimental results and can be the source of conflicting conclusions on mutual influence of stromal and cancer cells in vitro.

  2. Two ATP phosphoribosyltransferase isozymes of Geobacter sulfurreducens contribute to growth in the presence or absence of histidine and under nitrogen fixation conditions.

    PubMed

    Aklujkar, Muktak

    2011-07-01

    Bacteria of the Geobacter clade possess two distinct ATP phosphoribosyltransferases encoded by hisG(L) and hisG(S)+hisZ to catalyze the first reaction of histidine biosynthesis. This very unusual redundancy was investigated by mutational analysis. The hisG(L), hisG(S), and hisZ genes of Geobacter sulfurreducens were deleted, effects on growth and histidine biosynthesis gene expression were evaluated, and deficiencies were complemented with plasmid-borne genes. Both hisG(L) and hisG(S)+hisZ encode functional ATP phosphoribosyltransferases. However, deletion of hisG(L) resulted in no growth defect, whereas deletion of hisG(S) delayed growth when histidine was not provided. Both deletions increased hisZ transcript abundance, and both ΔhisG(S) and ΔhisZ mutations increased hisG(L) transcript abundance. Growth with HisG(L) alone (due to deletion of either hisG(S) or hisZ) was better under nitrogen fixation conditions than when ammonium was provided. Deletion of hisZ caused growth defects under all conditions tested, with or without exogenous sources of histidine, with different patterns of histidine biosynthesis gene expression under each condition. Taken together, the data indicate that G. sulfurreducens depends primarily on the HisG(S)Z isozyme as an ATP phosphoribosyltransferase in histidine biosynthesis, and for other functions when histidine is available; however, HisG(L) also functions as ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, particularly during nitrogen fixation.

  3. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  4. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  5. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  6. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  7. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  8. Changes in Surface Charge Density of Blood Cells in Fatal Accidental Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Szeremeta, Michał; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Kotyńska, Joanna; Pepiński, Witold; Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate postmortem changes concerning electric charge of human erythrocytes and thrombocytes in fatal accidental hypothermia. The surface charge density values were determined on the basis of the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the cells conducted at various pH values of electrolyte solution. The surface charge of erythrocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia increased compared to the control group within whole range of experimental pH values. Moreover, a slight shift of the isoelectric point of erythrocyte membranes towards high pH values was observed. The surface charge of thrombocyte membranes in fatal accidental hypothermia decreased at low pH compared to the control group. However, at pH range 4-9, the values increased compared to the control group. The isoelectric point of thrombocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia was slightly shifted towards low pH values compared to the control group. The observed changes are probably connected with the partial destruction and functional changes of the blood cell structure.

  9. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... this and all medicines out of children's reach. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact...

  10. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... this and all medicines out of children's reach. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact...

  11. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  12. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  13. Frequency and outcomes of accidental ingestion of tobacco products in young children.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Scott

    2011-11-01

    This review assesses published literature related to frequency and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Twenty-seven years of annual reports by American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) were analyzed for occurrence and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion events involving tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Over a 27-year period, and of >50 million contacts for all categories combined, 217,340 contacts involving ingestion of tobacco products were reported. Approximately 89% involved children <6 years old. One fatality was reported, however the co-ingestion of both cigarettes and diazepam complicates an assessment of a contributory role of tobacco. The rate of major, non-fatal, outcomes was <0.1%. Data from AAPCC reports and other sources indicate the frequency of accidental poisoning events is relatively low for tobacco products compared with other products such as drugs, dietary supplements, cleaning products, and personal care products. These findings, along with those for pharmaceutical nicotine products, are consistent with published case reports and reviews, indicating that the frequency and severity of outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco products by young children appear to be relatively low. However, adults should keep tobacco products out of the reach of children.

  14. 61 FR 31668 - Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under Clean Air Act Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-06-20

    ... compliance with the prevention requirements under OSHA's Process Safety Management Standard. Processes that... history of accidental releases and processes already complying with OSHA's Process Safety Management... applies to all processes subject to the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR...

  15. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... statements be used on the label of all drug products....

  16. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each

  17. Global Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes Exposed to Moderate Drought Conditions: Contribution of Leaves and Crowns to Water Shortage Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Pavel; Janská, Anna; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a serious threat for sustainable agriculture. Barley represents a species well adapted to environmental stresses including drought. To elucidate the adaptive mechanism of barley on transcriptional level we evaluated transcriptomic changes of two contrasting barley cultivars upon drought using the microarray technique on the level of leaves and crowns. Using bioinformatic tools, differentially expressed genes in treated vs. non-treated plants were identified. Both genotypes revealed tissue dehydration under drought conditions as shown at water saturation deficit and osmotic potential data; however, dehydration was more severe in Amulet than in drought-resistant Tadmor under the same ambient conditions. Performed analysis showed that Amulet enhanced expression of genes related to active plant growth and development, while Tadmor regarding the stimulated genes revealed conservative, water saving strategy. Common reactions of both genotypes and tissues included an induction of genes encoding several stress-responsive signaling proteins, transcription factors as well as effector genes encoding proteins directly involved in stress acclimation. In leaf, tolerant cultivar effectively stimulated mainly the expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in protein folding, sulfur metabolism, ROS detoxification or lipid biosynthesis and transport. The crown specific reaction of tolerant cultivar was an enhanced expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in cell wall lignification, ABRE-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, nucleosome remodeling, along with genes for numerous jasmonate induced proteins. PMID:28083001

  18. Global Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes Exposed to Moderate Drought Conditions: Contribution of Leaves and Crowns to Water Shortage Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Pavel; Janská, Anna; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Prášil, Ilja T; Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a serious threat for sustainable agriculture. Barley represents a species well adapted to environmental stresses including drought. To elucidate the adaptive mechanism of barley on transcriptional level we evaluated transcriptomic changes of two contrasting barley cultivars upon drought using the microarray technique on the level of leaves and crowns. Using bioinformatic tools, differentially expressed genes in treated vs. non-treated plants were identified. Both genotypes revealed tissue dehydration under drought conditions as shown at water saturation deficit and osmotic potential data; however, dehydration was more severe in Amulet than in drought-resistant Tadmor under the same ambient conditions. Performed analysis showed that Amulet enhanced expression of genes related to active plant growth and development, while Tadmor regarding the stimulated genes revealed conservative, water saving strategy. Common reactions of both genotypes and tissues included an induction of genes encoding several stress-responsive signaling proteins, transcription factors as well as effector genes encoding proteins directly involved in stress acclimation. In leaf, tolerant cultivar effectively stimulated mainly the expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in protein folding, sulfur metabolism, ROS detoxification or lipid biosynthesis and transport. The crown specific reaction of tolerant cultivar was an enhanced expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in cell wall lignification, ABRE-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, nucleosome remodeling, along with genes for numerous jasmonate induced proteins.

  19. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  20. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the

  1. Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Raphaël; Reiss, David; Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A J; Wood, John N; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain.

  2. The relative contribution of short-term versus long-term effects in shrub-understory species interactions under arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Chaieb, Mohamed; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Michalet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Plant-plant interactions (competition and facilitation) in terrestrial ecosystems include: (1) short-term effects, primarily quantified with experimental removals; and (2) long-term effects, mostly due to soil weathering processes, primarily quantified with observational methods. It has been argued that these effects are likely to vary in contrasting directions with increasing drought stress in arid systems. However, few studies have used appropriate methodology to assess both types of effects and their variation across nurse species and environmental conditions, in particular in arid systems. This knowledge is crucial for predicting variation in the mediating role of facilitation with climate change and assessing the importance of nurse effects in ecological restoration. In the arid climate of central-south Tunisia, understory species' biomass, abundance and composition and soil parameters were compared in shrub-control, shrub-removed and open areas for three shrub species and in two habitats with contrasting soil moisture conditions. Long-term effects were dominant, positive for all three shrub species and associated with increasing nutrient content in shrub patches. Short-term effects, mainly related to water consumption, were weaker, mostly negative and dependent on shrub species. Additionally, long-term effects were less positive and short-term effects more negative in the dry habitat than in the wet habitat. Our study provides evidence of the primary influence of positive (facilitative) long-term effects in this arid system. However, the net effects of shrubs could be less beneficial for other species with increasing aridity under climate change, due to both a decrease in positive long-term effects and an increase in negative short-term effects.

  3. Limiting the Accidental Pressure Drop in NIF Beam Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M

    2000-11-06

    This report summarizes the use of a one-dimensional model of a time-dependent compressible flow condition to validate the results from a more sophisticated three-dimensional model. The flow conditions consist of the sudden decompression of a pressurized tube joined to an evacuated sphere, where the tube also has a leak to external atmosphere that is triggered open at a given pressure difference below sea-level pressure. This flow model is used to calculate conditions in a NIF beam tube if an internal vacuum barrier fails, and to calculate how the size and timing of an opening to external atmosphere changes tube pressure. Decompression of a NIF beam tube is a potential safety hazard since the tube could collapse if the tube pressure is reduced below the buckling limit. To prevent this from occurring, each pressurized section includes a rupture panel which is designed to open to external atmosphere at a given pressure difference. The inrush of external atmosphere through the rupture panel fills both the tube and the vacuum drawing on it, and in this way the pressure drop in the tube is quickly limited and reversed. In summary, the results from the 1D model indicate that the 3-D calculations are accurate and reasonable.

  4. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

    2011-10-01

    Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is

  5. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods

  6. Contribution of Chromosomes 1HchS and 6HchS to Fertility Restoration in the Wheat msH1 CMS System under Different Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Almudena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Martín, Azahara C; Pistón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting hybrid wheat heterosis has been long pursued to increase crop yield, stability and uniformity. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems based in the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatible interactions are a classic way for hybrid seed production, but to date, no definitive system is available in wheat. The msH1 CMS system results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasmic genome of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. Fertility restoration of the CMS phenotype was first associated with the disomic addition of the short arm of chromosome 6H from H. chilense. In further studies it was observed that chromosome arm 1HchS was also implicated, and the combination of genes in both chromosome arms restored fertility more efficiently. In this work we aim to dissect the effect of each chromosome in fertility restoration when combined in different genomic backgrounds and under different environmental conditions. We propose a model to explain how restoration behaves in the msH1 system and generate valuable information necessary to develop an efficient system for hybrid wheat production.

  7. ErbB2 activation contributes to de-differentiation of astrocytes into radial glial cells following induction of scratch-insulted astrocyte conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Ling, Weng; Vitale, Angela; Olivera, Cathy; Min, Yan; You, Siwei

    2011-12-01

    Radial glial cells play a significant role in the repair of spinal cord injuries as they exert critical role in the neurogenesis and act as a scaffold for neuronal migration. Our previous study showed that mature astrocytes of spinal cord can undergo a de-differentiation process and further transform into pluripotential neural precursors; the occurrence of these complex events arise directly from the induction of diffusible factors released from scratch-insulted astrocytes. However, it is unclear whether astrocytes can also undergo rejuvenation to revert to a radial glial progenitor phenotype after the induction of scratch-insulted astrocytes conditioned medium (ACM). Furthermore, the mechanism of astrocyte de-differentiation to the progenitor cells is still unclear. Here we demonstrate that upon treating mature astrocytes with ACM for 10 days, the astrocytes exhibit progressive morphological and functional conversion to radial glial cells. These changes include the appearance of radial glial progenitor cells, changes in the immunophenotypical profiles, characterized by the co-expression of nestin, paired homeobox protein (Pax6) and RC2 as well as enhanced capability of multipotential differentiation. Concomitantly, ErbB2 protein level was progressively up-regulated. Thereby these results provide a potential mechanism by which ACM could induce mature astrocytes to regain the profile of radial glial progenitors due to activating the ErbB2 signaling pathways.

  8. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.

  9. Mig-14 plays an important role in influencing gene expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, which contributes to cell invasion under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiumei; Zhang, Hong; Xia, Qiufeng; Xu, Shungao; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

    2013-11-01

    mig-14 is a horizontally acquired host-induced virulence gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The molecular function of mig-14 is still unknown; sequence analysis showed that mig-14 shared homology with the helix-loop-helix motif of the AraC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. In our previous microarray-based studies, mig-14 was upregulated at the early stage of high osmotic stress, indicating a potential role under this condition. Therefore, we compared growth and the global transcriptional difference between wild-type and mig-14 mutant strains to identify the role of Mig-14. The results showed that growth of mig-14 mutant strain was clearly slower than that of the wild-type strain, and 148 genes showed significant differences in expression between these two strains under upshift high osmotic treatment for 30 min. In total, 77 genes and 71 genes in the mig-14 mutant strain were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Genes involved in invasion, virulence, flagellation, motility and chemotaxis of Salmonella were downregulated. Thus, cell invasion abilities of these two strains were further analyzed. The results confirmed that activities of mig-14 were important for cell invasion.

  10. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived

  11. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  12. Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masatoshi; Tokudome, Shogo

    1991-12-01

    Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been diagnosed as due to exposure to cold. Of these cases, the greatest number were males in their forties and fifties, and most of these were inebriated and/or homeless. Eighty-four perent of urban hypothermia cases occurred when the outdoor temperature was below 5°C, and 50% of deaths from cold occurred when the outdoor temperature was between 0° and 5°C. There were no incidences of death from cold when the minimum outdoor temperature had remained above 16°C. Seventy-four percent of deaths from cold occurred during the winter months of December, January and February, and most of the remaining deaths occurred in March and November. There were no deaths from cold from June to August. More than half of all deaths from cold occurred from 3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m., with the peak occurring at 5.00 a.m. A blood alcohol concentration of over 2.5 mg/ml had often been found in those in their forties and fifties who had died from hypothermia, and autopsy had often revealed disorders of the liver, digestive system, and circulatory system. Chronic lesions of the liver, probably due to alcoholism, were found in many cases; few cases showed no evidence of alcoholism and these were significantly different from the former group.

  13. Surgical management of accidentally displaced mandibular third molar into the pterygomandibular space: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, I-Yueh; Chen, Chao-Ming; Chang, Sung-Wen; Yang, Chia-Fu; Chen, Chung-Ho; Chen, Chun-Min

    2007-07-01

    Surgical removal of the mandibular third molar is a regular surgical procedure in dental clinics, and like all operations, it may have some complications, such as infection, bleeding, nerve injuries, trismus and so on. An accidentally displaced lower third molar is a relatively rare complication, but may cause severe tissue injury and medicolegal problems. As few papers and cases have been published on this topic, we report this case to remind dentists on ways to prevent and manage this complication. The patient, a 28-year-old male, had his right lower mandibular third molar extraction in January 2006. The dentist resected the crown and attempted to remove the root but found that it had suddenly disappeared from the socket. Assuming that the root had been suctioned out he closed the wound. The patient was not followed up regularly because he studied abroad. About 3 months later, the patient felt a foreign body sensation over his right throat, and visited a local hospital in Australia. He was told after a computed tomography (CT) scan that there was a root-like radio-opaque image in the pterygomandibular space. The patient came to our hospital for further examination and management in June 2006. We rechecked with both Panorex and CT and confirmed the location of the displaced root. Surgery for retrieving the displaced root was performed under general anesthesia by conventional method without difficulty, and the wound healed uneventfully except for a temporary numbness of the right tongue. This case reminds us that the best way to prevent a displaced mandibular third molar is to evaluate the condition of the tooth carefully preoperatively, select adequate instruments and technique, and take good care during extraction. If an accident does occur, dentists should decide whether to retrieve it immediately by themselves or refer the case to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and should not try to remove the displaced root without proper assurance. Localization with

  14. Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Venetsanos, A G; Huld, T; Adams, P; Bartzis, J G

    2003-12-12

    Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m(3), respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum

  15. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  16. A case of accidental fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning involving humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Krishna, Karthik; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Rautji, Ravi; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum phosphide is one of the commonest poisons encountered in agricultural areas, and manner of death in the victims is often suicidal and rarely homicidal or accidental. This paper presents an unusual case, where two humans (owner and housemaid) and eight dogs were found dead in the morning hours inside a room of a house, used as shelter for stray dogs. There was allegation by the son of the owner that his father had been killed. Crime scene visit by forensic pathologists helped to collect vital evidence. Autopsies of both the human victims and the dogs were conducted. Toxicological analysis of viscera, vomitus, leftover food, and chemical container at the crime scene tested positive for aluminum phosphide. The cause of death in both humans and dogs was aluminum phosphide poisoning. Investigation by police and the forensic approach to the case helped in ascertaining the manner of death, which was accidental.

  17. Accidental germ-line modifications through somatic cell gene therapies: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Roy, I

    2001-01-01

    Proposed somatic cell gene-therapies (especially those involving in utero therapies) may involve a small risk of germ-line modifications; this risk has engendered serious concern, and arguments have been made that such therapies ought not be pursued if such risks exists. We argue here that while pursuing deliberate germ-line modifications in humans would be inappropriate given the current state of the art, the risk of accidental germ-line modifications from most currently proposed in utero gene therapy is no different in kind or degree from other risks regularly taken in medical procedures. Given the possible benefits of such therapies, we argue that the risk of accidental germ-line modifications is well worth taking in these cases.

  18. Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

    2014-06-01

    Core temperature (T core) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage T core measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of T core and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of T core measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed.

  19. Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghanbari, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

  20. Giant choroid plexus cyst as an accidental finding in an older man.

    PubMed

    Bozić, Boris; Rotim, Kresimir; Houra, Karlo

    2008-01-01

    Choroid plexus cysts (CPC) are usually found at the end of the second trimester of pregnancy. Sometimes they can be accidentally and found on prenatal ultrasound examinations. Vast majority of CPC resolve spontaneously by 28th weeks gestation. In the older aged group the choroid plexus cysts are extremely rare pathomorphologic medical entity. Since they are almost always asymptomatic, they are therefore accidentally found on brain magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) scans. They are usually located in the lateral ventricles and measure around 2 cm in diameter. We present a case of a 75-year-old male with a giant choroid plexus cyst whose leading symptom was excruciating headache refractory to previous conservative therapy. He underwent surgery when osteoplastic craniotomy was performed with cyst fenestration and ablation. His recovery was uneventful with total regression of headaches. Reviewing the recent literature we did not find such a case considering the patients age and the size of the choroid plexus cyst.

  1. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  2. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  3. [The prevalence of accidental poisoning in a hospital pediatric unit of Latium].

    PubMed

    Faraoni, F; Protano, C; Bini, V; Lizzi, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of accidental poisoning among children, over a period of fifteen years, from 1990 to 2004, in the pediatric wards of a hospital in Latium (Italy). The prevalence of childhood poisoning was calculated based on the medical records of the pediatric unit of the hospital. The derived data was divided into different categories according to age, gender and types of poisoning. The results of this study show a decrease in accidental pediatric poisoning; according to the literature the frequency of poisoning was higher in males, under the age of 2 years, than females. Trends show an increase in pharmaceutical poisonings. The present study underlines the need for continuous information on prevention and educational programs organized by the Institutions, territorial sanitary services and GP with the aim of increasing the awareness of parents regarding the risk factors of poisoning.

  4. Accidental release of hydrogen from a cryogenic tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelli, C.; Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.

    2005-07-01

    Liquid hydrogen at 20 K was harmlessly released at Turin's Porta Susa station over a period of seven hours on 9 July 1991 through the safety valve of a dewar-type tank on a railway wagon following the loss of the vacuum between its two walls. Commercially available programs were unable to model this type of release in the unusual conditions in which this hydrogen had been stored. A model illustrating the course of the accident was therefore worked out. A start was made by examining the changes in the physical and thermodynamic properties of the hydrogen progress in the dewar to find out how long it had taken to build up the pressure needed to open the safety valve. Owing to the complex geometry of the insulating layer in the interspace of the dewar on which the liquefaction of the air took place, the heat exchange coefficient could not be determined a priori. It was therefore assumed and subsequently quantified by means of an iterative process. The thermodynamic data were then used to examine the outflow of the hydrogen from the venting line. Flow dynamic calculations showed that the hydrogen was entirely lost through the safety valve and that pressure losses along the approx. 3-m line were negligible. The model also showed that the speed of the outflow was subsonic. The speed evaluated will enable the dispersion of the hydrogen and hence the areas at risk to be evaluated in the subsequent stages of the study.

  5. Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk = 2.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

  6. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  7. Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew

    2010-10-21

    While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 μg/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal.

  8. Successful replantation following an accidental forearm amputation. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sauma, A; Quiroga, R; Brockmann, C; Montaño, M; Flores, G; Barrenechea, J P

    2002-04-01

    We report a patient who suffered an accidental complete amputation of the right forearm followed by a successful replantation and comment on the indications and management of macro-replantations of the upper limbs. This is the first time that a successful surgical procedure of this nature has been performed in Bolivia, with no post-operative complications and excellent long-term functional recovery.

  9. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion.

  10. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-12-01

    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature.

  11. Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

    1998-08-01

    The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation.

  12. Judgments of moral responsibility and wrongness for intentional and accidental harm and purity violations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Mary; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2017-01-31

    Two experiments examine whether people reason differently about intentional and accidental violations in the moral domains of harm and purity, by examining moral responsibility and wrongness judgments for violations that affect others or the self. The first experiment shows that intentional violations are judged to be worse than accidental ones, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations-for example, Sam poisons his colleague versus Sam eats his dog, when participants judge how morally responsible was Sam for what he did, or how morally wrong was what Sam did. The second experiment shows that violations of others are judged to be worse than violations of the self, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations, when their content and context is matched-for example, on a tropical holiday Sam orders poisonous starfruit for dinner for his friend, or for himself, versus on a tropical holiday Sam orders dog meat for dinner for his friend, or for himself. Moral reasoning is influenced by whether the violation was intentional or accidental, and whether its target was the self or another person, rather than by the moral domain, such as harm or purity.

  13. The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.

    PubMed

    Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

    2009-11-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making.

  14. Measuring the visual salience of alignments by their non-accidentalness.

    PubMed

    Blusseau, S; Carboni, A; Maiche, A; Morel, J M; Grompone von Gioi, R

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative approaches are part of the understanding of contour integration and the Gestalt law of good continuation. The present study introduces a new quantitative approach based on the a contrario theory, which formalizes the non-accidentalness principle for good continuation. This model yields an ideal observer algorithm, able to detect non-accidental alignments in Gabor patterns. More precisely, this parameterless algorithm associates with each candidate percept a measure, the Number of False Alarms (NFA), quantifying its degree of masking. To evaluate the approach, we compared this ideal observer with the human attentive performance on three experiments of straight contours detection in arrays of Gabor patches. The experiments showed a strong correlation between the detectability of the target stimuli and their degree of non-accidentalness, as measured by our model. What is more, the algorithm's detection curves were very similar to the ones of human subjects. This fact seems to validate our proposed measurement method as a convenient way to predict the visibility of alignments. This framework could be generalized to other Gestalts.

  15. Analysis of trends in adolescent suicides and accidental deaths in England and Wales, 1972–2011

    PubMed Central

    Redmore, James; Kipping, Ruth; Trickey, Adam; May, Margaret T.; Gunnell, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous analyses of adolescent suicides in England and Wales have focused on short time periods. Aims To investigate trends in suicide and accidental deaths in adolescents between 1972 and 2011. Method Time trend analysis of rates of suicides and deaths from accidental poisoning and hanging in 10- to 19-year-olds by age, gender and deprivation. Rate ratios were estimated for 1982–1991, 1992–2001 and 2002–2011 with 1972–1981 as comparator. Results Suicide rates have remained stable in 10- to 14-year-olds, with strong evidence for a reduction in accidental deaths. In males aged 15–19, suicide rates peaked in 2001 before declining. Suicide by hanging is the most common method of suicide. Rates were higher in males and in 15- to 19-year-olds living in more deprived areas. Conclusions Suicide rates in adolescents are at their lowest since the early 1970s with no clear evidence that changes in coroners' practices underlie this trend. PMID:27284083

  16. Involving parents in indicated early intervention for childhood PTSD following accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Cobham, Vanessa E; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-12-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome research in this area. This review focuses on two key issues within the child PTSD literature--namely the role of parents in treatment and the timing of intervention. The issue of parental involvement in the treatment of child PTSD is a question that is increasingly being recognized as important. In addition, the need to find a balance between providing early intervention to at risk youth while avoiding providing treatment to those youth who will recover spontaneously has yet to be addressed. This paper outlines the rationale for and the development of a trauma-focused CBT protocol with separate parent and child programs, for use with children and adolescents experiencing PTSD following an accidental injury. The protocol is embedded within an indicated intervention framework, allowing for the early identification of youth at risk within a medical setting. Two case studies are presented in order to illustrate key issues raised in the review, implementation of the interventions, and the challenges involved.

  17. Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940-2005: ethics and epidemiological classification.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Jack E; Hobbs, Gerald R

    2011-07-01

    Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA from 1940 to 2005 were analysed. In 1940, infant accident mortality rates were over 20 times greater than infant homicide rates in both boys and girls. After about 1980, when the ratio of infant accident mortality rates to infant homicide rates decreased to less than five, and the sum of infant accident and homicide rates became relatively constant, further decreases in infant accident mortality rates were associated with increases in reported infant homicide rates. These findings suggest that the dramatic decline of accidental infant mortality and recent increased societal sensitivity to child abuse may be related to the increased infant homicide rates observed in the USA since 1980 rather than an actual increase in societal violence directed against infants. Ethical consequences of epidemiological classification, involving the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, are suggested by observed patterns in infant accidental deaths and homicides in the USA from 1940 to 2005.

  18. Skeletal survey normal variants, artefacts and commonly misinterpreted findings not to be confused with non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Alan J; Stafrace, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Radiology plays a key part in the investigation of non-accidental injury. Many normal variants and artefacts can simulate an abnormality associated with non-accidental injury. It is essential that radiologists reporting skeletal surveys in cases of suspected child abuse are aware of these. We present a pictorial essay to aid the reporting radiologist in the differentiation between normal variants or artefacts and true traumatic injury. We show plain film examples of potential pitfalls throughout the body.

  19. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  20. Accidental Hypothermia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-03

    on risk factors.329,538,539,303,93 Safe experimental investigations of hypothermia in hurman volunteers terminate cooling at 350C. This precludes...clinical experiments and surgically induced hypothermia. 423 a195 ,19 3 13 ,202 ,543 ,19 7 ,84 ,175 ,227 ,10 1,443 yward measured his own esophageal...the periphery and core. L9 For example, hypothermic patients experience major afterdrops when frostbitten extremities are thawed prematurely

  1. Accidental Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (Click on image for larger view)

    This image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on the 53rd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission, struck science and engineering teams as not only scientifically interesting but remarkably beautiful. The large, shadowed rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Sandia' for a mountain range in New Mexico. An imposing rock, 'Sandia' is about 33 centimeters high (1 foot) and about 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) long.

    Figure 1 above is a lightened version of the more artistic image above.

    The combination of the rover's high-resolution cameras with software tools used by scientists allows the minute details on martian targets to be visualized. When lightened, this image reveals much about the pictured rocks, which the science team believes are ejected material, or ejecta, from the nearby crater called 'Bonneville.' Scientists believe 'Sandia' is a basaltic rock that landed on its side after being ejected from the crater. The vertical lines on the side of the rock facing the camera are known by geologists as 'flow banding' and typically run horizontally, indicating that 'Sandia' is on its side. What look like small holes on the two visible sides of the rock are called vesicles; they were probably once gas bubbles within the lava.

    The lighting not only makes for an artistic image, it helps scientists get a virtual three-dimensional feel for target rocks. Observations taken at different times of day, as shadows move and surface texture details on target rocks are revealed, are entered into modeling software that turns a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional research tool.

    Many smaller rocks can be seen in the background of the image. Some rocks are completely exposed, while others are only peeking out of the surface. Scientists believe that two processes might be at work here: accretion, which occurs when winds deposit material that slowly buries many of the rocks; and deflation, which occurs when surface material is removed by wind, exposing more and more of the rocks.

  2. [Accidental falls].

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  3. Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths

  4. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Musa; Mu’azu, Adamu Ladan; Idris, Nura; Rabiu, Musa Uba; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Getso, Kabir Ibrahim; Mohammad, Mohammad Aminu; Owolabi, Femi Luqman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal) to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years) were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2%) were domestic violence, 26 (23.9%) street assaults, 16 (14.7%) were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6%) fall from heights. Seven (6.4%) cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7%) industrial accidents and two (1.8%) were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8%) cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8%) sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9%) under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace. PMID:25659545

  5. Endoscopic removal of an endodontic file accidentally swallowed: clinical and legal approaches.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan F; Martins, Emerson C; Prado, Felippe B; Júnior, Jacy R C; Júnior, Eduardo D

    2011-08-01

    The use of a rubber dam is an essential procedure when treating root canals, and not using it may compromise the success of the treatment, as well as the patient's health. This report presents a case in which a K-file was accidentally swallowed during an endodontic procedure, performed without the use of a rubber dam. Given the absence of immediate clinical complications, the subject underwent a chest radiograph. The file was located at the oesophagogastric junction and was later removed by endoscopy. In addition to the clinical repercussions, this example also illustrates the ethical-legal aspects of this type of accident.

  6. An uncommon case of severe accidental hypothermia in an urban setting

    PubMed Central

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P.; Amaturo, Michael; Kilaru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an uncommon presentation in urban settings. Here we present a patient admitted with a core temperature of 26.6°C (80°F) and a serum potassium of 8.5 mmol/l who subsequently went into cardiac arrest. After > 90 min of active cardiopulmonary resuscitation and peak serum potassium of >12 mmol/l, the patient had a spontaneous return of circulation. The patient's hospital course was complicated by compartment syndrome of his forearm; however, he was discharged home without any lasting neurological damage. PMID:26664726

  7. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus

    PubMed Central

    Weijters, B.J.; Verbunt, R.J.A.M.; Hoogsteen, J.; Visser, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.) PMID:18345331

  8. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus.

    PubMed

    Weijters, B J; Verbunt, R J A M; Hoogsteen, J; Visser, R F

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.).

  9. Morphological study of the relation between accidental hypothermia and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Foulis, A K

    1982-01-01

    There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images PMID:7142433

  10. Non-accidental trauma in pediatric patients: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Alexandra R; Adamo, Matthew A

    2014-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) is a leading cause of childhood traumatic injury and death in the United States. It is estimated that 1,400 children died from maltreatment in the United States in 2002 and abusive head trauma (AHT) accounted for 80% of these deaths. This review examines the epidemiology and risk factors for NAT as well as the general presentation and required medical work up of abused children. In addition, potential algorithms for recognizing cases of abuse are reviewed as well as outcomes in children with NAT and potential neurosurgical interventions which may be required. Finally, the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in this population is addressed.

  11. Accidental bound states in the continuum in an open Sinai billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipchuk, A. S.; Sadreev, A. F.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental mechanism of the bound states in the continuum is the full destructive interference of two resonances when two eigenlevels of the closed system are crossing. There is, however, a wide class of quantum chaotic systems which display only avoided crossings of eigenlevels. As an example of such a system we consider the Sinai billiard coupled with two semi-infinite waveguides. We show that notwithstanding the absence of degeneracy bound states in the continuum occur due to accidental decoupling of the eigenstates of the billiard from the waveguides.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  13. Crisis Management of Accidental Extubation in a Prone-Positioned Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spond, Matthew; Burns, Tyler; Rosenbaum, Thea; Lienhart, Kristen

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of an accidental extubation in a prone-positioned patient with a challenging airway because of Klippel-Feil syndrome and previous cervical spine fusions. The surgical procedure was well underway when this occurred, which added substantially to the difficulties produced by this event. We herein highlight the corrective steps we took in our case. We also recommend the need for a comprehensive preoperative briefing with all operating room personnel together with an action plan for how to prevent this particular scenario.

  14. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, created through the Department of Energy's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, employed a large number of a highly skilled faculty, research scientists, staff, and students who created the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) software. For over a decade C-SAFE produced cutting edge research in simulating complex physical phenomena including reacting flows, material properties, multi-material interactions, and atomic level chemistry. Additionally, pioneering work was done in the field of parallel computing, software frameworks, and visualization.

  15. Acute ischaemia of the leg following accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

    PubMed

    Leifert, J A; Bossaller, L; Uhl, M

    2008-11-01

    Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is a sporadic complication in i.v. drug addicts. A 22-year-old drug-abuser injected flunitrazepam tablets dissolved in tap water into her left femoral artery and presented with clinical signs of acute ischaemia of the left leg. Severe rhabdomyolysis developed within 5 hours after the injection. Selective arterial catheter angiography showed an acute occlusion of the posterior tibial artery. Combination therapy with i.a. urokinase, i.a. prostaglandines and i.v. anticoagulation resulted in re-opening of the obstructed distal artery and complete cessation of symptoms.

  16. Accidental swallowing of a gold cast crown during orthodontic tooth separation.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, O P; Varshney, P; Dutta, U

    1995-01-01

    Accidental swallowing of a gold cast crown that became loose after separation with brass wire for orthodontic band placement, is reported. The intervention to remove the ingested crown subsequent to its location in the GI tract on immediate radiographic examination of chest and abdomen included endoscopic examination. Since the crown had past distal to the duodenum it was decided to keep a watch on its movement by daily radiographic examination. The crown passed with excreta on the 5th day uneventfully. Literature on ingestion of foreign bodies of dental origin is reviewed. Possible emergencies and their management is discussed.

  17. Accidental Ingestion of Molar Band and Its Management: Maintenance Is Better than Management

    PubMed Central

    Naragond, Appasaheb; Kenganal, Smitha; Rajasigamani, K.; Kumar, N. Sathish

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of a broken part of fixed orthodontic appliance is a potential complication during orthodontic treatment. We report a case of accidental ingestion of molar band and its subsequent diagnosis followed by endoscopic retrieval method. Although prevention of such incidence is the best method at the same time management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this paper is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practiced and also the management of such event. PMID:23476819

  18. Problems in experimental and mathematical investigations of the accidental thermalhydraulic processes in RBMK nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K.; Blinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.

  19. A case of accidental aspiration of an endodontic instrument by a child treated under conscious sedation

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Prasad, Vishnu; Menon, Padma A.

    2013-01-01

    Dental management of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often requires the need for pharmacological behavior management techniques such as the use of sedation. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical case involving accidental aspiration of an Endodontic instrument during root canal therapy under sedation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of aspiration of an Endodontic instrument and should serve to heighten the awareness with regard to aspiration during dental procedures under sedation. It also emphasizes the need for proper isolation techniques in patients treated under sedation, thereby preventing such complications. PMID:24883031

  20. Ultrasound diagnosis of fracture-separation of the distal humeral chondro-epiphysis: a rare but important condition that a radiologist must not miss.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wai Pong

    2012-10-01

    Fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis is a rare condition known to be associated with non-accidental injury. Ultrasound is useful in diagnosis of this important disease entity with the humeral epiphysis not yet ossified.

  1. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death.

  2. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  3. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  4. Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

    2003-10-01

    A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time.

  5. Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron-case report.

    PubMed

    Sundov, Zeljko; Nincevic, Zeljko; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija; Glavina-Durdov, Merica; Jukic, Ivana; Hulina, Nada; Tonkic, Ante

    2005-05-10

    A 62-year-old male died of colchicine poisoning after accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron). He ate a salad of plant with green leaves regarded as wild garlic (Allium ursinum). A few hours later he developed symptoms of gastroenteritis and was admitted to hospital. In spite of gastric lavage, activated charcoal and supportive measures, multi-organ system failure developed over the next two days. Laboratory analysis showed highly elevated blood concentrations of hepatic enzymes, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen, as well as leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Mechanical ventilation, dopamine, noradrenaline, crystalloid solutions and fresh frozen plasma were applied but despite treatment the patient died five days after the ingestion. Post-mortem examination revealed hepatic centrilobular necrosis, nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis, petechial bleeding in fatty tissue, blunt and shortened intestinal villi and cerebral toxic edema. Botanical identification of incriminated plant gave Colchicum autumnale which confirmed colchicine poisoning. Although the accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale is rare and to our knowledge only five such cases have been described in detail, this is the second fatal case in Croatia described in the last 3 years.

  6. Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.; Bucher, U.; Poretti, G.; Henrichs, K.; Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Buettner, K.; Frick, P.G.

    1983-04-01

    Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated.

  7. Accidental Ingestion of Nasal Packing Gauze during Endonasal Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy under Local Anesthesia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Mupas-Uy, Jacqueline; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of accidental ingestion of a nasal packing gauze during endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (en-DCR) under local anesthesia. Case Report A 66-year-old female patient underwent an en-DCR for a right acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The surgery was performed in a supine position under local anesthesia. An X-ray detectable ribbon gauze soaked in 0.02% epinephrine was placed in the middle meatus to prevent blood and liquid from flowing into the pharynx. The same packing gauze was also used for hemostasis during the surgery. At the end of the surgery, 1 piece of gauze was missing and could not be detected by the endonasal endoscopic exploration. An abdominal X-ray image performed on the same day demonstrated the presence of the gauze in the stomach although the patient did not notice swallowing the gauze. The gauze was not there on the X-ray 1 week later. Conclusion Surgeons need to be aware of accidental ingestion of a nasal packing gauze in en-DCR under local anesthesia. Keeping the gauze end out of the nostril is likely preventive for this complication. The use of X-ray detectable gauze was helpful to detect its location. PMID:28203194

  8. Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up.

  9. Two Fatal Cases of Accidental Intrathecal Vincristine Administration: Learning from Death Events.

    PubMed

    Chotsampancharoen, Thirachit; Sripornsawan, Pornpun; Wongchanchailert, Malai

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine administration. These injections were scheduled as intravenous injections of vincristine at the same time as other intrathecal drugs were scheduled. The mistakes were recognized immediately after administration, and a lumbar puncture was performed to lavage the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immediately after the incident. However, both cases developed progressive sensorimotor and radiculo-myelo-encephalopathy and the patients died 3 and 6 days after the incidents due to decerebration. A number of cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine administration have occurred in recent years in other settings, and we add our events to emphasize the need for a preventative and strictly followed protocol in oncology treatment units to prevent further unnecessary deaths. The best 'cure' for mistakenly administered vincristine via lumbar puncture is prevention, which can be improved by strict adherence to a comprehensive guideline. Oncologic treatment centers should be aware of this guideline and evaluate their protocol for vincristine administration to prevent future incidents. Based on our past experiences, we strongly recommend 'time-independent' procedures to prevent this type of incident.

  10. High risk for accidental death in previously burn-injured adults.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Henning; Vindenes, Hallvard A

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the long-term mortality in 1182 burn patients admitted at a single burn centre in 1984-2003. One thousand and forty-nine patients were discharged alive, of which 999 (95.2% of all discharged) were available for follow-up (mean observation time: 9.6+/-5.5 (S.D.) years). One hundred and twenty-two patients had died after discharge but before follow-up. For 111 patients, the official information recorded from their death certificates revealed that 83 patients (mainly in the higher age groups) had died due to a variety of natural causes. Twenty-three patients (M:F=18:5) (age: 37.7+/-11.3 years), previously hospitalised for burns, had later suffered accidental or violent deaths, including suicide (5), assault (2), and deaths related to substance and/or alcohol abuse (12). Additionally, five other deaths were recorded as sudden death, with no additional specific information as to the cause of death. This study shows that the rates of accidental or violent death in previously burned adult patients (around 40 deaths per 1000 years at risk) may be an order of magnitude higher than that in the average Norwegian population.

  11. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect?

    PubMed

    Chester, Darren L; Jose, Rajive Mathew; Aldlyami, Ehab; King, Helen; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2006-03-01

    Although many studies have described burn abuse in detail, burns that have occurred as a result of neglect have been studied to a much lesser degree. A retrospective study of 440 hospitalised paediatric burns patients during 2000-2002 inclusive was performed. A multidisciplinary team investigation of suspicious cases was used. This included a home assessment. There were 41 cases of neglect (9.3%) and 395 cases of accidental burning (89.8%). Parental drug abuse, single parent families, delay to presentation and a lack of first aid were statistically more prevalent in the "neglect" group than in the "accidental" group. Children in the "neglect" group were also statistically more likely to have deeper burns and require skin grafting. 82.9% of children whose burns were deemed to be due to neglect had a previous entry on the child protection register. 48.8% were transferred into foster care. This study shows that burning by neglect is far more prevalent than abuse. We advocate a multidisciplinary investigation coupled with the use of home assessments to aid diagnosis. It may be possible to target preventative strategies on the children with the above risk factors.

  12. Accidental ingestion of foreign object: Systematic review, recommendations and report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Anantharaj, A.; Praveen, P.; Rani, S. Prathibha; Krishnan, B. Murali

    2010-01-01

    One of the serious complications during a routine endodontic procedure is accidental ingestion/aspiration of the endodontic instruments, which can happen when proper isolation is not done. There are at present no clear guidelines whether foreign body ingestion in the gastrointestinal tract should be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. A 5 year old boy reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, D.A. Pandu Memorial R.V. Dental College, Bangalore, India, with a complaint of pain and swelling in the lower right back teeth region. Endodontic therapy was planned for the affected tooth. During the course of treatment the child accidentally swallowed a 21 mm 15 size K file. Endoscopy was performed immediately but the instrument could not be retrieved. The instrument passed out uneventfully along with the stools 48 h after ingestion. Careful evaluation of the patient immediately after the accident helps in managing the patient effectively along with following the recommended guidelines. PMID:23960513

  13. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Caregivers' voices: The experiences of caregivers of children who sustained serious accidental and non-accidental head injury in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie; Cooper, Erana; Kool, Bridget; Pereira, Susana; Kelly, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children. Head-injured children may have neurobehavioural deficits that persist for years following injury. Head injury can result in significant and persistent caregiver burden, including mental health issues, family stress and disorganisation, and unmet social and healthcare service needs. Few studies have examined the healthcare and social service needs of children and their families following head injury sustained at an early age. This qualitative study aims to describe the experiences of caregivers of children who sustained a serious head injury (particularly non-accidental head injury) before the age of 2 years. Caregivers were interviewed up to 15 years following the initial injury. Semi-structured interviews with 21 caregivers of 15 children (aged 3-15 years at the time of interview) were completed. Thematic analysis of interview data generated three key themes: impact, support and information. The study's findings reveal the broad impact of serious childhood head injury on caregivers, specifically the significant distress and burden brought about through lack of information, challenges in accessing support and inconsistent care. Recommendations for developing a quality 'model of care' and improving ease of access to supports for caregivers are provided.

  15. A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.

    PubMed

    Şanlıdağ, Burçin; Derinöz, Okşan; Yıldız, Nagehan

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported.

  16. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445.

  17. Sulphuric acid marketed in water bottle in India: A cause for fatal accidental poisoning in an adult.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Chopra, Saurav; Garg, Aayushi; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Corrosive acid ingestion is a rare but serious health hazard with fatal complications. Cases of suicidal and accidental acid ingestion have been documented in the scientific literature. Accidental acid poisoning due to a mistaken identity of the bottle containing sulphuric acid is a matter of grave concern especially in a household set-up. We hereby report a fatal case of accidental sulphuric acid ingestion in an adult, who unsuspectingly swallowed about 50 ml of 'toilet-cleaner' at his residence. The bottle containing the acid was recently purchased from a local vendor and placed with water bottles in the kitchen. The autopsy and toxicological findings of this case are discussed in this paper with discussion of medico-legal issues on the sale and use of such corrosive acids in illegal bottles and its subsequent health hazards in India.

  18. Panitumumab-Associated Encephalopathy after Accidental Intra-arterial Application through Dislocated Central Venous Access Device

    PubMed Central

    Pikija, Slaven; Pilz, Georg; Gschwandtner, Gerald; Rösler, Cornelia; Schlick, Konstantin; Greil, Richard; Sellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity and immune-related side effects are increasingly recognized with the use of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. Here, we report a patient who developed of acute-onset encephalopathy and coma, which began shortly after administration of panitumumab for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Echocardiography revealed that the drug had been infused into the left cardiac ventricle via a dislocated central venous line. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging disclosed multiple cortical hyperintensities, which were preferentially located in the frontal lobes. While the neurological condition improved within a few days, the patient died 4 weeks later. It seems likely that the administration of the antibody via the intra-arterial route contributed to the development of this condition. Toxic encephalopathy may be a hitherto unrecognized complication of panitumumab treatment and should be taken into consideration in patients developing CNS symptoms undergoing this therapy. PMID:27872609

  19. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations.

  20. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J. S.; Byington, Jerry G.A.

    2013-05-16

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5–20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m3. Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m3/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10–9 and 1.03 × 10–7 in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10–8 and 3.55 × 10–4 in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10–5 × Spill_Mass–0.667) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10–3 assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.

  1. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

    2013-01-01

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.].

  2. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Duysens, Jacques; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant risk factors for falling as well. Exposure to NSAIDs has been associated with accidental falls too, although information on this area is less consistent. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to provide an updated overview of all the evidence published on the risk of falling due to NSAID use thus far. A systematic literature search for material published between 1966 and March 2008 in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Exerpta Medica, Current Contents and Science Citation Index was combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles. Validity and data extraction of the eligible articles was assessed by adapted criteria, based on checklists that were originally developed to assess case-control or cohort studies. From the 16 selected articles, two studies were rejected because of clustering of data and one article was excluded because it contained the same data as that in one of the included articles. None of the articles retrieved included a randomized controlled trial. The remaining 13 studies all showed some lack in completeness of their statistical methods, and much variation in reporting of effects. The overall mean age was high in the study populations, leaving the results to be poorly generalizable to a larger population and other age categories. Despite these imperfections, all studies showed an increased risk of falling due to NSAID use (four significant, nine non-significant), and a tendency towards an increased fall risk with NSAID exposure could be noted. The results shown in the present review suggest that an increased risk for accidental falls is probable when elderly individuals are exposed to NSAIDs. The

  3. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  4. Legal update. Definition of accident--accidental death and dismemberment--alcohol-related automobile collision--foreseeability of death as result of driving while intoxicated.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    LaAsmar v. Phelps Dodge Corp. Life, Accidental Death & Dismemberment & Dependent Life Ins. Plan, 605 F3d 789, 2010 WL 1794437(10th Cir. 2010). A death caused by an alcohol-related automobile collision qualifies as an "accident" that would require payment of accidental death and dismemberment plan benefits.

  5. Accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maietta, Pauline Marie

    2012-08-01

    More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

  6. Treatment of accidental perianal injection of topical thrombin with intravenous antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Paidy, Samata R; McLeod, Whitney; Fox, Alexandra; Nfonsam, Valentine N

    2017-04-01

    While topical thrombin application can markedly improve surgical hemostasis, rapid absorption of thrombin can result in pulmonary embolism and death. We report a case of accidental interstitial infiltration of topical thrombin after hemorrhoidectomy that was treated with administration of human antithrombin and heparin anticoagulation. Except for a marked decrease in antithrombin activity from super normal to normal values, the patient exhibited no laboratory or clinical signs of pulmonary embolism, thrombin mediated consumptive loss of procoagulants, or regional thrombosis. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery without sign of thrombotic morbidity. While it is hoped that such a medical misadventure should not occur, our case may serve as a reference to guide anticoagulant therapy if such a clinical scenario arises.

  7. Estimating accidental pollutant releases in the built environment from turbulent concentration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, N.; Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present an inverse atmospheric model to estimate the mass flow rate of an impulsive source of pollutant, whose position is known, from concentration signals registered at receptors placed downwind of the source. The originality of this study is twofold. Firstly, the inversion is performed using high-frequency fluctuating, i.e. turbulent, concentration signals. Secondly, the inverse algorithm is applied to a dispersion process within a dense urban canopy, at the district scale, and a street network model, SIRANERISK, is adopted. The model, which is tested against wind tunnel experiments, simulates the dispersion of short-duration releases of pollutant in different typologies of idealised urban geometries. Results allow us to discuss the reliability of the inverse model as an operational tool for crisis management and the risk assessments related to the accidental release of toxic and flammable substances.

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  9. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  10. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

  11. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. [Accidental ingestion of methadone by children and suggestions for better prevention].

    PubMed

    Hein, Henrik; Püschel, Klaus; Schaper, Andreas; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the medial attention attracted by the presented case in January 2012 and the determined measures taken to minimize the risk of accidental poisoning for children in the direct surroundings of substituted persons, we recently faced two more cases of methadone-intoxicated children in Hamburg. We believe that the most important step to increase awareness of the dangerous effects of methadone for children might be the storage of methadone in lockable boxes, which would make it safe from access by children and third parties. Moreover this way of storing reminds the patients of the risks resulting from their medication. Repeated and comprehensive instruction appears to be the best protection against cases like this to counteract careless handling of the substitution medication.

  13. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Aranda, María L; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-07-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite.

  14. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Aranda, María L.; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24558554

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated commercial color pencils for accidental retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Meriç, Niyazi; Şahiner, Eren; Bariş, Aytaç; Polymeris, George S

    2015-05-01

    Color pencils are widely used mostly in kindergartens, in schools and could be found in all houses with families having young children. Their wide spread use in modern times as well as their chemical composition, consisting mostly of Si and Al, constitute two strong motivations towards exploiting their use as accidental retrospective thermoluminescent dosimeters. The present manuscript reports on the study of colored pencils manufactured by a commercial brand in China which is very common throughout Turkey. The preliminary results discussed in the present work illustrated encouraging characteristics, such as the presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL in a temperature range that is sufficiently high. Specific thermoluminescence features of this peak, such as glow peak shape and analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability to low attributed doses were studied. The results suggest that the color pencils could be effectively used in the framework of retrospective thermoluminescent dosimetry with extreme caution, based on multiple aliquot protocols.

  16. Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

    1994-02-01

    The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here.

  17. Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2012-10-01

    Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions.

  18. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  19. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs.

  20. Accidental arterial puncture during right internal jugular vein cannulation in cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Arun, Venkitaramanan; Wala, Al-Ajmi Ahmed; Al-Bahrani, Maher Jaffer; Jayatilaka, Cheskey Manoj; Nishant, Arora Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary aim of this study was to compare the incidence of accidental arterial puncture during right internal jugular vein (RIJV) cannulation with and without ultrasound guidance (USG). The secondary end points were to assess if USG improves the chances of successful first pass cannulation and if BMI has an impact on incidence of arterial puncture and the number of attempts that are to be made for successful cannulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study performed at a single tertiary cardiac care center. Material and methods: 255 consecutive adult and pediatric cardiac surgical patients were included. In Group I (n = 124) USG was used for the right internal jugular vein cannulation and in Group II (n = 81) it was not used. There were 135 adult patients and 70 pediatric patients. Statistical analysis: Demographic and categorical data were analyzed using Student ‘t’ test and chi- square test was used for qualitative variables. Results: The overall incidence of accidental arterial puncture in the entire study population was significantly higher when ultrasound guidance was not used (P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, incidence of arterial puncture was significant in both adult (P = 0.03) and pediatric patients (P < 0.001) without USG. First attempt cannulation was more often possible in pediatric patients under USG (P = 0.03). In adult patients USG did not improve first attempt cannulation except in underweight patients. Conclusions: USG helped in the avoidance of inadvertent arterial puncture during RIJV cannulation and simultaneously improved the chances of first attempt cannulation in pediatric and in underweight adult cardiac surgical patients. PMID:27716688

  1. Observations on increased accidental asphyxia deaths in infancy while cosleeping in the state of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Zielke, Ron H; Ping, Yan; Fowler, David R

    2009-12-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) has recorded a significant increase of accidental asphyxia deaths in infancy associated with cosleeping in the state of Maryland in 2003. A total of 102 infants died suddenly and unexpectedly during 2003 in the state of Maryland. Of the 102 infants, 46 (45%) were found cosleeping. The frequency of cosleeping among these 102 infants was 28% (29/102) for black infants and 15% (15/102) for white infants. Ten of the 46 cosleeping infant deaths (20%) were determined to be the result of accidental asphyxia, and 28 cosleeping infant deaths (59%) were classified as "undetermined" because the possibility of asphyxia due to overlay while cosleeping could not be ruled out. Only 21 cases were determined to be Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), which is consistent with the continuous decline of SIDS death in Maryland since 1994. The age of asphyxiated cosleeping infants ranged from 15 days to 9 months. Nine out of the 10 asphyxia deaths were black infants. The most common sleeping location of the asphyxia infants was on a couch/sofa, followed by an adult bed. Crib availability was documented in all of the cosleeping cases. A majority (61%) of the cosleeping infants (28/46) had an available crib or bassinet at home and 9 out of 10 asphyxiated cosleeping infants had a crib at home at the time of the incident. This report focuses on the detailed scene investigation findings of infant victims who died of asphyxia while cosleeping. The shift of diagnosis in sudden infant death investigation is also addressed.

  2. Probability Analysis for Accidental Impact on Mars by the Micro-Spacecraft Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu; Yano, Hajime; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Naoya; Nakajima, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yukio

    This paper analyzes the impact probability on Mars for the 50kg-class micro-spacecraft PROCYON (PRoximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation) in 50 years after its launch. PROCYON, which is mainly developed by the University of Tokyo and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), has two missions: the first is the technology demonstration of a micro-spacecraft bus system for deep space exploration and the second is proximity operation by Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as the closest flyby distance from a target asteroid is aimed around 30 kilometer. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched together with Japan’s second asteroid sample return spacecraft "Hayabusa-2" at the end of 2014. Initially PROCYON will be inserted into an Earth resonant trajectory that allows the spacecraft to cruise back to the Earth by solar electric propulsion leveraging. The Earth gravity assist, which is scheduled at the end of 2015, will enable the spacecraft to expand a number of candidate NEAs for flyby operations. At the time of the writing, its candidate NEAs include "2000 DP107", "2010 LJ14" and "2002 AJ29". A miniature ion thruster is mounted on the spacecraft to provide 300muN of thrust with specific impulse of 1200 seconds for deep space maneuver before Earth gravity assist. Considering a small amount of its fuel (about 2 kg of Xenon propellant), PROCYON has no possibility to impact directly on Mars without Earth gravity assist. However, if PROCYON successfully obtains large enough delta-V by the Earth gravity assist at the end of 2015, a possibility of accidental impact on Mars cannot be neglected in order to comply the COSPAR planetary protection requirements for forward contamination. In this paper, we calculate the possibility of accidental impact on Mars after the Earth gravity assist. As the result we conclude that the possibility of Mars impact is negligible within 50 years after its launch.

  3. Ocular and cerebral trauma in non-accidental injury in infancy: underlying mechanisms and implications for paediatric practice.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M A; Lieberman, G; Milroy, C M; Parsons, M A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the sites, mechanisms, and clinical significance of injuries to the eyes and brains of children with non-accidental injuries in relation to differing levels of trauma. METHODS: A forensic pathological study of injuries in the eyes and brains of 23 consecutive children dying of non-accidental injuries over a 4 year period (1988-92) under the jurisdiction of Yorkshire and Humberside coroners. RESULTS: Sixteen children died from cerebral injuries and seven died from non-cerebral causes. There were high incidences of retinal detachment (63%) and subhyaloid (75%), intraretinal (75%), and perineural (68%) haemorrhages in CNS deaths. Local subhyaloid haemorrhages and retinal detachment were more common at the periphery and optic disc than at the equator. There was a strong correlation between CNS and eye trauma scores in all 23 children (r = 0.7551, p < 0.0001). Ranking of injuries by severity suggests progressively more trauma required for (a) subdural haemorrhage, (b) subhyaloid, intraretinal, perineural haemorrhages, and (c) retinal detachment. At highest trauma levels choroidal and vitreous haemorrhages were associated with additional cerebral lacerations, intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS: In non-accidental (and probably accidental) infantile head injury the earliest eye injuries (coinciding with subdural haemorrhage) could be missed if indirect ophthalmoscopy is not performed. Retinal detachment and multiple (particularly choroidal/vitreous) haemorrhages may indicate additional cerebral lacerations and/or intracerebral haemorrhage. Vitreous traction is the likely cause of intraocular pathology. PMID:8703874

  4. Accidental oil spill due to grounding: Summary of model test results. Summary report, Jan-Jun 92

    SciTech Connect

    Karafiath, G.

    1992-06-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sponsored model tests to help in their evaluation of accidental oil spillage from a Mid-Deck Tanker (MDT) and from a Double Hull Tanker (DHT) Design. These tests were conducted at Tsukuba Institute, Japan, and at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The test results are explained herein and their significance is summarized.

  5. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable.

  6. Equipment failures and their contribution to industrial incidents and accidents in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dominic; Gauthier, François; Abdul-Nour, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Accidental events in manufacturing industries can be caused by many factors, including work methods, lack of training, equipment design, maintenance and reliability. This study is aimed at determining the contribution of failures of commonly used industrial equipment, such as machines, tools and material handling equipment, to the chain of causality of industrial accidents and incidents. Based on a case study which aimed at the analysis of an existing pulp and paper company's accident database, this paper examines the number, type and gravity of the failures involved in these events and their causes. Results from this study show that equipment failures had a major effect on the number and severity of accidents accounted for in the database: 272 out of 773 accidental events were related to equipment failure, where 13 of them had direct human consequences. Failures that contributed directly or indirectly to these events are analyzed.

  7. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Taillard, Jacques; Canel, Annick; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers. Methods and Findings From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3%) reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03–1.51], p < .021). 14.2% of drivers with ADHD symptoms reported severe excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale >15) versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21–1.60], p < .0001) and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71–2.14], p<0001) near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both

  9. The ATLAS Beam Condition and Beam Loss Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, I.

    2010-04-01

    The primary goal of ATLAS Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) and Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) is to protect the ATLAS Inner Detector against damaging LHC beam incidents by initiating beam abort in case of beam failures. Poly-crystalline Chemical Vapour Deposition (pCVD) diamond was chosen as the sensor material for both systems. ATLAS BCM will provide real-time monitoring of instantaneous particle rates close to the interaction point (IP) of ATLAS spectrometer. Using fast front-end and signal processing electronics the time-of-flight and pulse amplitude measurements will be performed to distinguish between normal collisions and background events due to natural or accidental beam losses. Additionally, BCM will also provide coarse relative luminosity information. A second system, the ATLAS BLM, is an independent system which was recently added to complement the BCM. It is a current measuring system and was partially adopted from the BLM system developed by the LHC beam instrumentation group with pCVD diamond pad sensors replacing the ionisation chambers. The design of both systems and results of operation in ATLAS framework during the commissioning with cosmic rays will be reported in this contribution.

  10. Testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in cases of suspected non-accidental injury

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, A; Pepin, M; Byers, P

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate if laboratory testing for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) identifies children unrecognised by clinical examination in instances where non-accidental injury (NAI) is suspected as the likely cause of fracture, we carried out a retrospective review of available medical records and biochemical test results from 262 patients. Cultured fibroblasts were received for biochemical testing for OI from children in whom the diagnosis of NAI was suspected. Eleven of the samples had alterations in the amount or structure of type I collagen synthesised, consistent with the diagnosis of OI, and in 11 others we could not exclude OI. Referring physicians correctly identified children with OI in six of the 11 instances established by biochemical studies, did not identify OI by clinical examination in three, and there was inadequate clinical information to know in two others. Biochemical testing was inconclusive in 11 infants in whom the diagnosis of OI could not be excluded, none of whom were thought to be affected by the referring clinicians. Four children believed to have OI by clinical examination had normal biochemical studies, a false positive clinical diagnosis attributed, in large part, to the use of scleral hue (a feature that is age dependent) as a major diagnostic criterion. Given the inability to identify all children with OI by clinical examination in situations of suspected NAI, laboratory testing for OI (and other genetic predispositions for fractures) is a valuable adjunct in discerning the basis for fractures and may identify a small group of children with previously undiagnosed OI. PMID:12070242

  11. Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

  12. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  13. Quantitation in positron emission computed tomography: 4. Effect of accidental coincidences.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E J; Huang, S C; Phelps, M E; Kuhl, D E

    1981-06-01

    Accidental coincidences (ACs) and methods of compensation for ACs were investigated in terms of their effect on quantitation in positron emission computed tomography (ECT). Formulations of basic expressions describing the physical factors, which cause true coincidences or ACs, are presented to provide a framework of contrasting the two phenomena. Correction of image data for attenuation of the annihilation radiation or nonuniformities in detector efficiency is shown to amplify errors caused by the presence of ACs in the data. It was shown that failure to compensate for ACs caused overestimates in measurements of isotope concentrations from image data and that in many cases the overestimate was significant for relatively modest percentages of ACs in the data. Three methods of compensation for ACs were evaluated as to their accuracy and effect on statistical noise in images. It was found that nonuniform detector efficiencies could cause prominent image artifacts if an inadequate method was employed in the determination and subtraction of ACs from image data. The additional statistical noise produced in images by subtraction of ACs from total coincidence data demonstrates the advisability of minimizing AC rates in spite of an ability to adequately measure and compensate for their presence in the data.

  14. Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Beham-Schmidt, C; Radner, H; Henning, G; Roll, P

    1999-12-20

    Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a further case in which two persons confused this highly poisonous plant with wild garlic (Allium ursinum), a popular spice in the Central European cuisine. While one person merely complained about a 3-day episode of nausea, vomiting and watery diarrhea, the second person died of multi-organ system derangements 48 h after the ingestion of the colchicum leaves. At autopsy hemorrhagic lung oedema, hypocellular bonemarrow, centrilobular fatty necrosis of the liver and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubuli of the kidneys were observed. A colchicine concentration of 7.5 micrograms/ml was found in the bile whereas no substance was detected in the postmortem blood.

  15. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-06

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  16. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R. ); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  18. Characteristics and triage of a maritime disaster: an accidental passenger ship collision in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Yeom, Seok Ran; Jeong, Jin Woo; Kim, Yong In; Cho, Suck Ju

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of and responses to a maritime disaster, by reviewing the events surrounding the accidental collision of a high-speed passenger ship in South Korea. Of the 215 boarded passengers on a high-speed passenger ship sailing from Fukuoka to Busan, we retrospectively examined information of 114 victims of the ship's collision with a whale on 12 April 2007. We referenced reports from the on-site disaster medical assistance team members; recorded notifications to the Busan 1339 Emergency Medical Information Centre, from the scene of the accident and data from the ship's insurer. The 114 victims were transported to 20 different hospitals. Many patients were transported to nearby local hospitals from the scene of the accident; other patients were transported to more distant hospitals. Eighty-five patients were transported to hospitals through mobile emergency support units, whereas the other patients were transported directly by fire officers from the 119 Fire Officer Centre. One patient died in the transport. In conclusion, our national emergency medical service and disaster response system each suffer from many problems - especially a lack of cooperation among related departments and insufficient communication therein. The onboard planning and practice of a disaster plan is required, and a reliable information system between the scene of a maritime disaster and our emergency medical service system should be developed.

  19. Relaxed selection against accidental binding of transcription factors with conserved chromatin contexts.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, G A

    2010-10-15

    The spurious (or nonfunctional) binding of transcription factors (TF) to the wrong locations on DNA presents a formidable challenge to genomes given the relatively low ceiling for sequence complexity within the short lengths of most binding motifs. The high potential for the occurrence of random motifs and subsequent nonfunctional binding of many transcription factors should theoretically lead to natural selection against the occurrence of spurious motif throughout the genome. However, because of the active role that chromatin can influence over eukaryotic gene regulation, it may also be expected that many supposed spurious binding sites could escape purifying selection if (A) they simply occur in regions of high nucleosome occupancy or (B) their surrounding chromatin was dynamically involved in their identity and function. We compared nucleosome occupancy and the presence/absence of functionally conserved chromatin context to the strength of selection against spurious binding of various TF binding motifs in Saccharomyces yeast. While we find no direct relationship with nucleosome occupancy, we find strong evidence that transcription factors spatially associated with evolutionarily conserved chromatin states are under relaxed selection against accidental binding. Transcription factors (with/without) a conserved chromatin context were found to occur on average, (87.7%/49.3%) of their expected frequencies. Functional binding motifs with conserved chromatin contexts were also significantly shorter in length and more often clustered. These results indicate a role of chromatin context dependency in relaxing selection against spurious binding in nearly half of all TF binding motifs throughout the yeast genome.

  20. Neuropathological changes in a lamb model of non-accidental head injury (the shaken baby syndrome).

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Turner, R J; Helps, S; Vink, R; Byard, R W; Chidlow, G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J; Anderson, R W G

    2012-08-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI), also termed the "shaken baby syndrome", is a major cause of death and severe neurological dysfunction in children under three years of age, but it is debated whether shaking alone is sufficient to produce brain injury and mortality or whether an additional head impact is required. In an attempt to resolve this question, we used a lamb model of NAHI since these animals have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling those of a human infant. Three anaesthetised lambs of lower body weight than others in the experimental group died unexpectedly after being shaken, proving that shaking alone can be lethal. In these lambs, axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction, and of much greater magnitude than in higher body weight lambs which did not die. Moreover, in the eyes of these shaken lambs, there was damage to retinal inner nuclear layer neurons, mild, patchy ganglion cell axonal injury, widespread Muller glial reaction, and uveal albumin extravasation. This study proved that shaking of a subset of lambs can result in death, without an additional head impact being required.

  1. Geothermal power production: accidental fluid releases, waste disposal, and water use

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Morris, W.F.

    1980-06-01

    Environmental problems related to the use and disposal of fluids can accompany the operation of geothermal power plants using hot water resources (temperature > 150/sup 0/C). More than 100 kg of fluids must be extracted, processed, and disposed for each kW.h of electricity generated from a facility relying on a geothermal reservoir with fluids of 150/sup 0/C. The low thermal efficiencies of geothermal power plants result in large requirements for cooling water - over 7.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y compared with 1.7 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y for coal-fired plants. Geothermal fluids can contain as much as 250,000 mg/1 total dissolved solids. Toxic substances like boron and NH/sub 3/ are often present in fluids. This paper focuses on impacts associated with accidental releases of geothermal fluids as well as the disposal of liquid and solid wastes. The consequences of consuming alternative sources of cooling water are also addressed. Inadvertent discharges of fluids are of concern because they could contaminate soils and surface waters, adversely affecting crops and aquatic organisms. The pretreatment of fluids before subsurface injection could lead to solid waste problems - especially when toxic substances are produced. The consumption of alternative cooling waters can pose problems involving the disposal of blowdown from cooling towers. In addition, the toxicity of drift emitted from cooling towers depends on the kind of cooling water used.

  2. Features of the Asynchronous Correlation between the China Coal Price Index and Coal Mining Accidental Deaths.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuecheng; Cheng, Wuyi; Luo, Sida; Luo, Yun; Ma, Chengchen; He, Tailin

    2016-01-01

    The features of the asynchronous correlation between accident indices and the factors that influence accidents can provide an effective reference for warnings of coal mining accidents. However, what are the features of this correlation? To answer this question, data from the China coal price index and the number of deaths from coal mining accidents were selected as the sample data. The fluctuation modes of the asynchronous correlation between the two data sets were defined according to the asynchronous correlation coefficients, symbolization, and sliding windows. We then built several directed and weighted network models, within which the fluctuation modes and the transformations between modes were represented by nodes and edges. Then, the features of the asynchronous correlation between these two variables could be studied from a perspective of network topology. We found that the correlation between the price index and the accidental deaths was asynchronous and fluctuating. Certain aspects, such as the key fluctuation modes, the subgroups characteristics, the transmission medium, the periodicity and transmission path length in the network, were analyzed by using complex network theory, analytical methods and spectral analysis method. These results provide a scientific reference for generating warnings for coal mining accidents based on economic indices.

  3. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-12-02

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  4. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  5. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  6. Physics effects of accidental submersion of space power reactors in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Lell, R. M.

    A study has been performed of the generic aspects of the accidental submersion phenomenon in fast spectrum space power reactors. Since the net effect of submersion is a balance of competing effects of neutron spectrum softening and neutron reflection, a systematic study using rigorous analytical methods is necessary to extract the trends. Monte Carlo calculations were used to determine essential flooding characteristics in realistic infinite lattice cells. For practical clad/structural materials, computed flooding reactivity worths in infinite lattices were found to be negative because parasitic absorption rises faster than neutron production over the neutron energy range of importance. The flooding worth depends strongly on cell design, becoming increasingly negative as the coolant volume fraction increases. Negative flooding worth was calculated for all fissile enrichments considered (24 to 93 percent). Transport theory analyses of idealized cores of realistic sizes showed that computed flooding worths are positive or slightly negative for small cores because reflection of thermalized neutrons by the water outside dominates other flooding effects. As core size increases, infinite lattice behavior in the interior dominates, and flooding worth becomes increasingly negative. The loss of control drums was found to increase the core radius for crossover to negative flooding worths. Monte Carlo and Sn calculations for realistic core designs confirmed the dependence of sign and magnitude of the flooding worth on core size and on the presence or absence of control drums. Experimental evidence from terrestrial reactor programs have demonstrated the need for critical experiments to benchmark and calibrate analytical procedures for flooding calculations.

  7. Challenges and promises for nurse education curriculum development in Kosovo: results of an "accidental ethnography".

    PubMed

    Goepp, Julius G; Johnson, Tiesha D; Maddow, Charles L

    2008-05-01

    Kosovo's infrastructure was devastated by armed conflict through the 1990s; in 1999 a visiting inter-disciplinary team described healthcare services as being in "disarray". Several collaborative programs were initiated to enhance delivery of emergency medical (EM) services. Our inter-disciplinary team traveled to Kosovo in 2004 to evaluate EM physician education and training. A brief renewed outbreak of hostilities created a mass casualty incident. An "accidental ethnography" focused on nurse education was conducted by team members during and after the event. Results indicated low levels of professionalization of nurses as indicated by expressions of professional self-identity and self-esteem, autonomy, and submission to patriarchal attitudes. Undergraduate nurse education is restricted to a diploma program and one foreign training project, one graduate degree program exists abroad, and no national board examination exists. Nurses' social location is described as marginalized and disenfranchised, and retention of nurses is a persistent problem. Based on these observations we outline an inter-professional curriculum development program to foster professionalization of Kosovar nurses through a synthesis of participatory action research with elements of grounded theory and standard curriculum development methodologies. The collaborative, emancipatory, and empowering nature of PAR is described in the context of professionalizing nurse education programs.

  8. Non-accidental Trauma Injury Patterns and Outcomes: A Single Institutional Experience.

    PubMed

    Ward, Austin; Iocono, Joseph A; Brown, Samuel; Ashley, Phillip; Draus, John M

    2015-09-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) victims account for a significant percentage of our pediatric trauma population. We sought to better understand the injury patterns and outcomes of NAT victims who were treated at our level I pediatric trauma center. Trauma registry data were used to identify NAT victims between January 2008 and December 2012. Demographic data, injury severity, hospital course, and outcomes were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-eight cases of suspected NAT were identified. Children were mostly male and white. The median age was 1.1 years; the median Injury Severity Score was 9. Traumatic brain injuries, lower extremity fractures, and skull fractures were the most common injuries. Twenty-seven per cent required medical procedures; most were performed by orthopedic surgery. Twenty-four per cent required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The median length of stay was two days. The mortality rate was 9.6 per cent. We generated a hot spot map of our catchment area and identified areas of our state where NAT occurs at increased rates. NAT victims sustain significant morbidity and mortality. Due to the severity of injuries, pediatric trauma surgeons should be involved in the evaluation and management of these children. Much work is needed to prevent the death and disability incurred by victims of child abuse.

  9. Socio-professional handicap and accidental risk in patients with hypersomnias of central origin.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien; Philip, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia profoundly affect quality of life, education and work. Young patients are very handicapped by unexpected sleep episodes during lessons. Professionals frequently complain about sleepiness at work. Motor discomfort (i.e., cataplectic attacks) surprisingly is less handicapping in narcoleptics than sleepiness but only a few studies clearly assess the problem. Quality of life is also largely impaired in its physical and emotional dimensions. Sleepiness is the major factor explaining a decrease of quality of life and unexpectedly cataplectic attacks have little impact on patients. Another potential problem for these patients is the risk of accidents at work or when driving. Narcoleptic and hypersomniac patients have a higher risk of accidents than apneic or insomniac subjects. But, confounding factors such as duration of driving, number of cataplectic attacks or even objective level of alertness are not always entered in the analytic models mainly because of small samples of patients. Unlike in apneic patients, the effect of treatment on accidental risk has not been studied in narcoleptics or in hypersomniacs. Epidemiological data are needed to improve knowledge concerning these areas. Clinical trials assessing the impact of treatment on driving and work are also urgently needed. Finally, medical treatment does not seem to be completely efficient and physicians should pay more attention to the education, work, life and social environment of their patients.

  10. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    PubMed

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-04

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF.

  11. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI.

  12. Mechanical airway obstruction caused by accidental aspiration of part of a ballpoint pen.

    PubMed

    Bhana, B D; Gunaselvam, J G; Dada, M A

    2000-12-01

    The authors present three cases of death in children aged 4, 9, and 10 years, respectively, that were first thought to be caused by herbal or other poisonings but at autopsy were found to be caused by airway obstruction from aspiration of ballpoint pen parts. Aspiration of a foreign body is a leading cause of accidental death in children, but the circumstances in these cases were unique. In the first case, a 4-year-old child died shortly after a visit to a traditional healer. The child's mother blamed him for the death and fatally assaulted him. The second case was a 9-year-old who died at school. Case 3 was a 10-year-old who collapsed while playing with a ballpoint pen in her mouth. In the latter two cases, the relatives alleged poisoning. At autopsy, there was no evidence of trauma, disease, or poisoning in all three cases. Ballpoint pen parts were present in the larynx, carina, and left main bronchus, respectively. Features of "asphyxial" death were present, and included subconjunctival hemorrhages, subendocardial hemorrhages, and congestion of the face and internal organs. These deaths are preventable by education of children, parents, and teachers. Ballpoint pen manufacturers should also modify the design of these pens to improve their safety.

  13. [Non-accidental injuries in childhood and the nature of their appearance].

    PubMed

    Eberl, R; Huber-Zeyringer, A; Curcic, N; Höllwarth, M E

    2010-02-01

    Child abuse has been the leading cause of death in pediatric patients for a long time. The subject is complex in its etiology, appearance, consequences and prognosis. To be confronted with the patient is emotional. Inpatient treatment at a pediatric centre should be performed in any suspicious cases of non-accidental injury. The child protection group consists of one pediatric specialist as well as four ward physicians, one psychotherapist, two staff nurses and one graduated social worker. The team's aims are the early detection of violence towards children, the safeguarding of child protection policies and the provision of family centred, interdisciplinary treatment. During a 6-year period (2001-2006) 476 children were treated at our department. Cruelty was found in 47%, sexual abuse in 28% and willful neglect in 25%. Only 12% of the patients presented obvious injuries. In 88% secondary symptoms resulted in the correct diagnosis. Child protection groups are important institutions for dealing with the complex matter of child abuse. The burden and responsibility for the single person can be reduced within the team. Medical practitioners outside the hospital may give a referral without a loss of confidence.

  14. Features of the Asynchronous Correlation between the China Coal Price Index and Coal Mining Accidental Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuecheng; Cheng, Wuyi; Luo, Sida; Luo, Yun; Ma, Chengchen; He, Tailin

    2016-01-01

    The features of the asynchronous correlation between accident indices and the factors that influence accidents can provide an effective reference for warnings of coal mining accidents. However, what are the features of this correlation? To answer this question, data from the China coal price index and the number of deaths from coal mining accidents were selected as the sample data. The fluctuation modes of the asynchronous correlation between the two data sets were defined according to the asynchronous correlation coefficients, symbolization, and sliding windows. We then built several directed and weighted network models, within which the fluctuation modes and the transformations between modes were represented by nodes and edges. Then, the features of the asynchronous correlation between these two variables could be studied from a perspective of network topology. We found that the correlation between the price index and the accidental deaths was asynchronous and fluctuating. Certain aspects, such as the key fluctuation modes, the subgroups characteristics, the transmission medium, the periodicity and transmission path length in the network, were analyzed by using complex network theory, analytical methods and spectral analysis method. These results provide a scientific reference for generating warnings for coal mining accidents based on economic indices. PMID:27902748

  15. Accidental Epidural Injection of Rocuronium in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Accidental administration of non-epidural drugs into the epidural or subarachnoid spaces may be associated with unexpected pain, morbidity, adverse effects, increased level of care, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. We describe a 12-month-old admitted for secondary-stage hypospadias reconstruction. General anesthesia was induced with sevofiurane and a peripheral catheter was placed. Instead of ropivacaine, rocuronium (80 mg; 6.3 mg/kg) was injected into the epidural space by the caudal route. Surgery was uneventful and was completed 160 minutes after rocuronium was given. The patient exhibited paralysis with 1 of 4 twitches to the train-of-four with some posttetanic potentiation at the end of surgery. He was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for supportive ventilation and recovery. He did not experience oxygen desaturation or hypoventilation between the time of rocuronium administration and intubation. He was hemodynamically stable, without respiratory insufficiency, and his neurologic exam was normal, without motor or sensorial block. The patient was discharged home on the morning of the first postoperative day. Clinical examination 1 week after surgery revealed no lasting sequelae from the error. PMID:27877098

  16. Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Posthaus, H; Bodmer, T; Alves, L; Oevermann, A; Schiller, I; Rhodes, S G; Zimmerli, S

    2011-05-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of human tuberculosis. Infection in companion animals is mainly acquired from close contact to a diseased human patient and hence rarely diagnosed in countries with low tuberculosis incidence rates. Therefore the general awareness of the disease might be low. Here we report the potential risk of infection for veterinary personnel with M. tuberculosis during the clinical and pathological examination of a dog with unexpected disseminated tuberculosis. The dog had presented with symptoms of a central nervous system disease; rapid deterioration prevented a complete clinical workup, however. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic mycobacteriosis, and M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissue sections and spoligotyping. Contact investigations among the owners and veterinary personnel using an IFN-γ release assay indicated that the index dog did not infect humans during its lifetime. Serological and IFN-γ release assay results of one of two cats in direct contact with the index dog, however, suggested that transmission of M. tuberculosis might have occurred. Importantly, all three pathologists performing the necropsy on the dog tested positive. Accidental infection was most likely due to inhalation of M. tuberculosis containing aerosols created by using an electric saw to open the brain cavity. As a consequence routine necropsy procedures have been adapted and a disease surveillance program, including tuberculosis, has been initiated. Our results highlight the importance of disease awareness and timely diagnosis of zoonotic infectious agents in optimizing work safety for veterinary personnel.

  17. Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. K.

    1998-10-01

    This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

  18. Quantification of nerve agent VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct biomarker from an accidental exposure.

    PubMed

    Solano, Maria I; Thomas, Jerry D; Taylor, James T; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra A; Maggio, Vincent L; Holland, Kerry E; Smith, J Richard; Capacio, Benedict; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Ashley, David L; Barr, John R

    2008-01-01

    The lack of data in the open literature on human exposure to the nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) gives a special relevance to the data presented in this study in which we report the quantification of VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct from a relatively low-level accidental human exposure. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using the fluoride ion regeneration method for the quantification of multiple nerve agents including VX. Six human plasma samples from the same individual were collected after the patient had been treated once with oxime immediately after exhibiting signs of exposure. Detection limits of approximately 5.5 pg/mL plasma were achieved for the G-analogue of VX (G-VX). Levels of the G-VX ranged from 81.4 pg/mL on the first day after the exposure to 6.9 pg/mL in the sample taken 27 days after the exposure. Based on the reported concentration of human butyrylcholinesterase in plasma of approximately 80 nM, it can be calculated that inhibition levels of >or= 0.05% of BuChE can be accurately quantified. These data further indicate that the fluoride ion regeneration method is a potentially powerful tool that can be used to assess low-level exposure to VX.

  19. Is your office prepared for an accidental needlestick or other unexpected exposure incident?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Roger E; Limes, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations and mandatory guidelines for preventing and managing needlestick incidents and other accidental exposures to bloodborne pathogens in healthcare facilities have been published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for more than 2 decades. Over the years, the incidence of official enforcement actions has declined and a complacency about the standards may have evolved in some dental offices. Some practitioners may not have written an occupational exposure incident protocol or made appropriate arrangements for medical laboratory testing and postexposure medical evaluation following an unexpected needlestick or other exposure incident in the office. When an unexpected event occurs, practitioners may become confused regarding the steps to be taken, and may turn to their local dental society or fellow practitioners for guidance. The provided information may or may not be complete, accurate and/or current. Implementation of periodic personnel training to prevent exposure incidents is extremely important and could ultimately save a dental practice thousands of dollars in expenses related to the occurrence of even one exposure incident, as well as save the life and/or career of a dental healthcare provider. This article does not comprehensively detail all infection control and bloodborne pathogen transmission prevention requirements for dental offices. Rather, the article provides suggestions for dental practitioners regarding the step by step management of exposure incidents, and provides resource information for additional steps that can be taken towards prevention, improved office compliance, and improved litigation protection.

  20. Review of oil and HNS accidental spills in Europe: identifying major environmental monitoring gaps and drawing priorities.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2012-06-01

    The European Atlantic area has been the scene of a number of extensive shipping incidents with immediate and potential long-term impacts to marine ecosystems. The occurrence of accidental spills at sea requires an effective response that must include a well executed monitoring programme to assess the environmental contamination and damage of the affected marine habitats. Despite a number of conventions and protocols developed by international and national authorities that focused on the preparedness and response to oil and HNS spills, much remains to be done, particularly in relation to the effectiveness of the environmental monitoring programmes implemented after oil and HNS spills. Hence, the present study reviews the status of the environmental monitoring programmes established following the major spill incidents over the last years in European waters, aiming at identifying the key monitoring gaps and drawing priorities for an effective environmental monitoring of accidental spills.

  1. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, B. Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N.; Hyhlik-Duerr, A.; Weber, M.-A.; Boeckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  2. People are more likely to be insincere when they are more likely to accidentally tell the truth.

    PubMed

    Leblois, Sylvie; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    Although people lie often, and mostly for self-serving reasons, they do not lie as much as they could. The "fudge factor" hypothesis suggests that one reason for people not to lie is that they do not wish to self-identify as liars. Accordingly, self-serving lies should be more likely when they are less obvious to the liars themselves. Here we show that the likelihood of self-serving lies increases with the probability of accidentally telling the truth. Players in our game could transmit sincere or insincere recommendations to their competitors. In line with the fudge factor hypothesis, players lied when their beliefs were based on flimsy evidence and did not lie when their beliefs were based on solid evidence. This is the first demonstration of a new moral hypocrisy paradox: People are more likely to be insincere when they are more likely to accidentally tell the truth.

  3. Accidental ingestion of an inter-occlusal device used for the restoration of occlusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Walison Arthuso; Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Moretzsohn, Luciana Dias; Lanza, Marcos Daniel Septimio; Lanza, Marcos Dias; Rocha, Wellington Márcio dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    The accidental swallowing of prosthetic devices has been discussed in the relevant literature as an unusual, although ordinary, event in clinical practice. This article aims at reporting the ingestion of an inter-occlusal device used to restore the Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO) which, during the ingestion of an analgesic pill, was accidentally swallowed. The patient was sent to the Clinics Hospital UFMG where, upon taking radiographs, the device was located in the upper third of the esophagus. The device was removed during an endoscopic exam with the help of forceps for removing foreign objects. Dealing with a relevant situation, one may conclude that patients who use removable intra-oral devices must take part in a reevaluation protocol in order to detect adaptation and retention of these devices, as well as proper instruction for the patient.

  4. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2007-06-15

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

  5. A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.

    PubMed

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2014-02-15

    In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective.

  6. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2007-06-01

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N -photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

  7. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  8. A comparison study on mental health status between suicide survivors and survivors of accidental deaths in rural China.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Li, N

    2014-12-01

    Suicide has become a major public health problem worldwide. For every suicide there are six suicide survivors, a term referring to family members or friends of a person who has died by suicide. Within the literature there has been ongoing debate regarding the bereavement process and if it differs in survivors of suicide as opposed to survivors of those who have died from accidental death. There are scarcely any published reports on comparison between these two groups of survivors in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the difference of mental health status between suicide survivors and survivors of accidental deaths in China. We used a cross-sectional study design to collect data of survivors. Consecutive sampling was used and 92 suicide survivors and 64 survivors of accidental deaths were interviewed. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised was used to assess the survivors' mental health status. After controlling for demographic variables and time interval between death and interview, no significant differences were found on mental health status between these two groups of survivors. Several explanations might account for the lack of differences. Further studies employing qualitative measures and suicide-specific instruments are needed to explore the bereavement of Chinese suicide survivors.

  9. Patterns of injury seen in deaths from accidental falls down a staircase: a study from South Delhi.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Rautji, R; Dogra, T D

    2009-04-01

    The present study is a retrospective analysis of 92 cases of death from an accidental fall down a staircase, which were autopsied at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, during a ten-year period from 1996 to 2005. The cases were analysed with regard to age, sex, location, cause of death and pattern of injury. Males (62, 67.39%) outnumbered females (30, 32.61%). The commonest age group involved was 31-40 years (28.26%) followed by 21-30 years (18.47%) and 51-60 years (14.13%). The lowest number of cases (4.34%) was in the 11-20 years age group. All deaths were accidental in nature. The most common cause of death was head injury (80.43%) followed by haemorrhagic shock resulting from intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic visceral injuries (9.78%) and injury to the neck (4.34%). The parietal and temporal bones were those most frequently fractured in head injury cases. Cerebral oedema (n = 56, 70.88%), followed by subdural haematoma (n = 34, 43.03%) were the two most common intra-cranial injuries. Two females were accidentally hanged while descending stairs. The majority of accidents happened at home (n = 90, 97.82%). Alcohol was detected in ten cases (17.54%). Fatalities from falls down a staircase were most often reported in the rainy season.

  10. Assessment of the Incentives Created by Public Disclosure of Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information for Reduction in the Risk of Accidental Releases

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The off-site consequence analysis (OCA) evaluates the potential for worst-case and alternative accidental release scenarios to harm the public and environment around the facility. Public disclosure would likely reduce the number/severity of incidents.

  11. Fading test using the SAAD-POSL method for retrospective accidental dosimetry of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Hong, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    Fading test using the single aliquot additive dose method with pulsed optically stimulated luminescence (SAAD-POSL method) was applied to core-disc samples extracted from heated red brick, tile, roof-tile, and toilet porcelain after X-ray and beta irradiation. From thermoluminescence measurements of each material, the optimal preheat condition of the SAAD-POSL method was first determined as 170 °C for 10 s. Fading characteristics of core-disc samples of heated red brick obtained using the SAAD-POSL method were similar to those of quartz grains (90-250 μm) obtained using the SAR-OSL method, regardless of the differences in the sample and radiation type. Fading evaluations of the core-disc samples of these building materials two weeks after irradiation showed that the equivalent dose (ED) decreased between 5% and 42%. The results indicate that the fading characteristics will be able to contribute to a more accurate estimation of the ED value using the SAAD-POSL method.

  12. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were

  13. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p < 0.05) as conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  14. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía actualizada sobre la estabilidad delos medicamentos termolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticaque, según ficha técnica, deben conservarse bajorefrigeración o congelación, expuestos accidentalmente a temperaturasde conservación fuera del rango recomendado por elfabricante.Métodos: Se revisó la información sobre las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles a distintas temperaturas de los medicamentostermolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticade un hospital de 400 camas que, según el fabricante, debenconservarse bajo refrigeración o congelación. Se excluyeron losmedicamentos incluidos en ensayos clínicos. Los datos de estabilidadse obtuvieron a partir de la ficha técnica, la informacióncontenida en las dos últimas guías de conservación de medicamentostermolábiles publicadas en España y a través de las consultasrealizadas a los laboratorios (vía telefónica o por e-mail).Resultados: Se confeccionó una tabla con las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles actualmente a distintas temperaturas de209 presentaciones de distintas especialidades farmacéuticas.Se solicitaron datos de estabilidad actualizados de 172 de ellasa los laboratorios.Conclusiones: La guía elaborada constituye una herramientaque facilita la toma de decisiones del farmacéutico ante unarotura accidental de la cadena de frío, cuando sea necesarioconocer si el fármaco puede ser utilizado y no sea posible contactarcon el laboratorio fabricante.

  15. Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

    2014-12-15

    On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner.

  16. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  17. Rural older people had lower mortality after accidental falls than non-rural older people

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the mortality rate after falls of rural and non-rural older people and to explore the risk factors of mortality after falls among older people. Patients and methods This population-based case–control study identified two groups from a nationwide claim database (National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan): a rural group and a non-rural group, which included 3,897 and 5,541 older people, respectively, who were hospitalized for accidental falls (The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: E880–E888) during 2006–2009. Both groups were followed up for 4 years after falls. Four-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls was calculated, and the demographic factor, comorbidity, and medications were considered as the potential risk factors of mortality after falls. Results The rural group had a significantly higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations (7.4% vs 4.3%, P<0.001), but a lower 4-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls than the non-rural group (8.8% vs 23.4%, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, and medication use, the rural group had a significantly lower risk of mortality after falls than the non-rural group (adjusted odds ratio =0.32, 95% confidence interval =0.28–0.37, P<0.001). Age, gender, place of residence, comorbidity, number of medications, and inappropriate medication use were independent risk factors of mortality after falls. Conclusion The rural older people had a higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations but lower mortality after falls than the non-rural older people. Fall prevention programs should be adjusted for difference in place of residence. PMID:28123289

  18. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  19. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  20. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO{sub x} Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  1. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO sub x Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  2. Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: from synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Barré, Y; Vincent, T; Taulemesse, J-M; Robitzer, M; Guibal, E

    2015-04-28

    Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water.

  3. Unraveling the association between SSRI use and falls: an experimental study of risk factors for accidental falls in long-term paroxetine users.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Nienhuis, Bart; van Limbeek, Jacques; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used to treat depression and are also associated with an increased falls risk. However, the biological mechanism underlying accidental falls with SSRI intake has yet to be elucidated. The present experimental study was designed to investigate whether obstacle avoidance skills in long-term (>90 days), senior paroxetine users (61 ± 5.8 years) are affected during gait, simple and challenging postural balance tasks, as well as during manual reaction time tasks. The performance of the paroxetine users was compared with healthy group-matched controls (60 ± 4.8 years). The results demonstrated impaired postural balance in the paroxetine users, especially during one-legged stance or under various dual-task conditions. Although the deficit in one-legged stance could indicate vestibular involvement, this was deemed unlikely because performance of standing on compliant surface with closed eyes remained unaffected. Paroxetine use also failed to affect manual reaction times or obstacle avoidance performance. It is suggested that paroxetine affects attentional capacities particularly in conjunction with balance control. Compared with healthy seniors, long-term senior users of paroxetine seem to be at an increased risk of falling due to impairments in balance control, especially when attention has to be divided between 2 concurrent activities.

  4. The differential expression of HvCO9, a member of the CONSTANS-like gene family, contributes to the control of flowering under short-day conditions in barley

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Rie; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Masao; Ando, Tsuyu; Handa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    HvCO9 was characterized to elucidate the barley flowering control mechanisms and to investigate the functional diversification of the barley CONSTANS-like (CO-like) genes in flowering. HvCO9 was located on the same chromosome, 1HL, as Ppd-H2 (HvFT3), which is a positive regulator of short-day (SD) flowering. A phylogenetic analysis showed that HvCO9 was located on the same branch of the CO-like gene tree as rice Ghd7 and the barley and wheat VRN2 genes, which are all negative regulators of flowering. High level HvCO9 expressions were observed under SD conditions, whereas its expression levels were quite low under long-day (LD) conditions. HvCO9 expression correlated with HvFT1 and HvFT2 expression under SD conditions, although no clear effect of HvCO9 on HvFT3 expression, or vice versa, under SD conditions was observed. The over-expression of HvCO9 in rice plants produced a remarkable delay in flowering. In transgenic rice, the expression levels of the flowering-related Ehd1 gene, which is a target gene of Ghd7, and its downstream genes were suppressed, causing a delay in flowering. These results suggest that HvCO9 may act as a negative regulator of flowering under non-inductive SD conditions in barley; this activity is similar to that of rice Ghd7 under non-inductive LD conditions, but the functional targets of these genes may be different. Our results indicate that barley has developed its own pathways to control flowering by using homologous genes with modifications for the timing of expression. Further, it is hypothesized that each pathway may target different genes after gene duplication or species diversification. PMID:22016423

  5. The differential expression of HvCO9, a member of the CONSTANS-like gene family, contributes to the control of flowering under short-day conditions in barley.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Rie; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Masao; Ando, Tsuyu; Handa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    HvCO9 was characterized to elucidate the barley flowering control mechanisms and to investigate the functional diversification of the barley CONSTANS-like (CO-like) genes in flowering. HvCO9 was located on the same chromosome, 1HL, as Ppd-H2 (HvFT3), which is a positive regulator of short-day (SD) flowering. A phylogenetic analysis showed that HvCO9 was located on the same branch of the CO-like gene tree as rice Ghd7 and the barley and wheat VRN2 genes, which are all negative regulators of flowering. High level HvCO9 expressions were observed under SD conditions, whereas its expression levels were quite low under long-day (LD) conditions. HvCO9 expression correlated with HvFT1 and HvFT2 expression under SD conditions, although no clear effect of HvCO9 on HvFT3 expression, or vice versa, under SD conditions was observed. The over-expression of HvCO9 in rice plants produced a remarkable delay in flowering. In transgenic rice, the expression levels of the flowering-related Ehd1 gene, which is a target gene of Ghd7, and its downstream genes were suppressed, causing a delay in flowering. These results suggest that HvCO9 may act as a negative regulator of flowering under non-inductive SD conditions in barley; this activity is similar to that of rice Ghd7 under non-inductive LD conditions, but the functional targets of these genes may be different. Our results indicate that barley has developed its own pathways to control flowering by using homologous genes with modifications for the timing of expression. Further, it is hypothesized that each pathway may target different genes after gene duplication or species diversification.

  6. Human color vision deficits induced by accidental laser exposure and potential for long-term recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Lund, Brian J.; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Loveday, J.

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long term deficits in human color discrimination induced by accidental laser macular damage and assess potential for recovery of color vision deficits. Methods: Nine laser accident cases (Q-switched Neodymium) presenting initially with confined or vitreous macular hemorrhage were evaluated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test within 2 days to 3 months post exposure. Both total as well as partial errors in the blue/yellow (B/Y) and red/green (R/G) regions were assessed. Independent assessment of axis orientation and complexity were obtained via a Fourier series expansion of error scores. Comparisons of both total and partial B/Y and R/G errors were made with age matched normal subjects, idiopathic and juvenile onset macular holes. Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography characterized the presence of retinal traction, intraretinal scar, macular thickness and macular hole formation. Results: Comparison of exposed and non-exposed age matched individuals were significant (P<.001) for both total and partial errors. In four cases where macular injury ranged from mild scar to macular hole, color discrimination errors achieved normal levels in 1 to 12 months post exposure. A mild tritan axis, dominant B/Y ("blue/yellow") errors, and retinal traction were observed in a macular hole case. At 12 months post exposure, traction about the hole disappeared, and total and partial errors were normal. Where damage involved a greater degree of scarring, retinal traction and multiple injury sites, long term recovery of total and partial error recovery was retarded with complex axis makeup. Single exposures in the paramacula produced tritan axes, while multiple exposures within and external to the macula increased total and partial R/G ("red/green") error scores. Total errors increased when paramacular hole enlargement induced macular traction. Such hole formation produced significant increases in total errors, complex axis

  7. Effectiveness of common shelter-in-place techniques in reducing ammonia exposure following accidental release.

    PubMed

    Tarkington, Brett; Harris, Angela J; Barton, Paul S; Chandler, Ben; Goad, Phillip T

    2009-04-01

    Shelter-in-place strategies such as remaining indoors; breathing through a damp cloth; sealing cracks in windows and doors using towels, duct tape, or plastic sheeting; and running a shower are often recommended by emergency response officials to protect against accidental or intentional release of hazardous airborne chemicals and biologicals. Similar recommendations have been made to and used by community members exposed to anhydrous ammonia after catastrophic release of ammonia gas due to a derailment or other accidents. Such incidents have resulted in fatalities and serious injury to exposed individuals; however, other individuals within the same area have escaped injury and, in many cases, sustained no injuries as a result of sheltering-in-place. Although there are some studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of remaining in the home or breathing through a damp cloth to reduce exposure to various agents, there have been no studies that directly address the efficacy of running the shower in reducing exposure to ammonia gas. The present study was designed to simulate sheltering-in-place inside a typical bathroom with the shower running. The effectiveness of breathing through a damp cloth was also evaluated using a CPR mannequin placed inside a chamber built to represent a typical household bathroom. Ammonia gas at 300 or 1000 ppm was added to the chamber until the concentration peaked and stabilized, then the shower was turned on and the ammonia gas concentration was continuously monitored. In the mannequin studies, using a damp cloth reduced exposure to ammonia gas by 2- to 18-fold. Turning on the shower was even more effective at reducing ammonia levels. After 27 min, the ammonia concentration in the chamber was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration, even though gas was being continuously added to the chamber. These results indicate that use of shelter-in-place strategies substantially reduces ammonia exposure and that by combining shelter

  8. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team

    PubMed Central

    John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15 years old from 1991 to 2010. Results Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2 years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2 years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2 years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2 years (19/180, 11%). Conclusions The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2 years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. PMID:26130384

  9. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  10. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jonker, W R; Hanumanthiah, D; O'Sullivan, E P; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

    2014-09-01

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  11. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Accidental choke-cherry poisoning: early symptoms and neurological sequelae of an unusual case of cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pentore, R; Venneri, A; Nichelli, P

    1996-06-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who was accidentally poisoned when she ingested choke cherries whose pulp contained cyanide, and describe the acute clinical picture, the neurological sequelae and the neuroradiological findings. After recovery from coma, the patient showed signs of a parkinsonian syndrome, retrobulbar neuritis and sensory-motor neuropathy. MRI showed abnormal signal intensities involving the basal ganglia. Since no memory deficits were observed, we argue that the parkinsonian syndrome was caused by cyanide intoxication rather than by subcortical damage due to hypoxia.

  14. Management of Accidental Finding of Ascaris Lumbricoides During Emergent Abdominal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Esfehani, Maryam Hassan; Jahanshahi, Abdolhadi; Karimi, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up.

  15. The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the 'accidental logics' of political settlements.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-07-01

    This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and compares rationing for the elderly in the United States and in England for acute care, care at the end of life, and chronic care.

  16. Youth Versus Adult “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13

  17. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  18. Accidental exposures to blood and body fluids among health care workers in dental teaching clinics: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, F; Ellison, J; Greenspan, D; Bird, W; Lowe, S; Gerberding, J L

    1997-09-01

    The authors evaluated accidental exposures to blood and body fluids reported to a hotline or to health officials at four dental teaching clinics. The authors used a standard questionnaire to solicit and record data regarding each exposure. During a 63-month period, 428 parenteral exposures to blood or body fluids were documented. Dental students and dental assistants had the highest rates of exposure. Syringe needle injuries were the most common type of exposure, while giving injections, cleaning instruments after procedures and drilling were the activities most frequently associated with exposures.

  19. Social Interaction in Young Children with Inflicted and Accidental Traumatic Brain Injury: Relations with Family Resources and Social Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R.; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A.; Swank, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0–36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

  20. Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties.

  1. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag (2) and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag (2) modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  2. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-01

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag2 and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag2 modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  3. Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

    2008-04-01

    To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

  4. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  5. Risk factor for accidental injuries within senior citizens' homes: analysis of the Canadian Survey on Ageing and Independence.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paula C; Hirdes, John P

    2005-02-01

    Using data from the Survey on Ageing and Independence (SAI), risk factors for unintentional injuries occurring within the homes of individuals older than 65 are identified. For the SAI, conducted by Statistics Canada in 1991, data were collected on a representative sample of approximately 20,000 individuals between ages 45 and 102. For each household contacted, one individual older than 45 was interviewed via the telephone. For the present analysis, only individuals older than 65 (n = 10,059) were used. Approximately 5% of senior citizens experienced an injury that limited their activity for at least 1 day. Using logistic regression, the following risk factors for injury were identified: education, alcohol consumption, smoking, rest and sleep patterns, support, and interactions between age and gender, activity limitations and age, and home maintenance and gender. The present findings are important to the body of research concerning injuries among older adults. The results expand current univariate analysis of data identifying risk factors for injuries within the literature and provide comprehensive information pertaining to risk factors for accidental injuries at the multivariate level. Identification of risk factors provides health care professionals, particularly front line nurses, with insight into factors that, if modified, have the potential to decrease accidental injuries and improve or maintain quality of life.

  6. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  7. Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiah, Amaka

    Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection

  8. Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on

  9. Triple oxygen and sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate extracted from voluminous volcanic ashes in the Oligocene John Day Formation: insight into dry climate conditions and ozone contribution to supereruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, J.; Bindeman, I. N.; Martin, E.; Retallack, G.; Palandri, J. L.; Weldon, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large volume pyroclastic silicic eruptions emit hundreds of megatons of SO2 into the troposphere and stratosphere that is oxidized into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by a variety of reactions with mass independent oxygen signatures (MIF), Δ17O>0. Sulfuric acid is then preserved as gypsum in parental volcanic deposits. Diagenic effects are mass dependent and can dilute, but otherwise do not affect MIF ratios. Pleistocene Yellowstone and Bishop tuffs and modern volcanic eruptions preserved under arid climate conditions in North American playa lakes, preserve small amounts of volcanic sulfate as gypsum. This gypsum's Δ17O>0, in combination with isotopic variations of δ18O, δ33S and δ34S is distinct from sedimentary sulfate and reveals its original MIF sulfate isotopic signal and the effect of super eruptions on the atmosphere, and ozone consumption in particular. We use linear algebraic equations to resolve volcanic versus sedimentary (MIF=0) sources. We have found that many large volume ignimbrites have very high initial Δ17O in volcanic sulfate that can only be acquired from reaction with stratospheric ozone. We here investigate nine thick (>2 m) ash beds ranging in age from ~33-23 Ma in the John Day Formation of central Oregon, including massive 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff of newly identified Crooked River supercaldera. The 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff (PGT) has the highest measured Δ17O of 3.5‰, and other tuffs (Tin Roof, Biotite, Deep Creek) have +1.3 to 3.4‰ Δ17O excesses. Sulfate from modern smaller tropospheric eruptions studied for comparison have a resolvable 0.4‰ range consistent with liquid-phase based H2O2 oxidation. The PGT is coeval with the ignimbrite flare-up in western N. America, the 28-29 Ma eruption of the 5000 km3 Fish Canyon tuff and the 28 Ma Never Summer Field eruption in Nebraska-Colorado that have the highest measured Δ17O of 6‰ (Bao et al. 2003). We speculate on the climatic/atmospheric effects of these multiple ~28 Ma supereruptions

  10. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  11. The effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on two important predictors for accidental falls: postural balance and manual reaction time. A randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, Judith; Nienhuis, Bart; van den Bemt, Bart; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; van Limbeek, Jacques; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-04-01

    Accidental falls in older individuals are a major health and research topic. Increased reaction time and impaired postural balance have been determined as reliable predictors for those at risk of falling and are important functions of the central nervous system (CNS). An essential risk factor for falls is medication exposure. Amongst the medications related to accidental falls are the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). About 1-10% of all users experience CNS side effects. These side effects, such as dizziness, headaches, drowsiness, mood alteration, and confusion, seem to be more common during treatment with indomethacin. Hence, it is possible that maintenance of (static) postural balance and swift reactions to stimuli are affected by exposure to NSAIDs, indomethacin in particular, consequently putting older individuals at a greater risk for accidental falls. The present study investigated the effect of a high indomethacin dose in healthy middle-aged individuals on two important predictors of falls: postural balance and reaction time. Twenty-two healthy middle-aged individuals (59.5 ± 4.7 years) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial. Three measurements were conducted with a week interval each. A measurement consisted of postural balance as a single task and while concurrently performing a secondary cognitive task and reaction time tasks. For the first measurement indomethacin 75 mg (slow-release) or a visually identical placebo was randomly assigned. In total, five capsules were taken orally in the 2.5 days preceding assessment. The second measurement was without intervention, for the final one the first placebo group got indomethacin and vice versa. Repeated measures GLM revealed no significant differences between indomethacin, placebo, and baseline in any of the balance tasks. No differences in postural balance were found between the single and dual task conditions, or on the performance of the dual task

  12. Primary lymphoproliferative conditions of lung.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A R; Seal, R M

    1978-04-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and pathological features of six primary lymphoproliferative conditions of the lung are described. These comprise two patients with malignant lymphomas, one with pseudolymphoma, one with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), one with lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and one with plasma cell granuloma. We recommend that the term 'premalignant lymphoma' be used for pseudolymphoma since the condition, although tending to remain localised, has a malignant potential. A combination of dyspnoea, cough, and pyrexia were the presenting features in our cases of premalignant and malignant lymphoma although they may often be discovered accidentally by chest radiography. The patient with LIP presented with the usual symptoms of dyspnoea and cough. The initial manifestations of the patient with lymphomatoid granulomatosis were skin radh and peripheral neuropathy nine months before the pulmonary symptoms, a not unusual occurrence. Plasma cell granuloma is often asymptomatic but our patient presented with cough, chest pain, haemoptysis. Premalignant lymphoma tends to pursue a benign course although exceptionally it may become disseminated. Malignant lymphoma may remain localised for many years but a significant proportion metastasise. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis and LIP have a varied course but both may terminate in malignant lymphoma. Plasma cell granuloma is always benign. The interrelationships of these conditions and their differential diagnosis are discussed.

  13. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  14. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-01

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  15. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional.

  16. Fatal accidental hanging by a high-chair waist strap in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Souheil, Mlayeh; Audrey, Farrugia; Anny, Geraut; Sebastien, Raul J; Bertrand, Ludes

    2011-03-01

    High chairs are commonly used to feed children after 6 months. Related injuries are oftentime minor and rarely leading to death. We describe a case of a 2-year-old female child who used to jump alone on her high chair and also had the habit to fasten the straps by herself. Her mother found her hanging by the waist straps. A thorough investigation showed that she climbed her high chair and fastened the waist straps but not the crotch one. The girl slid down into the seat, trapping her neck in the waist straps and thus resulting in hanging. In here, we concluded that the victim's death was caused by asphyxia, itself, caused by accidental hanging. The present case is of a special interest because of the rare similar cases reported. This case suggests that a correct restraint use and a close supervision would have prevented such a fatal issue.

  17. Immunological abnormalities 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A M; Wild, G; Ward, J D; Ward, A M

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen workers were reviewed 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin). Clinical assessment showed that they were in good health. A study of several biochemical and immunological parameters in these subjects and in 15 carefully matched controls showed no difference in serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes between exposed workers and controls. Although mean serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were higher in exposed subjects than in controls, the results did not reach statistical significance. Antinuclear antibodies and immune complexes were detected significantly more frequently in the peripheral blood of workers exposed to dioxin. There was no significant difference between exposed workers and controls in the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and helper and suppressor T cell counts in peripheral blood, but the number of natural killer cells identified by the monoclonal antibody Leu-7 was significantly higher in workers exposed to dioxin. PMID:3264183

  18. Physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falls before and after total knee arthroplasty: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, Annette; Allain, Theresa J

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal, observational study explored the relationship between physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falling, before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-seven patients were randomly selected from a larger study of falling before and after surgery conducted at a UK National Health Service Orthopaedic Unit. Physical performance tests were the Berg Balance Score (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Hand Grip Strength (HGS). Self-reported outcomes incorporated the Western Ontario and McMaster's Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Activities Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-UK), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and accidental falls. Paired pre- and postoperative data were available on 22 patients. A total of 22.7% patients fell before and after TKA. Postoperative improvement in BBS and TUG was found in 41% and 50% of patients, respectively, HGS did not change. BBS showed a consistent moderate-to-strong association with other physical tests both before and after surgery; TUG (rs -0.76; rs -0.90), maximal HGS (r 0.49; r 0.48), and self-report measures; ABC-UK (r 0.52; r 0.74), WOMAC stiffness (r -0.53; r -0.48), and WOMAC function (r -0.56; r -0.45). Although self-report questionnaires are an efficient, cost-effective approach to outcome assessment in TKA, there is a growing case for inclusion of physical performance tests. The Berg Balance Score may be a useful addition to outcome assessment in patients with TKA.

  19. Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2012-09-01

    In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE

  20. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 1. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

    1987-07-01

    This manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy includes monitoring the storage, handling, and use of certain chemicals and provides guidance to industry and communities. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature, rapidly absorbs moisture to form highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Hydrogen fluoride gas has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 20 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of hydrogen fluoride involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use hydrogen fluoride in the SCAQMD. The manual identifies examples of potential causes as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk.

  1. Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

  2. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  3. Effect of a Multi-Level Education Intervention Model on Knowledge and Attitudes of Accidental Injuries in Rural Children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bo-Ling; Shi, Xiu-Quan; Qi, Yong-Hong; Hui, Ya; Yang, Hua-Jun; Shi, Shang-Peng; Luo, Li-Rong; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Yang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of a school-family-individual (SFI) multi-level education intervention model on knowledge and attitudes about accidental injuries among school-aged children to improve injury prevention strategies and reduce the incidence of pediatric injuries. Methods: The random sample of rural school-aged children were recruited by using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling method in Zunyi, Southwest China from 2012 to 2014, and 2342 children were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Then children answered a baseline survey to collect knowledge and attitude scores (KAS) of accidental injuries. In the intervention group, children, their parents/guardians and the school received a SFI multi-level education intervention, which included a children’s injury-prevention poster at schools, an open letter about security instruction for parents/guardians and multiple-media health education (Microsoft PowerPoint lectures, videos, handbooks, etc.) to children. Children in the control group were given only handbook education. After 16 months, children answered a follow-up survey to collect data on accidental injury types and accidental injury-related KAS for comparing the intervention and control groups and baseline and follow-up data. Results: The distribution of gender was not significantly different while age was different between the baseline and follow-up survey. At baseline, the mean KAS was lower for the intervention than control group (15.37 ± 3.40 and 18.35 ± 5.01; p < 0.001). At follow-up, the mean KAS was higher for the intervention than control group (21.16 ± 3.05 and 20.02 ± 3.40; p < 0.001). The increase in KAS in the intervention and control groups was significant (p < 0.001; KAS: 5.79 vs. 1.67) and suggested that children’s injury-related KAS improved in the intervention group. Moreover, the KAS between the groups differed for most subtypes of incidental injuries (based on International Classification of

  4. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted

  5. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  6. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  7. 78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... adequately evaluate applicants' approach in modeling the movement of radioactivity and in assessing the... radioactivity to reach groundwater or surface water, while ISG-014 focuses on characterizing the hydro-geologic conditions of the site where radioactivity is assumed to enter groundwater or surface water and modeling...

  8. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée à la précipitation d'un carbonate alcalino-terreux et à la dissolution de sels par capillarité. Resumen La salinización es el proceso por el cual la concentración de sales disueltas en el agua o el suelo aumenta por causas naturales o antrópicas. El contenido de agua se reduce por uno o una combinación de los siguientes mecanismos: evaporación, evapotranspiración, hidrólisis y goteo entre acuíferos. La salinidad aumenta en la dirección del flujo subterráneo, desde los puntos de recarga hacia los de descarga. La salinización se puede explicar por dos modelos químicos que se pueden definir como erosión y deposición y que están de acuerdo con los clásicos procesos geológicos que tienen los mismos nombres. Se conocen cinco procesos de salinización de suelos ligados al agua o a la extracción de la misma en climas áridos o semiáridos. En todos los casos que se presentan el agua subterránea es el principal agente geológico de transmisión, acumulación y descarga de sales. A escala de pequeña cuenca, en Australia Occidental y del Sur, el agua se pierde mediante evapotranspiración e hidrólisis. El agua subterránea salina fluye a lo largo de los cauces de los arroyos y se acumula en los paleocanales, que actúan como depósitos, hasta que finalmente descarga en los lagos, donde se acumula la mayor parte de la salinidad. En los hummocks de la Zona Norte de los Grandes Llanos de Canadá y EEUU, la recarga localizada y el tipo de descarga provocan que la salinización tenga lugar fundamentalmente en las depresiones. A escala regional y en cuencas cerradas este mismo mecanismo provoca playas o lagos salinos. En los acuíferos continentales de los rift del Sudán, la salinidad se incrementa a lo largo de las líneas de flujo subterráneo y se concentra en el límite distal. La zona salina en cada rift forma una cresta cerrada que se manifiesta en los mapas piezométricos. El cuerpo o cuerpos salinos se formaron por evaporación, acoplada con la precipitación de carbonatos y la disolución de sales capilares.

  9. Measuring ICT Use and Contributing Conditions in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; Aesaert, Koen; van Braak, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) use became of major importance for primary schools across the world as ICT has the potential to foster teaching and learning processes. ICT use is therefore a central measurement concept (dependent variable) in many ICT integration studies. This data paper presents two datasets (2008 and 2011) that…

  10. Mathematics: Contributions by Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Jacqueline M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a core course in a women's-studies program at Loyola Marymount University. Provides information, resources, and an annotated bibliography useful for making students more aware of women's contributions to mathematics. Contains 38 references. (ASK)

  11. When does a conceptual framework become a theory? Reflections from an accidental theorist.

    PubMed

    Cousins, J Bradley

    2013-06-01

    In this short paper I reflect on the application of a program logic modeling approach to visualizing evaluation theory as it relates to practical participatory evaluation (PPE). The work of Hansen, Alkin and associates presented in this volume is well-thought out, carefully done, rigorous, and important. I found that their application of the approach resonated well with my understanding of PPE with a few notable exceptions. Specifically, the essence of the partnership aspect of the approach was underemphasized as was stakeholders' role in augmenting the credibility of evaluation findings and PPEs contribution to conceptual use. I then reminisce about the development and evolution of the participatory evaluation framework that we have been working with for so many years. I raise the point that we think of it as a theoretical framework to bound inquiry, not as an evaluation theory per se, which raises an interesting question: when does a theoretical framework become a theory?

  12. Deaths Due to Accidental Air Conditioner Compressor Explosion: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Bodwal, Jatin; Sikary, Asit K; Chauhan, Mohit Singh; Bijarnia, Manjul

    2017-01-01

    In an air-conditioning system, the compressor is a large electric pump that pressurizes the refrigerant gas as part of the process of turning it back into a liquid. The explosion of an air conditioner (AC) compressor is an uncommon event, and immediate death resulted from the blast effect is not reported in forensic literature. We report three such cases in which young AC mechanics were killed on the spot due to compressor blast, while repairing the domestic split AC unit. The autopsy findings, the circumstances leading to the explosion of the compressor, are discussed in this study.

  13. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  14. Accidental Peno-Scrotal Degloving Injuries in a Child. A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Oseni, O G; Olaitan, P B; Badmus, T O; Olajide, A O

    2013-01-01

    Injury to male external genitalia is very rare because of some intrinsic factors like location, strong investing tunica albuginea and cremasteric muscles. However, when it occurs it is considered a urological emergency. Child labour with poor understanding of risks and safety precautions, especially under harsh supervision, surely poses major challenges. This case illustrates degloving injury of the penis and avulsion of the scrotum in a young boy while operating a roller type machine used in palm trees plantation. The penis was primarily regloved and avulsed skin primarily repaired. A good cosmetic outcome was observed from this treatment. This case also illustrates the importance of early presentation and emergency intervention in this condition.

  15. Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.

    PubMed

    Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

    2012-04-10

    Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 μg/L to 5 μg/L, 631 μg/L to 129 μg/L and 3512 μg/g to 10 μg/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells.

  16. PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

  17. Application of EPR retrospective dosimetry for large-scale accidental situation.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, V G; Ivannikov, A I; Stepanenko, V F; Tsyb, A F; Khamidova, L G; Kondrashov, A E; Tikunov, D D

    2000-05-01

    Above 3000 tooth enamel samples, collected at population of radioactive contaminated territories after Chernobyl accident, the Chernobyl liquidators, the retired military of high radiation risk and the population of control radiation free territories were investigated by EPR spectroscopy method in order to obtain accumulated individual exposure doses. Results of EPR spectra measurements are stored in data bank; enamel samples are also stored in order to provide the possibility to repeat the measurements in future. Statistical analysis of results has allowed to detect the contribution into EPR signal in tooth enamel due to the action of the natural background radiation, and the radioactive contamination of territory. In general, the average doses of external exposure of the population obtained with EPR spectroscopy of teeth enamel are consistent with results based on other methods of direct and retrospective dosimetry. Essential exceeding of the individual doses above the average level within the population groups was observed for some persons. That gave the possibility to detect the individuals with overexposure, which were included into groups for medical monitoring.

  18. Protecting a HVDC link against accidental isolation from its receiving AC system

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, R.S. )

    1993-07-01

    When an HVdc scheme is isolated from its receiving ac system, the inverter may continue to operate, generating its own ac bus voltages; this is defined here as islanding. If islanding is allowed to continue unrestricted, then main circuit components may in some conditions be damaged and it is therefore necessary to provide a suitable protection system. This paper outlines the protection scheme developed for the McNeill Back-to-Back HVdc link in Alberta, Canada, to prevent damage due to islanding while still permitting the link to automatically restart on reclosure of the isolating breaker. Oscillograms showing the protection in operation on both the GEC ALSTHOM HVdc simulator and during tests carried out as part of the commissioning of the McNeill HV dc link are included.

  19. Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

    2005-05-16

    Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an

  20. Unsupervised invariance learning of transformation sequences in a model of object recognition yields selectivity for non-accidental properties

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sarah M.; Serre, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Non-accidental properties (NAPs) correspond to image properties that are invariant to changes in viewpoint (e.g., straight vs. curved contours) and are distinguished from metric properties (MPs) that can change continuously with in-depth object rotation (e.g., aspect ratio, degree of curvature, etc.). Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of shape processing have demonstrated greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs than in MPs. However, previous work has shown that such sensitivity is lacking in multiple-views models of object recognition such as Hmax. These models typically assume that object processing is based on populations of view-tuned neurons with distributed symmetrical bell-shaped tuning that are modulated at least as much by differences in MPs as in NAPs. Here, we test the hypothesis that unsupervised learning of invariances to object transformations may increase the sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in Hmax. We collected a database of video sequences with objects slowly rotating in-depth in an attempt to mimic sequences viewed during object manipulation by young children during early developmental stages. We show that unsupervised learning yields shape-tuning in higher stages with greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in agreement with monkey IT data. Together, these results suggest that greater NAP sensitivity may arise from experiencing different in-depth rotations of objects. PMID:26500528