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Sample records for accidental laboratory exposure

  1. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  2. Triage and Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposures to Biosafety Level-3 and -4 Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures. PMID:19634998

  3. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  4. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cardis, E

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed.

  5. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Management of accidental laboratory exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Sharon J; Schweizer, Herbert P; Dance, David A B; Smith, Theresa L; Gee, Jay E; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; DeShazer, David; Steinmetz, Ivo; Tan, Patrick; Currie, Bart J

    2008-07-01

    The gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte and the cause of melioidosis. Natural infection is most commonly reported in northeast Thailand and northern Australia but also occurs in other parts of Asia, South America, and the Caribbean. Melioidosis develops after bacterial inoculation or inhalation, often in relation to occupational exposure in areas where the disease is endemic. Clinical infection has a peak incidence between the fourth and fifth decades; with diabetes mellitus, excess alcohol consumption, chronic renal failure, and chronic lung disease acting as independent risk factors. Most affected adults ( approximately 80%) in northeast Thailand, northern Australia, and Malaysia have >/=1 underlying diseases. Symptoms of melioidosis may be exhibited many years after exposure, commonly in association with an alteration in immune status. Manifestations of disease are extremely broad ranging and form a spectrum from rapidly life-threatening sepsis to chronic low-grade infection. A common clinical picture is that of sepsis associated with bacterial dissemination to distant sites, frequently causing concomitant pneumonia and liver and splenic abscesses. Infection may also occur in bone, joints, skin, soft tissue, or the prostate. The clinical symptoms of melioidosis mimic those of many other diseases; thus, differentiating between melioidosis and other acute and chronic bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, is often impossible. Confirmation of the diagnosis relies on good practices for specimen collection, laboratory culture, and isolation of B. pseudomallei. The overall mortality rate of infected persons is 50% in northeast Thailand (35% in children) and 19% in Australia.

  7. [Management of accidental internal exposure].

    PubMed

    Fatome, M

    1994-11-01

    Radionucleides can penetrate into the body via the lung, the digestive tract, wounds and sometimes through healthy skin. Once they have penetrated the body, they can either remain localized at the site of entry or be rapidly metabolized. The risk is late effects. Radioelements must be eliminated as rapidly as possible decreasing the exposure proportionally. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on early institution. Nevertheless, emergency intensive care or surgery may be required. As soon as possible, explorations must be carried out to evaluate the level of contamination (human spectrometry, radiotoxicological examinations) and to start treatment. Modalities include non-specific techniques (lavage, insolubilization, laxatives) and specific techniques such as complexation or isotopic dilution (iodine for iodine, Prussian blue for cesium, DTPA for plutonium, Diamox or sodium bicarbonate for uranium). Surgical cleaning of wounds and burns is an excellent means of decontamination. External contamination is often associated. Further contamination must be prevented immediately.

  8. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  9. Avoiding accidental exposure to intravenous cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Meade, Elizabeth

    Many cytotoxic drugs have been shown to be mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic with second malignancies known to be associated with several specific cancer drugs. Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs presents a signification danger to healthcare staff and unwarranted handling of these drugs should be avoided. Guidelines have been established for the safe handling of hazardous drugs but not all professionals are adhering to these recommendations. Recent environmental studies have demonstrated measurable drug contamination on surfaces even when recommended guidelines are followed. It is therefore imperative that healthcare workers are aware of the potential hazards of antineoplastic agents and employ the recommended precautions to minimise exposure. This article outlines the potential risks associated with exposure to cytotoxic drugs for healthcare staff. The safe-handling precautions required in the storage, preparation, transport, administration and waste disposal of cytotoxic drugs are presented.

  10. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  11. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  12. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  13. Outcome of accidental peritoneal dialysis catheter holes or tip exposure.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Douglas M; Wilcox, Jennifer E

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are at risk for acute peritonitis. One risk factor is accidental exposure of the catheter to a non-sterile surface. We studied catheter exposures in 17 pediatric patients receiving PD who developed 16 holes and 12 other accidental exposures. The rate of exposures was 3.7 events/100 patient-months. After exposure, the mean counts (+ or - standard error) of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells, and neutrophils were 39.8 + or - 19.3, 9.5 + or - 7.1, and 24.2 + or - 5.3/mm(3), respectively. There was a trend towards higher peritoneal fluid WBC in patients with holes than in those with exposures (60.1 + or - 34.8 vs. 15.4 + or - 5.1/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.2). The initial peritoneal fluid WBC count was significantly higher if there was a positive culture than a negative culture (165.0 + or - 132.6 vs. 20.3 + or - 6.4/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.01). The percentage of neutrophils was higher in patients with a positive culture than in those with a negative culture (54.7 + or - 14.1 vs. 19.1 + or - 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Of the 28 patients, 27 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotics, as per the protocol at that time. Among those treated, 7% developed a positive culture (all staphylococcal species) while 93% had a negative culture. We conclude that following accidental exposure of the peritoneal dialysis catheter: (1) the prevalence of peritonitis is low; (2) measuring peritoneal fluid WBC provides treatment guidance; (3) if treatment is initiated, it should be applied intraperitoneally and include activity against Gram-positive organisms.

  14. Accidental mydriasis from exposure to Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens).

    PubMed

    Havelius, Ulf; Asman, Peter

    2002-06-01

    To report clinical findings after accidental instillation into the eye of sap from Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens). We report findings on seven patients who developed sudden onset of unilateral mydriasis. At least three of them also had ipsilateral cycloplegia and one developed transient tachycardia. The symptoms evolved after ocular exposure to sap from Angel's trumpet, a plant containing natural alkaloids with parasympatholytic properties. Six patients were initially unaware of the cause of their symptoms. In these cases, patient history revealed recent contact with Angel's trumpet. Accidental ocular instillation of sap from Angel's trumpet should be noted as a cause of sudden onset of mydriasis in otherwise unaffected patients and also of general symptoms like tachycardia.

  15. National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ecosystems Research Division of EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory, conducts research on organic and inorganic chemicals, greenhouse gas biogeochemical cycles, and land use perturbations that create stressor exposures and potentia risk

  16. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  17. Phosgene exposure: a case of accidental industrial exposure.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Lewis S; Wright, Edward; Pizon, Anthony F

    2014-03-01

    Phosgene is a rare exposure with strong clinical implications. We report a phosgene exposure that resulted in the patient's death. A 58 year-old man arrived to the emergency department 1 hour after exposure to phosgene with complaints of a sore throat. Initial vital signs were blood pressure 175/118 mmHg, heart rate 98/min, respirations 12/min, and oxygen saturation of 93% on room air. Physical exam revealed few scattered rhonchi, without signs of distress. Initial arterial blood gases (ABG's) revealed pH 7.42, pCO2 43 mmHg, pO2 68 mmHg, HCO3 27 meq/L, and oxygen saturation of 93% on room air. Initial chest x-ray 2 hours after the exposure demonstrated clear lung fields. Approximately 2.5 hours after the exposure, he began complaining of dyspnea, restlessness and his oxygen saturation dropped below 90%. He received nebulized albuterol, 1 gram intravenous methylprednisolone, and 100 % oxygen via face mask. Minimal improvement was noted and he was intubated. The post intubation chest x-ray, 3.5 hours after the exposure, revealed diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Acetylcysteine, terbutaline, and IV steroids were administered without improvement. The patient died 30 hours after exposure. There are many misunderstandings concerning phosgene due to its rare presentation. Traditional treatment modalities are often unproven in human trials and were unsuccessful in this case. This case highlights the significant toxicity that results from phosgene exposure and the challenges of the limited treatment modalities. There is concern for the use of this agent in chemical terrorism.

  18. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  19. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  20. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  1. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  2. Is your office prepared for an accidental needlestick or other unexpected exposure incident?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Roger E; Limes, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations and mandatory guidelines for preventing and managing needlestick incidents and other accidental exposures to bloodborne pathogens in healthcare facilities have been published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for more than 2 decades. Over the years, the incidence of official enforcement actions has declined and a complacency about the standards may have evolved in some dental offices. Some practitioners may not have written an occupational exposure incident protocol or made appropriate arrangements for medical laboratory testing and postexposure medical evaluation following an unexpected needlestick or other exposure incident in the office. When an unexpected event occurs, practitioners may become confused regarding the steps to be taken, and may turn to their local dental society or fellow practitioners for guidance. The provided information may or may not be complete, accurate and/or current. Implementation of periodic personnel training to prevent exposure incidents is extremely important and could ultimately save a dental practice thousands of dollars in expenses related to the occurrence of even one exposure incident, as well as save the life and/or career of a dental healthcare provider. This article does not comprehensively detail all infection control and bloodborne pathogen transmission prevention requirements for dental offices. Rather, the article provides suggestions for dental practitioners regarding the step by step management of exposure incidents, and provides resource information for additional steps that can be taken towards prevention, improved office compliance, and improved litigation protection.

  3. Chemical Structure and Accidental Explosion Risk in the Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Tips that laboratory researchers and beginning graduate students can use to safeguard against explosion hazard with emphasis on clear illustrations of molecular structure are discussed. Those working with hazardous materials must proceed cautiously and may want to consider alternative and synthetic routes.

  4. Chemical Structure and Accidental Explosion Risk in the Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Tips that laboratory researchers and beginning graduate students can use to safeguard against explosion hazard with emphasis on clear illustrations of molecular structure are discussed. Those working with hazardous materials must proceed cautiously and may want to consider alternative and synthetic routes.

  5. Accidental digitoxin intoxication: an interplay between laboratory and clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Luigi M; Negro, Sophie; Santi, Francesca; Zanotti, Isabella; Vidali, Matteo; Bagnati, Marco; Bellomo, Giorgio; Avanzi, Gian Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Two Italian adults arrived at the Emergency Department referring diarrhea, nausea and vomiting for 4 days; weakness, fatigue and visual hallucinations were also complained of. Patients reported the ingestion of some leaves of a plant, which they supposed to be “donkey ears”, a week before. Physical examination showed hypotension and bradycardia and ECG examination disclosed sinus rhythm and repolarization abnormalities (scooping of the ST-T complex) in both patients and a 2:1 AV block in the man. Materials and methods: Digoxin concentration was evaluated twice for each patient (at the admission and after 4 hours) by the automated immunoassay system ADVIA Centaur®. Digitoxin concentration was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: Despite clinical picture was suggestive of digitalis intoxication, digoxin levels were undetectable. Due to the more severe clinical picture, the male patient was treated with anti-digoxin antibodies (Digifab®) achieving a good clinical improvement and remission of the AV block within two hours. Initial diagnosis was confirmed by LC-MS/MS showing high digitoxin concentrations, but digoxin was undetectable. Patients remained stable and 48 hours later were discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: Whereas digoxin determination frequently relies on monoclonal antibodies which do not cross-react to digitoxin, polyclonal antibodies constituting Digifab® recognize a large spectrum of cardiac glycosides, including digitoxin. This report emphasizes the primary role of the clinical approach to patients in the emergency setting and how an active communication and a continuous sharing of professional experiences between Laboratory and Clinicians ensure an early and correct diagnosis. PMID:23092069

  6. Exposure assessment of laboratory students.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y M; DiBerardinis, L; Smith, T

    1999-08-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has two kinds of laboratories, teaching for undergraduate students and research laboratories for graduate students and research staff. The objective of this study is to determine chemical exposures during teaching and research activities. There are three hypotheses in this study: (1) Exposures in academic laboratories are well below health standards; (2) Students in undergraduate teaching laboratories have less chemical exposure compared to students in graduate research laboratories; and (3) Students in different disciplines are expected to have different exposures. From September 1996 to December 1996, 132 air samples were collected from both teaching and research laboratories in the departments of Material Sciences and Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Biology. The most frequently sampled chemicals in these three departments were cobalt, styrene, and formaldehyde, respectively. A total of 23 different agents were measured. In this study, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV)-short-term exposure limit (STEL) is used as the health-effect standard for exposure time less than four hours. The ACGIH TLV-TWA (time-weighted average) is used as the standard for exposure times equal to or greater than four hours. The ratio of measured concentrations to the appropriate ACGIH standard was then calculated. The geometric mean of the ratio for the total samples was 0.34 percent of the standards. There were 70 samples from teaching laboratories (geometric mean = 0.38% of the standards), and 62 samples from research laboratories (geometric mean = 0.08% of the standards). The chemical exposures relative to the standards in teaching laboratories were statistically higher than in research laboratories (p-value < 0.001). Information about personal protective equipment and the use of laboratory chemical hoods was also collected. The differences in use of personal protective

  7. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R. ); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-11-25

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  9. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  10. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

  11. Orofacial manifestations from accidental exposure to caesium 137 in Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M A; Wascheck, C de C; Scully, C; Almeida, O de P; Bozzo, L

    1990-08-01

    The accidental close exposure of over 200 adults and children to a caesium-137 (137Cs) source in Goiania, Brazil in 1987 produced significant short-term morbidity in about 50 patients, and four deaths within a few weeks. Some 57% of those maximally exposed to radiation, developed orofacial lesions, notably purpura, spontaneous bleeding, ulcers and/or acute candidiasis. These lesions were probably mainly the consequences of depression of bone marrow elements by the radionuclide. Though the oral lesions that may follow iatrogenic exposure to ionizing radiation are well recognized this appears to be the first report on the oral sequelae of a serious radiation accident.

  12. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children.

  13. Management of accidental exposure to HIV: the COREVIH 2011 activity report.

    PubMed

    Rouveix, E; Bouvet, E; Vernat, F; Chansombat, M; Hamet, G; Pellissier, G

    2014-03-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) relies on procedures allowing quick access to treatment in case of accidental exposure to viral risk (AEV). Occupational blood exposure (OBE) affects mainly caregivers; these accidents are monitored and assessed by the inter-regional center for nosocomial infections (C-CLIN), occupational physicians, and infection control units. They are classified apart from sexual exposure for which there is currently no monitoring. Data was extracted from the COREVIH (steering committee for the prevention of HIV infection) 2011 activity reports (AR), available online. Data collection was performed using a standardized grid. Twenty-four out of 28 AR were available online. Nine thousand nine hundred and twenty AEV were reported, 44% of OBE, and 56% of sexual and other exposures. PEP was prescribed in 8% of OBE and in 77% of sexual exposures. The type of PEP was documented in 52% of the cases. Follow-up was poorly documented. AR provide an incomplete and heterogeneous review of exposure management without any standardized data collection. The difficulties encountered in data collection and monitoring are due to differences in care centers (complex patient circuits, multiple actors) and lack of common dedicated software. Sexual exposures account for 50% of AEV and most are treated; but they are incompletely reported and consequently not analyzed at the regional or national level. A typical AR collection grid is being studied in 2 COREVIH, with the objective to improve collection and obtain useful national data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    PubMed

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies.

  15. Quantification of nerve agent VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct biomarker from an accidental exposure.

    PubMed

    Solano, Maria I; Thomas, Jerry D; Taylor, James T; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra A; Maggio, Vincent L; Holland, Kerry E; Smith, J Richard; Capacio, Benedict; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Ashley, David L; Barr, John R

    2008-01-01

    The lack of data in the open literature on human exposure to the nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) gives a special relevance to the data presented in this study in which we report the quantification of VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct from a relatively low-level accidental human exposure. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using the fluoride ion regeneration method for the quantification of multiple nerve agents including VX. Six human plasma samples from the same individual were collected after the patient had been treated once with oxime immediately after exhibiting signs of exposure. Detection limits of approximately 5.5 pg/mL plasma were achieved for the G-analogue of VX (G-VX). Levels of the G-VX ranged from 81.4 pg/mL on the first day after the exposure to 6.9 pg/mL in the sample taken 27 days after the exposure. Based on the reported concentration of human butyrylcholinesterase in plasma of approximately 80 nM, it can be calculated that inhibition levels of >or= 0.05% of BuChE can be accurately quantified. These data further indicate that the fluoride ion regeneration method is a potentially powerful tool that can be used to assess low-level exposure to VX.

  16. Elimination kinetics of metals after an accidental exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Karl H; Csanady, György; Filser, Johannes; Jüngert, Barbara; Drexler, Hans

    2007-07-01

    We had the opportunity to study the kinetics of metals in blood and urine samples of a flame-sprayer exposed to high accident-prone workplace exposure. We measured over 1 year, the nickel, aluminium, and chromium concentrations in blood and urine specimens after exposure. On this basis, we evaluated the corresponding half-lives. Blood and urine sampling were carried out five times after accidental exposure over a period of 1 year. The metals were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and Zeeman compensation with reliable methods. Either a mono-exponential or a bi-exponential function was fitted to the concentration-time courses of selected metals using weighted least squares non-linear regression analysis. The amount excreted in urine was calculated integrating the urinary decay curve and multiplying with the daily creatinine excretion. The first examination was carried out 15 days after exposure. The mean aluminium concentration in plasma was 8.2 microg/l and in urine, 58.4 microg/g creatinine. The mean nickel concentration in blood was 59.6 microg/l and the excretion in urine 700 microg/g creatinine. The mean chromium level in blood was 1.4 microg/l in urine, 7.4 microg/g creatinine. For the three elements, the metal concentrations in blood and urine exceeded the reference values at least in the initial phase. For nickel, the German biological threshold limit values (EKA) were exceeded. Aluminium showed a mono-exponential decay, whereas the elimination of chromium and nickel was biphasic in biological fluids of the accidentally exposed welder. The half-lives were as follows: for aluminium 140 days (urine) and 160 days (plasma); for chromium 40 and 730 days (urine); for nickel 25 and 610 days (urine) as well as 30 and 240 days (blood). The renal clearance of aluminium and nickel was about 2 l/h estimated for the last monitoring day.

  17. Accidental exposure to UV radiation produced by germicidal lamp: case report and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Camisa, Vincenzo; Lembo, Marco; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Tucci, Mario Graziano; Borra, Massimo; Napolitano, Antonio; Cannatà, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause both benefits and harmful effects on humans. The adverse effects mainly involve two target organs, skin and eye, and can be further divided into short- and long-term effects. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of two health-care workers to ultraviolet radiation produced by a germicidal lamp in a hospital pharmacy. The germicidal lamp presented a spectrum with an intense UV-C component as well as a modest UV-B contribution. Overexposure to UV-C radiation was over 100 times as large as the ICNIRP exposure limits. A few hours after the exposure, the two subjects reported symptoms of acute UV injury and both of them continued having significant clinical signs for over 2 years. In this study, we describe acute and potentially irreversible effects caused by high UV exposure. In addition, we present the results of risk assessment by occupational exposure to germicidal lamps. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 μg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. PMID:12777181

  19. Accidental occupational exposure of intravenous nurses to human immunodeficiency virus. Anticipating the consequences.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, J B

    1998-01-01

    This descriptive study randomly surveyed all 302 Massachusetts members of the Intravenous Nurses Society in 1991 regarding their perceptions of nine possible consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection caused by accidental occupational exposure. Areas of highest concern were financial: adequacy of worker's compensation, ability of the employer to cover all healthcare costs, and job security. Nurses also were concerned about confidentiality of their HIV status and personal history jeopardizing their benefits. The i.v. nurses felt most secure in areas of their personal lives: housing and support of family and friends. Although some concerns correlated significantly with fear of contagion, others were unrelated, indicating a need for policy and attitude changes to promote comfort in working with HIV.

  20. Accidental exposures to blood and body fluids among health care workers in dental teaching clinics: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, F; Ellison, J; Greenspan, D; Bird, W; Lowe, S; Gerberding, J L

    1997-09-01

    The authors evaluated accidental exposures to blood and body fluids reported to a hotline or to health officials at four dental teaching clinics. The authors used a standard questionnaire to solicit and record data regarding each exposure. During a 63-month period, 428 parenteral exposures to blood or body fluids were documented. Dental students and dental assistants had the highest rates of exposure. Syringe needle injuries were the most common type of exposure, while giving injections, cleaning instruments after procedures and drilling were the activities most frequently associated with exposures.

  1. Acute accidental exposure to chlorine gas: clinical presentation, pulmonary functions and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Alladi; Kumar, S Naveen; Rao, M H; Bollineni, S; Manohar, I Chiranjeevi

    2010-01-01

    To study the clinical presentation, pulmonary functions and outcomes in subjects who were accidentally exposed to chlorine gas. Prospective observational study of 64 patients who sustained acute accidental exposure to chlorine gas during a leak in the chlorination system of the public bathing pool of a temple. The major presenting symptoms and signs included acute dyspnoea (100%), chest discomfort (100%), cough (97%), eye irritation (88%), giddiness (72%), vomiting (46%), and heaviness in the head (44%); tachycardia (100%), tachypnoea (96%) and polyphonic wheezing (28%). All patients were managed in the emergency room with humidified oxygen inhalation and beta-2 agonist nebulisation and 52 were discharged within six hours. Twelve patients were severely affected and required hospitalisation; three of them were admitted into the intensive care unit. Three patients developed pulmonary oedema six to eight hours following admission. Pulmonary function testing (n = 12) at presentation revealed obstructive defect in eight and mixed obstructive-cum-restrictive defect in four patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.1 +/- 2.1 days. None of the patients died. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) was observed in three of the 12 hospitalised patients, who complained of manifested persistent cough that lasted for three months period following discharge. Serial pulmonary functions recovered to normal range by the end of the six months in all patients and remained so at one-year follow-up. Acute exposure to chlorine gas is an uncommon, but important public health hazard and can cause RADS, acute lung injury and pulmonary function abnormalities, which are reversible on prompt and appropriate management.

  2. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  3. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  4. Modeling of occupational exposure to accidentally released manufactured nanomaterials in a production facility and calculation of internal doses by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Moralejo, Celina; Jaén, María; Lopez De Ipiña Peña, Jesús; Neofytou, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and its potential health impacts are of scientific and practical interest, as previous epidemiological studies associate exposure to nanoparticles with health effects, including increased morbidity of the respiratory and the circulatory system. Objectives To estimate the occupational exposure and effective internal doses in a real production facility of TiO2 MNMs during hypothetical scenarios of accidental release. Methods Commercial software for geometry and mesh generation, as well as fluid flow and particle dispersion calculation, were used to estimate occupational exposure to MNMs. The results were introduced to in-house software to calculate internal doses in the human respiratory tract by inhalation. Results Depending on the accidental scenario, different areas of the production facility were affected by the released MNMs, with a higher dose exposure among individuals closer to the particles source. Conclusions Granted that the study of the accidental release of particles can only be performed by chance, this numerical approach provides valuable information regarding occupational exposure and contributes to better protection of personnel. The methodology can be used to identify occupational settings where the exposure to MNMs would be high during accidents, providing insight to health and safety officials. PMID:27670588

  5. Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

    2014-12-15

    On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner.

  6. Unintended and accidental medical radiation exposures in radiology: guidelines on investigation and prevention.

    PubMed

    Martin, Colin J; Vassileva, J; Vano, Eliseo; Mahesh, M; Ebdon-Jackson, Steve; Ng, K; Frush, Donald P; Loose, R; Damilakis, John

    2017-08-24

    This paper sets out guidelines for managing radiation exposure incidents involving patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology. The work is based on collation of experiences from representatives of international and national organizations for radiologists, medical physicists, radiographers, regulators, and equipment manufacturers, derived from an International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting. More serious overexposures can result in skin doses high enough to produce tissue reactions, in interventional procedures and computed tomography, most notably from perfusion studies. A major factor involved has been deficiencies in training of staff in operation of equipment and optimization techniques. The use of checklists and time outs before procedures commence, and dose alerts when critical levels are reached during procedures can provide safeguards to reduce risks of these effects occurring. However, unintended and accidental overexposures resulting in relatively small additional doses can take place in any diagnostic or interventional X-ray procedure and it is important to learn from errors that occur, as these may lead to increased risks of stochastic effects. Such events may involve the wrong examinations, procedural errors, or equipment faults. Guidance is given on prevention, investigation and dose calculation for radiology exposure incidents within healthcare facilities. Responsibilities should be clearly set out in formal policies, and procedures should be in place to ensure that root causes are identified and deficiencies addressed. When an overexposure of a patient or an unintended exposure of a foetus occurs, the foetal, organ, skin and/or effective dose may be estimated from exposure data. When doses are very low, generic values for the examination may be sufficient, but a full assessment of doses to all exposed organs and tissues may sometimes be required. The use of general terminology to describe risks from stochastic effects is recommended

  7. Human color vision deficits induced by accidental laser exposure and potential for long-term recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Lund, Brian J.; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Loveday, J.

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long term deficits in human color discrimination induced by accidental laser macular damage and assess potential for recovery of color vision deficits. Methods: Nine laser accident cases (Q-switched Neodymium) presenting initially with confined or vitreous macular hemorrhage were evaluated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test within 2 days to 3 months post exposure. Both total as well as partial errors in the blue/yellow (B/Y) and red/green (R/G) regions were assessed. Independent assessment of axis orientation and complexity were obtained via a Fourier series expansion of error scores. Comparisons of both total and partial B/Y and R/G errors were made with age matched normal subjects, idiopathic and juvenile onset macular holes. Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography characterized the presence of retinal traction, intraretinal scar, macular thickness and macular hole formation. Results: Comparison of exposed and non-exposed age matched individuals were significant (P<.001) for both total and partial errors. In four cases where macular injury ranged from mild scar to macular hole, color discrimination errors achieved normal levels in 1 to 12 months post exposure. A mild tritan axis, dominant B/Y ("blue/yellow") errors, and retinal traction were observed in a macular hole case. At 12 months post exposure, traction about the hole disappeared, and total and partial errors were normal. Where damage involved a greater degree of scarring, retinal traction and multiple injury sites, long term recovery of total and partial error recovery was retarded with complex axis makeup. Single exposures in the paramacula produced tritan axes, while multiple exposures within and external to the macula increased total and partial R/G ("red/green") error scores. Total errors increased when paramacular hole enlargement induced macular traction. Such hole formation produced significant increases in total errors, complex axis

  8. Accidental ammonia exposure to county fair show livestock due to contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Kasten, Steve; Banerjee, Monty

    2002-10-01

    Nitrogen based fertilizers represent an important element in the farm economy, but their storage and use are associated with major risks to livestock and humans. An accidental ammonia exposure occurred at a Midwest county fair in Illinois. Six deaths occurred in show livestock; a Holstein cow, 3 Holstein heifers, a goat, and a lamb. Mortality was associated with consumption of water inadvertently contaminated with a liquid fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate and urea commonly used for irrigating agricultural crop fields and brought onto the fairgrounds by a tanker truck previously used to transport liquid fertilizer. The show animals that drank the contaminated water immediately became ill, developed seizures and died within a few hours. Postmortem findings were unremarkable to nonspecific. Rumen contents from the lamb, Holstein cow, and Holstein heifer had ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of l,000, 1,150 and 1,440 ppm, respectively. Water from the heifer's water bucket, the cow's water bucket, and the tanker truck, had nitrate levels of 6,336, 6,116, and 6,248 ppm, respectively. The ammonia toxicosis was attributed to the contaminated water brought onto the fairgrounds by the tankertruck that previously transported liquid ammonium nitrateand urea. This accident underscores the importance of meticulous observation of safety guidelines and measured working practices in agriculture and animal husbandry.

  9. Effectiveness of common shelter-in-place techniques in reducing ammonia exposure following accidental release.

    PubMed

    Tarkington, Brett; Harris, Angela J; Barton, Paul S; Chandler, Ben; Goad, Phillip T

    2009-04-01

    Shelter-in-place strategies such as remaining indoors; breathing through a damp cloth; sealing cracks in windows and doors using towels, duct tape, or plastic sheeting; and running a shower are often recommended by emergency response officials to protect against accidental or intentional release of hazardous airborne chemicals and biologicals. Similar recommendations have been made to and used by community members exposed to anhydrous ammonia after catastrophic release of ammonia gas due to a derailment or other accidents. Such incidents have resulted in fatalities and serious injury to exposed individuals; however, other individuals within the same area have escaped injury and, in many cases, sustained no injuries as a result of sheltering-in-place. Although there are some studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of remaining in the home or breathing through a damp cloth to reduce exposure to various agents, there have been no studies that directly address the efficacy of running the shower in reducing exposure to ammonia gas. The present study was designed to simulate sheltering-in-place inside a typical bathroom with the shower running. The effectiveness of breathing through a damp cloth was also evaluated using a CPR mannequin placed inside a chamber built to represent a typical household bathroom. Ammonia gas at 300 or 1000 ppm was added to the chamber until the concentration peaked and stabilized, then the shower was turned on and the ammonia gas concentration was continuously monitored. In the mannequin studies, using a damp cloth reduced exposure to ammonia gas by 2- to 18-fold. Turning on the shower was even more effective at reducing ammonia levels. After 27 min, the ammonia concentration in the chamber was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration, even though gas was being continuously added to the chamber. These results indicate that use of shelter-in-place strategies substantially reduces ammonia exposure and that by combining shelter

  10. Accidental exposure to gas emissions from transit goods treated for pest control.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver; Göen, Thomas; Budnik, Lygia Therese

    2014-12-13

    International phytosanitary standards ISPM 15 require (since 2007) fumigation or heat treatment for shipping and storage. Those dealing with fumigated freight might be accidentally exposed. In this paper we report a series of three accidents of six storage room workers in a medium sized company regularly importing electronic production parts from abroad. Patients (n=6, aged from 32-54 yrs.) and control group (n=30, mean 40 yrs.) donated blood and urine samples. The fumigants: ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, chloropicrin, ethylene dichloride, other halo-alkanes and solvents were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS). For the quantitation of long term exposure/s, macromolecular reaction products (hemoglobin adducts) were used (with GCMS) as molecular dosimeter; additionally 8-OHdG and circulating mtDNA (cmtDNA) were analyzed as nonspecific biological effect markers. The hemoglobin adducts N-methyl valine (MEV) and N-(2-hydroxy ethyl) valine (HEV) were elevated after exposure to the alkylating chemicals methyl bromide and ethylene oxide. Under the consideration of known elimination kinetics and the individual smoking status (biomonitored with nicotine metabolite cotinine and tobacco specific hemoglobin adduct: N-(2 cyan ethyl) valines, CEV), the data allow theoretical extrapolation to the initial protein adduct concentrations at the time of the accident (the MEV/CEV levels were from 1,616 pmol/g globin to 1,880 pmol/g globin and HEV/CEV levels from 1,407 pmol/g globin to 5,049 pmol/g globin, and correlated with inhaled 0.4-1.5 ppm ethylene oxide. These integrated, extrapolated internal doses, calculated on the basis of biological exposure equivalents, confirmed the clinical diagnosis for three patients, showing severe intoxication symptoms. Both, cmtDNA and 8-OHdG, as non-specific biomarkers of toxic effects, were elevated in four patients. The cases reported here, stress the importance of a suitable risk assessment and control measures. We

  11. Accidental exposures to blood and body fluids among health care workers in a Referral Hospital of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nouetchognou, Julienne Stéphanie; Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Jemea, Bonaventure; Mbanya, Dora

    2016-02-15

    Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is a public health concern, especially among health workers and constitutes a risk of transmission of blood-borne viruses including HIV, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and the post exposure management of accidental exposures to blood and body fluid among health workers in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital. It was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted from the 1st to the 30th of September 2013. Self-administered questionnaires to health workers were used to collect data on self-reported accidents, circumstances and post-exposure management. Their knowledge on accidental exposure to blood was also assessed. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi Info software version 3.5.4. Descriptive analysis was performed to measure the importance of AEB and to evaluate the risk of contamination. One hundred and fifty health workers were interviewed among which 36.7 % reported having been exposed to blood and body fluid at least once in the preceding 3 months. Splash was the most reported injury (in 60.3 % of cases), followed by needle stick (28.7 %) and cuts (10.9 %). Moreover, 43.6 % of victims were not vaccinated against HBV, 7.3 % were not wearing gloves during the accident and 41 % of splash occurs on injured skin. The majority of victims belong to the surgical Department [20 %, p = 0.2310]. None of these injuries had been reported in the registry of accidental exposure to blood. There is a high rate of accidental exposure to blood and body fluid in the daily hospital routine. Preventives measures, including wearing of protective equipment's during care and vaccination against HBV are not systematically done among health workers. Health institution should develop and provide standard operating procedures targeting surveillance of occupational risks, staff training, and supervision.

  12. Determination of VX-G analogue in red blood cells via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following an accidental exposure to VX.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jeffrey M; Taylor, James T; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra M

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive method for determining exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX is described in which the biomarker ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (VX-G) is measured in red blood cells (RBCs) following treatment with fluoride ion using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte was isolated via solid-phase extraction and detected using ammonia chemical ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linear relationship was obtained in the quantitative concentration range of 4 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL with an absolute detection limit of < 1 pg on column. The method has been applied to the analysis of RBCs from a laboratory worker accidentally exposed to VX vapor. Detection and quantitation of VX-G were possible in samples taken as late as 27 days following exposure.

  13. Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.L.; Kimbrough, J.D.

    1985-11-01

    A gross anatomy laboratory for medical students was evaluated for formaldehyde levels throughout its eight-week term. Results indicated that exposures for students and instructors were below the 3-ppm permissible exposure limit (assuming a maximum of five hours of daily exposure) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. However, about one third of the eight-hour time-weighted-average exposures were greater than 1 ppm under the same assumptions. Exposure levels for students and instructors did not differ. Exposures tended to decrease over the term unless internal cadaver cavities were being dissected. These exposures are significant in light of the recent implication of formaldehyde as an animal carcinogen and the trend to reduce permissible levels to 1 ppm or lower.

  14. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Lockey, J.E.; Lee, J.S.; Kimball, A.C.; Bang, K.M.; Leaman, H.; Johns, R.E. Jr.; Perrota, D.; Gibbons, H.L.

    1984-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis.

  15. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians.

    PubMed Central

    Rom, W N; Lockey, J E; Lee, J S; Kimball, A C; Bang, K M; Leaman, H; Johns, R E; Perrota, D; Gibbons, H L

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years' grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis. PMID:6496819

  16. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  17. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  18. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-04-02

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  19. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  20. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  1. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  2. Immunological abnormalities 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A M; Wild, G; Ward, J D; Ward, A M

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen workers were reviewed 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin). Clinical assessment showed that they were in good health. A study of several biochemical and immunological parameters in these subjects and in 15 carefully matched controls showed no difference in serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes between exposed workers and controls. Although mean serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were higher in exposed subjects than in controls, the results did not reach statistical significance. Antinuclear antibodies and immune complexes were detected significantly more frequently in the peripheral blood of workers exposed to dioxin. There was no significant difference between exposed workers and controls in the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and helper and suppressor T cell counts in peripheral blood, but the number of natural killer cells identified by the monoclonal antibody Leu-7 was significantly higher in workers exposed to dioxin. PMID:3264183

  3. Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There are certain concerns regarding the safety for the environment and human health from the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) which leads to unintended exposures, as opposed to the use of ENPs for medical purposes. This review focuses on the unintended human exposure of ENPs. In particular, possible effects in the brain are discussed and an attempt to assess risks is performed. Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes) can translocate to the brain from different entry points (skin, blood, respiratory pathways). After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that several types of ENPs can have various biological effects in the nervous system. Some of these effects could also imply that ENPs can cause hazards, both acutely and in the long term. The relevance of these data for risk assessment is far from clear. There are at present very few data on exposure of the general public to either acute high dose exposure or on chronic exposure to low levels of air-borne ENPs. It is furthermore unlikely that acute high dose exposures would occur. The risk from such exposures for damaging CNS effects is thus probably very low, irrespective of any biological hazard associated with ENPs. The situation is more complicated regarding chronic exposures, at low doses. The long term accumulation of ENPs can not be excluded. However, we do not have exposure data for the general public regarding ENPs. Although translocation to the brain via respiratory organs and the circulation appears to be very low, there remains a possibility that chronic exposures, and/or biopersistent ENPs, can influence processes within the brain that are triggering or aggravating pathological processes. In

  4. Accidental exposures to blood and body fluid in the operation room and the issue of underreporting.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Miki; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Igawa, Junko; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Shirano, Michinori; Matsushima, Aki; Saito, Takashi; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    A retrospective review of all exposure injuries affecting members of the operative care line at a single university hospital between January 2000 and December 2007 was performed. A questionnaire survey on current status of adherence to barrier precautions was also completed by 164 staff members. Of 136 exposure injuries, 87 (64.0%) were in surgeons, and 49 (36.0%) were in scrub nurses. Surgeons were most commonly injured during suturing (49, 56%), followed by "handing over sharps" (7, 8%), whereas scrub nurses were most commonly injured during "counting and sorting of sharps" (15, 41%), followed by "handing over sharps," and "splash." The questionnaire survey revealed that compliance with goggles, face shields, and double gloving was poor, and only 9% of respondents routinely used the hands-free technique. Only 22% of staff who had experienced exposure injuries reported every incident. Because circumstances of exposure injuries in operating rooms differ by profession, appropriate preventive measures should address individual situations. To reduce exposure injuries in the operating room, further efforts are required including education, mentoring, and competency training for operation personnel.

  5. Accidental exposure to electromagnetic fields from the radar of a naval ship: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Moen, Bente E; Møllerløkken, Ole Jacob; Bull, Nils; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2013-01-01

    Part of a crew on a Norwegian naval ship was exposed to the radar waves for approximately 7 min from an American destroyer during an incident at sea in August 2012. Information about the exposure was not given by the navy. This is a description of what happened with the crew on board after this event. 14 persons had been on the ship bridge or outside on the deck during the exposure and the rest of the crew had been inside the ship. 27 persons were examined at a hospital 6-8 months after the event, as they had developeda large number of symptoms from different organ systems. They were very worried about all types of possible adverse health effects due to the incident. All were examined by an occupational physician and anophthalmologist, by an interview, clinical examinations and blood tests at the hospital. The interview of the personnel revealed that they had not experienced any major heating during the episode. Their symptoms developed days or weeks after the radar exposure. They had no objective signs of adverse health effects at the examination related to the incident. Long-term health effect from the exposure is highly unlikely. The development of different symptoms after the incident was probably due to the fear of possible health consequences. Better routines for such incidents at sea should be developed to avoid this type of anxiety.

  6. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure Resulting from Accidental Radioactive Releases to the Hydrosphere.

    SciTech Connect

    1982-11-18

    Version 00 LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-D) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  7. Analysis for Plasma Protein Biomarkers Following an Accidental Human Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    be described in brief here. Within 2 h of the munition’s destruction, one of the individuals (a 35-year- old male) noticed a tingling sensation on one...arm and then showered. The next morning (approximately 14 h after the liquid contact), he had developed painful areas of the hand with noticeable...including the lack of pain during the chemical exposure, the time sequence of the development of blisters, and the "string of pearls" pattern of the blisters

  8. Chromosome Damage Caused by Accidental Chronic Whole-Body Gamma Radiation Exposure in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dolling, J.; Lavoie, J.; Mitchel, R. E. J.; Boreham, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2000, a radiation incident involving a medical 60Co source occurred in a metal scrapyard in Thailand. Several individuals were suspected to have received chronic or fractionated exposures ranging from a few mGy to a several Gy. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to paint chromosomes, we determined the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 13 people who entered the scrapyard, 3 people who involved in recovering the source, and 9 nearby residents. Aberration frequencies greater than controls were observed in 13 of the donors at 3 months postexposure. The predominant form of aberration observed was simple, complete, symmetrical translocations. An approximate 50% decrease in these aberrations and in total color junctions was observed in 7 donors resampled at 16 months postexposure. Although high, acute exposures are known to have detrimental effects, the biological consequences of chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposures are unclear. Thirteen of the donors had elevated aberration frequencies, and 6 also had symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. If there are any long-term health consequences of this incident, it will most likely occur among this group of individuals. The consequences for the remaining donors, who presumably received lower total doses delivered at lower dose rates, are less clear. PMID:26740811

  9. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  10. Evaluating the Radiation From Accidental Exposure During a Nondestructive Testing Event.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lin, Jao-Perng; Lin, Chun-Chih

    2015-08-01

    Industrial radiography is a common nondestructive testing (NDT) method used in various industries. An investigation was conducted for a 1999 incident in Taiwan where two workers (Operators A and B) were accidently exposed to an unshielded Ir source while conducting industrial radiography. Operators A and B experienced acute close-range radiation exposure to a source of Ir for 3 h at a strength of 2.33 × 10 Bq. The health of mammary glands, bone marrow, thyroid glands, eyes, and genital organs of these two workers after radiation exposure was examined. Subsequently, Operator A experienced severe radiation injury, including tissue necrosis and keratinization in the fingers, chromosomal abnormalities, reduced blood cell count, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, opaque spots in the crystalline lens, and related radiation effects. The results showed that the left index finger and thumb, eyes, and gonads of Operator A were exposed to a radiation dose of about 369-1,070, 23.1-67.4, 2.4-5.3, and 4.2-11.6 Gy, respectively. Effective dose for Operator A was estimated to range from 6.9 to 18.9 Sv. The left fingers, thumb, eyes, and gonads of Operator B were exposed to a radiation dose of 184.9-646.2, 11.8-40.7, 0.49-3.33, and 0.72-7.18 Gy, respectively, and his effective dose was between 2.5 and 11.5 Sv. This accident indicated a major flaw in the control and regulation of radiation safety for conducting NDT industrial radiography in 1999; however, similar problems still exist. Modifications of the Ionizing Radiation Protection Act in Taiwan are suggested in this study to regulate the management of NDT industries, continually educate the NDT workers in radiation safety, and enact notification provisions for medical care systems toward acute radiation exposure events.

  11. Collective radiation biodosimetry for dose reconstruction of acute accidental exposures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pass, B

    1997-01-01

    Quantification of the biologically relevant dose is required to establish cause and effect between radiation detriment or burden and important biological outcomes. Most epidemiologic studies of unanticipated radiation exposure fail to establish cause and effect because researchers have not been able to construct a valid quantification of dose for the exposed population. However, no one biodosimetric technique (biophysical or biological) meets all the requirements of an ideal dosimeter. This paper reviews how the collection of biodosimetric data for victims of radiation accidents can be used to create a dosimetric "gold standard." Particular emphasis is placed on the use of electron spin resonance, a standard for radiation accident dosimetry. As an example of this technique, a review will be presented of a previously reported study of an individual exposed to a 60Co sterilization source. PMID:9467051

  12. Appearance of pseudo-Pelger Huet anomaly after accidental exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goans, Ronald E; Iddins, Carol J; Christensen, Doran; Wiley, Albert; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the morphology of formed elements of human blood after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo, archival smears of peripheral blood from eight individuals involved in the 1958 Y-12 criticality accident at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were examined manually by light microscopy. For each case, increased interlobar bridging was observed in nuclei of the myeloid cells, many of which were bilobed and morphologically similar to Pelger Huet (PH) cells. The high-dose group (n = 5, 2.98-4.61 Gy-Eq) exhibited 13.0 ± 0.85% PH cells (mean ± SEM) in the neutrophil population compared to 6.8 ± 1.6% in the low-dose group (n = 3, 0.29-0.86 Gy-Eq; p = 0.008). An age- and gender-matched control group (n = 8) exhibited 3.6 ± 0.9% PH cells. Results of a one-way ANOVA show that the high-dose group is statistically different from both the low-dose group and the control group (p = 0.002). However, the low-dose group is not statistically different from the control group (p = 0.122). The mean number of nuclear lobes in blood neutrophils was also enumerated as a function of time after exposure and was found to be diminished, consistent with incomplete nuclear segmentation that is characteristic of the Pelger Huet anomaly (PHA). In contrast to these changes in myeloid cells, the morphology of erythrocytes and platelets appeared to be normal. The authors conclude that ionizing radiation induces abnormal morphology of circulating neutrophils, which is similar to the pseudo-PHA that is acquired in disorders such as myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, and leukemoid reactions. Potential molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces this morphological change are discussed. From this cohort, the biomarker appears to be present early post-accident (<9 h) and stable at least up to 16 y post-accident. Assessment of circulating pseudo-Pelger Huet cells is being investigated as a potential biodosimetric tool.

  13. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Roda, E.; Vecchio, S.; Apostoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg) vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg) monitoring were performed from admission (t0), until 1 year later (t2), paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs). At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5), associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0). At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test), BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes). At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending), gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp.) and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes). Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring. PMID:27872646

  14. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS AT EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing, applying, and evaluating population-based exposure models to improve our understanding of the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants. Estimates of population variability are needed for E...

  15. PM₁₀ exposure and non-accidental mortality in Asian populations: a meta-analysis of time-series and case-crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yin; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM₁₀) exposure and non-accidental mortality in Asian populations by meta-analysis, using both time-series and case-crossover analysis. Among the 819 published studies searched from PubMed and EMBASE using key words related to PM₁₀ exposure and non-accidental mortality in Asian countries, 8 time-series and 4 case-crossover studies were selected for meta-analysis after exclusion by selection criteria. We obtained the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of non-accidental mortality per 10 µg/m³ increase of daily PM₁₀ from each study. We used Q statistics to test the heterogeneity of the results among the different studies and evaluated for publication bias using Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Testing for heterogeneity showed significance (p<0.001); thus, we applied a random-effects model. RR (95% CI) per 10 µg/m³ increase of daily PM₁₀ for both the time-series and case-crossover studies combined, time-series studies relative risk only, and case-crossover studies only, were 1.0047 (1.0033 to 1.0062), 1.0057 (1.0029 to 1.0086), and 1.0027 (1.0010 to 1.0043), respectively. The non-significant Egger test suggested that this analysis was not likely to have a publication bias. We found a significant positive association between PM₁₀ exposure and non-accidental mortality among Asian populations. Continued investigations are encouraged to contribute to the health impact assessment and public health management of air pollution in Asian countries.

  16. Strategic Plan for the ORD National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has a valued reputation for supporting the Agency’s mission of protecting human health and the environment with multidisciplinary expertise that brings cutting-edge research and technology to address critical exposure questions and...

  17. Strategic Plan for the ORD National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has a valued reputation for supporting the Agency’s mission of protecting human health and the environment with multidisciplinary expertise that brings cutting-edge research and technology to address critical exposure questions and...

  18. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  19. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  20. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  1. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  2. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  3. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  4. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  5. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  6. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  7. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is performing research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This act requires that pesticide exposure assessments to be conducted for all potential sources, rou...

  8. Chemical exposures in research laboratories in a university.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shiro; Okamoto, Satoru; Yamada, Chikahisa; Ukai, Hirohiko; Samoto, Hajime; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2008-04-01

    Research laboratories in a university were investigated for air-borne levels of legally designated organic solvents and specified chemical substances. Repeated surveys in 2004-5 (four times in the two years) of about 720 laboratories (thus 2,874 laboratories in total) revealed that the solvent concentrations were in excess of the Administrative Control Levels only in a few laboratories (the conditions improved shortly after the identification) and none with regard to specified chemicals. Thus, working environments were in Control Class 1 in almost all (99.5%) laboratories examined. Such conditions were achieved primarily by extensive installation and use of local exhaust systems. The survey further revealed that types of chemicals used in research laboratories were extremely various (only poorly covered by the regulation) whereas the amounts of each chemical to be consumed were quite limited. For protection of health of researchers (including post- and under-graduate students) in laboratories, therefore, it appeared more appropriate to make personal exposure assessment rather than evaluation of levels of chemicals in air of research laboratories. Considering unique characteristics of research activity, it is important to educate each researcher to make his/her own efforts to protect his/her health, through supply of knowledge on toxicity of chemicals as well as that on proper use of protective equipments including exhaust chambers.

  9. Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J.; Davis, J.S.; Dukes, L.L.; Hansen, D.J.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Sutherland, P.J.

    1997-07-01

    Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex.

  10. User's manual for LPGS: a computer program for calculating radiation exposure resulting from accidental radioactive releases to the hydrosphere

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1982-11-01

    The LPGS computer program was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-D) river. The program is principally designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota is estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radio-nuclides. Optionally, a tabulated user-supplied release model can be input. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  11. Accidental injuries associated with nonhuman primate exposure at two regional primate research centers (USA): 1988-1993.

    PubMed

    bin Zakaria, M; Lerche, N W; Chomel, B B; Kass, P H

    1996-06-01

    Although occupationally acquired zoonoses of nonhuman primates have been well documented, the epidemiology of work-related injuries associated with occupational exposure to nonhuman primates has not been studied. To investigate such injuries, we retrospectively reviewed injury records at one regional primate research center and distributed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire to at-risk personnel at two centers. Records of bite, animal-inflicted scratch, needlestick, cut, and mucous membrane exposure injuries were reviewed at one center for the 5-year period 1988 to 1993 to determine incidence and frequency of injuries and to identify possible risk factors. A total of 261 injuries were reported during this period, with an annual incidence for all injuries combined ranging from 43.5 to 65.5 injuries per 100,000 person workdays (pwd) at risk. For specific injuries the highest incidence was observed for animal-inflicted scratches and bites, with a rate of 82 and 81 per 100,000 pwd respectively. The job category Veterinary Resident was found to have the highest incidence for needlestick injuries (547 per 100,000 pwd), scratches (239 per 100,000 pwd), and cuts (171 per 100,000 pwd). The highest rates for bites were observed in the job categories Animal Health Technician and Animal Technician, with 171 and 150 per 100,000 pwd respectively; the category Staff Veterinarian had the highest rate of mucous membrane exposures (71 per 100,000 pwd). The frequency of all injuries was greatest in personnel employed < or = 2 years. Questionnaire responses indicated that having > 20 h per week of contact with nonhuman primates or contact with more than 50 nonhuman primates per week was associated with a significantly increased risk of bites, animal-inflicted scratches, needlesticks, and mucous membrane exposures. In addition, data analysis indicated that under-reporting of work-related injuries was high; 59% of scratches, 50% of mucous membrane exposures, 45% of cuts, 37% of

  12. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  13. Exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine drug laboratories in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jackie; Edwards, John; Walker, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in residential homes may represent significant hazards and exposures not only to those involved in the manufacture of the drugs but also to others living in the home (including children), neighbours and first responders to the premises. These hazards are associated with the nature and improper storage and use of precursor chemicals, intermediate chemicals and wastes, gases and methamphetamine residues generated during manufacture and the drugs themselves. Many of these compounds are persistent and result in exposures inside a home not only during manufacture but after the laboratory has been seized or removed. Hence new occupants of buildings formerly used to manufacture methamphetamine may be unknowingly exposed to these hazards. Children are most susceptible to these hazards and evidence is available in the literature to indicate that these exposures may result in immediate and long-term adverse health effects. The assessment of exposure within the home can be undertaken by measuring contaminant levels or collecting appropriate biological data from individuals exposed. To gain a better understanding of the available data and key issues associated with these approaches to the characterisation of exposure, a review of the published literature has been undertaken.

  14. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  15. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  16. Enabling laboratory EUV research with a compact exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Tempeler, Jenny; Kim, Hyun-su; Loosen, Peter; Juschkin, Larissa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the capabilities of the designed and realized extreme ultraviolet laboratory exposure tool (EUVLET) which has been developed at the RWTH-Aachen, Chair for the Technology of Optical Systems (TOS), in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT) and Bruker ASC GmbH. Main purpose of this laboratory setup is the direct application in research facilities and companies with small batch production, where the fabrication of high resolution periodic arrays over large areas is required. The setup can also be utilized for resist characterization and evaluation of its pre- and post-exposure processing. The tool utilizes a partially coherent discharge produced plasma (DPP) source and minimizes the number of other critical components to a transmission grating, the photoresist coated wafer and the positioning system for wafer and grating and utilizes the Talbot lithography approach. To identify the limits of this approach first each component is analyzed and optimized separately and relations between these components are identified. The EUV source has been optimized to achieve the best values for spatial and temporal coherence. Phase-shifting and amplitude transmission gratings have been fabricated and exposed. Several commercially available electron beam resists and one EUV resist have been characterized by open frame exposures to determine their contrast under EUV radiation. Cold development procedure has been performed to further increase the resist contrast. By analyzing the exposure results it can be demonstrated that only a 1:1 copy of the mask structure can be fully resolved by the utilization of amplitude masks. The utilized phase-shift masks offer higher 1st order diffraction efficiency and allow a demagnification of the mask structure in the achromatic Talbot plane.

  17. Global quantification of γH2AX as a triage tool for the rapid estimation of received dose in the event of accidental radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Viau, Muriel; Testard, Isabelle; Shim, Grace; Morat, Luc; Normil, Marie D; Hempel, William M; Sabatier, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The phosphorylation of the H2AX histone to form γH2AX foci has been shown to be an accurate biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure. It is well established that there is a one-to-one correlation between the number of γH2AX foci and radiation-induced double strand breaks in cellular DNA, which can be translated to the received dose. However, manual counting of foci is time-consuming, and cannot accommodate high throughput analysis required to obtain rapid results for medical triage purposes in the case of large-scale accidental exposure. Furthermore, the accuracy of γH2AX measurements could potentially be compromised by delays between the time of exposure and analysis of results, as well as inter-cellular and inter-individual variability of this biological response. To evaluate more rapid approaches of quantifying γH2AX for use in an emergency situation, and to determine the impact of inter-individual variability, we compared two methods of global γH2AX fluorescence quantification (low magnification immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry) to the well-established γH2AX foci scoring method in human primary fibroblasts. All three approaches were well correlated, indicating that global γH2AX fluorescence measurements are suitable for dose estimation. For rapid triage in an emergency situation, we propose the use of flow cytometry, as it is more highly correlated with foci scoring and because of the speed and ease of the method. Dose response curves (0.25-6Gy) using flow cytometry measurements showed that inter-individual variability in global γH2AX fluorescence is statistically insignificant at 4h post-irradiation. Based on these data, we propose calibration curves that can be applied to populations exposed to moderate radiation doses to estimate individual received doses, independent of individual radiosensitivity, at this specific time point post-irradiation using human fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Furthermore, we define three triage categories that

  18. Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory--personal exposure level is higher than indoor concentration.

    PubMed

    Ohmichi, Kimihide; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Takanashi, Yoshimitsu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kadota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Mamiko; Toyama, Yoshiro; Tatsugi, Yukitoshi; Kohno, Toshihiko; Ohmichi, Masayoshi; Mori, Chisato

    2006-03-01

    Cadavers for gross anatomy laboratories are usually prepared by using embalming fluid which contains formaldehyde (FA) as a principal component. During the process of dissection, FA vapors are emitted from the cadavers, resulting in the exposure of medical students and their instructors to elevated levels of FA in the laboratory. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has set a ceiling limit for FA at 0.3 ppm. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has set an air quality guideline defining two limit values for environmental exposure to FA: 0.08 ppm as an average for general workplaces and 0.25 ppm for specific workplaces such as an FA factory. Although there are many reports on indoor FA concentrations in gross anatomy laboratories, only a few reports have described personal FA exposure levels. The purpose of the present study was to clarify personal exposure levels as well as indoor FA concentrations in our laboratory in order to investigate the relationship between them. The gross anatomy laboratory was evaluated in the 4th, 10th and 18th sessions of 20 laboratory sessions in total over a period of 10 weeks. Air samples were collected using a diffusive sampling device for organic carbonyl compounds. Area samples were taken in the center and four corners of the laboratory during the entire time of each session (4-6 hours). Personal samples were collected from instructors and students using a sampling device pinned on each person's lapel, and they were 1.1 to 6 hours in duration. Analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. Room averages of FA concentrations were 0.45, 0.38 and 0.68 ppm for the 4th, 10th and 18th sessions, respectively, ranging from 0.23 to 1.03 ppm. These levels were comparable to or relatively lower than the levels reported previously, but were still higher than the guideline limit for specific workplaces in Japan and the ACGIH ceiling limit. The indoor FA concentrations

  19. An overview of human exposure modeling activities at the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Furtaw, E J

    2001-06-01

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessment paradigm. In exposure assessment, we analyze the source-to-dose sequence of processes, in which pollutants are released from sources into the environment, where they may move through multiple environmental media, and to human receptors via multiple pathways. Exposure occurs at the environment-human interface, where pollutants are contacted in the course of human activities. Exposure may result in a dose, by which chemicals enter the body through multiple portals of entry, primarily inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Within the body, absorbed pollutants are distributed to, metabolized within, and eliminated from various organs and tissues, where they may cause toxicologic responses or adverse health effects. The NERL's modeling efforts are directed at improving our understanding of this sequence of processes, by characterizing the various factors influencing exposures and dose, and their associated variabilities and uncertainties. Modeling at the NERL is one of three essential programmatic elements, along with measurements and methods development. These are pursued interactively to advance our understanding of exposure-related processes. Exposure models are developed and run using the best currently available measurement data to simulate and predict population exposure and dose distributions, and to identify the most important factors and their variabilities and uncertainties. This knowledge is then used to guide the development of improved methods and measurements needed to obtain better data to improve the assessment and reduce critical uncertainties. These models and measurement results are tools that can be used in risk assessments and in risk management decisions in order

  20. Accidental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in waste cargo after heavy seas. Global waste transport as a source of PCB exposure.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Wegner, Ralf; Rogall, Ulrich; Baur, Xaver

    2014-02-01

    After cargo with PCB-containing transformer oil waste was damaged in heavy seas, the vessel crew exposed to PCB developed itching and acne-form eruption of the skin. The objective of our study was to analyse this work-related incident and its effects on health. Air and wipe test samples were taken in the ship for analysis of PCB (28/52/101/138/153/180); clinical investigations of all seafarers (n = 6) included lung function, chest X-ray, clinical chemistry and biomonitoring (plasma PCBs, chlorophenols in urine) measured after a latency of 7 weeks. The biomonitoring data were adjusted according to age-related reference values and validated against controls (n = 96). Biomonitoring showed elevated PCB-28-/52/-102/-138 congeners (mean 1.16/0.91/136, ∑PCB: 5.82 μg/l), which correlates with the dust samples from the cargo hold (∑PCB. 9,440 mg/m(2)) and with 6.1 and 5.0 μg/m(3) in stern and bow cargo air samples. IgE elevation in two seafarers and substantial blood sedimentation rate increase with anaemia or pulmonary emphysema were unlikely to be caused by PCB exposure. Although two members showed slightly elevated airway resistance values, other lung function parameters were normal and reactive airways dysfunction syndrome due to PCBs could be excluded. Elevated chlorophenols in urine could contribute to the manifestation of chloracne. PCB-52/-101/-138 found in plasma and in air samples confirm exposure to PCB. Acne-form skin eruptions were from occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in the spilt transformer oil. There were no other abnormal findings in medical and clinical examinations that could be attributed to PCBs. This does not exclude possible long-term effects.

  1. Carbonaceous particles and stone damage in a laboratory exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbioni, C.; Zappia, G.; Gobbi, G.

    1996-08-01

    The interaction between carbonaceous particles and stones used in historic buildings and monuments was investigated in a laboratory exposure system. Simulation experiments were carried out in a flow chamber where temperature, relative humidity, and SO2 concentration were controlled. Samples of carbonate stones (Carrara marble, Travertine, and Trani stone) were exposed for 150 days in air with 3 ppm of SO2 concentration at 25°C and 95% relative humidity. The stone specimens were coated with three types of carbonaceous particles (P1, P2, and P3) collected at the emission points of three oil-fueled combustion sources: one centralized domestic heating plant and two electricity generating stations. For comparison, particles of activated carbon and graphite were also deposited on the stone samples. After exposure, samples were analyzed by X ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy to identify the main chemical species, by ion chromatography to quantify SO4= and SO3= concentrations, and also by scanning electron microscope. The results show that the amount of SO4= formed increases in the presence of carbonaceous particles and is related to their heavy metal content.

  2. [My accidental discovery].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    We wonder what we should do in medical care besides daily routine work as a laboratory technician. I made a discovery in my routine laboratory work, which gave me a theme for my research. This led to me successfully completing a number of scientific research projects, and these experiences have enabled me to be able to give advice on appropriate treatments for infectious diseases in medical care. It was March 1999 when I identified Escherichia coli (E. coli) in an intra-abdominal abscess resistant to antibacterial agents. The E. coli was producing an enzyme, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL), that breaks down cefem-group antibiotics often used in Japan. Therefore, it was resistant to those antimicrobial agents. Detailed analysis was performed by us and researchers of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, which revealed that the E. coli had a SHV12 genotype of ESBL. It was the first case report of this type of ESBL-producing E. coli infection in Japan. After this experience, I became interested in searching for the mechanism of resistance to antibiotics with various kinds of approaches, such as a method involving genomic analysis by the polymerase-chain reaction (PCR), therapeutic management of drug-resistant bacterial infection, and so on, through which I learned a series of investigative approaches. Since I had plenty of data and experiences generated from routine work, I could perform novel studies and obtained many interesting findings. I am feeding back these findings to routine work in order to improve my performance. From my experience, we should look for the seeds for research from routine work as much as possible, and knowledge and experience generated by resolving problems teaches us how to perform in a clinical setting. This may lead to the further development of our research, which, in turn, promotes the accumulation of knowledge and experience. This feed-forward cycle enables laboratory technicians to improve their quality of work. This I

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE U.S. EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessm...

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE U.S. EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessm...

  5. EPA/ORD NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY MEASUREMENT SCIENCE SUPPORT FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product describes the National Exposure Research Laboratory research and development support for homeland security through the proposed National Exposure Measurements Center (NEMC). Key NEMC functional areas depicted in this poster are: standardized analytical method develo...

  6. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... underwear or pads Diarrhea Constipation How will my health care provider diagnose the cause of my accidental bowel ...

  7. IMPORTANT EXPOSURE FACTORS FOR CHILDREN AN ANALYSIS OF LABORATORY AND OBSERVATIONAL FIELD DATA CHARACTERIZING CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to facilitate more realistic risk assessments that take into account unique childhood vulnerabilities to environmental toxicants, the U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) developed a framework for systematically identifying and addressing the most ...

  8. IMPORTANT EXPOSURE FACTORS FOR CHILDREN AN ANALYSIS OF LABORATORY AND OBSERVATIONAL FIELD DATA CHARACTERIZING CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to facilitate more realistic risk assessments that take into account unique childhood vulnerabilities to environmental toxicants, the U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) developed a framework for systematically identifying and addressing the most ...

  9. 78 FR 4324 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory Appendix); Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in... appendix in OSHA's Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard. The non-mandatory... entitled, ``Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards,''...

  10. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  11. Oxygen consumption of zooplankton as affected by laboratory and field Cadmium exposures. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Kettle, W.D.; deNoyelles, F. Jr.; Lei, C.H.

    1980-10-01

    Virtually none of the many studies of the responses of aquatic organisms to heavy metals has involved organism response to heavy metals under natural, whole system exposure. The ability of laboratory studies to simulate and predict actual field conditions and responses remains questionable. The effects of cadmium exposure on zooplankton has been measured in laboratory studies and in enclosures placed in the field. However, studies involving zooplankton subjected to field exposure of cadmium are lacking. The objectives of this experiment were to measure oxygen consumption, survivorship, and reproduction of Daphnia pulex and Simocephalus serrulatus in response to low level cadmium exposure, in both laboratory and field situations. This design makes possible the comparisons of 1) laboratory and field exposures, and 2) responses of 2 common freshwater zooplankton species.

  12. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  13. Laboratory electron exposure of TSS-1 thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Mccollum, M.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    RM400, a conductive thermal control coating, was developed for use on the exterior shell of the tethered satellite. Testing was performed by the Engineering Physics Division to quantify effects of the space environment on this coating and its conductive and optical properties. Included in this testing was exposure of RM400 to electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 to 1 keV, to simulate electrons accelerated from the ambient space plasma when the tethered satellite is fully deployed. During this testing, the coating was found to luminesce, and a prolonged exposure of the coating to high-energy electrons caused the coating to darken. This report describes the tests done to quantify the degradation of the thermal control properties caused by electron exposure and to measure the luminescence as a function of electron energy and current density to the satellite.

  14. Inadvertent laboratory exposure to Bacillus anthracis--California, 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-04-01

    On June 9, 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) was notified of possible inadvertent exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), where workers were evaluating the immune response of mice to B. anthracis. This report summarizes the subsequent investigation by CDHS and CDC, including assessment of exposures, administration of postexposure chemoprophylaxis, and serologic testing of potentially exposed workers. The findings underscore the importance of using appropriate biosafety practices and performing adequate sterility testing when working with material believed to contain inactivated B. anthracis organisms.

  15. A SURVEY OF LABORATORY AND STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO FARMWORKER EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final da...

  16. A SURVEY OF LABORATORY AND STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO FARMWORKER EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final da...

  17. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae.

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  19. Combined ultraviolet and water exposure as a preconditioning method in laboratory fungal durability testing

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole M. Stark

    2003-01-01

    During outdoor exposure, woodfiber-plastic composites (WPC) are subject to biological, moisture, and ultraviolet (UV) degradation. The purpose of laboratory evaluations is to simulate outdoor conditions and accelerate the testing for quicker results. Traditionally, biological, moisture, and W laboratory tests are done separately, and only combined in outdoor field...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  1. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Economides, S; Tritakis, P; Papadomarkaki, E; Carinou, E; Hourdakis, C; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2006-01-01

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included.

  2. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  3. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Occupational cocaine exposure of crime laboratory personnel preparing training aids for a military working dog program.

    PubMed

    Gehlhausen, Jay M; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Given, JoAnn

    2003-10-01

    The potential for passive cocaine exposure was evaluated in crime laboratory employees preparing training aids for a military working dog program (MWD). The primary goal of the study was to elucidate the routes of exposure and implement procedural changes that would minimize this risk. Several work environments and laboratory procedures were examined by monitoring personal breathing zones (PBZ), ambient airborne cocaine levels in the laboratory spaces, and urinary levels of the primary cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. The study was performed initially using current laboratory procedures to establish a baseline and to identify potential sources of exposure. A subsequent study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the follow-up procedure in reducing exposure. As a result of the changes, the 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) were 40 to 80% lower in the follow-up study as compared to the baseline assessment. Dermal absorption and PBZ inhalation of cocaine during manufacture were likely the most significant source of cocaine exposure. Ambient airborne cocaine may have also contributed to the total exposure, but for most observations, the concentrations were significantly less than those determined from PBZ monitoring. The maximum ambient cocaine concentration was 0.0144 mg/m(3) compared to a maximum of 0.4004 mg/m(3) observed during PBZ monitoring. Occupational exposure decreased in the follow-up study because of the proper use of personal protective equipment and improvements in engineering controls.

  5. Chronic cyanide exposure: a clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study.

    PubMed Central

    El Ghawabi, S H; Gaafar, M A; El-Saharti, A A; Ahmed, S H; Malash, K K; Fares, R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chronic cyanide exposure in the electroplating sections of three factories employing 36 workers was studied and compared with a control group. The concentration of cyanides to which the workers were exposed was measured. The regression line showing the relationship between thiocyanates in urine and the concentration of cyanides in the air was plotted. Increased percentages of haemoglobin and lymphocyte count were present in all exposed workers, in addition to punctate basophilia in 28 workers. Cyanmethaemoglobin was found to be characteristic. Apart from other complaints, two men with psychosis similar to one case reported in therapeutic thiocyanate intoxication were found. Twenty of the workers had thyroid enlargements to a variable degree and consistency, in two of whom it resembled lymphadenoid goitre. Thyroid 131I uptakes at 4 and 24 hours were significantly higher than in the controls, while 131PBI was unchanged. The reason for this iodine deficiency-like action is discussed. PMID:1156569

  6. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AT THE U.S. EPA, NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERB has developed several immunoassay methods for environmental and human exposure studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been developed for dietary and indoor exposure surveys. An immunoassay for th...

  7. DATA COLLECTED IN THE EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S FIELD MEASUREMENT STUDIES TO EVALUATE AGGREGATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires children's risk assessments to be conducted using high quality and high quantity data. Currently, data on children's exposures and exposure factors are limited and insufficient to address risk assessments that do not rely heavil...

  8. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AT THE U.S. EPA, NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERB has developed several immunoassay methods for environmental and human exposure studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been developed for dietary and indoor exposure surveys. An immunoassay for th...

  9. [Survey on accidental exposure to biological materials in the Hospital-University Complex of Sassari during the period 1995-2000].

    PubMed

    Masia, M D; Castiglia, P; Busonera, B; Valca, D; Maida, I; Mura, I

    2004-01-01

    To study professional exposure to biological materials an investigation was carried out in the Hospital-University Complex of Sassari during the period January 1st 1995-December 31 2000. 1003 occupational accidents were notified (incidence rate=6%). Infirmaries were the most at risk category (45%) and about the half part of the accidents occurred in surgical area (44.7%). The most frequent accident was needle puncture (53%); exposure involved principally the hands (76.3%). The basal serology of injured personnel showed low positivity for any HBV markers (72.7%), HCV (0.4%) and no positivity for HIV; while high levels were found among source patients. From the comparison between serological data (injured vs source), when ascertainable, emerged a biological hazard of 7.7% for HBV, 30.2% for HCV and 3.2% for HIV; however no seroconversions were observed at follow up. The study also pointed out the need of improve prevention programmes.

  10. Strategy for the lowering and the assessment of exposure to nanoparticles at workspace - Case of study concerning the potential emission of nanoparticles of Lead in an epitaxy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artous, Sébastien; Zimmermann, Eric; Douissard, Paul-Antoine; Locatelli, Dominique; Motellier, Sylvie; Derrough, Samir

    2015-05-01

    The implementation in many products of manufactured nanoparticles is growing fast and raises new questions. For this purpose, the CEA - NanoSafety Platform is developing various research topics for health and safety, environment and nanoparticles exposure in professional activities. The containment optimisation for the exposition lowering, then the exposure assessment to nanoparticles is a strategy for safety improvement at workplace and workspace. The lowering step consists in an optimisation of dynamic and static containment at workplace and/or workspace. Generally, the exposure risk due to the presence of nanoparticles substances does not allow modifying the parameters of containment at workplace and/or workspace. Therefore, gaseous or nanoparticulate tracers are used to evaluate performances of containment. Using a tracer allows to modify safely the parameters of the dynamic containment (ventilation, flow, speed) and to study several configurations of static containment. Moreover, a tracer allows simulating accidental or incidental situation. As a result, a safety procedure can be written more easily in order to manage this type of situation. The step of measurement and characterization of aerosols can therefore be used to assess the exposition at workplace and workspace. The case of study, aim of this paper, concerns the potential emission of Lead nanoparticles at the exhaust of a furnace in an epitaxy laboratory. The use of Helium tracer to evaluate the performance of containment is firstly studied. Secondly, the exposure assessment is characterised in accordance with the French guide “recommendations for characterizing potential emissions and exposure to aerosols released from nanomaterials in workplace operations”. Thirdly the aerosols are sampled, on several places, using collection membranes to try to detect traces of Lead in air.

  11. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  12. Task- and Time-Dependent Weighting Factors in a Retrospective Exposure Assessment of Chemical Laboratory Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Henn, David F. Utterback, Kathleen M. Waters, Andrea M. Markey, William G. Tankersley

    2007-02-01

    Results are reported from a chemical exposure assessment that was conducted for a cohort mortality study of 6157 chemical laboratory workers employed between 1943 and 1998 at four Department of Energy sites in Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Aiken, S.C.

  13. Guidance for Human Subjects Research in the National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidance to investigators and managers associated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD)’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) on the ethical conduct, regulatory review, and approval of all huma...

  14. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  15. Guidance for Human Subjects Research in the National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidance to investigators and managers associated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD)’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) on the ethical conduct, regulatory review, and approval of all huma...

  16. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  17. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-05

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

  18. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  19. Radiofrequency field exposure and cancer: what do the laboratory studies suggest?

    PubMed Central

    Repacholi, M H

    1997-01-01

    Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. These questions have followed scientific reports suggesting that residence near high voltage power lines may to be associated with an increased childhood leukemia risk. Epidemiologic studies have been plagued by poor RF exposure assessment and differences in methodology. There are no high-quality epidemiologic studies that can be used to evaluate health risks from RF exposure. Laboratory studies in this area have been somewhat confusing. Some animal studies suggest that RF fields accelerate the development of sarcoma colonies in the lung, mammary tumors, skin tumors, hepatomas, and sarcomas. A substantial RF-induced increase in lymphoma incidence in transgenic mice exposed for up to 18 months has also been reported. In contrast, other studies have not found carcinogenic effects. These conflicting results indicate the need for more well-conducted studies on laboratory animals, supplemented with high-quality in vitro studies to identify effects that need further research in vivo, and to characterize any acting mechanisms, especially at low RF field levels. This paper provides a review of the laboratory studies and indicates what conclusions about RF-induced cancer can be drawn. PMID:9467083

  20. Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) Satellite: Radiation Exposure in LEO and Supporting Laboratory Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew Lige; Cook, Amanda Marie; Quinn, Richard C.; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca,Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffman, Soren; Ricco,Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We will present the results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCI), anthraufin (C(sub 14)H(sub 8)(O sub 4) (Anth) and Isoviolanthrene (C(sub 34H sub 18) (IVA) to the outher space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. The compounds were exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 hours of direct solar exposure) including broad-spectrum solar radiation (approx. 122 nm to the near infrared). The organic films are enclosed in hermetically sealed sample cells that contain one of four astrobiologically relevant microenvironments. Transmission spectra (200-1000 nm) were recorded for each film, at first daily and subsequently every 15 days, along with a solar spectrum and the dark response of the detector array. In addition to analysis via UV-Vis spectroscopy, the laboratory controls were also monitored via infrared and far-UV spectroscopy. The results presented will include the finding that the FeTPPCI and IVA organic films in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3%) exhibit faster degradation times, upon irradiation, in comparison with identical films under dry headspaces gases, whereas the Anth thin film exhibited a higher degree of photostability. In the companion laboratory experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPI films in contact with either Ar or CO(sub -2):O(sub -2):Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas results in growth of a band in the films infrared spectra at 1961 cm(sup 1). Our assignment of this new spectral feature and the corresponding rational will be presented. The relevance of O/OREOS findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments will also be discussed.

  1. Formaldehyde exposure and its effects during pregnancy: Recommendations for laboratory attendance based on available data.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Matthew J; Oakes, Peter; Demerdash, Amin; Yammine, Kaissar Cesar; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-11-01

    Formalin is commonly used in fixation of cadaveric specimens. Exposure to formaldehyde, a component of formalin and a known carcinogen, during gross anatomy laboratory dissection is a continuing concern for pregnant students and instructors. Since there is little literature on this specific topic, the current review was compiled in the hope of offering recommendations to pregnant students and instructors who are engaged in human anatomical dissection where formalin is used. Relevant articles were obtained through searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for the terms "formaldehyde," "pregnant," "formalin," and "exposure." A literature search was conducted for chemical information and articles about exposure as issued by government regulatory agencies and chemical companies that produce formaldehyde. This led to the compilation of 29 articles each of which included references to previous, relevant, human research. The reviewed literature contains data strongly suggesting that pregnancy can be affected by formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, on the basis our analysis, female students who might be pregnant should avoid formaldehyde exposure, including that in a gross anatomy laboratory. Instructors should find other means of ensuring anatomical competence for these students. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increased Sensitivity to CD4 Binding Site-Directed Neutralization following In Vitro Propagation on Primary Lymphocytes of a Neutralization-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus IIIB Strain Isolated from an Accidentally Infected Laboratory Worker

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Tim; Quakkelaar, Esther; van Nuenen, Ad; Pantophlet, Ralph; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2004-01-01

    We previously described the adaptation of the neutralization-sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain IIIB to a neutralization-resistant phenotype in an accidentally infected laboratory worker. During long-term propagation of this resistant isolate, designated FF3346, on primary peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro, an HIV-1 variant appeared that had regained sensitivity to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4) and the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody b12. When an early passage of FF3346 was subjected to limiting-dilution culture in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, eight virus variants with various degrees of neutralization resistance were isolated. Two of them, the sCD4 neutralization-resistant variant LW_H8res and the sCD4 neutralization-sensitive variant LW_G9sens, were selected for further study. Interestingly, these two viruses were equally resistant to neutralization by agents that recognize domains other than the CD4 binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the increased neutralization sensitivity of variant LW_G9sens resulted from only two changes, an Asn-to-Ser substitution at position 164 in the V2 loop and an Ala-to-Glu substitution at position 370 in the C3 domain of gp120. In agreement with this notion, the affinity of b12 for monomeric gp120 containing the N164S and A370E substitutions in the background of the molecular clone LW_H8res was higher than its affinity for the parental gp120. Surprisingly, no correlation was observed between CD4 binding affinity for monomeric gp120 and the level of neutralization resistance, suggesting that differences in sCD4 neutralization sensitivity between these viruses are only manifested in the context of the tertiary or quaternary structure of gp120 on the viral surface. The results obtained here indicate that the neutralization-sensitive strain IIIB can become neutralization resistant in vivo under selective pressure by neutralizing antibodies but that this resistance may

  3. Recording of external radiation exposures at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; West, C M; Wood, J L; Tankersley, W

    1994-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation exposure for individuals are critical to assessing radiation-mortality associations. This paper is based on a study of changes in recorded doses and in radiation monitoring programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy facility where whole body external penetrating radiation exposures have been of primary epidemiological interest. External radiation monitoring data from 1943-1984 are analyzed for a group of white males (N = 8,318). The proportion of workers monitored for external radiation increased from about 50% in 1943 to over 80% in 1944 to above 98% after 1948. Mean radiation doses showed maxima in 1944 and 1957, followed by steady and long-term declines. Numerous changes in monitoring programs occurred during the study period, including changes in the types of dosimeters used, the frequency of reading dosimeters, methods of calculating doses, and practices of recording doses. Temporal patterns of doses in the lower range of the distribution showed some changes suggestive of changes in policies and practices for recording doses, which would influence dose values used in epidemiological studies. Reliable and accurate exposure measurements are especially important in studies of low level exposures due to small differences in outcomes between exposure groups. Evidence of changes in recorded doses due to monitoring and recording practices, rather than to actual changes in exposures in this well-monitored population, suggests the importance of comparable studies of other populations used for epidemiological studies of radiation-mortality associations.

  4. Tritium Exposure Reconstruction Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, A. H.; Hunt, J. R.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    There are numerous instances where historical exposures to contaminants can determine future health impacts, but limited means exist to reconstruct those exposures from current measurements and models. The National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has released tritiated water into the atmosphere through an adjacent stack since 1969. Some members of the surrounding community are concerned about potential health effects from the emissions and have questioned the accuracy and thoroughness of reported historical release quantities and environmental monitoring. A grove of Eucalyptus globulus surround the emission stack and were used to reconstruct historical exposure levels. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can be reliably used as passive monitors for tritiated water, as well as many other contaminants. Because trees can sequester tritium into wood during photosynthesis, a tree provides a temporal variation of exposure at least on an annual basis. Milligram-sized samples of wood from cores were measured for carbon-14 and tritium using accelerator mass spectrometry. The carbon-14 measurements were matched with bomb curve levels of carbon-14 to independently assess the age of the wood used for organically bound tritium measurements. The tritium exposure reconstruction was consistent with annual exposure monitoring and release quantities reported by LBNL over the last 30 years. Because this location has an episodic release pattern and complex topographic and meteorological variation, the historical assessment from these environmental measurements is likely to have less uncertainty than mathematical modeling efforts.

  5. Does fear extinction in the laboratory predict outcomes of exposure therapy? A treatment analog study.

    PubMed

    Forcadell, Eduard; Torrents-Rodas, David; Vervliet, Bram; Leiva, David; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Fullana, Miquel A

    2017-09-08

    Fear extinction models have a key role in our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment with exposure therapy. Here, we tested whether individual differences in fear extinction learning and fear extinction recall in the laboratory were associated with the outcomes of an exposure therapy analog (ETA). Fifty adults with fear of spiders participated in a two-day fear-learning paradigm assessing fear extinction learning and fear extinction recall, and then underwent a brief ETA. Correlational analyses indicated that enhanced extinction learning was associated with better ETA outcome. Our results partially support the idea that individual differences in fear extinction learning may be associated with exposure therapy outcome, but suggest that further research in this area is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory facility to create reference radon + thoron atmosphere under dynamic exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Pressyanov, D; Mitev, K; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Kolev, J

    2017-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) levels in the environment are typically subject to significant random and systematic variations. Creation in the laboratory of reproducible and controlled exposure conditions close to that in the real environment can be useful for testing (222)Rn and (220)Rn detectors and for research. In this report the design and performance of a novel laboratory facility with such functionality is presented. The facility allows the exposure of detectors under controlled dynamic as well as static activity concentrations of (222)Rn and (220)Rn (pure and mixed) and temperature. The temperature is measured and regulated within -15 °C ÷ +60 °C by a dedicated programmable thermostat. Different reference activity concentrations in the exposure vessel are made by regulating the flow-rate of the air that flushes (222)Rn/(220)Rn activity from the sources towards the exposure vessel. Reference atmospheres that contain (222)Rn, (220)Rn or a specified ratio of the two can be created. Pilot experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of the approach are presented. They include follow-up of a pre-defined temperature profile (in the range -5 °C ÷ +35 °C), test of the correspondence between planned and measured (222)Rn and (220)Rn activity concentrations, follow-up of a pre-defined dynamic profile of (220)Rn concentrations and test of the possibility to create mixed (220)Rn/(222)Rn atmospheres (experimentally checked for ratio of the activity concentrations from 0.27 to 4.5). The results from the experimental tests are in agreement with the values obtained by the developed theoretical model. The proposed approach can be used to plan and create stationary and dynamic reference exposure conditions that are close to the real exposure regimes in the environment.

  7. Improving validity of informed consent for biomedical research in Zambia using a laboratory exposure intervention.

    PubMed

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention.

  8. Improving Validity of Informed Consent for Biomedical Research in Zambia Using a Laboratory Exposure Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C.; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Methods Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Results Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Conclusion Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention

  9. Immunoreactivity of roach, Rutilus rutilus, following laboratory exposure to bleached pulp and paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T M; Valtonen, E T; Jokinen, E I

    1997-12-01

    In order to study immunomodulation, controlled laboratory experiments were carried out with roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) or spent bleach liquor (SBL) from two pulp and paper mills using elementary chlorine and chlorine dioxide for bleaching. The total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) and the number of specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were determined by ELISPOT assay. Exposure to BKME resulted in decreased numbers of ISC in the spleen. To study the capability of response against foreign antigens the fish were immunized with bovine gamma-globulin. Exposure to BKME or SBL reduced antigen-specific ASC response in fish. Moreover, the suppression of ASC response did not require exposure prior to immunization. Depuration of fish in clean water reveals that the immunosuppression caused by BKME is reversible. The ASC response in the BKME-pretreated fish returned to the same or even a higher level compared to untreated immunized fish and, in addition, the number of ISC increased greatly. The results of this study verify an earlier finding on poor antibody response due to exposure in a lake contaminated with BKME. Exposure to SBL alone suppresses antibody-mediated immunity, suggesting that compounds formed in bleaching are at least partly responsible for immunotoxic effects.

  10. Potential human health effects associated with laboratory exposures to Pfiesteria piscicida.

    PubMed

    Schmechel, D E; Koltai, D C

    2001-10-01

    The adverse human health effects associated with the most prolonged and intense exposure known to Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder cultures and toxin(s) are described. In December 1993, a patient presented with acute illness to the Memory Disorders Clinic of the Bryan Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Duke University Medical Center with significant cognitive deficits 2 weeks after ceasing occupational laboratory exposure on the recommendation of the evaluating primary care physician. The clinical and exposure histories of this patient are presented. The comprehensive neurological examination findings are reviewed, with attention to the patient's neuropsychological evaluation. Six-week follow-up data illustrate the course of symptom resolution with exposure cessation. This case is presented in an effort to contribute to the gradually accruing evidence of potential central nervous system sequelae of Pfiesteria exposure. The case is discussed in the context of additional cases evaluated at Duke University Medical Center and the complicated scientific framework in which such evaluations proceed while definitive surrogate or biological markers are awaited.

  11. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  12. Ion mobility spectrometry evaluation of cocaine occupational exposure in forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Alcalà, Manel; Blanco, Marcelo; Perez-Alfonso, Clara; Galipienso, Nieves

    2014-12-01

    An approach, based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been developed for the control of cocaine in air of the breathing zone of operators, in laboratory surfaces and in nasal mucus of employees to evaluate cocaine exposure in a forensic laboratory. The analytical methodology has been validated in terms of accuracy, precision and limits of detection and results obtained were statistically comparable with those obtained by liquid chromatography. Cocaine concentration in laboratory air increases from 100 ± 35 ng m(-3) of a normal day to 10,000 ng m(-3) during the manipulation of cocaine seizures. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) for cocaine has not been established which difficult the evaluation of the health effects of continuous exposition to very small doses of cocaine. Cocaine was also found in almost all the analyzed sample surfaces and also was found in nasal mucus of the police officers that were present during the manipulation of cocaine seizures without using a face mask. In summary, cocaine concentrations could present a health hazard to the employees and therefore warrants remediation and some modifications of the manipulation operations have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Management of hypothermia -- Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Sobczyk, Dorota; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sanak, Tomasz; Hymczak, Hubert; Kapelak, Bogusław; Drwiła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the years 2009–2012 the Polish National Statistics Department reported 1836 deaths due to exposure to excessive natural cold. The Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre (CLHG, Centrum Leczenia Hipotermii Glebokiej) was set up in Krakow in 2013. It is a unit functioning within the structure of the Cardiac Surgery Clinic, established in order to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of patients in the advanced stages of severe hypothermia. Early identification of hypothermia, binding algorithm and coordination leading to extracorporeal rewarming, are the most important elements in the deep hypothermia management.

  14. Induction of depressive-like effects by subchronic exposure to cocaine or heroin in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Zilkha, Noga; Feigin, Eugene; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Zangen, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    The effect of psychoactive drugs on depression has usually been studied in cases of prolonged drug addiction and/or withdrawal, without much emphasis on the effects of subchronic or recreational drug use. To address this issue, we exposed laboratory rats to subchronic regimens of heroin or cocaine and tested long-term effects on (i) depressive-like behaviors, (ii) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in reward-related brain regions, and (iii) depressive-like behavior following an additional chronic mild stress procedure. The long-term effect of subchronic cocaine exposure was a general reduction in locomotor activity whereas heroin exposure induced a more specific increase in immobility during the forced swim test. Both cocaine and heroin exposure induced alterations in BDNF levels that are similar to those observed in several animal models of depression. Finally, both cocaine and heroin exposure significantly enhanced the anhedonic effect of chronic mild stress. These results suggest that subchronic drug exposure induces depressive-like behavior which is accompanied by modifications in BDNF expression and increases the vulnerability to develop depressive-like behavior following chronic stress. Implications for recreational and small-scale drug users are discussed. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of limited subchronic drug exposure on depressive-like symptoms. Our results demonstrate that short-term, subchronic administration of either cocaine or heroin promotes some depressive-like behaviors, while inducing alterations in BDNF protein levels similar to alterations observed in several animal models of depression. In addition, subchronic cocaine or heroin enhanced the anhedonic effect of chronic stress.

  15. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Dentinger, Catherine M.; Jacob, Kathleen; Lee, Lillian V.; Mendez, Herman A.; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; McDonough, Patrick L.; Chico, David M.; De, Barun K.; Traxler, Rita M.; Campagnolo, Enzo R.; Schmitt, David; Guerra, Marta A.; Slavinski, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Contact with pathogenic Brucella spp. can lead to laboratory-acquired infections. We identified a pediatric B. canis case, the source, and other exposed persons. A three-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnea was hospitalized for 48 hours for bronchiolitis. After her admission blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed antimicrobials and recovered. B. canis was isolated from blood of the child's pet dog. Isolates from the child and the dog were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the puppy's infection. Thirty-one laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. This first report strongly suggesting B. canis transmission from a canine to a child in the United States highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  16. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012.

    PubMed

    Dentinger, C M; Jacob, K; Lee, L V; Mendez, H A; Chotikanatis, K; McDonough, P L; Chico, D M; De, B K; Tiller, R V; Traxler, R M; Campagnolo, E R; Schmitt, D; Guerra, M A; Slavinski, S A

    2015-08-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Laboratory-acquired infections can occur following contact with Brucella spp. We identified a paediatric B. canis case, the source and other exposed persons. A 3-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnoea was hospitalized for 48 h for bronchiolitis. After her admission, blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed anti-microbials and recovered. B. canis was also isolated from blood of the child's pet dog; these isolates were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the dog's infection. Additionally, 31 laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first report strongly suggesting B. canis zoonotic transmission to a child in the United States, and highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness.

  17. Sublethal health effects in laboratory rodents from environmentally relevant exposures to oil sands contaminants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; North, Michelle A; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-12-01

    Increasing activity of oil sands extraction and processing in northern Alberta is marked by ongoing controversy about the nature and extent of associated environmental impacts. Bitumen contains a mixture of toxic chemicals, including metals and residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose release into the environment poses a distinct risk to the surrounding environment, plus wildlife and human health. In the present study, the authors evaluated several subclinical biomarkers of exposure and effect to mixtures of metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and/or PAHs (3 alkylated forms) at environmentally relevant concentrations (100-fold and 10-fold higher than the maximum dissolved concentrations found in snow, to simulate a worst-case scenario), using laboratory mice as a model for future studies of small mammals in the wild. Both metals and alkyl-PAHs exposure were associated with 1) increased relative liver, kidney, and spleen size; 2) alterations in the homeostasis of the antioxidant vitamins A and E in liver; and 3) compromised glutathione redox status in testes, with results also indicating synergistic interactions from co-exposure. The combination of morphometric and oxidative stress biomarkers provide reliable and sensitive measures of the response to contaminant exposure in a mammalian model, suggesting associated physiological costs. Based on the present experimental study, the authors propose that wild small mammals will prove to be valuable sentinel species reflecting sublethal health effects from oil sands-related contaminants. The present study's results also present a basis for the interpretation of future field data. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. History of accidental hypothermia☆

    PubMed Central

    Guly, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. PMID:21036455

  20. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm(-2) , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm(-2) . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m(-2) ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. History of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Guly, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship of beam angulation and radiation exposure in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shikhar; Parashar, Akhil; Bajaj, Navkaranbir Singh; Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Imran; Heupler, Fredrick A; Bunte, Matthew; Modi, Dhruv K; Tuzcu, E Murat; Kapadia, Samir R

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between beam angulation and air kerma in a modern cardiac catheterization laboratory. Recent reports have identified the merits of reducing radiation scatter, an important determinant of radiation dose in the catheterization laboratory. Radiation scatter is poorly characterized in the context of catheterization laboratories using modern digital equipment. Understanding the principles of dosimetry may reduce the radiation exposure to patients, providers, and medical staff. Prospectively captured radiation data were extracted from a database of 1,975 diagnostic catheterizations (DCs) and 755 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), which included 138,342 fluoroscopic and 35,440 acquisition (cine) sequences. Fluoroscopy and acquisition modes were categorized into tertiles based on the total air kerma measured at a standard reference point. Radiation maps were modeled according to the relative proportion of exposure in each projection. Median air kerma during DCs and PCIs was 677 and 2,188 mGy, respectively. Fluoroscopy contributed to 66.3% of total dose during PCIs compared with 39.7% during DCs (p < 0.001). Fluoroscopy was more sensitive to changes in angulation with a rapid increase in total air kerma on small increases in beam angulation. Complex spatial maps were created to study the impact of angulation and other covariates on total air kerma. Besides beam angulation, body surface area was the strongest predictor of the total air kerma. This study uniquely describes radiation dosimetry using contemporary equipment in a real-world setting. Extreme angulations were associated with high air kerma values. Fluoroscopy compared with acquisition was more sensitive to changes in angulation, with relatively larger increases in total air kerma with small increases in steepness of the angulation. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure setups for laboratory animals and volunteer studies using body-mounted antennas.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Achim; Adami, C; Bolz, T; Rennings, A; Dorn, H; Rüttiger, L

    2007-01-01

    For two different in vivo exposure setups body-mounted antenna systems have been designed. The first setup is designed for investigation of volunteers during simulated mobile phone usage. The setup consists of a dual-band antenna for GSM/WCDMA with enhanced carrying properties, which enables exposure for at least 8 h a day. The 10 g averaged localised SAR--normalised to an antenna input power of 1 W--measured in the flat phantom area of the SAM phantom amounts to 7.82 mW g(-1) (900 MHz) and 10.98 mW g(-1) (1966 MHz). The second exposure setup is used for a laboratory behavioural study on rats. The design goal was a localised, well-defined SAR distribution inside the animals' heads at 900 MHz. To fulfil the biological requirements, a loop antenna was developed. For tissues around the ears, a localised SAR value of 50.12 W kg(-1) averaged over a mass of 2.2 g for an antenna input power of 1 W is obtained.

  4. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, D J; Novak, E W; Lower, W R; Yanders, A; Kapila, S; Wang, R

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  5. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Novak, E.W.; Lower, W.R.; Yanders, A.; Kapila, S.; Wang, R.

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  6. Exposure assessment through realistic laboratory simulation of a soccer stadium fire.

    PubMed

    van Belle, N J C; van Putten, E M; de Groot, A C; Meeussen, V J A; Banus, S

    2010-10-01

    On Sunday April 13, 2008 a fire broke out on a grandstand in the Euroborg soccer stadium in Groningen The Netherlands. The polyamide chairs on the grandstand were set on fire and supporters were exposed to the emitted smoke which induced mild health effects. The Dutch government was concerned about potential health risks that such fires could have to exposed fans. Especially the exposure to toxic fumes was considered a risk because prior research has proven that large amounts of chemical compounds are emitted during the burning of chemical substances such as polyamide. Among these emitted compounds are HCN, CO, NO(x), NH(3) and volatile organic compounds. To study if supporters were exposed to hazardous chemical compounds we designed a laboratory controlled replica of a part of the grandstand of the Euroborg stadium to perform fire-experiments. This simulation of the fire under controlled circumstances proved that a wide variety of chemicals were emitted. Especially the emission of CO and NO(x) were high, but also the emission of formaldehyde might be toxicologically relevant. The emission of HCN and NH(3) were less than expected. Exposure assessment suggests that the exposure to NO(x) is the main health risk for the supporters that were present at the Euroborg fire. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 μg/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 μg/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress.

  8. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  9. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting: “Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic”, held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13–15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 micrograms per liter (10 μg/L) in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry and educators at the local, state, national and international levels to: (1) Establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) Work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry and others; (3) Develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) Develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods, and (5) Develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  10. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  11. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  12. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  13. [Management of severe accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Avellanas, M L; Ricart, A; Botella, J; Mengelle, F; Soteras, I; Veres, T; Vidal, M

    2012-04-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an environmental condition with basic principles of classification and resuscitation that apply to mountain, sea or urban scenarios. Along with coagulopathy and acidosis, hypothermia belongs to the lethal triad of trauma victims requiring critical care. A customized healthcare chain is involved in its management, extending from on site assistance to intensive care, cardiac surgery and/or the extracorporeal circulation protocols. A good classification of the degree of hypothermia preceding admission contributes to improve management and avoids inappropriate referrals between hospitals. The most important issue is to admit hypothermia victims in asystolia or ventricular fibrillation to those hospitals equipped with the medical technology which these special clinical scenarios require. This study attempts to establish the foundations for optimum management of accidental hypothermia from first emergency care on site to treatment in hospital including, resuscitation and rewarming with extracorporeal circulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Scoring of solvents used in analytical laboratories by their toxicological and exposure hazards.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    Green analytical chemistry, although a well recognised concept, still lacks reliable environmental impact assessment procedures. This article describes scoring of solvents, frequently used in analytical laboratories, with CHEMS-1 model. The model uses toxicological and exposure data to calculate hazard values related to the utilisation of solvents. The original model was modified to incorporate hazards related to the volatility of chemicals. The scoring of hazard values showed that polar solvents are less hazardous. The scoring results were applied to assess the total hazard values in terms of solvent consumption. The hazard scores calculated for each chemical were multiplied by the volumes of solvent used during the analytical procedure. The results show that calculation of total procedural hazard values is valuable in the green analytical chemistry assessment procedure. Moreover, the assessment procedure can be combined with other procedural greenness assessment methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Survey of Laboratory and Statistical Issues Related to Farmworker Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana B.; Landsittel, Doug; Nishioka, Marcia; Thomas, Kent; Curwin, Brian; Raymer, James; Donnelly, Kirby C.; McCauley, Linda; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final data analysis and interpretation. Similarly, data quality plays a significant role in the overall value of the study. Data quality can be derived from several experimental parameters including statistical design of the study and quality of environmental and biological analytical measurements. We discuss statistical and analytic issues that should be addressed in every farmworker study. These issues include study design and sample size determination, analytical methods and quality control and assurance, treatment of missing data or data below the method’s limits of detection, and post-hoc analyses of data from multiple studies. PMID:16760001

  16. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  17. Comparison of field and laboratory exposures of Lumbriculus variegatus to polychlorinated biphenyl-impacted river sediments.

    PubMed

    Beckingham, Barbara; Ghosh, Upal

    2010-12-01

    A method is described for conducting 14-d in situ sediment bioaccumulation tests with the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, at the bottom of a slow-flowing river. The in situ test exposure chambers were constructed from cylindrical plastic tubes with flow-through mesh screens and were attached to a wire basket that was weighted to the river bottom at seven sites in the lower Grasse River in New York State, USA. This design was successful in exposing L. variegatus to native sediment and overlying water under field conditions, with adequate organism mass recovery (87 ± 19%). Results compared well with ex situ laboratory bioaccumulation conducted in parallel, expressed in terms of tissue concentration, biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs), and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in L. variegatus (µg PCB/g wet wt) in laboratory and field tests was found to be within a factor of 2. The small variation between in situ and ex situ may have been caused by differences in water exchange rate under the two exposure scenarios, or other factors affecting organism behavior. Values of BSAF showed a hyperbolic trend with K(OW) , peaking at BSAF of 7 for congeners with log K(OW) of 6. Bioaccumulation factors also peaked at a value of 10(6.5) for congeners with log K(OW) value of 6 but remained steady around that value for the higher K(OW) congeners. These observations may reflect under-equilibration or reduced bioavailability of more hydrophobic PCBs in worm tissues or other analytical artifacts.

  18. Ecotoxicological response of marine organisms to inorganic and organic sediment amendments in laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gunther; Leather, James; Kan, Jinjun; Arias-Thode, Yolanda Meriah

    2011-10-01

    Experimental materials currently being investigated for use as amendments for the in situ remediation of contaminated sediments were assessed for their potential impacts on marine benthos. Laboratory toxicity tests involving lethal and sublethal endpoints were conducted on sediments amended with apatite, organoclay, chitin, or acetate, with the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata, the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, and the larval sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus. Amendments were mixed loosely into uncontaminated or metal-contaminated sediments, and also added inside experimental geotextile mats, at sediment dry weight (dw) concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 10%. The geotextile mats, containing apatite (5 or 10% dw), and/or organoclay (5%) did not result in adverse effects on any of the test organisms. Chitin and acetate, however, repetitively resulted in adverse effects on survival and/or adverse or positive effects on organism growth at concentrations of ≤ 2.5% dw. The adverse effects were attributed to water quality degradation in the exposure vessels (notably ammonia and dissolved oxygen concentration, for chitin and acetate, respectively) as a result of the microbial breakdown of the amendments. For N. arenaceodentata, growth was enhanced in the presence of chitin at concentrations as low as 0.5% sediment dw, which stimulated bacterial growth that may have provided an additional food source for the polychaete. Sediment chitin concentrations of 0.5% resulted in a statistically significant reduction in N. arenaceodentata body burdens of 61%, 29%, and 54%, relative to unamended contaminated sediment, for Cu, Zn, and Cd, respectively. The studies suggest a lack of inherent toxicity of these materials on the experimental organisms, as the adverse or positive responses observed are likely related to artifacts associated with laboratory exposure. Assessments in field settings are needed to verify this conclusion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Promoting early exposure monitoring for respirable crystalline silica: Taking the laboratory to the mine site

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele; Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in the mining industry is a recognized occupational hazard. The assessment and monitoring of the exposure to RCS is limited by two main factors: (1) variability of the silica percent in the mining dust and (2) lengthy off-site laboratory analysis of collected samples. The monitoring of respirable dust via traditional or real-time techniques is not adequate. A solution for on-site quantification of RCS in dust samples is being investigated by the Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The use of portable Fourier transform infrared analyzers in conjunction with a direct-on-filter analysis approach is proposed. The progress made so far, the necessary steps in progress, and the application of the monitoring solution to a small data set is presented. When developed, the solution will allow operators to estimate RCS immediately after sampling, resulting in timelier monitoring of RCS for self-assessment of compliance at the end of the shift, more effective engineering monitoring, and better evaluation of control technologies. PMID:26558490

  20. Poultry litter-induced endocrine disruption in fathead minnow, sheepshead minnow, and mummichog laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Yonkos, Lance T; Fisher, Daniel J; Van Veld, Peter A; Kane, Andrew S; McGee, Beth L; Staver, Kenneth W

    2010-10-01

    Animal feeding operations in the United States produce more than 500 million tons of manure annually. Disposal of poultry waste via application as fertilizer results in substantial runoff of poultry litter-associated contaminants (PLAC). Of particular concern are sex steroids, 17β-estradiol, estrone and testosterone, responsible for sex differentiation and development of reproductive structures. In a series of laboratory assays, mature male and mixed-sex larval/juvenile fish were continuously exposed to environmentally relevant PLAC solutions. Effects on gonads were assessed histologically, and vitellogenin (VTG) induction was measured as a gauge of estrogenicity. Twenty-one-day exposures to laboratory-generated PLAC solutions routinely induced VTG in mature male Pimephales promelas. Vitellogenesis in Fundulus heteroclitus only occurred at the highest tested PLAC concentration, and Cyprinodon variegatus were unresponsive at any tested concentration. All species produced considerable VTG in response to a 17β-estradiol-positive control. A pronounced feminization was seen in P. promelas when exposed to PLAC as larvae but not when exposed as juveniles. Runoff from a poultry litter-amended field cropped under standard agronomic practices induced significant VTG in male P. promelas. Results indicate that environmentally relevant PLAC concentrations exhibit endocrine activity sufficient to induce VTG production in male fish and possibly affect sex ratios in resident fish populations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2328-2340. © 2010 SETAC.

  1. Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation Exposure Ages in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John

    2014-05-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation age of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface exposure age to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface exposures to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) exposure may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation age determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).

  2. Ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical organisms: Laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Sueitt, A P E; Yamada-Ferraz, T M; Oliveira, A F; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze laboratory and field data to assess the ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical biota. Short-term laboratorial tests resulted in estimated EC₅₀ values of 76.72 (67.32-86.12)mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and 296.46 (277.16-315.76) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. xanthus. Long-term laboratorial tests generated IC₂₅ values of 5.05 (4.35-5.75) and 28.73 (26.30-31.15) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and C. xanthus, respectively. The results from in situ mesocosm experiments performed in the Ibirité reservoir (a tropical eutrophic urban water body located in SE Brazil) indicated that C. silvestrii and C. xanthus were not under severe deleterious acute impact due to the treatment because the higher nitrate concentrations determined were 5.2 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=24 h; sediment-water interface) and 17.5 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=600 h; interstitial water). However, an abrupt decrease in the densities of Cyanophyceae members and other benthic taxa was observed. In summary, the present work contributes greatly to the toxicity data linked to two taxonomically distinct organisms that have never been screened for calcium nitrate sensitivity. Furthermore, considering the problem of the management and restoration of eutrophic environments, our study reports a comprehensive field assessment that allows the elucidation of the possible toxic impacts caused by the addition of calcium nitrate (a remediation technique) on aquatic and benthic organisms as well as the implications on the aquatic ecosystem as a whole, which may greatly allow expanding the current knowledgebase on the topic.

  3. Gold granuloma after accidental implantation.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, F R; Dhillon, A P; Lewin, J F; Flavell, W; Laws, I M

    1995-01-01

    A case, in a 66 year old man, of a florid granulomatous reaction to gold dental alloy presenting about 20 years after accidental implantation in the oral mucosa of the lip is reported. Subsequent energy dispersive analysis confirmed the presence of a high nobility gold dental alloy. Florid granulomatosis has only rarely been reported in association with gold. Possible explanations for the delay in presentation include alteration of immune status or the development of hypersensitivity with components of the gold dental alloy acting as haptens. Images PMID:8543638

  4. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  5. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Noise exposure, music, and animals in the laboratory: a commentary based on Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (LAREF) discussions.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Kane, Emily G; Farnworth, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    The effects of noise, in general, and music, in particular, on the behavior and welfare of animals in the laboratory deserve a great deal of empirical study. However, many laboratories must develop their current practices on the basis of sparse and conflicting data. With this commentary we seek to establish some of the factors that should be taken into account in deciding how to deal with sources of uncontrolled or deliberate sound and, specifically, in determining whether to play music in the laboratory. Views differ, however, the balance of evidence supports the use of quiet music during nonhuman animals' active periods, if this practice is introduced with an awareness of the risks to welfare and research.

  7. Juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) increase their anaerobic metabolism in response to copper exposure in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Maes, Virginie; Betoulle, Stéphane; Jaffal, Ali; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Delahaut, Laurence; Geffard, Alain; Palluel, Olivier; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Vettier, Aurélie; David, Elise

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the potential impairment of cell energy synthesis processes (glycolysis and respiratory chain pathways) by copper in juvenile roach at different regulation levels by using a multi-marker approach. Juvenile roach were exposed to 0, 10, 50, and 100 µg/L of copper for 7 days in laboratory conditions. The glycolysis pathway was assessed by measuring the relative expression levels of 4 genes encoding glycolysis enzymes. The respiratory chain was studied by assessing the electron transport system and cytochrome c oxidase gene expression. Muscle mitochondria ultrastructure was studied, and antioxidant responses were measured. Furthermore, the main energy reserves-carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins-were measured, and cellular energy was evaluated by measuring ATP, ADP, AMP and IMP concentrations. This study revealed a disturbance of the cell energy metabolism due to copper exposure, with a significant decrease in adenylate energy charge in roach exposed to 10 μg/L of copper after 1 day. Moreover, ATP concentrations significantly decreased in roach exposed to 10 μg/L of copper after 1 day. This significant decrease persisted in roach exposed to 50 µg/L of copper after 7 days. AMP concentrations increased in all contaminated fish after 1 day of exposure. In parallel, the relative expression of 3 genes encoding for glycolysis enzymes increased in all contaminated fish after 1 day of copper exposure. Focusing on the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase gene expression also increased in all contaminated fish at the two time-points. The activity of the electron transport system was not disturbed by copper, except in roach exposed to 100 µg/L of copper after 1 day. Copper induced a metabolic stress. Juvenile roach seemed to respond to the ensuing high energy demand by increasing their anaerobic metabolism, but the energy produced by the anaerobic metabolism is unable to compensate for the stress induced by copper after 7

  8. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  9. A laboratory exposure system to study the effects of aging on super-micron aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Santarpia, Joshua; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hubbard, Joshua Allen

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory system was constructed that allows the super-micron particles to be aged for long periods of time under conditions that can simulate a range of natural environments and conditions, including relative humidity, oxidizing chemicals, organics and simulated solar radiation. Two proof-of-concept experiments using a non-biological simulant for biological particles and a biological simulant demonstrate the utility of these types of aging experiments. Green Visolite®, which is often used as a tracer material for model validation experiments, does not degrade with exposure to simulated solar radiation, the actual biological material does. This would indicate that Visolite® should be a good tracer compound for mapping the extent of a biological release using fluorescence as an indicator, but that it should not be used to simulate the decay of a biological particle when exposed to sunlight. The decay in the fluorescence measured for B. thurengiensis is similar to what has been previously observed in outdoor environments.

  10. Extremely low frequency (ELF) stray magnetic fields of laboratory equipment: a possible co-exposure conducting experiments on cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gresits, Iván; Necz, Péter Pál; Jánossy, Gábor; Thuróczy, György

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields were conducted in the environment of commercial laboratory equipment in order to evaluate the possible co-exposure during the experimental processes on cell cultures. Three types of device were evaluated: a cell culture CO2 incubator, a thermostatic water bath and a laboratory shaker table. These devices usually have electric motors, heating wires and electronic control systems, therefore may expose the cell cultures to undesirable ELF stray magnetic fields. Spatial distributions of magnetic field time domain signal waveform and frequency spectral analysis (FFT) were processed. Long- and short-term variation of stray magnetic field was also evaluated under normal use of investigated laboratory devices. The results show that the equipment under test may add a considerable ELF magnetic field to the ambient environmental magnetic field or to the intentional exposure to ELF, RF or other physical/chemical agents. The maximum stray magnetic fields were higher than 3 µT, 20 µT and 75 µT in the CO2 incubator, in water bath and on the laboratory shaker table, respectively, with high variation of spatial distribution and time domain. Our investigation emphasizes possible confounding factors conducting cell culture studies related to low-level ELF-EMF exposure due to the existing stray magnetic fields in the ambient environment of laboratory equipment.

  11. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  12. Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Case history number 97: Core rewarming by peritoneal irrigation in accidental hypothermia with cacdiac arrest. Anesth Analg 1966; 56:574-577. 85. Lint-n...Intractable ventricular fibrillation associated with profound accidental hypothermia - Successful treatment with ;irtial cardiopulmonary bypass . N Engl...5 B. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHERMIC DIVER ................ 6 C. FIELD TREATMENT OF HYPOTHERMIA. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 D

  13. Genotoxicity biomarkers in occupational exposure to formaldehyde--the case of histopathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Prista, João; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2011-03-18

    Formaldehyde, classified by the IARC as carcinogenic in humans and experimental animals, is a chemical agent that is widely used in histopathology laboratories. The exposure to this substance is epidemiologically linked to cancer and to nuclear changes detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMN). This method is extensively used in molecular epidemiology, since it provides information on several biomarkers of genotoxicity, such as micronuclei (MN), which are biomarkers of chromosomes breakage or loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), common biomarkers of chromosome rearrangement, poor repair and/or telomere fusion, and nuclear buds (NBUD), biomarkers of elimination of amplified DNA. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers, provided by the CBMN assay in peripheral lymphocytes and the MN test in buccal cells, between individuals occupationally exposed and non-exposed to formaldehyde and other environmental factors, namely tobacco and alcohol consumption. The sample comprised two groups: 56 individuals occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (cases) and 85 unexposed individuals (controls), from whom both peripheral blood and exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral mucosa were collected in order to measure the genetic endpoints proposed in this study. The mean level of TWA(8h) was 0.16±0.11 ppm (

  14. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  15. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  16. Accidental hypothermia in severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it.

  17. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  18. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  19. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  20. Accumulation of PCBs and Hg by fish and earthworms during field and laboratory exposures to Green Bay sediments. Administrative report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    To determine whether the laboratory bioassay of Mac et al. (1984) was indeed predictive of the potential accumulation in an area with contaminated sediments, the authors conducted a field exposure of caged test organisms in lower Green Bay and a laboratory bioassay of sediments collected from the same area. The authors believe the results of this study provides an initial indication that the levels of bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediments in the laboratory are similar to what may be found in the natural environment, thus indicating potential predictive capability of the laboratory bioassay. The study further demonstrated the importance of sediment contact to the bioaccumulation process, even under conditions where significant bioaccumulation from water alone occurred.

  1. Exposure to engineered nanoparticles: Model and measurements for accident situations in laboratories.

    PubMed

    Walser, Tobias; Hellweg, Stefanie; Juraske, Ronnie; Luechinger, Norman A; Wang, Jing; Fierz, Martin

    2012-03-15

    In the life cycle of engineered nanoparticles (ENP), their manufacturing requires particular attention because of unwanted potential ENP emissions to workplaces. We simulated three scenarios of equipment failure during gas phase production of nanoparticles in a laboratory. The emission plume of nanoparticles was tracked with high spatial and temporal resolution by 10 measurement devices. While under normal production conditions, no elevated ENP concentrations were observed, worst case scenarios led to homogeneous indoor ENP concentrations of up to 10(6)cm(-3) in a 300m(3) production room after only 60s. The fast dispersal in the room was followed by an exponential decrease in number concentration after the emission event. Under conditions like those observed - rapid dispersal and good mixing - a single measurement device alone can provide valuable information for an ENP exposure assessment. A one-box model adequately reflected measured number concentrations (r(2)>0.99). The ENP emission rates to the workplace were estimated between 2.5·10(11) and 6·10(12)s(-1) for the three emission scenarios. The worst case emission rate at the production zone was also estimated at 2·10(13)s(-1) with a stoichiometric calculation based on the precursor input, density and particle size. ENP intake fractions were 3.8-5.1·10(-4) inhaled ENP per produced ENP in the investigated setting. These could only be substantially lowered by leaving the production room within a few minutes after the emission event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress effects of noise in a field experiment in comparison to reactions to short term noise exposure in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ising, H; Michalak, R

    2004-01-01

    Reactions to noise-induced communication disturbance of 42 men during a seminar were investigated. Stress reactions with or without road traffic noise (Lm = 60 dBA) were compared. Traffic noise was played back via loudspeakers during one day in the seminar room. The following parameters were measured: Fatigue and mental tension by questionnaire; blood pressure and heart rate; excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cAMP from the collected urine. The same subjects participated in a laboratory test where the blood pressure was measured during 5 minutes of rest and after 5 minutes of exposure to intermittent white noise (Lm=97 dBA). It was found that the noise in the field experiment caused psychological and physiological stress effects in half of the subjects. Increased mental tension was correlated to increases as well as decreases of the blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure reactions were stronger than the reactions of diastolic blood pressure. Noise sensitive subjects reacted stronger than the others. In the short-term laboratory test, systolic blood pressure increases were smaller than the diastolic increases. At the end of the 5 minutes noise exposure only the diastolic blood pressure increases were significant. There was no correlation between the blood pressure reactions in the two different noise exposure experiments. There existed a positive correlation between noise sensitivity and the systolic blood pressure increases during the seminar, whilst the correlation, between noise sensitivity and systolic blood pressure increases in the laboratory exposure, was negative. From these results we conclude that short-term noise exposure experiments do not provide information about the effects of long-term real life exposure to environmental noise. Potential health effects of chronic noise-induced disturbances of activities are discussed.

  3. Gene transcription profiling in wild and laboratory-exposed eels: Effect of captivity and in situ chronic exposure to pollution.

    PubMed

    Baillon, Lucie; Pierron, Fabien; Pannetier, Pauline; Normandeau, Eric; Couture, Patrice; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Lambert, Patrick; Bernatchez, Louis; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2016-11-15

    Aquatic ecosystems are subjected to a variety of man-induced stressors but also vary spatially and temporally due to variation in natural factors. In such complex environments, it remains difficult to detect, dissociate and evaluate the effects of contaminants in wild organisms. In this context, the aim of this study was to test whether the hepatic transcriptome profile of fish may be used to detect in situ exposure to a particular contaminant. Transcriptomic profiles from laboratory-exposed and wild eels sampled along a contamination gradient were compared. During laboratory experiments, fish were exposed during 45days to different pollutants (Hg, PCBs, OCPs or Cd) or natural factors (temperature, salinity or low food supply) at levels close to those found in the sampling sites. A strong difference was observed between the transcriptomic profiles obtained from wild and laboratory-exposed animals (whatever the sites or experimental conditions), suggesting a general stress induced by captivity in the laboratory. Among the biological functions that were up-regulated in laboratory eels in comparison to wild eels, histone modification was the most represented. This finding suggests that laboratory conditions could affect the epigenome of fish and thus modulate the transcriptional responses developed by fish in response to pollutant exposure. Among experimental conditions, only the transcription profiles of laboratory animals exposed to cold temperature were correlated with those obtained from wild fish, and more significantly with fish from contaminated sites. Common regulated genes were mainly involved in cell differentiation and liver development, suggesting that stem/progenitor liver cells could be involved in the adaptive response developed by fish chronically exposed to pollutant mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    expo- sure to BSL-4 viruses , 8 involved percutaneous injury and 6 involved potential aerosol exposure. Eight persons (5 evaluated for exposure to Lassa ...et al. (8) with permission. †JEB, Japanese encephalitis virus B; Ebola/ Lassa , potential exposure to these viruses . ‡IP, immune plasma from...tal factors on aerosol -induced Lassa virus infection. J Med Virol. 1984;14:295–303. 23. Armstrong LR, Dembry LM, Rainey PM, Russi MB, Khan AS, Fis

  5. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  7. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  8. Exposure of laboratory workers to Francisella tularensis despite a bioterrorism procedure.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel S; Schwartz, Donald R

    2002-06-01

    A rapidly fatal case of pulmonary tularemia in a 43-year-old man who was transferred to a tertiary care facility is presented. The microbiology laboratory and autopsy services were not notified of the clinical suspicion of tularemia by the service caring for the patient. Despite having a laboratory bioterrorism procedure in place and adhering to established laboratory protocol, 12 microbiology laboratory employees were exposed to Francisella tularensis and the identification of the organism was delayed due to lack of notification of the laboratory of the clinical suspicion of tularemia. A total of 11 microbiology employees and two persons involved in performing the patient's autopsy received prophylactic doxycycline due to concerns of transmission. None of them developed signs or symptoms of tularemia. One microbiology laboratory employee was pregnant and declined prophylactic antibiotics. As a result of this event, the microbiology laboratory has incorporated flow charts directly into the bench procedures for several highly infectious agents that may be agents of bioterrorism. This should permit more rapid recognition of an isolate for referral to a Level B laboratory for definitive identification and should improve laboratory safety.

  9. Exposure of Laboratory Workers to Francisella tularensis despite a Bioterrorism Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Daniel S.; Schwartz, Donald R.

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly fatal case of pulmonary tularemia in a 43-year-old man who was transferred to a tertiary care facility is presented. The microbiology laboratory and autopsy services were not notified of the clinical suspicion of tularemia by the service caring for the patient. Despite having a laboratory bioterrorism procedure in place and adhering to established laboratory protocol, 12 microbiology laboratory employees were exposed to Francisella tularensis and the identification of the organism was delayed due to lack of notification of the laboratory of the clinical suspicion of tularemia. A total of 11 microbiology employees and two persons involved in performing the patient's autopsy received prophylactic doxycycline due to concerns of transmission. None of them developed signs or symptoms of tularemia. One microbiology laboratory employee was pregnant and declined prophylactic antibiotics. As a result of this event, the microbiology laboratory has incorporated flow charts directly into the bench procedures for several highly infectious agents that may be agents of bioterrorism. This should permit more rapid recognition of an isolate for referral to a Level B laboratory for definitive identification and should improve laboratory safety. PMID:12037110

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  12. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-13

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. Lastly, the tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  13. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; ...

    2016-12-13

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-powermore » small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. Lastly, the tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.« less

  14. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema. PMID:27958376

  15. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  16. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fulfilling the U.S. EPA mission to protect human health and the environment carries with it the challenge of understanding exposures for tens of thousands of chemical contaminants, a wide range of biological stressors, and many physical stressors. The U.S. EPA’s National Exposur...

  18. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Palomäki, Jaana E.; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S.; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T.; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles. PMID:24840353

  19. A Conceptual Framework for U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fulfilling the U.S. EPA mission to protect human health and the environment carries with it the challenge of understanding exposures for tens of thousands of chemical contaminants, a wide range of biological stressors, and many physical stressors. The U.S. EPA’s National Exposur...

  20. A comparison of engineering controls for formaldehyde exposure during grossing activities in health care anatomic pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Stewart, Erica J

    2016-07-01

    This article for the first time reports a large set of monitoring results for formaldehyde exposure during grossing activities in health care anatomic pathology laboratories, and compares the effectiveness of different local exhaust ventilation systems on the exposure. To control the confounding effects from grossing work load, sampling duration, and the sizes of specimens grossed, only 15-min short-term personal exposure samples collected during large tissue specimen grossing were used for the comparison of the effectiveness of these local exhaust systems. While we also collected long-term 8-hr time weighted average samples, these are not treated in this analysis. The systems examined were canopy receiving hoods, slot exhausts, and commercially available pre-manufactured backdraft grossing stations, both recirculating and ducted exhaust types. Out of over 2,000 personal short-term air samples, 307 samples from 163 surveys met the data selection criteria. Over a third of the data were less than the analytical laboratory limits of detection. Using the robust maximum likelihood estimation method for multiple limits of detection, the mean and geometric mean of the dataset for each type of local exhaust system were found to be less than the short-term personal exposure regulatory limit of 2 ppm. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum pairwise tests of five types of engineering controls showed a statistically significant difference among these controls, with the most effective being the manufactured backdraft grossing stations ducted to the outside, and the least effective being canopy exhaust systems and manufactured filtered recirculating grossing stations. Finally, exposure with each of the major engineering control types was rated by the American Industrial Hygiene Association exposure control rating scheme.

  1. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095-0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average) concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent direct skin or eye contact.

  2. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  3. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  4. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  5. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death and...

  6. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  7. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  8. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  9. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations extracted from the CSB's 2011 case study, “Texas Tech University Laboratory Explosion,” available... prioritizes intervention strategies based on the premise that the best way to control a hazard is to...

  11. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  12. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-10-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O{2/-}•), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S -transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  13. Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus; Lister, Lindsay J; Hankard, Peter K; Kille, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2 expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC-(50) in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals.

  14. Laboratory development and field testing of sentinel toys to assess environmental faecal exposure of young children in rural India.

    PubMed

    Torondel, Belen; Gyekye-Aboagye, Yaw; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Schimdt, Wolf; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel toys are increasingly used as a method of assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens in households in low-income settings. However, there is no consensus on the suitability of different approaches. We evaluated three types of toy balls with different surfaces (plastic, rubber, urethane) in the laboratory to compare the uptake of faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) on their surface. We performed bacteria survival analysis under different environmental conditions and tested laboratory methods for bacteria removal and recovery. In a field study we distributed sterile urethane balls to children <5 from 360 households in rural India. After 24 hours, we collected and rinsed the toys in sterile water, assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and explored associations between the level of contamination and household characteristics. In the laboratory, urethane foam balls took up more indicator bacteria than the other balls. Bacteria recovery did not differ based on mechanic vs no agitation. Higher temperatures and moisture levels increased bacterial yield. In the field, the only factor associated with a decreased recovery of TTC from the balls was having a soil (unpaved) floor. Sentinel toys may be an effective tool for assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens. However, even using methods designed to increase bacterial recovery, limited sensitivity may require larger sample sizes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cellular and aqueous microcystin-LR following laboratory exposures of Microcystis aeruginosa to copper algaecides.

    PubMed

    Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Geer, Tyler D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-03-01

    Microcystin release from algal cells influences use of copper-algaecides in water resources. Accurate data regarding relationships between copper-algaecide exposures and responses of microcystin-producing algae are needed to make informed management decisions. Responses of Microcystis aeruginosa were measured in terms of cellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR), aqueous MC-LR, and chlorophyll-a following exposure to CuSO4 and copper-ethanolamine. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated samples, and copper formulations. EC50s and slopes for M. aeruginosa responses to copper exposures were calculated. Algal responses followed a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship, and cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a were negatively related to copper concentrations. Aqueous MC-LR increased with copper concentrations, although the increase in aqueous MC-LR was not proportional to decreases in cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a. Cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll a declined at a greater rate than aqueous MC-LR increased. Total MC-LR was less than untreated controls following copper exposure. Differences were measured between copper formulations in terms of aqueous and total MC-LR concentrations at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cu L-1. Aqueous and total MC-LR were greater (10-20%) following exposure to CuSO4 compared to copper-ethanolamine one day following exposure. The positive relationship between copper concentration and aqueous MC-LR at 0.07-1.0 mg Cu L-1 demonstrates that lower copper concentrations were as effective as higher concentrations in controlling M. aeruginosa while decreasing the total amount of MC-LR, and minimizing the proportion of MC-LR released to the aqueous-phase. Results serve to support more accurate risk evaluations of MC-LR concentrations when M. aeruginosa is exposed to copper-algaecides and when it is untreated.

  16. FIELD COLLECTION METHODS USED IN THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: A TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tutorial on the field sampling equipment used to collect multimedia samples.

    We conduct observational human exposure measurement studies in order to understand what chemicals people come into contact with, at what levels, what the sources of those chemicals are, and wher...

  17. FIELD COLLECTION METHODS USED IN THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: A TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tutorial on the field sampling equipment used to collect multimedia samples.

    We conduct observational human exposure measurement studies in order to understand what chemicals people come into contact with, at what levels, what the sources of those chemicals are, and wher...

  18. The REPAIR Project: Examining the Biological Impacts of Sub-Background Radiation Exposure within SNOLAB, a Deep Underground Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Thome, Christopher; Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Pirkkanen, Jake; Zarnke, Andrew; Laframboise, Taylor; Boreham, Douglas R

    2017-07-19

    Considerable attention has been given to understanding the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure at levels slightly above background. However, relatively few studies have been performed to examine the inverse, where natural background radiation is removed. The limited available data suggest that organisms exposed to sub-background radiation environments undergo reduced growth and an impaired capacity to repair genetic damage. Shielding from background radiation is inherently difficult due to high-energy cosmic radiation. SNOLAB, located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, is a unique facility for examining the effects of sub-background radiation exposure. Originally constructed for astroparticle physics research, the laboratory is located within an active nickel mine at a depth of over 2,000 m. The rock overburden provides shielding equivalent to 6,000 m of water, thereby almost completely eliminating cosmic radiation. Additional features of the facility help to reduce radiological contamination from the surrounding rock. We are currently establishing a biological research program within SNOLAB: Researching the Effects of the Presence and Absence of Ionizing Radiation (REPAIR project). We hypothesize that natural background radiation is essential for life and maintains genomic stability, and that prolonged exposure to sub-background radiation environments will be detrimental to biological systems. Using a combination of whole organism and cell culture model systems, the effects of exposure to a sub-background environment will be examined on growth and development, as well as markers of genomic damage, DNA repair capacity and oxidative stress. The results of this research will provide further insight into the biological effects of low-dose radiation exposure as well as elucidate some of the processes that may drive evolution and selection in living systems. This Radiation Research focus issue contains reviews and original articles, which relate to the

  19. Impact of urban air pollution on the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: Outdoor exposure study supported by laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Mazar, Yinon; Yarden, Oded; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the chemical interactions of common allergens in urban environments may help to decipher the general increase in susceptibility to allergies observed in recent decades. In this study, asexual conidia of the allergenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to air pollution under natural (ambient) and controlled (laboratory) conditions. The allergenic activity was measured using two immunoassays and supported by a protein mass spectrometry analysis. The allergenicity of the conidia was found to increase by 2-5 fold compared to the control for short exposure times of up to 12h (accumulated exposure of about 50 ppb NO2 and 750 ppb O3), possibly due to nitration. At higher exposure times, the allergenicity increase lessened due to protein deamidation. These results indicate that during the first 12h of exposure, the allergenic potency of the fungal allergen A. fumigatus in polluted urban environments is expected to increase. Additional work is needed in order to determine if this behavior occurs for other allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  1. Laboratory and field exposure of two species of juvenile amphibians to a glyphosate-based herbicide and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher B; Gahl, Megan K; Thompson, Dean G; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2013-02-01

    Herbicides are commonly used in agriculture and silviculture to reduce interspecific competition among plants and thereby enhance crop growth, quality, and volume. Internationally, formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used herbicides in both these sectors. A large amount of work has focused on the effects of these herbicides on amphibians. Several laboratory and mesocosm studies have demonstrated that various formulations of glyphosate herbicides can be acutely toxic to larval and juvenile amphibians at concentrations at the upper end of environmental realism. However, to date there has been little work done investigating such effects in natural systems, limited work on juvenile amphibians, and only a few studies have investigated interactions with other stressors. We conducted a 16 day field experiment in which juveniles of two amphibian species (Lithobates clamitans and Lithobates pipiens) were exposed to the herbicide Roundup WeatherMax™ at four application rates (0, 2.16, 4.32 and 8.64 kg a.e./ha) to investigate effects on survival, liver somatic index (LSI), body condition, and incidence of disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In a separate 16 day laboratory experiment, we exposed juvenile L. clamitans to both the herbicide and Bd. Results of our studies showed that this particular herbicide formulation had no effect on juvenile survival, LSI, body condition, or disease incidence, nor was there an interaction between exposure to herbicide and exposure to the disease in tests which closely mimic real world exposure scenarios. These experiments suggest that Roundup WeatherMax as typically used in agriculture is unlikely to cause significant deleterious effects on juvenile amphibians under real world exposure conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Air Pollution Exposure Laboratory (APEL) for controlled human exposure to diesel exhaust and other inhalants: characterization and comparison to existing facilities.

    PubMed

    Birger, Nicholas; Gould, Timothy; Stewart, James; Miller, Mark R; Larson, Timothy; Carlsten, Chris

    2011-03-01

    The Air Pollution Exposure Laboratory (APEL) was designed for the controlled inhalation of human subjects to aged and diluted diesel exhaust (DE) to mimic "real-world" occupational and environmental conditions. An EPA Tier 3-compliant, 6.0 kW diesel generator is operated under discrete cyclic loads to simulate diesel on-road emissions. The engine accepts standard ultra-low sulfur diesel or a variety of alternative fuels (such as biodiesel) via a partitioned tank. A portion of raw exhaust is drawn into the primary dilution system and is diluted 9:1 with compressed air at standard temperature (20°C) and humidity (40%) levels. The exhaust is further diluted approximately 25:1 by high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air (FA) and then aged for 4 min before entering the 4 × 6 × 7-foot exposure booth. An optional HEPA filter path immediately proximal to the booth can generate a particle-reduced (gas-enriched) exposure. In-booth particulate is read by a nephelometer to provide an instantaneous light scattering coefficient for closed-loop system control. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and multi-stage impactor measures particle size distribution. Filter sampling allows determination of sessional average concentrations of size-fractionated and unfractionated particulate oxidative potential, elemental carbon, organic carbon and trace elements. Approximately 300 μg/m(3) PM(2.5) is routinely achievable at APEL and is well characterized in terms of oxidative potential and elemental components. APEL efficiently creates fresh DE, appropriately aged and diluted for human experimentation at safe yet realistic concentrations. Description of exposure characteristics allows comparison to other international efforts to deepen the current evidence base regarding the health effects of DE.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals. Medical... regular exhaust system (208). Cold rooms and warm rooms should have provisions for rapid escape and for... to alert people in all parts of the facility including isolation areas such as cold rooms (172). (c...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment” are available and in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous... regular exhaust system (208). Cold rooms and warm rooms should have provisions for rapid escape and for... to alert people in all parts of the facility including isolation areas such as cold rooms (172). (c...

  5. Evaluation of mutagenicity and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.A.; Babish, J.G.

    1982-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of sodium azide has resulted in widespread occupational exposure to it in both laboratory and industrial settings, despite a lack of knowledge of the risks which may be involved. Explosive, toxic, and mutagenic hazards have been shown at even low-dose exposures. These effects occur in many species, from cellular damage through pathology of whole systems, and human fatalities have been reported. The advantages to its availability for applicable uses precludes reaching a ''no exposure'' level, but efforts to decrease unnecessary exposure can reduce its risk; therefore a quantitative procedure for determining human exposure is necessary. However, for various reasons present methods for this type of evaluation of azide are unsatisfactory, and minimizing hazard is dependent upon good laboratory hygiene and motivated personnel. The increasing use of azide and proportionally increasing occupational and accidental exposure in the future warrants the undertaking of chronic exposure studies, which hopefully will result in more explicit guidelines for human protection.

  6. Two Experiments on Laboratory-Induced Motion Sickness. I. Acupressure. II. Repeated Exposure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-10

    capabilities. Experiment I is a pilot study investigating the effectiveness of an acupressure method to prevent laboratory induced motion sickness...that the acupressure treatment as applied in this study to a group of airsick referrals was not effective in altering the signs and symptoms of

  7. The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

    2014-02-01

    We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (∼122 nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961 cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is

  8. Reconstructing Tritium Exposure Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California

    PubMed Central

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; KNEZOVICH, JOHN P.

    2010-01-01

    Annual tritium exposures were reconstructed using tree cores from Pinus jeffreyi and Eucalyptus globulus near a tritiated water vapor release stack. Both tritium (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) from the wood were measured from milligram samples using accelerator mass spectrometry. Because the annual nature of the eucalyptus tree rings was in doubt, 14C measurements provided growth rates used to estimate the age for 3H determinations. A 30-yr comparison of organically bound tritium (OBT) levels to reported 3H release data is achieved using OBT measurements from three trees near the stack. The annual average 3H, determined from atmospheric water vapor monitoring stations, is comparable to the OBT in proximal trees. For situations without adequate historical monitoring data, this measurement-based historical assessment provides the only independent means of assessing exposure as compared to fate and transport models that require prior knowledge of environmental conditions and 3H discharge patterns. PMID:14572081

  9. Experiment Definition Using the Space Laboratory, Long Duration Exposure Facility, and Space Transportation System Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Albert P.; Wood, Joan M.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate experiments designed for the space shuttle transportation system and the long duration exposure facility are summarized. The data format covers: experiment title, Experimenter, technical abstract, benefits/justification, technical discussion of experiment approach and objectives, related work and experience, experiment facts space properties used, environmental constraints, shielding requirements, if any, physical description, and sketch of major elements. Information was also included on experiment hardware, research required to develop experiment, special requirements, cost estimate, safety considerations, and interactions with spacecraft and other experiments.

  10. Update: potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 during a laboratory proficiency test--United States and Canada, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-18

    In November 2007, New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) officials notified CDC of potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 (RB51) in multiple clinical laboratories that participated in a Laboratory Preparedness Survey (LPS) proficiency test. NYSDOH conducted a survey of participating laboratories and identified 17 laboratories that reported handling the RB51 sample in a manner placing lab workers at potential risk for exposure. Subsequently, CDC recommended that public health officials conduct a review of biosafety practices at all LPS-participating laboratories to identify any additional RB51 exposures. This report summarizes the results of investigations in 36 states, two cities, one county, and the District of Columbia. As of January 14, 2008, follow-up by public health officials with LPS-participating laboratories throughout the United States identified a total of 916 laboratory workers in 254 laboratories with potential RB51 exposure. The results highlight the need for routine adherence to recommended biosafety practices when working with infectious organisms, particularly during widespread infectious-disease events, including bioterrorism attacks.

  11. Exposures of older adults with chronic respiratory illness to nitrogen dioxide. A combined laboratory and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Anderson, K.R.; Solomon, J.C.; Little, D.E.; Peng, R.C. )

    1992-12-01

    We combined field and laboratory experimentation to evaluate the effects of nitrogen dioxide in a panel of Los Angeles area residents with chronic respiratory illness, 15 men and 11 women aged 47 to 69. All had heavy smoking history, chronic symptoms, and low FEV1; some also had low FVC. During the fall-winter high-NO2 season, they monitored themselves for 2-wk periods using spirometers in the home, passive NO2 sampling badges, and diaries to record time and activity patterns and clinical status. In the middle of each self-monitoring week they were exposed in a chamber, once to clean air and once to 0.3 ppm NO2. Chamber exposures were double blind, lasted 4 h, and included four 7-min exercise sessions with average ventilation rates near 25 L/min. Symptom reports and hourly forced expiratory function tests showed no statistically significant differences between clean air and NO2 chamber exposures, although peak flow showed a approximately 3% loss with NO2 relative to clean air during the first 2 h of exposure only (p = 0.056). No significant overall differences were found between field self-measurements and measurements of lung function in the chamber or between field measurements in clean air and NO2 exposure weeks. Field data showed that group average lung function and symptom levels were worse in the morning than later in the day (p < 0.005) but otherwise were stable over 2 wk. Even though most subjects smoked and stayed indoors 80 to 90% of the time, personal NO2 exposures correlated significantly with outdoor NO2 concentrations as reported by local monitoring stations.

  12. Laboratory measurements on radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: Implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Solecki, Andrzej Tomasz; Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Piekarz, Magdalena; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification, evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on the earth's surface could be measured by satellite techniques capable of measuring thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies have found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes, hence satellite techniques are widely used in research into the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations in SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes, such as the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or because of radon. In particular, ionization processes due to radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of radon in the thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory-controlled atmospheric volume.

  13. Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James W.; Rusnak, Janice M.; Cieslak, Theodore J.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Anderson, Edwin L.; Ranadive, Manmohan V.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, a scientist from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) was potentially exposed to a mouse-adapted variant of the Zaire species of Ebola virus. The circumstances surrounding the case are presented, in addition to an update on historical admissions to the medical containment suite at USAMRIID. Research facilities contemplating work with pathogens requiring Biosafety Level 4 laboratory precautions should be mindful of the occupational health issues highlighted in this article. PMID:18507897

  14. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  15. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  16. Toxicological effects of military fog oil obscurant on Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia in field and laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Cropek, Donald M; Esarey, Joan C; Conner, Cassie L; Goran, Jacob M; Smith, Thomas; Soucek, David J

    2008-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if the acute and sub-lethal effects of fog oil, an obscurant used for military training, could be observed in realistic field exposures. To this end, we exposed Daphnia magna to oil fogs under actual release conditions at a U.S. Army training site. Guided by field investigations, acute toxicity experiments were conducted in the laboratory with the more sensitive species Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that dissolution of fog oil constituents into water is minimal and actual contact by organisms with the water surface is required to cause toxicity. We conducted further experiments to test the hypothesis that vaporization of fog oil alters its chemical composition and toxicity to freshwater invertebrates. In the field, daphnid mortality was minimal more than 5 m from the point of fog generation, but sub-lethal effects were more extensive. Both field and laboratory experiments suggested that physical contact with oils on the water surface was the most important factor driving toxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate toxicological endpoints with freshwater invertebrates in field exposures with fog oil.

  17. Glycopyrrolate in toxic exposure to ammonia gas

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, A; Mahi, S; Sharma, N; Singh, S

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a highly water-soluble, colorless, irritant gas with a unique pungent odor. Liquid ammonia stored under high pressure is still widely used for refrigeration in cold stores used for storing grains. Severe toxicity may occur following accidental exposure. We report an interesting case of accidental exposure to ammonia treated with glycopyrrolate along with other supportive measures. PMID:21633586

  18. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  19. Deep accidental hypothermia during the Queensland summer.

    PubMed

    Udy, Andrew A; Ziegenfuss, Marc D; Fraser, John F

    2007-12-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with severe accidental hypothermia associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after a polypharmacy overdose. Deep hypothermia developed while she lay unconscious, with a split-system air-conditioning unit rapidly cooling the confined area of her bedroom. Despite the need for lengthy resuscitative efforts at the scene and in hospital, she went on to a full neurological recovery. The neuroprotective role of accidental hypothermia is reviewed, as are the guidelines for resuscitation in this setting. We conclude that hypothermia must be considered even in unlikely circumstances, such as the Queensland summer, when ambient temperatures are high.

  20. Exposure estimates using urban plume dispersion and traffic microsimulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Mueller, C.; Bush, B.; Stretz, P.

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this research effort was to demonstrate a capability for analyzing emergency response issues resulting from accidental or mediated airborne toxic releases in an urban setting. In the first year of the program, the authors linked a system of fluid dynamics, plume dispersion, and vehicle transportation models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to study the dispersion of a plume in an urban setting and the resulting exposures to vehicle traffic. This research is part of a larger laboratory-directed research and development project for studying the relationships between urban infrastructure elements and natural systems.

  1. Getting More Ecologically Relevant Information from Laboratory Tests: Recovery of Lemna minor After Exposure to Herbicides and Their Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Varja; Tunić, Tanja; Gajić, Pero; Marjan, Patricija; Savić, Danko; Tenji, Dina; Teodorović, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    Recovery after exposure to herbicides-atrazine, isoproturon, and trifluralin-their binary and ternary mixtures, was studied under laboratory conditions using a slightly adapted standard protocol for Lemna minor. The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare empirical to predicted toxicity of selected herbicide mixtures; (2) to assess L. minor recovery potential after exposure to selected individual herbicides and their mixtures; and (3) to suggest an appropriate recovery potential assessment approach and endpoint in a modified laboratory growth inhibition test. The deviation of empirical from predicted toxicity was highest in binary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides. The concentration addition model slightly underestimated mixture effects, indicating potential synergistic interactions between photosynthetic inhibitors (atrazine and isoproturon) and a cell mitosis inhibitor (trifluralin). Recovery after exposure to the binary mixture of atrazine and isoproturon was fast and concentration-independent: no significant differences between relative growth rates (RGRs) in any of the mixtures (IC10Mix, 25Mix, and 50Mix) versus control level were recorded in the last interval of the recovery phase. The recovery of the plants exposed to binary and ternary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides was strictly concentration-dependent. Only plants exposed to IC10Mix, regardless of the herbicides, recovered RGRs close to control level in the last interval of the recovery phase. The inhibition of the RGRs in the last interval of the recovery phase compared with the control level is a proposed endpoint that could inform on reversibility of the effects and indicate possible mixture effects on plant population recovery potential.

  2. Exposure to high endotoxin concentration increases wheezing prevalence among laboratory animal workers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Amanda Souza; Simoneti, Christian Silva; Ferraz, Erica; Bagatin, Ericson; Brandão, Izaira Tincani; Silva, Celio Lopes; Borges, Marcos Carvalho; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2016-05-06

    Endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria are found in different concentrations in dust and on the ground of laboratories dealing with small animals and animal houses. Cross-sectional study performed in workplaces of two universities. Dust samples were collected from laboratories and animal facilities housing rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits or hamsters and analyzed by the "Limulus amebocyte lysate" (LAL) method. We also sampled workplaces without animals. The concentrations of endotoxin detected in the workplaces were tested for association with wheezing in the last 12 months, asthma defined by self-reported diagnosis and asthma confirmed by bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to mannitol. Dust samples were obtained at 145 workplaces, 92 with exposure to animals and 53 with no exposure. Exposed group comprised 412 subjects and non-exposed group comprised 339 subjects. Animal-exposed workplaces had higher concentrations of endotoxin, median of 34.2 endotoxin units (EU) per mg of dust (interquartile range, 12.6-65.4), as compared to the non-exposed group, median of 10.2 EU/mg of dust (interquartile range, 2.6-22.2) (p < 0.001). The high concentration of endotoxin (above whole sample median, 20.4 EU/mg) was associated with increased wheezing prevalence (p < 0.001), i.e., 61 % of workers exposed to high endotoxin concentration reported wheezing in the last 12 months compared to 29 % of workers exposed to low endotoxin concentration. The concentration of endotoxin was not associated with asthma report or with BHR confirmed asthma. Exposure to endotoxin is associated with a higher prevalence of wheezing, but not with asthma as defined by the mannitol bronchial challenge test or by self-reported asthma. Preventive measures are necessary for these workers.

  3. Comparative susceptibility of Atlantic salmon, lake trout and rainbow trout to Myxobolus cerebralis in controlled laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Blazer, V S; Densmore, C L; Schill, W B; Cartwright, D D; Page, S J

    2004-01-28

    The susceptibility of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, was compared in controlled laboratory exposures. A total of 450 (225 for each dose) fry for each species were exposed to a low (200 spores per fish) or high (2000 spores per fish) dose of the infective triactinomyxon. At 22 wk post-exposure, 60 fish from each group, as well as controls for each species, were examined for clinical signs (whirling behavior, blacktail, deformed heads and skeletal deformities), microscopic lesions, and presence of spores. Rainbow trout were highly susceptible to infection, with 100% being positive for spores and with microscopic pathological changes in both exposure groups. Rainbow trout were the only species to show whirling behavior and blacktail. Atlantic salmon were less susceptible, with only 44 and 61% being positive for spores, respectively, in the low and high dose groups, while 68 and 75%, respectively, had microscopic pathology associated with cartilage damage. Rainbow trout heads contained mean spore concentrations of 2.2 (low dose) or 4.0 (high dose) x 10(6) spores g tissue(-1). The means for positive Atlantic salmon (not including zero values) were 1.7 (low) and 7.4 (high) x 10(4) spores g tissue(-1). Lake trout showed no clinical signs of infection, were negative for spores in both groups and showed no histopathological signs of M. cerebralis infection.

  4. Comparative susceptibility of Atlantic salmon, lake trout and rainbow trout to Myxobolus cerebralis in controlled laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Densmore, Christine L.; Schill, W.B.; Cartwright, Deborah D.; Page, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, was compared in controlled laboratory exposures. A total of 450 (225 for each dose) fry for each species were exposed to a low (200 spores per fish) or high (2000 spores per fish) dose of the infective triactinomyxon. At 22 wk post-exposure, 60 fish from each group, as well as controls for each species, were examined for clinical signs (whirling behavior, blacktail, deformed heads and skeletal deformities), microscopic lesions, and presence of spores. Rainbow trout were highly susceptible to infection, with 100% being positive for spores and with microscopic pathological changes in both exposure groups. Rainbow trout were the only species to show whirling behavior and blacktail. Atlantic salmon were less susceptible, with only 44 and 61% being positive for spores, respectively, in the low and high dose groups, while 68 and 75%, respectively, had microscopic pathology associated with cartilage damage. Rainbow trout heads contained mean spore concentrations of 2.2 (low dose) or 4.0 (high dose) ?? 106 spores g tissue-1. The means for positive Atlantic salmon (not including zero values) were 1.7 (low) and 7.4 (high) ?? 104 spores g tissue-1. Lake trout showed no clinical signs of infection, were negative for spores in both groups and showed no histopathological signs of M. cerebralis infection.

  5. Biomarkers of PAHs exposure in crabs Ucides cordatus: laboratory assay and field study.

    PubMed

    Nudi, Adriana H; Wagener, Angela de L R; Francioni, Eleine; Sette, Carla B; Sartori, André V; Scofield, Arthur de L

    2010-02-01

    Pyrene metabolites in urine and micronucleus in haemocytes of crabs (Ucides cordatus) were tested as biomarkers of exposure to oil derived PAHs in mangrove sediments. The goal was to verify how well pyrene metabolites in urine represent levels of oil contamination in mangroves and whether the micronuclei assay indicates exposure. For this, bioassays were performed using crabs from clean and contaminated areas, and field studies were conducted in four mangroves. Results of the bioassay show that U. cordatus assimilates, metabolises, and excretes pyrene in urine as pyrene-1-glucoside, pyrene-sulphate and pyrene-conjugate. OH-pyrene-sulphate was the major metabolite produced/excreted over 120 h of observation by crabs from the clean mangrove. The production/excretion of pyrene-1-glucoside in this case increased linearly with time at a rate of 2.3 x 10(-10)mol L(-1)day(-1). The number of micronuclei in haemocytes also increased with the time after pyrene inoculation, indicating that exposure to pyrene triggers genotoxic and mutagenic response. In crabs from a heavily oil-contaminated mangrove pyrene-1-glucoside was the major metabolite, an indication that production/excretion of a certain metabolite varies depending on adaptation of the animal to the environment. A highly significant correlation was found between the concentration of pyrene metabolites in urine of field crabs expressed as OH-pyrene equivalents and the sum of 38 PAHs determined in hepatopancreas/sediments (r=0.825, n=23, p<0.05). The response of these crabs to the micronuclei assay was not significantly related to concentration of individual or total PAHs. Nevertheless, metabolite results prove U. cordatus as excellent bioindicator for evaluating environmental quality in mangrove areas as related to PAHs and oil contamination. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bayesian modelling of daphnid responses to time-varying cadmium exposure in laboratory aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Billoir, Elise; Delhaye, Hélène; Clément, Bernard; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure; Charles, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the effects of cadmium on five aquatic species in 2-L indoor freshwater/sediment microcosms. Experimental data were collected over 21 days in static conditions, i.e. the microcosms evolved without water renewal. Because of speciation, the total cadmium concentration in water decreased with time. Here we present a focus on Daphnia magna responses. For the three life history traits we considered (survival, growth and reproduction), mathematical effect models were built based on threshold stress functions involving no effect concentrations (NECs). These models took the time-varying conditions of exposure into account through a time-recurrent formalism. Within a Bayesian framework, four kinds of data were fitted simultaneously (exposure, survival, growth and reproduction), using an appropriate error model for each endpoint. Hence, NECs were determined as well as their associated estimation uncertainty. Through this modelling approach, we demonstrate that thresholds for stress functions can be successfully inferred even in experimental setup more complex than standard bioassays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a paperless, Y2K compliant exposure tracking database at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Conwell, J L; Creek, K L; Pozzi, A R; Whyte, H M

    2001-02-01

    The Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a database application known as IH DataView, which manages industrial hygiene monitoring data. IH DataView replaces a LANL legacy system, IHSD, that restricted user access to a single point of data entry needed enhancements that support new operational requirements, and was not Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant. IH DataView features a comprehensive suite of data collection and tracking capabilities. Through the use of Oracle database management and application development tools, the system is Y2K compliant and Web enabled for easy deployment and user access via the Internet. System accessibility is particularly important because LANL operations are spread over 43 square miles, and industrial hygienists (IHs) located across the laboratory will use the system. IH DataView shows promise of being useful in the future because it eliminates these problems. It has a flexible architecture and sophisticated capability to collect, track, and analyze data in easy-to-use form.

  8. Design, construction, and characterization of a novel robotic welding fume generator and inhalation exposure system for laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Afshari, Aliakbar A; Stone, Sam; Chen, Bean; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fletcher, W Gary; Goldsmith, W Travis; Vandestouwe, Kurt H; McKinney, Walter; Castranova, Vincent; Frazer, David G

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory effects observed in welders have included lung function changes, metal fume fever, bronchitis, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the causality and possible underlying mechanisms associated with the potential toxic effects of welding fume inhalation. The objective of the present study was to construct a completely automated, computer-controlled welding fume generation and inhalation exposure system to simulate real workplace exposures. The system comprised a programmable six-axis robotic welding arm, a water-cooled arc welding torch, and a wire feeder that supplied the wire to the torch at a programmed rate. For the initial studies, gas metal arc welding was performed using a stainless steel electrode. A flexible trunk was attached to the robotic arm of the welder and was used to collect and transport fume from the vicinity of the arc to the animal exposure chamber. Undiluted fume concentrations consistently ranged from 90-150 mg/m(3) in the animal chamber during welding. Temperature and humidity remained constant in the chamber during the welding operation. The welding particles were composed of (from highest to lowest concentration) iron, chromium, manganese, and nickel as measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Size distribution analysis indicated the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the generated particles to be approximately 0.24 microm with a geometric standard deviation (sigma(g)) of 1.39. As determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the generated aerosols were mostly arranged as chain-like agglomerates of primary particles. Characterization of the laboratory-generated welding aerosol has indicated that particle morphology, size, and chemical composition are comparable to stainless steel welding fume generated in other studies. With the development of this novel system, it will be possible to establish an animal model using

  9. Synergy between prochloraz and esfenvalerate in Daphnia magna from acute and subchronic exposures in the laboratory and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt A; Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R; Cedergreen, Nina

    2012-04-01

    Azole fungicides can enhance the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides on aquatic species. It is, however, unknown to what extend the synergy found under laboratory conditions for strongly sorbing compounds (Azole logK(ow): 3-4, pyrethroid logK(ow): 6-7) will also take place in the field. We therefore investigated the synergising potential of the fungicide prochloraz on the pyrethroid esfenvalerate on Daphnia magna in the laboratory and in situ in cages placed in outdoor aquatic microcosms treated with 0.17, 0.33 and 0.83 μgL(-1) esfenvalerate with and without 90 μg L(-1) prochloraz. We found that the 8-14 fold synergy observed after 2 and 7 days of exposure to mixtures in the microcosms was equivalent to or greater than the 3-7 fold synergy found in 2-day laboratory tests. Incubating new neonates in situ 7 and 14 days after pesticide addition gave EC(50) values of 0.012 ± 0.001 and <0.005μgesfenvalerateL(-1) in the mixture treatments, based on measured water column concentrations. The detection limit is more than ten-fold lower than the lowest esfenvalerate concentration observed to cause ecologically significant effects across seven long term mesocosms studies, hence, even on a longer time scale prochloraz apparently synergises the effect of esfenvalerate under field-like conditions in the microcosms. The results show that synergy found in the laboratory also takes place under field like conditions at quantitatively similar levels, and that it lasts for several weeks. More knowledge on the identification of potential synergists, their true bioavailability and the concentrations and time span within which they can cause synergy needs further study, before an overall evaluation of the occurrence and severity of synergy under field conditions can take place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  11. Laboratory measurements on Radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Tomasz Solecki, Andrzej; Eulalia Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification or evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on earth's surface have also been measured by satellite techniques able to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes thus satellite techniques are widely utilized in researches on the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations on SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes like the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or by Radon. In particular ionization processes due to Radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of Radon in thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory controlled atmospheric volume. Samples of highly radioactive granite powder containing 600 Bq/kg of Radium that is 20 times higher than the average continental lithosphere content has been stored in a desiccator of 0,005 m3 volume for 30 days to accumulate radon 222Rn in the desiccator air. After radon accumulation the desiccator was placed inside a styrofoam chamber of 1x0.5x0.5 m size and the cover removed. The relative humidity of chamber air was 72% and temperature 24 oC. Experiment was monitored by an infrared camera Flir Therma CAM PM695 operating in the spectrum band 7,5-13 µm with thermal resolution 0,01ºC and a RadStar RS300-I Radon Detector/Monitor with 1 hour time resolution. Air temperature and humidity were monitored by a digital Terdens thermohygrometer. No significant thermal or humidity effects were observed.

  12. The effects of delta rays on the number of particle-track traversals per cell in laboratory and space exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is a common practice to estimate the number of particle-track traversals per cell or cell nucleus as the product of the ion's linear energy transfer (LET) and cell area. This practice ignores the effects of track width due to the lateral extension of delta rays. We make estimates of the number of particle-track traversals per cell, which includes the effects of delta rays using radial cutoffs in the ionization density about an ion's track of 1 mGy and 1 cGy. Calculations for laboratory and space radiation exposures are discussed, and show that the LET approximation provides a large underestimate of the actual number of particle-track traversals per cell from high-charge and energy (HZE) ions. In light of the current interest in the mechanisms of radiation action, including signal transduction and cytoplasmic damage, these results should be of interest for radiobiology studies with HZE ions.

  13. Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

  14. The effects of delta rays on the number of particle-track traversals per cell in laboratory and space exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is a common practice to estimate the number of particle-track traversals per cell or cell nucleus as the product of the ion's linear energy transfer (LET) and cell area. This practice ignores the effects of track width due to the lateral extension of delta rays. We make estimates of the number of particle-track traversals per cell, which includes the effects of delta rays using radial cutoffs in the ionization density about an ion's track of 1 mGy and 1 cGy. Calculations for laboratory and space radiation exposures are discussed, and show that the LET approximation provides a large underestimate of the actual number of particle-track traversals per cell from high-charge and energy (HZE) ions. In light of the current interest in the mechanisms of radiation action, including signal transduction and cytoplasmic damage, these results should be of interest for radiobiology studies with HZE ions.

  15. Exposure of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to metal contaminated sediments in the field and laboratory microcosms: metal uptake and effects.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P M; Taylor, Anne M; Krikowa, Frank; Lintermans, Mark; Maher, William A

    2017-04-01

    Metal uptake and induced toxic effects on Hyridella australis were investigated by establishing 28 day exposure-dose-response relationships (EDR) of transplanted H. australis at four sites along a sediment metal contamination gradient in the mine affected Molonglo River, NSW. Laboratory exposure of this organism to the same sediments, collected from in situ sites, was run concurrently. Metal concentrations in whole organisms, individual tissues and sub-cellular tissue fractions were measured as organism metal dose. Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), lipid peroxidation (MDA) and lysosomal membrane destabilisation (LMS) were measured as biological responses. H. australis accumulated significantly higher tissue zinc concentrations compared to the other metals. In situ organisms at the mine affected sites accumulated more metals than organisms in laboratory microcosms. Accumulated zinc, cadmium and the total metal concentrations in whole organism tissues reflected exposure-dose relationships. Sub-cellular analysis showed that most of the accumulated metals, both in the field and laboratory exposed organisms, were detoxified over 28 days exposure. Clear exposure and dose dependent responses of decreased TAOC and measurable increases in MDA and LMS with increased metal exposure and dose were evident in H. australis caged in the river. In contrast, a dose-response relationship was only evident for cadmium in laboratory exposed organisms. Organisms caged at mine affected sites showed stronger EDR relationships than those exposed in laboratory microcosms as they were exposed to additional sources of dissolved zinc and cadmium. Exposure in laboratory microcosms underestimated metal uptake and effects, thus assessment of metal contaminated sediments should be undertaken "in situ".

  16. Facility-specific radiation exposure risks and their implications for radiation workers at Department of Energy laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Adam Christopher

    This research develops a new framework for evaluating the occupational risks of exposure to hazardous substances in any setting where As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) practices are mandated or used. The evaluation is performed by developing a hypothesis-test-based procedure for evaluating the homogeneity of various epidemiological cohorts, and thus the appropriateness of the application of aggregate data-pooling techniques to those cohorts. A statistical methodology is then developed as an alternative to aggregate pooling for situations in which individual cohorts show heterogeneity between them and are thus unsuitable for pooled analysis. These methods are then applied to estimate the all-cancer mortality risks incurred by workers at four Department-of-Energy nuclear weapons laboratories. Both linear, no-threshold and dose-bin averaged risks are calculated and it is further shown that aggregate analysis tends to overestimate the risks with respect to those calculated by the methods developed in this work. The risk estimates developed in Chapter 2 are, in Chapter 3, applied to assess the risks to workers engaged in americium recovery operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work described in Chapter 3 develops a full radiological protection assessment for the new americium recovery project, including development of exposure cases, creation and modification of MCNP5 models, development of a time-and-motion study, and the final synthesis of all data. This work also develops a new risk-based method of determining whether administrative controls, such as staffing increases, are ALARA-optimized. The EPA's estimate of the value of statistical life is applied to these risk estimates to determine a monetary value for risk. The rate of change of this "risk value" (marginal risk) is then compared with the rate of change of workers' compensations as additional workers are added to the project to reduce the dose (and therefore, presumably, risk) to each

  17. A laboratory investigation of colour changes in two contemporary resin composites on exposure to spices.

    PubMed

    Yew, H Z; Berekally, T L; Richards, L C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate colour stability upon exposure to spices of a nano-filled and a micro-hybrid resin composite finished either with Sof-Lex™ discs (SLD) or against plastic strips (PS). Forty cylindrical specimens of 3 mm thickness were fabricated from Filtek Supreme XT ™ (FS) and Gradia Direct X™ (GD). The top surface of each specimen was polished with SLD while the bottom surface was finished against PS. All samples were immersed in staining solutions (0.1% weight turmeric, paprika and tamarind) and distilled water at 37 °C. Colour after 0, 24, 72 and 168 hours of immersion was recorded with a reflection spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* parameters and the results were statistically analysed with repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Among all the staining solutions tested, the highest colour deviation was obtained in the turmeric group. FS finished against PS showed significantly more colour changes compared to specimens polished with SLD, while GD finished against PS were found to be more resistant to colour changes. Within the limitations of this study all the spices tested have the potential to stain resin composites with turmeric causing the most significant discolouration. Micro-hybrid and nano-filled resin composites appeared to respond differently to staining by spices when either finished with PS or polished with SLD. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

    1998-08-01

    The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation.

  19. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  20. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  1. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  2. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  3. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products...

  4. Integrated biomarker response index used in laboratory exposure of the mussel Mytilus edulis to water accommodated fractions of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhang, Xinxin; Hu, Shunxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and to set up a quantitative evaluation method in monitoring the environmental pollution is of great importance. Individuals of Mytilus edulis, collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, were thus exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil under controlled lab conditions. Mussels were exposed to different concentrations of WAFs for 96h acute toxicity experiment and 15d chronic toxicity experiment, a 7d restoration experiment was conducted after toxicity experiment as well. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST, GPx and GR) were measured in gills of mussels. The purpose of the study was to screen out a series of sensitive biomarkers and set up an Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) for marine oil pollution monitoring. Results showed: (1) WAFs exposure induced the increased activities of CAT, GST, GPx and GR in gills, revealing a stimulation effect on the antioxidant system. Activities of enzymes were more significantly altered in response to higher concentrations of WAFs (2.3 and 5.0 mg.L-1) than lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.1 mg.L-1). After restoration experiment, the activities decreased to the initial levels. (2) IBR was set up base on the laboratory experiment, which showed a positive relationship with WAFs exposure concentrations. Therefore, IBR was suggested to be a potentially useful tool in assessing the oil pollution.

  5. Exposure of Laboratory Mice to Domestic Cooking Gas: - Implications for Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Odunola, Oyeronke A.; Uka, Emmanuel; Akinwumi, Kazeem A.; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Osifeso, Olabode O.; Ibegbu, Madu D.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of domestic cooking gas to induce hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity in mice was studied. The mice were exposed to domestic gas for twenty-one days at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively. The positive control group of mice were given sodium arsenite intraperitoneously at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight. While the negative control group had only distilled water, sodium arsenite significantly (p < 0.05) induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs), serum and liver gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities respectively as compared with the observations made in the negative control group. Similarly, the domestic gas significantly (p<0.05) induced mPCEs formation, serum and liver, γGT and AP activities. The degree of induction was in the order of 100 mg/kg < 200 mg/kg < 300 mg/kg. However, when compared with the positive control group, the domestic cooking gas at the tested doses was not as potent as sodium arsenite in its ability to induce enzyme activity and mPCEs formation. Limited histopathological analysis of liver samples from treated and untreated mice showed distended blood vessels, necrosis and hepatocellular degeneration in the groups treated with high doses of domestic gas or sodium arsenite as compared with the untreated group. Our findings suggest that the domestic cooking gas has some degree of clastogenic and hepatotoxic activities in mice. Health risks may therefore be associated with long-term occupational and / or domestic exposure in humans. PMID:19139536

  6. Bumblebee colony development following chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Raine, Nigel E

    2017-08-14

    Neonicotinoid pesticides are used in agriculture to reduce damage from crop pests. However, beneficial insects such as bees can come into contact with these pesticides when foraging in treated areas, with potential consequences for bee declines and pollination service delivery. Honeybees are typically used as a model organism to investigate insecticide impacts on bees, but relatively little is known about impacts on other taxa such as bumblebees. In this experiment, we chronically exposed whole mature bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (2.4ppb & 10ppb) over four weeks, and compared colony growth under laboratory conditions. We found no impact of insecticide exposure on colony weight gain, or the number or mass of sexuals produced, although colonies exposed to 2.4ppb produced larger males. As previous studies have reported pesticide effects on bumblebee colony growth, this may suggest that impacts on bumblebee colonies are more pronounced for colonies at an earlier stage in the reproductive cycle. Alternatively, it may also indicate that thiamethoxam differs in toxicity compared to previously tested neonicotinoids in terms of reproductive effects. In either case, assessing bumblebee colony development under field conditions is likely more informative for real world scenarios than tests conducted in laboratory conditions.

  7. Quantitative analysis of methamphetamine in hair of children removed from clandestine laboratories--evidence of passive exposure?

    PubMed

    Bassindale, T

    2012-06-10

    In New Zealand many children have been removed from clandestine laboratories following Police intervention. In the last few years it has become standard procedure that these children have hair samples taken and these samples are submitted to the laboratory for analysis. There are various mechanisms for the incorporation of drugs into hair. The hair follicle has a rich blood supply, so any drug that may be circulating in the blood can be incorporated into the growing hair. Another mechanism is via external contamination, such as spilling a drug on the hair or through exposure to fumes or vapours. Hair samples were analysed for methamphetamine and amphetamine. From the 52 cases analysed 38 (73%) were positive for methamphetamine (>0.1 ng/mg) and amphetamine was detected in 34 of these cases. In no case was amphetamine detected without methamphetamine. The hair washes (prior to extraction) were also analysed (quantified in 30 of the positive cases) and only 3 had a wash to hair ratio of >0.1 (all were <0.5), which may be indicative of a low level of external contamination. This low level of evidence of external contamination suggests that the children are exposed to methamphetamine and are incorporating it into the hair through the blood stream.

  8. Application of a prospective model for calculating worker exposure due to the air pathway for operations in a laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grimbergen, T W M; Wiegman, M M

    2007-01-01

    In order to arrive at recommendations for guidelines on maximum allowable quantities of radioactive material in laboratories, a proposed mathematical model was used for the calculation of transfer fractions for the air pathway. A set of incident scenarios was defined, including spilling, leakage and failure of the fume hood. For these 'common incidents', dose constraints of 1 mSv and 0.1 mSv are proposed in case the operations are being performed in a controlled area and supervised area, respectively. In addition, a dose constraint of 1 microSv is proposed for each operation under regular working conditions. Combining these dose constraints and the transfer fractions calculated with the proposed model, maximum allowable quantities were calculated for different laboratory operations and situations. Provided that the calculated transfer fractions can be experimentally validated and the dose constraints are acceptable, it can be concluded from the results that the dose constraint for incidents is the most restrictive one. For non-volatile materials this approach leads to quantities much larger than commonly accepted. In those cases, the results of the calculations in this study suggest that limitation of the quantity of radioactive material, which can be handled safely, should be based on other considerations than the inhalation risks. Examples of such considerations might be the level of external exposure, uncontrolled spread of radioactive material by surface contamination, emissions in the environment and severe accidents like fire.

  9. Effects of fetal exposure to nicotine on dental development of the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, I G; Bromage, T G

    2000-04-01

    Nicotine is one of the most widely used toxins in the world today. Most addiction research relating to nicotine in particular, as well as opioids and alcohol, has concentrated on the cellular and molecular biology of the mammalian brain and on features of organ structure and physiology associated with substance abuse. Thus, while numerous studies have been conducted to examine nicotine's detrimental physiological effects in a variety of soft tissues, this investigation attempts to examine further the gross morphological consequences of this drug on a hard tissue, the first molar crown of the laboratory rat. It is hypothesised that by providing nicotine to rats during and after the fetal cycle, changes in dental structure will occur, owing to perturbations of development induced by this toxin. The dentitions of Fisher rats exposed to nicotine during and after the fetal cycle, and those of their non-treated controls, were examined. By carefully measuring the length, width and occlusal (chewing) areas of the first maxillary molars, it was possible to identify any gross morphological effects of nicotine on dental development. It was found that dental asymmetries (calculated as a size difference between a tooth and its antimere) were significantly increased while occlusal areas were significantly decreased in nicotine-exposed rats compared to control rats. In addition, significant differences were detected within the experimental group, females tending to exhibit the deleterious effects of nicotine more so than males. These results are in accordance with the predicted outcome; in similar studies of physiological systems and soft tissues, dental development is affected by the presence of nicotine.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of welder's exposure and efficiency of air duct ventilation for welding work in a confined space.

    PubMed

    Ojima, J; Shibata, N; Iwasaki, T

    2000-01-01

    CO2 arc welding in a confined space was simulated in a laboratory by manipulating a welding robot which worked in a small chamber to experimentally evaluate the welder's exposure to welding fumes, ozone and carbon monoxide (CO). The effects of the welding arc on the air temperature rise and oxygen (O2) concentration in the chamber were also investigated. The measuring points for these items were located in the presumed breathing zone of a welder in a confined space. The time averaged concentrations of welding fumes, ozone and CO during the arcing time were 83.55 mg/m3, 0.203 ppm and 0.006%, respectively, at a welding current of 120A-200A. These results suggest serious exposure of a welder who operates in a confined space. Air temperature in the chamber rose remarkably due to the arc heat and the increase in the welding current. No clear decrease in the O2 concentration in the chamber was recognized during this welding operation. A model of air duct ventilation was constructed in the small chamber to investigate the strategy of effective ventilation for hazardous welding contaminants in a confined space. With this model we examined ventilation efficiency with a flow rate of 1.08-1.80 m3/min (ventilation rate for 0.40-0.67 air exchanges per minute) in the chamber, and proved that the exposure level was not drastically reduced during arcing time by this air duct ventilation, but the residual contaminants were rapidly exhausted after the welding operation.

  11. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khuong V; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO) and metabolic rate (activity of the electron transport system, ETS). Starvation had both immediate and delayed negative sublethal effects on growth rate and physiology (reductions in Hsp70 levels, total fat content, and activity levels of PO and ETS). Exposure to chlorpyrifos negatively affected all response variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation, and the immediate negative effect of chlorpyrifos considerably (71%) reduced larval growth rate. Secondly and more strikingly, chlorpyrifos only caused considerable (ca. 48%) mortality in larvae that were previously exposed to the combination of the heat wave and starvation. This strong delayed synergism for mortality could be explained by the cumulative metabolic depression caused by each of these stressors. Further studies with increased realism are needed to evaluate the consequences of the here-identified delayed synergisms at the level of populations and communities. This is especially important as this synergism provides a novel explanation for the poorly understood potential of heat waves and of sublethal pesticide concentrations to cause mass mortality. © 2016 John Wiley

  12. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  13. Accidental boric acid poisoning following the ingestion of household pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Rebecca A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    Borate-containing compounds were formerly used as topical antiseptics and were components of many medicinal preparations including skin powders and ointments used for the treatment of burns and diaper rash. These compounds were also used as irrigants for body cavities, including the pleural, vaginal, and rectal cavities. These applications were subsequently discontinued by the medical community when the toxicity and potential lethality of borates were recognized. Although documented cases of borate poisoning are now rare, the chemical is still an active component commonly used in high concentrations in household disinfectants/cleaners, pesticides, and wood preservatives. While the majority of documented borate-related deaths have occurred in infants, the toddler population is currently at risk due to possible exposure to these household products. We present the case of an 18-month-old child who died following the accidental ingestion of a boric acid-containing, commercially available roach pesticide product.

  14. Clinical Signs and Pathology of Accidental Monensin Poisoning in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. N.; Crowe, S. P.; Harries, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical signs and postmortem findings in sheep from two flocks accidentally poisoned with monensin are described. Clinical signs began within 24 hours of exposure to monensin. In the acute stages they consisted of lethargy, stiffness, muscular weakness, a stilted gait and recumbency. Feed refusal was seen in one flock but not in the second. Subacute to chronic clinical signs were decreased muscle volume of the rump and thigh. When forced to run, chronically affected sheep had a stilted, stiff legged, rocking horse gait. Gross postmortem changes were not always visible. Where visible, they affected skeletal muscles and consisted of pale streaking, with atrophy in the chronic stages. Lesions were most severe in muscles of the rump and hind limbs. Microscopically myofiber swelling and hyalinization were seen with interstitial mononuclear cell reaction and extensive sarcoplasmic mineralization in some cases. Chronic lesions consisted of fibrosis and myofiber atrophy. In lambs less than one month old, diffuse gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the only finding. PMID:17422198

  15. Fatal accidental inhalation of bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211).

    PubMed

    Lerman, Y; Winkler, E; Tirosh, M S; Danon, Y; Almog, S

    1991-03-01

    Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) is a widely used fire extinguishing agent. Several cases of sudden death in teenagers associated with BCF abuse have been reported. BCF is used as a fire extinguisher in battle tanks. Two young previously healthy male soldiers were accidentally exposed to BCF in a battle tank. The tank driver died, but the gunner survived the event with no medial complications. It is concluded that BCF should be used in confined chambers only after the evacuation of all personnel.

  16. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  17. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856

  18. Accidental exposure to isocyanate fumes in a group of firemen.

    PubMed Central

    Axford, A T; McKerrow, C B; Jones, A P; Le Quesne, P M

    1976-01-01

    A total of 35 firemen involved in fighting a fire in a factory in which polyurethane foam was made were exposed to fumes of toluene di-isocyanate from two large storage tanks which were damaged during the fire, resulting in massive spillage. Most of the men experienced symptoms during the fire or during the three weeks after it. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal, respiratory, or neurological. Altogether 15 men described gastrointestinal symptoms which subsided within two days of onset. Respiratory symptoms were described by 31 men and were most pronounced during the three days after the fire, thereafter tending to improve. The neurological findings are described separately. When the men were reviewed at six months there was a suggestion that some of them might have sustained long-term damage to the respiratory tract, and almost four years later 20 men had persistent respiratory symptoms. Serial measurements of ventilatory capacity revealed a marked decline in the first six months although this was not sustained. PMID:179561

  19. Opposing effects of DHEA replacement in elderly subjects on declarative memory and attention after exposure to a laboratory stressor.

    PubMed

    Wolf, O T; Kudielka, B M; Hellhammer, D H; Hellhammer, J; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a continuous decline of the adrenal steroid hormone DHEA and its ester DHEAS. Results from studies in rodents have demonstrated that DHEA(S) administration can enhance memory in several test paradigms. However studies from this laboratory did not find positive effects of DHEA treatment on cognitive performance in young and elderly humans. With respect to a possible mechanism of DHEA activity, effects on several neurotransmitter receptors as well as a possible antiglucocorticoid action are discussed. For high levels of glucocorticoids, a disruptive effect on hippocampal mediated memory is documented in rodents and humans. Therefore it was speculated that, if an antiglucocorticoid action of DHEA would underlie the observed beneficial effects of DHEA on memory, these effects might only be detectable if subjects are stressed (and therefore have high cortisol levels). To test this hypothesis 75 elderly women and men participated in a placebo controlled experiment. Subjects took DHEA (50 mg/day) or placebo for 2 weeks (double blind). Thereafter they participated in a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Before and after stress exposure subjects completed two declarative memory tests (visual-verbal and spatial) as well as one attention test. In addition recall of visual material learned before stress was assessed after stress. Baseline DHEAS levels were significantly lower compared with young adults. DHEA replacement increased DHEAS levels into ranges found in young subjects. DHEA-substituted subjects showed a trend towards a larger cortisol stress response. In the visual memory test subjects under DHEA recalled less items after stress which they had learned before stress. In the attention test however subjects under DHEA performed better than subjects from the placebo group after stress. No interaction between stress and DHEA was found for the spatial memory task. The effects of DHEA substitution on

  20. Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Kush, Luv; Kumar, Suraj; Garg, Atul; Shukla, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly there is no antidote available to the phosgene. Only timely administered supportive management may lead to successful outcome. PMID:23580841

  1. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  2. Battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals to corroborate the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, M.A.; Chang, L.W.; McMillan, L.; Ward, J.B.; Legator, M.S.

    1982-02-01

    The authors are conducting a battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals for comparison to a series of monitoring test they are evaluating for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals. The human monitoring tests are described in a separate abstract. These assays include (1) hemoglobin (Hb) alkylation, (2) cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells including chromosomal structural aberrations, sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus production, (3) DNA damage in bone marrow cells, (4) sperm morphology and (5) urine analysis for mutagens. Formaldehyde and methanol a metabolic precursor, are being evaluated in animals. The results are as follows: Hb Alkylation: the oral administration of carbon-14 radiolabeled formaldehyde or methanol to rats resulted in their covalent binding to Hb. Adducts to amino acids were separated after acid hydrolysis by an amino acid analyzer. The binding of both chemicals exhibited a linear relationship to dose between 10 and 100 umole/kg. The extent of methanol binding to Hb was greater than formaldehyde. Cytogenetic Analyses: the oral administration in mice of formaldehyde (100 mg/kg) or methanol (lg/kg) increased the incidence of chromosomal aberrations particularly aneuploidy and exchanges and the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Results of the Hb alkylation and cytogenetic analyses will be compared to the results obtained in the human monitors studies with formaldehyde.

  3. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  4. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  5. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske E-mail: markus.rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  6. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  8. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  9. Ground Shock Effects from Accidental Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    2,640 2.47 x 10_1+ Limestone 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* Sandstone 2,240 2.10 x 10_l+ Shale 2,320 2.17 x 10-*4 Concrete 2,400 2.25 x 10ŕ* 19 Table 4...and compact soils Sandstone and cemented soils Shale and marl Limestone-chalk Metamorphic rocks Volcanic rocks Sound plutonic rocks Jointed...Accidental Explosions," Dept. of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-1300 (also NAVFAC P-397, AFM 88-22), Washington, DC, June 1969. 2. R. E. Crawford

  10. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  11. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  12. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  13. Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database.

    PubMed

    McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D; Watson, Jo; O'Connor, Catherine C; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Law, Matthew G

    2014-01-01

    Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69-20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06-10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70-25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17-30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.87) and HIV-positive date ≥1990 (1990-1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death.

  14. Mining hazard evaluation and technical assistance report no. HHF-80-109-110, Patriot Coal Company Laboratory, Kingwood, West Virginia. [Exposure to perchloroethylene during float-sink testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    On March 5, 1980, at the request of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) District 3 Manager, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an industrial hygiene survey of the Patriot Coal Co.'s Coal Laboratory located in Kingwood, WV., to assess worker exposure to ambient air-borne concentrations of perchloroethylene (PCE)* vapors generated during routine float sink testing of coal. Results of air sampling conducted during the float-and-sink testing operation demonstrated that the personnel employed in this area were exposed to PCE in excess of the current NIOSH recommended ceiling level of 100 parts per million (ppM). The combination of incorrect work practices, inadequate ventilation and the projected workload increase at the laboratory could reasonably be expected to produce exposures in excess of the current MSHA standard (100 ppM-8 hr. Time Weighted Average).

  15. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  16. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  17. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  18. Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

  19. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  20. 49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection against accidental overpressuring. 192.195 Section 192.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Pipeline Components § 192.195 Protection against accidental overpressuring. (a) General requirements...

  1. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  2. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  3. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  4. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  5. 10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a...

  6. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  7. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  8. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  9. Reduce accidental releases of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, D.

    1996-09-01

    With final publication of the Risk Management Program (RMP), operating companies must take action to lessen the likelihood of accidental hazardous chemical releases. Now, companies must extensively investigate how raw materials and products are managed within the process and storage facilities. Protection at high costs is not profitable. At the same time, not enough protection is also costly should a release invoke substantial property damage or loss of life. Modern ways to confine regulated compounds include inherently safer technologies (ISTs) and active mitigation technologies. These new designs and added options can improve protection against more likely release scenarios. Using the guidelines, HPI operators manage both compliance and cost of compliance when developing safety programs for RMP.

  10. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; Del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery.

  11. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  12. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  13. [Accidental mercury poisoning in a 12-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Alby-Laurent, F; Honoré-Goldman, N; Cavau, A; Bellon, N; Allali, S; Abadie, V

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to metallic mercury can cause severe accidental intoxications in children, whose clinical symptoms can vary depending on the route of administration, the dose, as well as the time and duration of the exposure. It has become unusual in France, yet it must be considered when taking a patient's medical history in cases of multisystemic involvement without a clear explanation. We report the case of a 12-year-old patient hospitalized because of a cough, poor general condition, chills, night sweats, psychomotor retardation, and skin lesions that had been developing for several weeks. The initial clinical examination also revealed sinus tachycardia, arterial hypertension, and abolition of osteotendinous reflexes. Complementary examination results were normal apart from a glomerular proteinuria without renal failure. When interviewing the mother, she reported that the child had played with mercury balls 3 months earlier. The suspicion of poisoning was confirmed by blood and urine analysis as well as renal biopsy showing an aspect of membranous glomerulonephritis with IgG and C3 depositions. An intoxication via a transdermal route being unlikely on healthy skin, the Regional Health Agency's survey concluded that chronic intoxication had occurred by inhalation of the mercury spread on the floor at the time of the exposure, which was then vacuum cleaned and released again by the contaminated vacuum cleaner. The patient's outcome was favorable within a few weeks after initiating DMSA chelation therapy. Mercury poisoning should be considered in cases of a multisystemic disorder without clear explanation, in order to intervene quickly and thus prevent irreversible renal and neurological consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  16. A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Smith, D R; Canfield, D V

    2001-12-01

    A 55-year-old male Caucasian truck driver was dead at the scene after breathing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced by an accidental transfer of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) from a tanker truck to a tank containing 4% sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and iron(II) sulfate (FeSO(4)). Autopsy of the decedent's body revealed pulmonary edema and passive congestion in lungs, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Postmortem biological samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs. Since a potential exposure to H(2)S was involved, blood was also analyzed for sulfide (S(2-)). The analysis entailed isolating S(2-) from blood as H(2)S using 0.5M H(3)PO(4), trapping the gas in 0.1M NaOH, and determining the electromotive force using a sulfide ion specific electrode. Acetaminophen at a concentration of 14.3 microg/ml was found in blood, and metoprolol was detected in the blood, liver, and kidney samples. The blood S(2-) level was determined to be 1.68 microg/ml. It is concluded that the cause of death was H(2)S poisoning associated with a hazardous material accident in an industrial situation.

  17. Accumulation of copper, chromium, and arsenic in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from laboratory and field exposures to wood treated with chromated copper arsenate type C

    SciTech Connect

    Adler-Ivanbrook, L.; Breslin, V.T.

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the uptake of Cu, Cr, and As leached from southern yellow pine (SYP) treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C), as well as effects on mortality and growth, in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to CCA-C-treated wood at a preservative retention of 40 kg/m{sup 3} and control (nontreated) SYP in laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments for 9 months in 1994 and 3 months in 1995. Mussels were sampled at regular intervals to evaluate possible short- and long-term exposure effects., Individual mussels were measured to determine the length, dry weight, and condition index. Mussel tissues were than analyzed for Cu, Cr, and As. Results showed few significant differences in condition index, dry weight, and length between CCA-C-exposed and control mussels. In addition, no statistically significant differences in mortality were found between the mussels exposed to CCA-C-treated and nontreated SYP in the laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments. Significant differences in Cu, As, and Cr contents in mussel tissues between treatments were few, and generally cannot be attributed to exposure to CCA-C-treated SYP. The lack of Cu, Cr, and As uptake from CCA-C-treated SYP was attributed to the low, although continuous, rate of release of these elements from CCA-C-treated wood and to the experimental design, which allowed continuous flushing, prohibiting the accumulation of these elements in the water surrounding the mussels.

  18. Population-level effects of spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna: comparison of laboratory and field microcosm exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Duchet, Claire; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagneau, Christophe; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Because exposure to toxicants not only results in mortality but also in multiple sublethal effects, the use of life-table data appears particularly suitable to assess global effects on exposed populations. The present study uses a life table response approach to assess population-level effects of two insecticides used against mosquito larvae, spinosad (8 μg/l) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti, 0.5 μl/l), on two non target species, Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera), under laboratory versus field microcosms conditions. Population growth rates were inferred from life table data and Leslie matrices under a model with resource limitation (ceiling). These were further used to estimate population risks of extinction under each tested condition, using stochastic simulations. In laboratory conditions, analyses performed for each species confirmed the significant negative effect of spinosad on survival, mean time at death, and fecundity as compared to controls and Bti-treated groups; for both species, population growth rate λ was lower under exposure to spinosad. In field microcosms, 2 days after larvicide application, differences in population growth rates were observed between spinosad exposure conditions, and control and Bti exposure conditions. Simulations performed on spinosad-exposed organisms led to population extinction (minimum abundance = 0, extinction risk = 1), and this was extremely rapid (time to quasi-extinction = 4.1 one-week long steps, i.e. one month). Finally, D. magna was shown to be more sensitive than D. pulex to spinosad in the laboratory, and the effects were also detectable through field population demographic simulations.

  19. [The assessment of risk for xylene exposure in a laboratory of anatomy: comparison between computational models and environmental and biological monitoring].

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Pasini, R; De Comite, A; Missineo, P; Riboldi, L; Bertazzi, P A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to xylene in a pathology laboratory was evaluated using two algorithms: Stoffenmanager and Archi.me.de. The results were compared with those obtained by applying the environmental and biological monitoring of the exposure. The use of models required a period of self-learning and, for Stoffenmanager, knowledge of the English language. Information on the toxicity and safety of xylene, available from the medial and safety data sheets, and the conditions and amount of use, obtained through a survey and interviews with operators, have been imputed. Stoffenmanager estimated low the inhalation exposure and medium the dermal exposure, with a value of personal exposure during the work shift of 1.4 mg/m3. A.r.chi.me.d.e. estimated negligible the risk to health. These ratings are consistent with those obtained using the experimental approach. This result, combined with the simplicity and low cost, makes the algorithms very interesting tools for the assessment of chemical risk in the workplace.

  20. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  1. The changing patterns of psychosocial exposures at work in the south of Europe: Spain as a labor market laboratory.

    PubMed

    Utzet, Mireia; Moncada, Salvador; Molinero, Emilia; Llorens, Clara; Moreno, Neus; Navarro, Albert

    2014-09-01

    To examine the pattern of psychosocial risk exposures at work among wage-earners in Spain in 2005 and 2010, and to analyze changes in exposure inequalities by gender and job category. Psychosocial exposures were compared using the COPSOQ-ISTAS21 method, based on two surveys representative of the Spanish wage-earning population (2005 and 2010). Statistical analysis was conducted using correspondence analysis. There was an increase in exposure to high Double Presence, low Social Support, high Work Pace, and high Insecurity about finding a job; and reduction in exposure to high Insecurity about losing a job, and to high Insecurity over worsening of employment conditions. A gender- and occupation-related gradient was maintained. Although this study analyzes wage-earner "survivors" after the outbreak of the current economic crisis, it shows a worsening of harmful exposures to some psychosocial risks. In a context of job destruction, concerns about worsening working conditions appear to be subordinate to insecurity about job loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  3. No clinically relevant effects in children after accidental ingestion of Panaeolina foenisecii (lawn mower's mushroom).

    PubMed

    Schenk-Jaeger, Katharina M; Hofer-Lentner, Katharina E; Plenert, Bettina; Eckart, Dagmar; Haberl, Bettina; Schulze, Gabriele; Borchert-Avalone, Janine; Stedtler, Uwe; Pfab, Rudolph

    2017-03-01

    Panaeolina foenisecii is one of the most common and widely distributed lawn mushrooms in Europe and North America, and frequently involved in accidental mushroom ingestion, mainly in children. Nevertheless, there is contradictory information regarding the toxicity profile of P. foenisecii in the literature. Objective of the study was to assess clinical effects with particular attention on psychoactive properties of P. foenisecii in case of accidental oral exposure. This observational case series is based on prospectively collected data on mushroom poisoning using a structured data collection form, and it was performed in seven poisons centres in Germany and Switzerland. Inclusion criteria were accidental ingestion of at least one cap of P. foenisecii identified by a mycologist, and a follow up of at least 4 hours. Nineteen cases met all inclusion criteria, and only children were involved with a mean age of 3 years. They ingested 1-2 mushrooms in 14 cases and 3-5 mushrooms in five cases. Three patients received a single dose of activated charcoal. Sixteen out of 19 cases did not develop any symptoms, 2/19 complained of minor abdominal discomfort. One child was temporarily mildly hyperactive, and this was the only patient observed in a hospital for 12 hours. None of the children showed signs of hallucinations. This multicentre study demonstrates that the typically small amounts of P. foenisecii ingested by children probably do not lead to clinically significant symptoms.

  4. The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. )

    1994-04-01

    Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

  5. Accidental oral poisoning caused by RDX (cyclonite): a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Küçükardali, Yaşar; Acar, H Volkan; Ozkan, Sezai; Nalbant, Selim; Yazgan, Yusuf; Atasoyu, E Murat; Keskin, Ozcan; Naz, Alişan; Akyatan, Nevzat; Gökben, Merih; Danaci, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The explosive RDX (hexogen, cyclonite) is usually used for the production of C-4 explosive. The rare occurrence of accidental and intentional RDX intoxications has been reported during manufacturing process or in wartime. In this article, the authors report 5 cases of accidental oral RDX poisoning. On admission, observed signs and symptoms included repetitive generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, postictal coma, lethargy, confusion, hyperreflexia, postictal amnesia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, sinusal tachycardia, dysrhythmia with frequent ventricular premature beats, generalized muscle spasms, and myoclonus. Leukocytosis, mild anemia, methemoglobinemia, elevated levels of blood glucose, serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, amilase, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, proteinuria, glucosuria, and myoglobinuria were also noted. Plasma RDX concentrations were 268 to 969 ng/mL at 3 hours of ingestion. For management, supportive and symptomatic measures were taken. Whole-bowel irrigation might have been an effective therapeutic procedure due to probable slow gastrointestinal absorption of RDX. Three patients who developed severe metabolic acidosis underwent urgent hemodialysis. All patients were discharged 7 to 21 days after admission without any sequelae. Plasma RDX levels were strongly correlated with the clinical and laboratory manifestations. The available toxicological data on this rare accidental poisoning are reviewed in light of the literature.

  6. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  7. U.S. Mortality Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, 1999-2014. Accidental and Intentional Deaths.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning accounts for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits in the United States annually. Development of initiatives to reduce CO mortality through poisoning prevention requires a comprehensive understanding of the condition. To describe U.S. mortality from 1999 to 2014 due to CO poisoning from all sources except fires, to examine the epidemiology of accidental and intentional exposures, and to identify trends. The CDC WONDER database was used to extract and analyze data from the CDC's Multiple Cause of Death 1999-2014 file. The file contains mortality data derived from all death certificates filed in the United States. Information on deaths, crude death rate, age-adjusted death rate, intent of exposure, and characteristics of exposures from CO poisoning was extracted. Total deaths by CO poisoning decreased from 1,967 in 1999 to 1,319 in 2014 (P < 0.001). Crude and adjusted death rates fell accordingly. Accidental poisoning accounted for 13% fewer deaths per year in 2014 than in 1999 (P < 0.001). The number of intentional deaths by CO poisoning decreased by 47% over the same period (P < 0.001). The rate of decline in combined adjusted death rates from 1999 to 2014 in the 19 states that required residential CO alarms by 2010 was not different from that for the 31 states that did not require residential alarms (P = 0.982). Numbers of deaths and death rates, both accidental and intentional, due to CO poisoning significantly declined in the United States from 1999 to 2014. Continued public education about CO toxicity should be emphasized. Additional study is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of residential CO alarms.

  8. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth.

  9. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  10. Characterizing oxidative flow reactor SOA production and OH radical exposure from laboratory experiments of complex mixtures (engine exhaust) and simple precursors (monoterpenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael Link, M. L.; Friedman, B.; Ortega, J. V.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, G.; Park, T.; Kim, K.; Lee, T.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent commercialization of the Oxidative Flow Reactor (OFR, occasionally described in the literature as a "Potential Aerosol Mass") has created the opportunity for many researchers to explore the mechanisms behind OH-driven aerosol formation on a wide range of oxidative timescales (hours to weeks) in both laboratory and field measurements. These experiments have been conducted in both laboratory and field settings, including simple (i.e. single component) and complex (multi-component) precursors. Standard practices for performing OFR experiments, and interpreting data from the measurements, are still being developed. Measurement of gas and particle phase chemistry, from oxidation products generated in the OFR, through laboratory studies on single precursors and the measurement of SOA from vehicle emissions on short atmospheric timescales represent two very different experiments in which careful experimental design is essential for exploring reaction mechanisms and SOA yields. Two parameters essential in experimental design are (1) the role of seed aerosol in controlling gas-particle partitioning and SOA yields, and (2) the accurate determination of OH exposure during any one experiment. We investigated the role of seed aerosol surface area in controlling the observed SOA yields and gas/particle composition from the OH-initiated oxidation of four monoterpenes using an aerosol chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer and scanning mobility particle sizer. While the OH exposure during laboratory experiments is simple to constrain, complex mixtures such as diesel exhaust have high estimated OH reactivity values, and thus require careful consideration. We developed methods for constraining OH radical exposure in the OFR during vehicle exhaust oxidation experiments. We observe changes in O/C ratios and highly functionalized species over the temperature gradient employed in the aerosol-CIMS measurement. We relate this observed, speciated chemistry to the

  11. Effects of Louisiana crude oil on the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during a life-cycle exposure to laboratory oiled sediment.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Hemmer, Becky L; Lilavois, Crystal R; Krzykwa, Julie; Almario, Alex; Awkerman, Jill A; Barron, Mace G

    2016-11-01

    Determining the long-term effects of crude oil exposure is critical for ascertaining population-level ecological risks of spill events. A 19-week complete life-cycle experiment was conducted with the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed to reference (uncontaminated) sediment spiked with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude (SLC) oil at five concentrations as well as one unspiked sediment control and one seawater (no sediment) control. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to the oiled sediments at measured concentrations of < 1 (sediment control), 50, 103, 193, 347, and 711 mg total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH)/kg dry sediment. Juveniles were exposed through the reproductively active adult phase at measured concentrations of <1 (sediment control), 52, 109, 199, 358, and 751 mg tPAH/kg sediment. Throughout the exposure, fish were assessed for growth, survival, and reproduction. Resulting F1 embryos were then collected, incubated, and hatched in clean water to determine if parental full life-cycle exposure to oiled sediment produced trans-generational effects. Larvae experienced significantly reduced standard length (5-13% reduction) and wet weight (13-35% reduction) at concentrations at and above 50 and 103 mg tPAH/kg sediment, respectively. At 92 and 132 days post hatch (dph), standard length was reduced (7-13% reduction) at 199 and 109 mg tPAH/kg dry sediment, respectively, and wet weight for both time periods was reduced at concentrations at and above 109 mg tPAH/kg dry sediment (21-38% reduction). A significant reduction (51-65%) in F0 fecundity occurred at the two highest test concentrations, but no difference was observed in F1 embryo survival. This study is the first to report the effects of chronic laboratory exposure to oiled sediment, and will assist the development of population models for evaluating risk to benthic spawning fish species exposed to oiled sediments. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1627

  12. Effect of accidental steam entry on gas-cooled fast reactor integral neutronics parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Morman, J.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Robinson, W.R.; Bennett, E.F.

    1980-10-01

    A possible accident scenario in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is the leakage of secondary steam into the core. A full-scale experimental study of the physics effects of such an accidental condition has been performed on the zero power reactor (ZPR)-9 critical facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The results of integral neutronics measurements performed on the simulated steam-flooded GCFR core are reported, and comparisons with corresponding results for the reference GCFR core presented. Results of calculations of these parameters with ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and standard design methods are also presented. 26 refs.

  13. Whole Blood Robotic Cholinesterase Assay for Organophosphate Exposure - Testing Soldiers, First Responders, and Civilians in the Field and Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    CWAs), pesticides, anesthetics, drugs such as cocaine , and a variety of therapeutic drugs including donepezil or rivastigmine for Alzheimer’s disease...peripheral nervous system activity. Exposure to nerve agents, OPs, pesti- cides, anesthetics, terrorists’ chemical agents, cocaine , and some

  14. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    To develop an updated guide about the stability of thermolabile drugs included in the Pharmacotherapeutic Guide that,according to product information sheet, should be stored under refrigeration or freezing, when are accidentally exposed to temperatures outside the range recommended by the manufacturer. It was reviewed the information about storage temperatures recommended in the product information sheet and the available stability data at different temperatures of thermolabile drugs included in the Pharmacotherapeutic Guide of a 400-bed hospital that, according to the manufacturer, should be stored under refrigeration or freezing. Drugs of clinical trials were excluded. Stability data were obtained from the product information sheet, the last two guides published in Spain about thermolabile drugs and through consultations to laboratories(via phone or e-mail). It was created a table with the storage temperatures recommended in the product information sheet and currently available stability data at different temperatures of 209 presentations of several drugs. Stability data were requested to laboratories in 172 cases. The stability guide is a tool that facilitates decisions of pharmacists when they are faced with an accidental interruption of the cold chain, when it is necessary to know whether the drug can be used and it is not possible to contact the laboratory. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in nursing students: an Italian observational study.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Cristina; Alvaro, Rosaria; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Cerone, Marina Pisegna; Lancia, Loreto

    2009-01-01

    To investigate occupational exposures to biological material potentially infected by blood-borne viruses in nursing student population during the course years. An observational retrospective study was designed. Data were collected in May 2007. Two-thousand-two-hundred-fifteen nursing students from the 3 years of degree course were enrolled in the four Italian universities. A structured questionnaire was constructed and was given out unannounced to nursing students in four universities on a randomly chosen day. The likelihood of association between nursing student exposure and certain assumed risk factors was measured. The exposure risk is associated with each study year of nursing students. Specifically, the probability of accidental exposure is reduced significantly with the increase of clinical skills during the training period. The risk for exposure in the 1st year students appears significantly higher than in those of the next years (odds ratio [OR] 1.465; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.105-1.943). Data highlighted a gradual increase of bio-safety knowledge in nursing students from the 1st to the 3rd years of study. However, a statistically significant association exists only between awareness of a correct use of gloves and exposure risk (OR 0.435; 95%CI 0.227-0.834). Mucocutaneous exposures are more frequent than percutaneous exposures (62.2%), and the hollow-bore needle is the device most often involved. In 42.5% of cases, accidental exposures occurred when nursing students are working alone in a medical ward or surgery area. During their clinical training, nursing students can encounter a real risk for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures to blood potentially infected with blood-borne viruses. However, this risk is reduced with an increase in clinical skills. Results show that some new strategies are necessary for exposure risk reduction such as development of simulation laboratories for nursing practice and the adequate presence of tutors in clinical

  16. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Li, Jinsong; Zhang, Yandong; Li, Lin; Ma, Limin; Li, Dan; Gao, Feng; Xia, Zhiping

    2012-08-06

    Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  17. [Effects of the microwave exposure at elevated ambient temperature on the thermo-compensatory responses of small laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Kolganova, O I; Zhavoronkov, L P; Matrënina, V L; Posadskaia, V M

    2003-01-01

    Thermogenic effectiveness of electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of UHF range (7 GHz) in the dependence on intensity (10-50 mW/cm2) and environmental temperature (22 degrees and 30 degrees C) was studied in experiments with mice and rats. Negative influence of high ambient temperature on thermoregulate responses of animals at microwave exposure was showed. It is concluded that this interaction should been taken into account for hygienic standardization of non-ionizing EMI.

  18. Environmental Effects of Navigation Traffic: Laboratory Studies of the Effects on Mussels of Intermittent Exposure to Turbulence and Suspended Solids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    by 0:N ratios in excess of 145. 21. Exposure of all three species of unionid mussels to infrequent (once every 3 hr) and frequent turbidity (once... unionids in nature are normally less than 50 (unpublished observations), as are summer 0:N ratios for other freshwater molluscs (Ald- ridge 1985). Such a...Hildreth 1976). In addition, differences in the shape of unionids can be attributed to hydrologic conditions (Van der Schalie 1941, Clarke 1982 and

  19. Preliminary study of effects of military obscurant smokes on flora and fauna during field and laboratory exposures. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Lower, W.R.; Kapila, S.; Yanders, A.F.; Wang, R.

    1986-12-01

    Since continued routine use of obscurant smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna of training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical study of smokes was conducted to determine whether tests could be developed to demonstrate measurable changes in organisms exposed to smokes and to evaluate whether short exposures to smokes produced measurable changes in the organisms tested. Fog oil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes were tested. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and Ambrosia dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or several of the assay systems at one or more of the exposure distances. These studies indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are control organisms for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  20. Formaldehyde exposure in gross anatomy laboratory of Suranaree University of Technology: a comparison of area and personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Saowakon, Naruwan; Ngernsoungnern, Piyada; Watcharavitoon, Pornpun; Ngernsoungnern, Apichart; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2015-12-01

    Cadavers are usually preserved by embalming solution which is composed of formaldehyde (FA), phenol, and glycerol. Therefore, medical students and instructors have a higher risk of exposure to FA inhalation from cadavers during dissection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the FA exposure in indoor air and breathing zone of medical students and instructors during dissection classes in order to investigate the relationship between them. The indoor air and personal air samples in breathing zone were collected three times during anatomy dissection classes (in January, August, and October of 2014) with sorbent tubes, which were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The air cleaner machines were determined by weight measurement. Pulmonary function tests and irritation effects were also investigated. The mean of FA concentrations ranged from 0.117 to 0.415 ppm in the indoor air and from 0.126 to 1.176 ppm in the breathing zone of students and instructors. All the personal exposure data obtained exceeded the threshold limit of NIOSH and WHO agencies. The air cleaner machines were not significant difference. The pulmonary function of instructors showed a decrease during attention of classes and statistically significant decreasing in the instructors more than those of the students. Clinical symptoms that were observed in nose and eyes were irritations with general fatigue. We suggested that the modified exhaust ventilation and a locally ventilated dissection work table were considered for reducing FA levels in the gross anatomy dissection room.

  1. Occupational asthma related to mouse allergen exposure and rhinoconjunctivitis due to collagenase inhalation in a laboratory technician.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, X; Gómez-Ollés, S; Cruz, M J; Morell, F

    2007-01-01

    We describe the case of a 27-year-old patient working in a research laboratory, who developed occupational asthma to mouse proteins and presented symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis caused by manipulation of collagenase. Specific inhalation challenge confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma to mouse proteins, whereas specific challenge with collagenase only evoked symptoms of rhinitis and conjunctivitis. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis for collagenase showed that the patient's IgE antibodies bound specifically to a protein with a molecular weight of 92 kDa. Hence, this was an unusual case of double sensitization. The sensitization to collagenase presented in this report may represent a new occupational disease in technicians working in medical or research laboratories.

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  4. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  5. Inter-laboratory study of short time exposure (STE) test for predicting eye irritation potential of chemicals and correspondence to globally harmonized system (GHS) classification.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Hayashi, Takumi; Watanabe, Shinichi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Koike, Mirei; Aisawa, Noriko; Ebata, Shinya; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Kuwahara, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2009-12-01

    Short time exposure (STE) test using rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) cells was developed as an alternative eye irritation test. STE test uses relative viability as the endpoint after cells are exposed to the test material at constant concentrations for 5 min. In this inter-laboratory study with 3 laboratories, 44 chemicals with a wide range of classes were evaluated for the transferability, between-lab reproducibility and predictive capacity of the STE test as an alternative eye irritation test. Globally harmonized system (GHS) classification based on Draize eye irritation test data was used as the comparative in vivo data. Transferability was assessed using standard chemicals (sodium lauryl sulfate, calcium thioglycolate, and Tween 80) and the coefficient variations (CVs) of relative viabilities between 3 labs were less than 0.13. The irritation category (Irritant or Non irritant) at each test concentration (5% and 0.05%) in STE test was the same in 3 laboratories for all 44 tested chemicals. The predictive capacity irritation category classification between STE test and GHS were compared, and a good correlation was confirmed (accuracy was 90.9% at all laboratories). In addition, the STE rankings of 1, 2, and 3 classified by the prediction model (PM) based on the relative viability at two concentrations (5% and 0.05%) were highly correlated with the GHS ranks of non-irritant, category 1, and category 2, respectively (accuracy was 75.0% at all laboratories). These results suggest that the STE test possessed easy transferability, reproducibility, good predictive performance.

  6. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  7. Reducing employee exposure potential using the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Maupins, K; Hitchings, D T

    1998-02-01

    The primary goal of a laboratory ventilation system is to assure that employee exposure to hazardous chemicals does not exceed acceptable levels. Industrial hygienists at Eli Lilly & Co. were concerned about the adequacy of fume hoods to protect workers in an aging laboratory facility. Wanting to conduct a comprehensive series of tests for a true reading on the containment effectiveness of these hoods, the industrial hygienists went beyond the traditional face velocity tests. Tests prescribed in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 110) standard including low- and high-volume smoke tests, face velocity tests, and tracer gas containment tests indicated that many of the hoods did not meet industry consensus standards for containment (0.1 ppm), yet met industry recommended face velocity specifications (80-120 ft/min). Based on the results of performance tests and engineering observations of the facility, apparent causes of poor performance were identified, and a mitigation plan was implemented to bring the hoods to the desired containment standards. After completion of the improvements, retesting was conducted to confirm achievement of these standards. Pre- and postmitigation test results, indicating a 99.5% reduction in tracer gas leakage or potential employee exposures, build a strong case for a more complete testing protocol as specified by the ASHRAE 110 test method. The authors recommend that traditional face velocity testing alone be discontinued in favor of the ASHRAE 110 method as a quantitative measure of fume hood performance coupled with the traditional face velocity measurement at periodic intervals to assure continued performance.

  8. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1985: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1984 through November 20, 1985.

  9. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report, 1988: Health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining, in a carefully controlled animal experiment, the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (life span) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in February 1973. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1987 through November 20, 1988.

  10. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1987: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory (CRHL) was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the lifetime hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. It is a long-term (life span) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1986 through November 20, 1987.

  11. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1986: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. The basis experiment under this contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1985 through November 20, 1986.

  12. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1984: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experimentthe life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under this contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. This annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1983 through November 20, 1984.

  13. An attempt to understand the properties of interstellar dust based on space exposure experiment of laboratory-synthesized carbonaceous samples using ISS/KIBO/ExHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kimura, Yuki; Kimura, Seiji; Nakamura, Masato; Ichimura, Atsushi; Wada, Setsuko

    2016-07-01

    We present the project overview and the latest status of our space exposure experiments of various solid samples with International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO/ExHAM. The major goals of this project are to identify the composition and properties of dust formed in the Asymptotic Giant Banch (AGB) stellar wind and to demonstrate how it is chemically and physically altered in nature in the circumstellar environment until it becomes a member of the interstellar medium. In particular, we aim to investigate the properties of 'astronomical' polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the carrier of the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands which have been observed ubiquitously in various astrophysical environments. Various experiment samples including the laboratory synthesized carbonaceous solids such as quenched carbonaceous composites (QCCs), deuterated quenched carbonaceous composites (deut-QCCs) and nitrogen-containing carbonaceous composites (NCCs) are brought to the ISS and are exposed in the space exposure environment for approximately one year by means of the ExHAM. The difference in properties of our experiment samples between before and after the space exposure experiment is investigated based on infrared micro-spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron microscopic observations, etc.

  14. Carcinogenicity and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rainbow trout by controlled laboratory exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, A.T.; Hendricks, J.D.; Bailey, G.S. )

    1988-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) recently have been implicated as etiological agents responsible for observed neoplasia in some feral fish populations. However, establishing a direct causal relationship has not been possible in part because only a few PAH have been tested for carcinogenicity in fish models. The present studies were undertaken to characterize the carcinogenicity and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the rainbow trout by controlled laboratory exposure. Two parameters which may influence tumor response to PAH were examined, route of exposure and life stage at exposure. Although rainbow trout seldom inhibit polluted environments where fish tumor epizootics occur, this extensively studied fish species provides a useful model for examining the carcinogenic effects of environmental contamination because they have been shown to be highly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B{sub 1} and over 20 other carcinogens. The results of these studies show that the trout is sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of PAH at the embryo, fry, and juvenile life stages, and that tumor response and site of tumor formation depend on the particular PAH used, the dose of PAH, and the route of administration.

  15. [Analysis of workers' exposure to dust in various chemical industry plants based on measurements conducted by work environment reseach laboratories in Poland in 2001-2005].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to present the results of a detailed analysis of dust exposure in the production and processing of chemical substances, including the kind of produced materials, workposts and type of emitted dusts. Data on dust exposure were based on measurements of dust concentrations performed by industrial hygiene laboratories. Their results were obtained from sanitary and epidemiological stations operating throughout Poland. Average concentrations ofinhalable and respirable dust at specific workposts in the chemical industry (including 7 groups) were calculated and the percentage of surveys exceeding hygiene standards was estimated. The analysis included 2800 results of dust concentration measurements. The highest concentrations of inhalable and respirable dust (containing a few percent of silica) and the highest percentage of the results above hygiene standards were observed in the manufacture of basic chemicals The concentration of inhalable dust in this group was 2.83 mg/m3, and the percentage of measurements above hygiene standards--16.57%, while for respirable dust, these values were respectively 0.75 mg/m3 and 27.32%. Exposure to dust in the chemical industry differs, depending on the type of production. Particularly high concentrations, very often above hygiene standards, were observed in factories manufacturing basic chemicals.

  16. Application of metallomic and metabolomic approaches in exposure experiments on laboratory mice for environmental metal toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-02-01

    Metals have a central role in biological systems, regulating numerous cellular processes, and in other cases having toxic or deleterious effects on the metabolism. Hence, the study of metal-induced changes in cellular metabolic pathways is crucial to understanding the biological response associated with environmental issues. In this context, the finding of biomarkers has great interest, representing -omics techniques, such as metallomics and metabolomics, powerful tools for this purpose. The present work evaluates the exposure of mice Mus musculus to toxic metals (As, Cd and Hg), considering the changes induced in both the metallome and metabolome as a consequence of the high genetic homology between Mus musculus/Mus spretus mice, which allows the use of the database from M. musculus to identify the proteins and metabolites expressed by M. spretus. For this purpose a metallomic approach based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in combination with other complementary orthogonal separation techniques and heteroelement monitoring by ICP-ORS-qMS was performed, followed by identification of metallobiomolecules by organic mass spectrometry. In addition, simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma was accomplished by tandem (double) SEC-(dual) affinity chromatography (AF)-HPLC and online isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-ORS-qMS. Finally, the simultaneous changes in metabolic expression in mice caused by metal exposure (metabolome) were considered, using direct infusion mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QqQ-TOF-MS) of extracts from mice plasma. Subsequently altered metabolites were identified using MS/MS experiments. The results obtained under controlled conditions were extrapolated to homologous free-living mice captured in Doñana National Park (DNP) and surroundings (southwest Spain) affected by As, Cd and Hg pollution. In summary, such studies are needed to understand the effect of heavy metal exposure and cope with heavy metal

  17. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  19. Accidental Laser Injury to the Eye.

    PubMed

    Kandari, Jamal Al; Raizada, Seemant; Razzak, Ahmed Abdul

    2010-03-09

    The unprotected human eye is extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Two cases of retinal injury by laser exposure outside hospital setting are reported. Two patients presented in retina clinic in Al-Bahar eye center in Kuwait with complaints of decrease in vision following exposure to unknown light. Case 1 was exposed to a laser used in military warfare and Case 2 exposed to laser pointer. Routine slit lamp examination and fundus examination of the patient was done along with fundus fluorescien angiography (FFA) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were followed up in out patient department for 6 months. Patient with military laser exposure had severe permanent vision loss and persisted even after 6 months. Patient exposed to laser pointer beam had transient visual loss, which improved to 20/25 at 7 months follow-up. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints after obvious exposure to unknown strong light. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited and hence prevention is essential.

  20. Survival and Growth of the Marine Polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, Following Laboratory Exposure to Copper-Spiked Sediment.

    PubMed

    Ward, Timothy J; Gaertner, Karin E; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Call, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile marine polychaetes, Neanthes arenaceodentata, were exposed for 28 days to copper (Cu)-spiked sediment at six concentrations ranging from 48.3 to 2380 mg Cu/kg dry sediment, plus control. Survival was reduced (p ≤ 0.05) at concentrations ≥1190 mg Cu/kg. Growth was inhibited at Cu concentrations ≥506 mg Cu/kg. Dose-response relationships yielded LC10 and LC50 estimates of 514 and 1230 mg Cu/kg, respectively. The growth effect EC50 estimate was 409 mg Cu/kg. Ranges for the no observable effect concentration and lowest observable effect concentration were 506-1190 mg Cu/kg for survival, and 230-506 mg Cu/kg for growth. Pore water concentrations of Cu were 38.7-65.8 µg Cu/L in exposures where toxic effects were observed, compared to a range of 15.1-22.4 µg Cu/L in exposures where significant effects were not evident. The results of the study were compared with empirical and mechanistic sediment quality guidelines for the protection of benthic organisms.

  1. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms.

  2. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  3. Mytilus trossulus hsp70 as a biomarker for arsenic exposure in the marine environment: laboratory and real-world results.

    PubMed

    La Porte, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    The highly conserved heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) is induced by heat and chemical toxins, particularly heavy metals such as arsenic (As). The use of Mytilus trossulus (bay mussel) hsp70 as a 'screening' biomarker for marine heavy metals contamination was assessed. Some studies have found high hsp70 sensitivity to heavy metals, while others have found the opposite. Few studies have realistically used low heavy metals exposures, and fewer have used real-world contamination exposures. Clean sub-tidal mussels from the Puget Sound, Washington State (WA), USA, were acclimatized for 2 weeks and exposed for 24 h to As-spiked seawater (n=9) or to contaminated seawater from an arsenical pesticide plant in Tacoma, WA (n=10) followed by a Western blot for hsp70. Hsp70 inductions were insignificant at 10 microg l(-1) As(III), but were strong at 100 microg l(-1) (p<0.05) and 1000 microg l(-1) (p<0.01), with the induction threshold estimated at 30-50 microg l(-1) As(III). Hsp70 induction roughly correlated with arsenical toxicity, with As(III) > As(V) > (CH(3))(2)As(V). Altogether, the inter-individual variability of hsp70 levels tends to mask inductions at low As concentrations, making it a crude toxicity biomarker. In addressing this problem, the following options could prove promising: (1) pre- or post-stressing specimens for greater hsp70 sensitivity, (2) use of internal protein controls such as actin, (3) use of hsp70-reporter gene constructs, and (4) detection with hsp60, heme oxygenase-1, metallothionein, CYP450, MXR or GPx.

  4. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from laboratory exposure and a contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Kroll, Kevin J; Supowit, Samuel D; Halden, Rolf U; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Tissue concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides in laboratory-exposed largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and in bass collected from Lake Apopka, FL were determined by both total mass and lipid normalized mass to better understand the bioaccumulation pathways of contaminants. In the laboratory study, male bass were orally administered a single dose of a mixture of two pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dieldrin) and then fed uncontaminated food for 28 days. Gastrointestinal tract, liver, brain, gonad, kidney, spleen, and muscle were collected for chemical analysis. Different profiles were observed by total contaminant mass in tissues compared to lipid normalized mass. On a lipid normalized basis, p,p'-DDE was highest in the gastrointestinal tract followed by the liver, gonad, spleen, muscle, kidney and then brain. Dieldrin, on the other hand, was highest in the gastrointestinal tract and spleen and then followed by the gonad, muscle, liver, kidney, and brain. Distribution of the chemicals among the organs differed by their log KOW values and generally followed the blood flow path after the gastrointestinal tract. The low contaminant levels found in kidney and brain suggest insufficient time for equilibration into these tissues, especially into the brain where the blood-brain barrier may be slow to traverse. In Lake Apopka fish, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDXs, sum of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT), Drins (sum of aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found. For DDXs, the lipid normalized concentrations in each tissue were about the same, as predicted from theory. For Drins and HCHs, the lipid normalized concentrations were similar for kidney, spleen, brain, gonad and muscle, but much lower in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, probably because of metabolism occurring in those tissues.

  5. Acute radiodermatitis from occupational exposure to iridium 192

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.; Rosen, T. )

    1989-12-01

    Industrial radiography using the man-made radioisotope iridium 192 is commonplace in the southern states. Despite established procedures and safeguards, accidental exposure may result in typical acute radiodermatitis. We have presented a clinical example of this phenomenon.9 references.

  6. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  7. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  8. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  9. Prevalence of renal and hepatobiliary disease, laboratory abnormalities, and potentially toxic medication exposures among persons with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mapel, Douglas W; Marton, Jenõ P

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of renal and hepatic disease, related laboratory abnormalities, and potentially hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic medication use in a population-based cohort of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This was a retrospective case-control cohort analysis of COPD patients enrolled in one regional health system for at least 12 months during a 36-month study period (n = 2284). Each COPD patient was matched by age and gender to up to three persons not diagnosed with COPD (n = 5959). Results The mean age for cases and controls was 70.3 years, and 52.5% were women. The COPD cohort had significantly higher prevalences (cases/100) of acute, chronic, and unspecified renal failure as compared with controls (1.40 versus 0.59, 2.89 versus 0.79, and 1.09 versus 0.44, respectively). Among the cases, 31.3% had at least one renal or urinary tract diagnosis during the study period, as compared with 21.1% of controls. COPD cases also had more gallbladder disease (2.76 versus 1.63) and pancreatic disease (1.40 versus 0.60), but not hepatic disease. COPD patients were more likely to have at least one serum creatinine level (5.1 versus 2.1) or liver aspartate aminotransferase level (4.5 versus 2.7) that was more than twice the upper limit of normal. COPD patients had prescription fills for an average of 17.6 potentially nephrotoxic and 27.4 hepatotoxic drugs during the study period, as compared with 13.6 and 19.9 for the controls (P value for all comparisons < 0.01). Conclusion COPD patients have a substantially increased prevalence of renal, gallbladder, and pancreatic diseases, as well as abnormal renal and hepatic laboratory values, but not diagnosed liver disease. COPD patients are also more likely to be prescribed medications with potentially toxic renal or hepatic side effects. PMID:23515180

  10. Survival, Reproduction and Growth of the Marine Amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Following Laboratory Exposure to Copper-Spiked Sediment.

    PubMed

    Ward, Timothy J; Gaertner, Karin E; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Call, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Leptocheirus plumulosus was exposed for 28 days to Cu-spiked sediment at mean concentrations ranging from 44.4 to 605 mg Cu/kg dry sediment in a sediment/water test system designed to simulate natural conditions. The NOEC (no observed effect concentration)-LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) range for the most sensitive endpoint of growth was 199-414 mg Cu/kg sediment. An IC50 for reproduction was estimated at 187 mg Cu/kg sediment. Mean Cu concentrations in pore water (PW) where significant effects were observed were 25.8 and 59.0 µg/L, while their respective concentrations in overlying water (OW) were 22.1 and 28.0 µg Cu/L. Copper concentrations were ≤19.1 and <16.6 µg/L in PW and OW, respectively, at lower exposures where effects were not evident. Concentrations of Cu in marine sediment lower than sediment quality guidelines based on geochemical factors of acid volatile sulfide, organic carbon content (f OC), and sediment grain size (i.e., silt + clay) would appear not to result in adverse effects toward L. plumulosus.

  11. TRACKING PYRETHROID TOXICITY IN SURFACE WATER SAMPLES: EXPOSURE DYNAMICS AND TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS FOR LABORATORY TESTS WITH HYALELLA AZTECA (AMPHIPODA).

    PubMed

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2017-09-09

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging due to their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the detection limits of analytical methods. Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In this study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and present a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in LDPE cubitainers at 4°C of five pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of Vitamin C on sperm quality parameters in laboratory rats following long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Shabanian, Sheida; Farahbod, Farnoosh; Rafieian, Mahmoud; Ganji, Forouzan; Adib, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a widely used medication and can cause oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Vitamin C on reproductive organs' weight and the quality of sperm parameters in laboratory rats. In this experimental study, 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups of eight each. Distilled water (DW) group received only food and water, Group 2 was administered with drug solvent (DW) by gavage, Group 3 intraperitoneally administered with 1.6 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, Group 4 gavaged Vitamin C at 0.88 mg/kg, and Group 5 administered with effective doses of Vitamin C and cyclophosphamide by gavage with 1-h intervals. Sperm parameters of the samples were taken from distal epididymis and tissues were studied, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. The lowest weight of testicles and epididymis was seen in cyclophosphamide-exposed rats and the highest weight of testicles and epididymis in Vitamin C-exposed rats (P < 0.05). The highest motility, progression, viability, and count of sperm were seen in the Vitamin C-treated group and the lowest in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. The highest proportion of sperm anomalies was seen in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, can be effective on some of the sperm parameters and can reduce cyclophosphamide-induced complications in animal model. PMID:28516060

  13. Tributyltin bioaccumulation and toxic effects in freshwater gastropods Pomacea canaliculata after a chronic exposure: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María L; Piol, María N; Sbarbati Nudelman, Norma; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2017-04-13

    Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L(-1)). The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of TBT accumulation, the tissue distribution, and the effects on selected biomarkers (activity of superoxide dismutasa: SOD, activity of catalase: CAT, levels of total glutathione: t-GSH, lipid peroxidation, and activity of acetylcholinesterase: AChE). Gonads presented the highest accumulation, followed by the cephalopedal region, albumin gland, and finally hepatopancreas. Both metabolites, DBT and MBT, were also found. All exposed female animals presented development of a penis reflecting the potential of TBT as an endocrine disrupting chemical for this gastropod species. Results on the selected biomarkers confirmed additional adverse effects induced by TBT. An increase in CAT activity and changes in t-GSH levels are indicative of alterations on the cellular redox status. The inhibition of AChE could reflect signs of neurotoxicity. Altogether, these results reveal a negative impact on the health of this gastropod population.

  14. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Gupta, Rahul; Paul, Barinder S; Puri, Sandeep; Garg, Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  15. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, L.D.; Johnson, E.R.; Cox-DeVore, C.A.; Voelz, G.L.

    1994-12-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin`s disease. 34 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  16. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, C.; Herrera, H.; Parrat, J.; Wolf, R.; Perret, V.

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m-3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m-3 but a proposal to lower the standard ("intended changes") to 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350°C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m-3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German "Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit" (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  17. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Wiggs, L D; Johnson, E R; Cox-DeVore, C A; Voelz, G L

    1994-12-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin's disease.

  18. The influence of light exposure, water quality and vegetation on the removal of sulfonamides and tetracyclines: a laboratory-scale study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodríguez, Aida; Matamoros, Víctor; Fontàs, Clàudia; Salvadó, Victòria

    2013-02-01

    The effect of aquatic vegetation (Spyrogira sp. and Zannichellia palustris), light exposure and water quality (secondary-treated wastewater vs. ultrapure water) on the removal efficiency of six antibiotics (sulfonamides and tetracyclines) is studied in laboratory-scale reactors. After 20 d of treatment, 3-59% of sulfonamides were eliminated in the reactors exposed to light. Removal was about 10% in unplanted reactors in darkness. The elimination of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) ranged between 83% and 97% in both planted and unplanted reactors. However, in dark unplanted reactors, OTC was largely removed (88%) while only 15% of TC was eliminated. These results suggest that TC was mainly removed by photodegradation whereas biodegradation or hydrolysis process seems to be significant processes for OTC. Sulfonamides were mainly eliminated by biodegradation or indirect photodegradation processes. Pseudo-first order kinetics removal rates ranged from 0.003 and 0.007 d(-1) for Sulfamethazine and TC in the covered control reactors to 0.13 and 0.21 d(-1) for TC and OTC in the uncovered control reactors, with half-lives from 3 to 350 d. A TC photodegradation product was tentatively identified in uncovered reactors. This study highlights the important role played by light exposure in the elimination of antibiotics in polishing ponds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Freon: accidental ingestion and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Mariano Javier; Monserrat, Alberto Juan; Lo Balbo, Alfredo; Valdes Quintana, Eduardo Fernando; Gotelli, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Freons generally have a low order of toxicity, but exposure to relatively high concentrations (>100 ppm) may produce adverse effects on health. Currently, intoxication reports are unintentional inhalation of CFCs. We report an unintentional ingestion of a mixture of CFCs and the results of a rat study. A 43-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of acute abdominal pain that developed minutes after he ingested a clear liquid in a water glass, which contained a mixture of Freon and water. Subsequent surgical evaluation revealed perforation of the stomach and necrosis of the stomach wall. He developed a transient rise in his hepatic transaminases, which resolved spontaneously, and fully recovered from his surgery. A murine model of the injury was created to evaluate threshold concentration and effect of time on injury grade. Injury grade increased with delay to histologic analysis from 8 to 24 hours after exposure to Freon. Increasing amounts of Freon also increased the lesion grade score. Patients ingesting Freon need to be closely evaluated for risk of gastric damage and perforation.

  20. Alteration of normal cellular profiles in the Scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) following laboratory exposure to fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Rougée, Luc; Downs, Craig A; Richmond, Robert H; Ostrander, Gary K

    2006-12-01

    Petroleum contamination from oil spills is a continuing threat to our ocean's fragile ecosystems. Herein, we explored the effects of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on a stony coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linneaeus 1758). We developed methods for exposing corals to various concentrations of crude oil and for assessing the potential molecular responses of the corals. Corals were exposed to water-accommodated fraction solutions, and appropriate cellular biomarkers were quantified. When compared to the "healthy" control specimens, exposed corals exhibited shifts in biomarker concentrations that were indicative of a shift from homeostasis. Significant changes were seen in cytochrome P450 1-class, cytochrome P450 2-class, glutathione-S-transferase-pi, and cnidarian multixenobiotic resistance protein- biomarkers, which are involved the cellular response to, and manipulation and excretion of, toxic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A shift in biomarkers necessary for porphyrin production (e.g., protoporphyrinogen oxidase IX and ferrochelatase) and porphyrin destruction (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 and invertebrate neuroglobin homologue) illustrates only one of the cellular protective mechanisms. The response to oxidative stress was evaluated through measurements of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 and DNA glycosylase MutY homologue-1 concentrations. Likewise, changes in heat shock protein 70 and small heat shock proteins indicated an adjustment in the cellular production of proteins. Finally, the results of this laboratory study were nearly identical to what we observed previously among corals of a different species, Porites lobata, exposed to an oil spill in the field after the grounding of the Merchant Vessel Kyowa Violet.

  1. Assessment of exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless computer networks (wi-fi) in schools; results of laboratory measurements.

    PubMed

    Peyman, A; Khalid, M; Calderon, C; Addison, D; Mee, T; Maslanyj, M; Mann, S

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory measurements have been carried out with examples of Wi-Fi devices used in UK schools to evaluate the radiofrequency power densities around them and the total emitted powers. Unlike previous studies, a 20 MHz bandwidth signal analyzer was used, enabling the whole Wi-Fi signal to be captured and monitored. The radiation patterns of the laptops had certain similarities, including a minimum toward the torso of the user and two maxima symmetrically opposed across a vertical plane bisecting the screen and keyboard. The maxima would have resulted from separate antennas mounted behind the top left and right corners of the laptop screens. The patterns for access points were more symmetrical with generally higher power densities at a given distance. The spherically-integrated radiated power (IRP) ranged from 5 to 17 mW for 15 laptops in the 2.45 GHz band and from 1 to 16 mW for eight laptops in the 5 GHz band. For practical reasons and because access points are generally wall-mounted with beams directed into the rooms, their powers were integrated over a hemisphere. These ranged from 3 to 28 mW for 12 access points at 2.4 GHz and from 3 to 29 mW for six access points at 5 GHz. In addition to the spherical measurements of IRP, power densities were measured at distances of 0.5 m and greater from the devices, and consistent with the low radiated powers, these were all much lower than the ICNIRP reference level.

  2. [Dust concentration analysis in non-coal mining. Exposure evaluation based on measurements performed by occupational hygiene laboratories in the years 2001-2005 in Poland].

    PubMed

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Non-coal mining includes the extraction of materials for construction (stone, gravel, sand and clay), chemical industry (salt and sulfur), metallurgy (metal ores, uranium and thorium) and other mining and quarrying. Regardless of the type of mining company one of the most common health hazards in this sector is exposure to high concentrations of dust occurring during the extraction of materials. Such activities as drilling, use of blasting agents, processing of raw material, its transportation and loading are the source of large amounts of dust containing crystalline silica. Data on exposure to dust, collected by industrial hygiene laboratories on the basis of dust concentration measurements in the work environment, were obtained from the sanitary inspection service. The analysis of dust concentrations at workplaces in non-coal mining covered the years 2001-2005. The average concentration of inhalable and respirable dust and the degree of results dispersion at workposts in different branches of non-coal mining (according to NACE rev1.1) were evaluated. Also there was estimated the percentage of surveys indicating dust concentrations above hygiene standards. Almost 5000 measurements of dust concentrations were performed in the years under study. The highest concentration of inhalable dust was noted for the production of salt (5.51 mg/m3), other mining and quarrying (4.30 mg/m3) and quarrying of slate (3.77 mg/m3). For respirable dust the highest concentrations were noted in other mining and quarrying (1.10 mg/m3), quarrying of slate (1.09 mg/m3) and quarrying of stone (0.81 mg/m3). Exposure to high concentrations of dust during the extraction of non-carbon is still an important hazard to human health. Almost for all workposts under study the excess of hygiene standards were observed.

  3. Viral infections in workers in hospital and research laboratory settings: a comparative review of infection modes and respective biosafety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Pedro B S; Cardoso, Telma A O

    2011-06-01

    To compare modes and sources of infection and clinical and biosafety aspects of accidental viral infections in hospital workers and research laboratory staff reported in scientific articles. PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, and Scielo were searched (to December 2008) for reports of accidental viral infections, written in English, Portuguese, Spanish, or German; the authors' personal file of scientific articles and references from the articles retrieved in the initial search were also used. Systematic review was carried out with inclusion criteria of presence of accidental viral infection's cases information, and exclusion criteria of absence of information about the viral etiology, and at least probable mode of infection. One hundred and forty-one scientific articles were obtained, 66 of which were included in the analysis. For arboviruses, 84% of the laboratory infections had aerosol as the source; for alphaviruses alone, aerosol exposure accounted for 94% of accidental infections. Of laboratory arboviral infections, 15.7% were acquired percutaneously, whereas 41.6% of hospital infections were percutaneous. For airborne viruses, 81% of the infections occurred in laboratories, with hantavirus the leading causative agent. Aerosol inhalation was implicated in 96% of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections, 99% of hantavirus infections, and 50% of coxsackievirus infections, but infective droplet inhalation was the leading mode of infection for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the mucocutaneous mode of infection was involved in the case of infection with influenza B. For blood-borne viruses, 92% of infections occurred in hospitals and 93% of these had percutaneous mode of infection, while among laboratory infections 77% were due to infective aerosol inhalation. Among blood-borne virus infections there were six cases of particular note: three cases of acute hepatitis following hepatitis C virus infection with a short period of

  4. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of...

  5. Accidental introductions of natural enemies: causes and implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accidental introductions of natural enemies, including parasitoid and predatory groups, may exceed species introduced intentionally. Several factors favor this: a general surge in international trade; lack of surveillance for species that are not associated with live plants or animals; inability to ...

  6. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  7. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  8. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of...

  9. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  10. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  11. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  12. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  13. Accidental nuclear war--a post-cold war assessment.

    PubMed

    Forrow, L; Blair, B G; Helfand, I; Lewis, G; Postol, T; Sidel, V; Levy, B S; Abrams, H; Cassel, C

    1998-04-30

    In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We then estimated the likely medical effects of a scenario identified by leading experts as posing a serious danger: an accidental launch of nuclear weapons. We assessed possible measures to reduce the risk of such an event. U.S. and Russian nuclear-weapons systems remain on a high-level alert status. This fact, combined with the aging of Russian technical systems, has recently increased the risk of an accidental nuclear attack. As a conservative estimate, an accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons from a single Russian submarine would result in the deaths of 6,838,000 persons from firestorms in eight U.S. cities. Millions of other people would probably be exposed to potentially lethal radiation from fallout. An agreement to remove all nuclear missiles from high-level alert status and eliminate the capability of a rapid launch would put an end to this threat. The risk of an accidental nuclear attack has increased in recent years, threatening a public health disaster of unprecedented scale. Physicians and medical organizations should work actively to help build support for the policy changes that would prevent such a disaster.

  14. Human bromethalin exposures reported to a U.S. Statewide Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Serena; Fenik, Yelena; Vohra, Rais; Geller, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Bromethalin is an increasingly used alternative to long-acting anticoagulant and cholecalciferol rodenticides. There are few reports of human exposures, and no existing professional society guidelines on medical management of bromethalin ingestions. The aim of this retrospective data review is to characterize bromethalin exposures reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) between 1997 and 2014. This is an observational retrospective case review of our statewide poison control system's electronic medical records. Following Institutional Board Review and Research Committee approvals, poison center exposures related to bromethalin were extracted using substance code and free text search strategies. Case notes of bromethalin exposures were reviewed for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome information; inclusion criteria for the study was single-substance, human exposure to bromethalin. There were 129 calls related to human bromethalin exposures (three cases met exclusion criteria). The age range of cases was 7 months-90 years old, with the majority of exposures (89 cases; 70.6%), occurring in children younger than 5 years of age (median age of 2 years). Most exposures occurred in the pediatric population as a result of exploratory oral exposure. One hundred and thirteen patients (89.7%) had no effects post exposure, while 10 patients (7.9%) had a minor outcome. Adverse effects were minor, self-limited, and mostly gastrointestinal upset. There were no moderate, major, or fatal effects in our study population. The approximate ingested dose, available in six cases, ranged from 0.067 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg (milligrams of bromethalin ingested per kilogram of body weight), and no dose-symptom threshold could be established from this series. Exposures were not confirmed through urine or serum laboratory testing. The prognosis for most accidental ingestions appears to be excellent. However, bromethalin exposures may result in a higher number of

  15. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  16. The use of commercial glass as a potential gamma accidental dosimeter through the absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.; Bakr, S.

    2012-05-01

    Various types of commercial glass (ordinary windows, cathode ray tubes, glass kitchenware) have been studied as potential accidental radiation dosimeters. The proposed method utilizes the changes in the glasses' absorption spectra as a result of irradiation. A 60Co gamma irradiation cell has been used to irradiate samples with doses ranging from 5 to 200 Gy. The transmittance was measured using a photospectrometer (UV-visible spectrometry). The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra of most of the glass samples change in linear proportion to the exposure dose. Moreover, the study considers the fading effect on the absorption spectra of the irradiated samples for fading times up to 100 days at room temperature. The results of this work demonstrate that several widely used types of glass can be used as high-dose accidental dosimeters for doses ranging between 8 and 200 Gy. A reasonable calibration line can be established for any irradiated glass sample by heating, re-irradiating with standard doses and measuring the related absorption coefficient. Further investigations are needed to decrease the minimum detectable dose of the proposed method and to study the effect of glass composition on radiation response.

  17. Non-accidental carbon monoxide poisoning from burning charcoal in attempted combined homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C W; Ou, Y; Lam, S Y; So, K T; Kam, C W

    2002-10-01

    To describe an emerging form of serious child abuse in combined homicide-suicide in Hong Kong. This is a retrospective hospital chart review in a regional hospital in Hong Kong from January to December 2000. Eight children, with a mean age of 7.8 years (range 0.5-11 years), from four families were admitted to hospital because of non-accidental exposure to carbon monoxide when their parents attempted suicide by burning charcoal. A 7-year-old boy died on arrival. His 5.6-year-old sister and another 6-month-old boy had cerebral hypoxia on admission. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in both cases, with rapid improvement, although there were persistent neurological deficits in the girl. The other children in the present study were asymptomatic and none had delayed neurological sequelae. Concomitant use of sedatives was also detected in three of the surviving patients. Non-accidental poisoning with carbon monoxide appears to be a new means of child abuse with potentially serious consequences. Concomitant intoxication with psychotropic drugs is common in such cases. The reason for parents killing their own children under such circumstances was unclear, but a desire to exact revenge on an estranged partner was suggested.

  18. Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron-case report.

    PubMed

    Sundov, Zeljko; Nincevic, Zeljko; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija; Glavina-Durdov, Merica; Jukic, Ivana; Hulina, Nada; Tonkic, Ante

    2005-05-10

    A 62-year-old male died of colchicine poisoning after accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron). He ate a salad of plant with green leaves regarded as wild garlic (Allium ursinum). A few hours later he developed symptoms of gastroenteritis and was admitted to hospital. In spite of gastric lavage, activated charcoal and supportive measures, multi-organ system failure developed over the next two days. Laboratory analysis showed highly elevated blood concentrations of hepatic enzymes, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen, as well as leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Mechanical ventilation, dopamine, noradrenaline, crystalloid solutions and fresh frozen plasma were applied but despite treatment the patient died five days after the ingestion. Post-mortem examination revealed hepatic centrilobular necrosis, nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis, petechial bleeding in fatty tissue, blunt and shortened intestinal villi and cerebral toxic edema. Botanical identification of incriminated plant gave Colchicum autumnale which confirmed colchicine poisoning. Although the accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale is rare and to our knowledge only five such cases have been described in detail, this is the second fatal case in Croatia described in the last 3 years.

  19. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is regulating...

  20. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  1. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  2. 76 FR 58566 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Report of Accidental Injury in Support... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation... needed to support a claim for disability benefits based on an accidental injury. DATES: Written comments...

  3. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development, growth and sex ratios of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles. I: chronic laboratory exposures to VisionMax®.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Martín, L; Lanctôt, C; Jackman, P; Park, B J; Doe, K; Pauli, B D; Trudeau, V L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide VisionMax(®) affects the survival, development, growth, sex ratios and expression of specific genes involved in metamorphosis of wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus). We hypothesized that exposure to this herbicide will affect developmental rates by disrupting hormone pathways, sex ratios and/or gonadal morphology. Tadpoles were chronically exposed in the laboratory from Gosner developmental stage 25 to 42 to four different concentrations of VisionMax(®) (ranging from 0.021 to 2.9 mg acid equivalents/L). Chronic exposures to VisionMax(®) had direct effects on the metamorphosis of L. sylvaticus tadpoles by decreasing development rates, however, there was a decrease in survival only in the group exposed to the highest dose of VisionMax(®) (2.9 mg a.e./L; from approximately 96% in the control group to 77% in the treatment group). There was a decrease in the number of tadpoles reaching metamorphic climax, from 78% in the control group to 42% in the VisionMax(®) (2.9 mg a.e./L) group, and a 7-day delay to reach metamorphic climax in the same treatment group. No effects of exposure on sex ratios or gonadal morphology were detected in tadpoles exposed to any of the concentrations of VisionMax(®) tested. Gene expression analyses in brain and tail tissues demonstrated that exposure to VisionMax(®) alters the expression of key genes involved in development. Results showed significant interaction (two-way ANOVA, P<0.05) between developmental Gosner stage and treatment in brain corticotropin-releasing factor, deiodinase type II (dio2) and glucocorticotiroid receptor (grII) and tail dio2 and grII. This demonstrates that mRNA levels may be differently affected by treatment depending on the developmental stage at which they are assessed. At the same time there was a clear dose-response effect for VisionMax(®) to increase thyroid hormone receptor β in tadpole brain (F(2

  4. Methamphetamine exposures in young children.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Michael J; Auten, Jonathan D; Crowley, Brian; Combs, Daniel; Clark, Richard F

    2007-09-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is reaching epidemic proportions. As this occurs, the likelihood of accidental poisoning in children increases. We sought to evaluate the presentation, treatment, and outcome of pediatric methamphetamine exposures reported to the California Poison Control System. This is a retrospective review of California Poison Control System records for methamphetamine exposure from 2000 through 2004. All charts of patients identified as younger than 6 years were reviewed and abstracted. The charts of 47 children younger than 6 years were identified and reviewed. Three were coded as minor effects, 3 as major effects, and 16 as moderate effects. The remainder of the charts were not evaluated because of no effect (n = 6), unrelated or confirmed nonexposure (n = 3), or unable to follow (n = 16). The most common presenting symptom was agitation (82%), whereas seizures were documented in only 2 cases (9%). Tachycardia was common (mean heart rate, 171 beats/min; confidence interval [CI], 154-187), whereas blood pressure (BP) (mean systolic BP, 120 mm Hg; CI, 104-136; and mean diastolic BP, 70 mm Hg; CI, 51-88) and rectal temperature (mean, 37.4 degrees C; CI, 36.9-37.9) were slightly elevated compared with normal values. Creatinine was documented in 6 cases and noted as normal in all (0.3IU/L; CI, 0.2-0.4), whereas creatine kinase was documented in 3 charts and elevated in all (mean 1984 IU/L; range, 212-4942 IU/L). Most cases (55%) received benzodiazepines as treatment, although only 2 received activated charcoal. Symptoms persisted for an average of 22 hours (CI, 16.3-27.2). No deaths were reported. In this series of children, methamphetamine exposure was strongly associated with agitation that was successfully treated with benzodiazepines. Tachycardia was common, although hypertension and hyperthermia were not. Laboratory studies were not routinely recorded. The clinical significance of elevated creatine kinase concentrations recorded in 3 children is unclear.

  5. [Secondary medullary aplasia from accidental radiation:therapeutic options and evolution of the concept].

    PubMed

    de Revel, T; Fagot, T; Souleau, B; Dormont, D; Nedellec, G

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow grafting following accidental irradiation exposure should be viewed in the perspective of a severe myeloablative syndrome linked to high medullary damage for a dose range higher than 6-8 Gy, resulting in very late or no recovery. Prognosis will depend on the presence or absence of radio-combined injuries, the toxicity of the transplant procedure, and the risk of rejection induced by insufficient percritical immunosuppression. It is in this context that new cell therapy modalities, which combine enhanced peripheral hematopoietic cell engraftment and high immunosuppressive conditioning regimen with low extrahematological toxicity, inducing early and stable mixed lymphomyeloid chimerism with minimal morbidity, can be considered. Such an approach is being evaluated in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies at high risk of transplant-related mortality using conventional bone marrow methods.

  6. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  7. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17(th) May 2014 and 16(th) May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m(-3) to 1200 Bq·m(-3), and even 3200 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m(-3) to 1000 Bq·m(-3) and 2700 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum

  9. Treatment of accidental perianal injection of topical thrombin with intravenous antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Paidy, Samata R; McLeod, Whitney; Fox, Alexandra; Nfonsam, Valentine N

    2017-04-01

    While topical thrombin application can markedly improve surgical hemostasis, rapid absorption of thrombin can result in pulmonary embolism and death. We report a case of accidental interstitial infiltration of topical thrombin after hemorrhoidectomy that was treated with administration of human antithrombin and heparin anticoagulation. Except for a marked decrease in antithrombin activity from super normal to normal values, the patient exhibited no laboratory or clinical signs of pulmonary embolism, thrombin mediated consumptive loss of procoagulants, or regional thrombosis. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery without sign of thrombotic morbidity. While it is hoped that such a medical misadventure should not occur, our case may serve as a reference to guide anticoagulant therapy if such a clinical scenario arises.

  10. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  11. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C.

  12. Migratory-stage sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus stop responding to conspecific damage-released alarm cues after 4 h of continuous exposure in laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; McClure, Haley; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the length of avoidance response of migratory-stage sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus exposed continuously to conspecific damage-released alarm cues for varying lengths of time in laboratory stream channels. Ten replicate groups of P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to either deionized water control or to P. marinus extract for 0, 2 or 4 h continuously. Petromyzon marinus maintained their avoidance response to the conspecific damage-released alarm cue after continuous exposure to the alarm cue for 0 and 2 h but not 4 h. Beyond being one of the first studies in regards to sensory–olfactory adaptation–acclimation of fishes to alarm cues of any kind, these results have important implications for use of conspecific alarm cues in P. marinus control. For example, continuous application of conspecific alarm cue during the day, when P. marinus are inactive and hiding, may result in sensory adaptation to the odour by nightfall when they migrate upstream.

  13. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Duysens, Jacques; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant risk factors for falling as well. Exposure to NSAIDs has been associated with accidental falls too, although information on this area is less consistent. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to provide an updated overview of all the evidence published on the risk of falling due to NSAID use thus far. A systematic literature search for material published between 1966 and March 2008 in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Exerpta Medica, Current Contents and Science Citation Index was combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles. Validity and data extraction of the eligible articles was assessed by adapted criteria, based on checklists that were originally developed to assess case-control or cohort studies. From the 16 selected articles, two studies were rejected because of clustering of data and one article was excluded because it contained the same data as that in one of the included articles. None of the articles retrieved included a randomized controlled trial. The remaining 13 studies all showed some lack in completeness of their statistical methods, and much variation in reporting of effects. The overall mean age was high in the study populations, leaving the results to be poorly generalizable to a larger population and other age categories. Despite these imperfections, all studies showed an increased risk of falling due to NSAID use (four significant, nine non-significant), and a tendency towards an increased fall risk with NSAID exposure could be noted. The results shown in the present review suggest that an increased risk for accidental falls is probable when elderly individuals are exposed to NSAIDs. The

  14. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature.

  15. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of accidental drowning in Denmark 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Steensberg, J

    1998-11-01

    Three hundred and forty-nine cases of accidental drowning or cooling in water occurring in Denmark from 1989 to 1993 have been studied. The incidence was highest in 0-4-year-old children, in middle-aged men, and in old people. A third of the children drowned in private pools. A quarter of all fatalities occurred during leisure boating. At least half of those that drowned in this way did not wear a life-jacket and could have been saved if they had been wearing one. Between a third and a half of the adult drownings were related to alcohol intake, and a large number of inebriated men fell into harbour basins and other water bodies. A few final remarks are made on the prospects for preventing accidental drowning in children, elderly people and adult males.

  17. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  19. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

  20. Accidentally discovered large metallic intra-orbital foreign body.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Yilikal

    2002-01-01

    A 6.2 cm long and 2.7 cm thick metallic foreign body was accidentally found and removed from a 62 years old man. He was sent to a minor operation theater for repair of left lower lid laceration secondary to trauma after a fight. Subsequent investigation, management, patient follow-up and outcome are discussed. Importance of careful history taking, thorough physical examination and proper investigations are stressed.

  1. Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhil A; Kundargi, Vinay S; Patil, Siddangouda B; Biradar, Ashok N; Desai, Anup S

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature.

  2. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed Central

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R.

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  3. Laboratory-acquired Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Richard; Kelly, Molly; Limberger, Ronald J.; DeAngelis, Karen; Cain, Louise; Wallace, Barbara; Dumas, Nellie

    2004-01-01

    We report two laboratory-acquired Brucella melitensis infections that were shown to be epidemiologically related. Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and subsequent laboratory exposures. Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure. PMID:15504276

  4. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures.

  5. Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariano Paiva; Magalhães, Edno; de Farias Cascudo, Elialba; Jogaib, Marco Antonio Dias; da Silva, Marcelo Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [Accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus: tomographic analysis].

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariano Paiva; Magalhães, Edno; Cascudo, Elialba de Farias; Jogaib, Marco Antonio Dias; Silva, Marcelo Carneiro da

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Accidental ingestions of oral prescription drugs: a multicenter survey.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, B J; Rock, A R; Cohn, M S; Litovitz, T

    1989-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of oral prescription drugs by children under age five continues to be a public health problem. A telephone survey of 1,866 ingestion incidents reported to nine poison control centers was conducted in the spring of 1986. Accidental ingestion occurred most often with a two-year-old child (42 per cent) in their own home (82 per cent). Thirty-five per cent of the toxic drugs ingested at home belonged to someone other than the immediate family, most often a grandparent. Toxic drugs were more often out of their usual storage location and in non-child-resistant prescription packaging, a nonprescription container, or in no container. Twenty-two per cent of all child-resistant packages were non-functional. Overall, at least 61 per cent of all medications had no child-resistant barrier at the time of ingestion. Accessible storage locations such as the kitchen counter, table top, or top of a dresser or bedside table greatly increased the risk of accidental ingestion. These results suggest the need for effective child-resistant packaging that is easier for all adults to use. PMID:2660604

  8. Accidental asphyxia in bed in severely disabled children.

    PubMed

    Amanuel, B; Byard, R W

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether there are specific situations which may increase the risk of accidental asphyxia during sleep in children with physical and mental disabilities. Review of all cases where death was attributed to accidental asphyxia caused by unsafe sleeping situations in children listed in the Department of Histopathology database over a 10-year period from March 1989 to February 1999. A total of 26 cases were found (M:F, 19:7; age range, 1-48 months; average age, 7.4 months). Of those cases, two involved children with significant mental and physical impairment. Case 1: A 4-year-old boy with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, macrocephaly and severe developmental delay, was found dead with his head hanging over a wooden board attached to the side of his bed. Case 2: A 4-year-old boy with lissencephaly and severe developmental delay was found dead wedged between a retractable mesh cot side and the side of his bed. In both cases the devices resulting in death had been put in place to prevent the boys from falling out of bed. Accidental asphyxia in physically and mentally impaired children may be caused by devices that have been used to prevent injury from falling out of bed. Careful assessment of the specific developmental problems that children suffer should be undertaken before their beds are modified. It may be safer for these children either to have no barrier, or to have drop-sided cots/beds that meet recognized safety standards.

  9. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  10. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  11. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Brucella abortus Infection Acquired in Microbiology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Pier Luigi; Mastrandrea, Scilla; Rappelli, Paola; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2000-01-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated. PMID:10790142

  14. Environmental chemical exposures and disturbances of heme synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W E; Stockbridge, H L; Labbe, R F; Woods, J S; Anderson, K E; Bissell, D M; Bloomer, J R; Ellefson, R D; Moore, M R; Pierach, C A; Schreiber, W E; Tefferi, A; Franklin, G M

    1997-01-01

    Porphyrias are relatively uncommon inherited or acquired disorders in which clinical manifestations are attributable to a disturbance of heme synthesis (porphyrin metabolism), usually in association with endogenous or exogenous stressors. Porphyrias are characterized by elevations of heme precursors in blood, urine, and/or stool. A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons, induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals. Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental exposures much higher than those usually encountered. A noteworthy example is the Turkish epidemic of porphyria cutanea tarda produced by accidental ingestion of wheat treated with the fungicide hexachlorobenzene. Measurements of excreted heme precursors have the potential to serve as biological markers for harmful but preclinical effects of certain chemical exposures; this potential warrants further research and applied field studies. It has been hypothesized that several otherwise unexplained chemical-associated illnesses, such as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, may represent mild chronic cases of porphyria or other acquired abnormalities in heme synthesis. This review concludes that, although it is reasonable to consider such hypotheses, there is currently no convincing evidence that these illnesses are mediated by a disturbance of heme synthesis; it is premature or unfounded to base clinical management on such explanations unless laboratory data are diagnostic for porphyria. This review discusses the limitations of laboratory measures of heme synthesis, and diagnostic guidelines are provided to assist in evaluating the symptomatic individual suspected of having a porphyria. PMID:9114276

  15. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-26

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  16. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-01

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  17. Laboratory trials reveal that exposure to extreme raining events prior to metamorphosis affect the post-settlement performance of an estuarine crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Felisa; Silva Neto, Gina M.; Rosa, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Meteorological forcing can impact planktonic communities, with extreme raining events promoting salinity decreases and triggering larval mortality in estuarine plankton. The present study evaluated how exposure to low salinities prior to metamorphosis of Carcinus maenas megalopae (last larval stage) may affect its ability to metamorphose and the post-metamorphosis performance of juvenile crabs. An extreme raining event that promoted a generalized decrease in salinity (from 25 to 10) in the whole water column of one of the main channels of a coastal lagoon was mimicked in the laboratory. Wild megalopae of C. maenas were collected and kept individually without any food at salinities of 10 or 25 (S10 or S25) until they either died or metamorphosed to the first crab instar (C1). Specimens metamorphosing in 5 days or less following their collection were labeled as early settlers (ES10 and ES25), while those taking more than 5 days were labeled as late settlers (LS10 and LS25). All newly metamorphosed crabs were kept individually until C5 at a salinity of 25 and fed ad libitum, with their intermolt periods and carapace width (CW) being recorded. Osmotic stress did not affect the survival or ability to metamorphose of C. maenas megalopae, with 89% of all larvae in both salinities being able to metamorphose. This result is supported by the ability of this larval stage to hyper-regulate. Nonetheless, an exposure of late settling megalopae to low salinities prior to metamorphosis promotes the occurrence of juvenile crabs with a smaller CW. The deleterious effects of exposing late settling megalopae to low salinities appears to be magnified during early benthic life, with C5 originating from treatment LS10 displaying a significantly smaller CW (4.87 ± 0.28 mm) and lower wet weight (WW) (28.95 ± 4.62 mg). On the other side, C5 originating from ES25 exhibited a significantly higher CW (5.90 ± 0.33 mm) and WW (50.89 ± 8.14 mg). The nutritional vulnerability experienced by

  18. Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures.

    PubMed

    Campana, Olivia; Rodríguez, Antonio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-05-01

    A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity.

  19. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  20. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  1. Outcome after severe accidental hypothermia in the French Alps: A 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Debaty, Guillaume; Moustapha, Ibrahim; Bouzat, Pierre; Maignan, Maxime; Blancher, Marc; Rallo, Amandine; Brun, Julien; Chavanon, Olivier; Danel, Vincent; Carpentier, Françoise; Payen, Jean-François; Briot, Raphaël

    2015-08-01

    To describe the factors associated with outcome after accidental deep hypothermia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients with accidental hypothermia (core temperature <28 °C) admitted to a Level I emergency room over a 10-year period. Forty-eight patients were included with a median temperature of 26 °C (range, 16.3-28 °C) on admission. The etiology of hypothermia was exposure to a cold environment (n = 27), avalanche (n = 13) or immersion in cold water (n = 8). Mean age was 47 ± 22 years, and 58% were males. Thirty-two patients had a cardiac arrest (CA): 15 patients presented unwitnessed cardiac arrest (UCA) and 17 patients presented rescue collapse (RC). Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) was implemented in 21 patients with refractory cardiac arrest and in two patients with hemodynamic instability. Overall mortality was 50%. For cardiac arrest patients, only three out of 15 patients with UCA survived at day 28, whereas eight out of 17 patients with RC survived. The cerebral performance category score was 4 for all the survivors of UCA and 1 [range, 1-2] for survivors of RC. Patients with poor outcome presented more UCA, a lower pH, a higher serum potassium, creatinine, serum sodium or lactate level as well as more severe coagulation disorders. Cardiac arrest related to rescue collapse was associated with favorable outcome. On-scene rescue collapse should prompt prolonged resuscitation and ECLS rewarming in all CA patients with deep hypothermia. Conversely, unwitnessed cardiac arrest was associated with unfavorable outcome and will likely not benefit from ECLS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. USE OF NETWORK MODELS FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE OF CONSUMERS TO CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of contaminants in a drinking water distribution system can result in exposure of consumers to contaminated water. Whether the contaminants result from waterborne outbreaks that accidentally enter the system or through purposeful acts, the movement of the resulting ...

  3. USE OF NETWORK MODELS FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE OF CONSUMERS TO CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of contaminants in a drinking water distribution system can result in exposure of consumers to contaminated water. Whether the contaminants result from waterborne outbreaks that accidentally enter the system or through purposeful acts, the movement of the resulting ...

  4. The spectrum of accidental childhood poisoning in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas C; Brinkman, William

    2002-11-01

    To assess accidental poisoning in children in the Caribbean country of Antigua and Barbuda, including the incidence, the types of substances ingested, the age of the children involved, and the clinical outcomes. The results from Antigua and Barbuda were compared with the results of other reports from the English-speaking Caribbean and from the United States of America. We performed a retrospective review of the charts of all patients less than 13 years old admitted to the Children's Ward at Holberton Hospital in Antigua for accidental poisoning between March 1989 and March 1999. Those data were compared with data from earlier reports from Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and the United States of America. In Antigua and Barbuda there were 255 hospital admissions for accidental poisoning among children below 13 years old over that 10-year period. Of the 255 ingestions, 115 of them (45%) were in 1-year-old children, 69 (27%) were in 2-year-old children, and 26 (10%) were in 3-year-old children. These proportions in Antigua and Barbuda are similar to the age patterns seen in the other countries with which we made comparisons. In Antigua and Barbuda there was an annual average of 26 hospital admissions for poisoning for the roughly 20,000 children below 13 years of age, for a rate of 1.3 per 1,000. In comparing the patterns of childhood poisoning in all the countries we studied, we found that, as economic levels rose, there was a shift in the substances ingested, with hydrocarbon and plant ingestions decreasing and chemical and medication ingestions increasing. There is an increasing variety and complexity of poisonous substances ingested as economic conditions improve. This trend would make the establishment of a poison control center for the English-speaking Caribbean a logical step.

  5. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  6. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-08-26

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution.

  7. Evaluation and treatment of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Peyko, Vincent; Cohen, Victor; Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha P; Pearl-Davis, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    A case of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine is described. A 47-year-old man arrived at the emergency department after accidental injection of epinephrine with an autoinjector into his left thumb. His vital signs were stable at admission. The patient was allergic to nuts and thought he may have eaten something containing a pine nut. The patient reported feeling itching in his throat but had no shortness of breath or swollen tongue. He tried to self-administer an epinephrine injection, but it did not inject. While he was checking the device, it accidently injected into his left thumb pad. A review of systems revealed throat discomfort, a tingling sensation of the tongue, and a left-thumb puncture with pain. Physical examination of the left thumb pad revealed a pale, cool thumb with diminished capillary refill and punctuate black discoloration at the site of injection. Topical nitroglycerin paste was applied but had no effect, so terbutaline was ordered. The terbutaline injection was prepared as a 1:1 preparation of terbutaline sulfate 1 mg/mL and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The immediate effects were the return of color from pale white to red and observable perfusion to the area within seconds. After 20 minutes, the red color remained, with observable perfusion and warmth, in addition to complete neurosensory function. Sixty minutes after terbutaline administration, the patient was discharged home. A 47-year-old man who accidentally injected himself in the thumb with an epinephrine autoinjector was successfully treated with subcutaneous terbutaline. The treatment had an immediate effect, including revascularization and resolution of pain.

  8. Extrapyramidal symptoms following accidental ingestion of risperidone in a child.

    PubMed

    Cheslik, T A; Erramouspe, J

    1996-04-01

    To describe the development of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) precipitated by an accidental overdose of risperidone in a 3.5-year-old boy. The boy presented to the emergency department with bilateral upward eye gaze, jerky movements of his extremities, and motor restlessness following an accidental ingestion of a single 4-mg risperidone tablet. Decontamination with NaCl 0.9% lavage and activated charcoal with sorbitol was performed. His symptoms responded immediately to intravenous diphenhydramine (on 3 different occasions) during his first 9.5 hours of hospitalization. He experienced no additional EPS, and was discharged home approximately 33 hours following initial presentation. At home, he received three oral doses of diphenhydramine in the 24 hours following hospital discharge because of hand tremor, total body shivering, and eye wandering. These signs resolved without further complications. Although the incidence of EPS associated with therapeutic risperidone use is low, its occurrence following overdose is less clearly defined. This represents the first published case, to our knowledge, of risperidone overdose in a child and highlights the potential for dystonic reactions at low doses in this population. Seven intentional overdoses of risperidone in adults (aged 21-68 y) have been reported in the literature and are reviewed. Amounts ingested ranged from 5 to 270 mg. All adult patients appeared to have a relatively benign course. Reported symptoms included drowsiness, slurred speech, altered levels of consciousness, hypertension, tachycardia, electrocardiogram abnormalities, atypical motor behavior, tremors, and other EPS (not specified). Accidental ingestion of low doses of risperidone can cause EPS in children that may respond well to an anticholinergic agent. Overdose management includes gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal with cathartic, cardiovascular monitoring, and supportive therapy.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  11. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant.

  12. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  14. Multidisciplinary approach to "accidental" falls in the elderly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Mazzella, Francesca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Ungar, Andrea; Masotti, Giulio; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Falls in the elderly are commonly and often wrongly identified as "accidental". We report a case of an elderly woman admitted to first aid for a trauma due to an accidental fall. Geriatric multidisciplinary evaluation revealed mild cognitive impairment associated with depressive symptoms; both findings made the anamnesis uncertain. Syncope algorithm was applied and "tachy-brady form of sick sinus syndrome" was diagnosed. Differential diagnosis between "accidental" and "apparently accidental" falls in elderly patients is very difficult but a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation can clarify the correct diagnosis.

  15. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (290-400 nm) causes oxidative stress, DNA damage, and expression of p53/p73 in laboratory experiments on embryos of the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum.

    PubMed

    Lesser, M P; Turtle, S L; Farrell, J H; Walker, C W

    2001-01-01

    Developing embryos of the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 290-400 nm) in the laboratory show a significant sensitivity to UVB (290-320 nm) radiation. Embryos in laboratory experiments exhibited significant DNA damage during exposures to UVR despite a significant increase in the production of the protective pigment melanin in response to UVR exposure. DNA damage occurs as a result of both the direct effects of exposure to UVR, and the indirect effects are mediated by the production of reduced oxygen intermediates. The production of reactive oxygen species initiates the expression of p53/p73 that leads to either DNA repair or apoptosis. When similar experiments are conducted on salamander embryos exposed to solar UVR in vernal pools, the embryos show significantly less sensitivity and higher survivorship. The differences between laboratory and field experiments are a result of the attenuation of UVR caused by the accumulation of dissolved organic carbon within the pools of these wooded areas. These findings suggest that northeastern populations of spotted salamanders are sensitive to UVR but are not significantly affected by present-day irradiances of UVR in the field. These results do suggest that continued decreases in stratospheric ozone over temperate latitudes have the potential to affect spotted salamanders in their natural habitats.

  16. A historical perspective: Simian AIDS-an accidental windfall.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Murray

    2016-10-01

    For the past 30 years, Simian AIDS has provided an indispensible animal model for the human disease. This historical perspective highlights the circumstances leading to the creation of this experimental model. Historical information and stored non-human primate (NHP) specimens, including isolates of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), were analyzed by molecular epidemiologic methods to trace the lineage and transmission of SIV among NHPs at US primate centers. The rhesus and stump-tailed macaque models of Simian AIDS are the result of the accidental transmission of SIV from healthy sooty mangabey carriers to naïve macaques during the course of human kuru experimental transmission studies at UC Davis during the 1960s. Simian AIDS, first recognized in the 1980s, is the accidental result of experimental kuru transmission experiments carried out in the 1960s, which led to the discovery of infectious prions but inadvertently transmitted SIV, unknown at that time, from sooty mangabeys to macaques. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Apnoea and brain swelling in non-accidental head injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Stoodley, N; Cobley, C; Coles, L; Kemp, K; Geddes, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI. Methods: Retrospective case series (1992–98) with case control analysis of 65 children under 2 years old, with an SDH secondary to NAHI. Outcome measures were presenting symptoms, associated injuries and apnoea at presentation, brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemic changes on neuroimaging, and clinical outcome (KOSCHI). Results: Twenty two children had a history of apnoea at presentation to hospital. Apnoea was significantly associated with hypoxic ischaemic brain damage. Severe symptoms at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling/hypoxic ischaemic damage were significantly associated with a poor prognosis. Eighty five per cent of cases had associated injuries consistent with a diagnosis of non-accidental injury. Conclusions: Coma at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemia all predict a poor outcome in an infant who has suffered from SDH after NAHI. There is evidence of associated violence in the majority of infants with NAHI. At this point in time we do not know the minimum forces necessary to cause NAHI. It is clear however that it is never acceptable to shake a baby. PMID:12765909

  19. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  20. Accidental Peccei-Quinn Symmetry Protected to Arbitrary Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardi, Enrico; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    A S U (N )L×S U (N )R gauge theory for a scalar multiplet Y transforming in the bifundamental representation (N ,N ¯) preserves, for N >4 , an accidental U (1 ) symmetry first broken at operator dimension N . A vacuum expectation value for Y can break the symmetry to Hs=S U (N )L+R or to Hh=S U (N -1 )L×S U (N -1 )R×U (1 )L +R . In the first case the accidental U (1 ) gets also broken, yielding a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with mass suppression controlled by N . In the second case a global U (1 ) remains unbroken. The strong C P problem is solved by coupling Y to new fermions carrying color. The first case allows for a Peccei-Quinn solution with U (1 )PQ protected by the gauge symmetry up to order N . In the second case U (1 ) can get broken by condensates of the new strong dynamics, resulting in a composite axion. By coupling Y to fermions carrying only weak isospin, models for axionlike particles can be constructed.

  1. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are used in meat industry for “humane killing” of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. Case Report: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third. The wound was treated with multiple debridements, negative pressure wound therapy and intravenous antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Conclusion: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are weapons used in meat industry for slaughtering animals. Wounds inflicted by bolt guns have specific morphological feature, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Most of the time wound will be infected at presentation. Lesions caused by these weapons are likely to have a more serious character than is to be expected from the size of the entrance wound. The mainstay of treatment is liberal wound exploration, multiple debridement’s and intra venous antibiotics based on culture reports to treat infection and prevent morbidity. PMID:28164044

  2. Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary. PMID:6655419

  3. Forensic aspects of 40 accidental autoerotic deaths in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Janssen, W; Koops, E; Anders, S; Kuhn, S; Püschel, K

    2005-01-17

    Between 1983 and 2003, 40 accidental autoerotic fatalities have been investigated. in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg. Only 50% (n=20) were autopsied (13 legal autopsies, 6 for scientific purposes and 1 for an insurance company). All the victims were males, aged between 13 and 79 years (among them five children and adolescents, the deceased mainly between 20 and 40 years). The paraphiliacs utilized a great range of devices and props as fetishism, sexual aids or pain-stimulating agents, like intimate feminine garments, ropes, chains, bondages, locks, pornographic magazines, condoms, rubber items, and chemical anaesthetics. The cause of death was strangulation in 20 cases (17 x hanging, 3 x ligature strangulation), 11 x suffocation (8 x under plastic bags, 3 x with face-masks, 2 x thoracic compression, 1 x positional asphyxia, and 1 x cocaine intoxication). Five cases without autopsy remained unclear because of missing morphological and toxicological findings; it could not be differentiated between asphyxiation/intoxication/natural disease, although the scene characteristics seemed to be typical for autoerotic deaths. It is emphasized that the findings at the scene, the morphological and toxicological examination of the dead body (full autopsy as prerequisite) by experienced investigators and the personal history of the deceased have to be evaluated very carefully and intensely to reconstruct the accidental fatal autoerotic course accurately and undoubtedly (to exclude the possibility of sexual homicide, neglected killing, or suicide).

  4. Incidence and characteristics of accidental falls in hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Inagaki, Yuko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ando, Kei; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Yoshimasa; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    Aging of the patient population has led to increased occurrence of accidental falls in acute care settings. The aim of this study is to survey the annual occurrence of falls in a university hospital, and to examine procedures to prevent fall. A total of 49,059 inpatients were admitted to our hospital from April 2015 to March 2016. A fall assessment scale was developed to estimate the risk of fall at admission. Data on falls were obtained from the hospital incident reporting system. There were fall-related incidents in 826 patients (1.7%). Most falls occurred in hospital rooms (67%). Adverse events occurred in 101 patients who fell (12%) and were significantly more frequent in patients aged ≥80 years old and in those wearing slippers. The incidence of falls was also significantly higher in patients in the highest risk group. These results support the validity of the risk assessment scale for predicting accidental falls in an acute treatment setting. The findings also clarify the demographic and environmental factors and consequences associated with fall. These results of the study could provide important information for designing effective interventions to prevent fall in elderly patients.

  5. Testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in cases of suspected non-accidental injury

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, A; Pepin, M; Byers, P

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate if laboratory testing for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) identifies children unrecognised by clinical examination in instances where non-accidental injury (NAI) is suspected as the likely cause of fracture, we carried out a retrospective review of available medical records and biochemical test results from 262 patients. Cultured fibroblasts were received for biochemical testing for OI from children in whom the diagnosis of NAI was suspected. Eleven of the samples had alterations in the amount or structure of type I collagen synthesised, consistent with the diagnosis of OI, and in 11 others we could not exclude OI. Referring physicians correctly identified children with OI in six of the 11 instances established by biochemical studies, did not identify OI by clinical examination in three, and there was inadequate clinical information to know in two others. Biochemical testing was inconclusive in 11 infants in whom the diagnosis of OI could not be excluded, none of whom were thought to be affected by the referring clinicians. Four children believed to have OI by clinical examination had normal biochemical studies, a false positive clinical diagnosis attributed, in large part, to the use of scleral hue (a feature that is age dependent) as a major diagnostic criterion. Given the inability to identify all children with OI by clinical examination in situations of suspected NAI, laboratory testing for OI (and other genetic predispositions for fractures) is a valuable adjunct in discerning the basis for fractures and may identify a small group of children with previously undiagnosed OI. PMID:12070242

  6. CSU-FDA (Colorado State Univ. -Food and Drug Administration) Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory. Annual report - 1982: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. The study is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages at irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. This annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of January 1 through December 31, 1982.

  7. AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE OZONE EXPOSURE PROBLEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone can be found in essentially all locations in the troposphere. Too much exposure of vegetation and humans to this potent oxidizing gas can prove toxic. Reports of human toxicity to ozone first appeared in the 1800's from accidental occupational exposures when ozone was fir...

  8. Effects of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material on the Scope for Growth of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis after Laboratory and Field Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    maintained in all five llaboratory exposure treatment:s,. Thisi concentration 21 ... . . ....... N air i~ne 2mrm capillary lubing polycorbonole . jugs stn... air stones to provide sufficient oxygen and to ensure even distribution of suspended particulates (Figure 5). 22...ability of the mussel to depurate or metabolize this compound. Field Exposure 97. Estimated from residues. The first method used to determine pos

  9. Toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, to aquatic invertebrates and fish in laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemble, Nile E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Brunson, Eric L.; Dwyer, F. James; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Monda, Dave P.; Woodward, Daniel F.

    1994-01-01

    Sediments of the upper Clark Fork River, from the Butte and Anaconda area to Milltown Reservoir (230 km downstream), are contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn primarily from mining activities. The toxicity of pore water from these sediments was determined using Daphnia magna (48-h exposure), rainbow trout (96-h exposure), and Microtox®. However, pore-water data from these exposures were questionable because of changes in the toxicity of pore-water samples after 5 to 7 d of storage. Whole-sediment tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure), Chironomus riparius (14-d exposure), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 21- to 28-d exposure and Daphnia magna (2- to 22-d exposure). Sediment samples from Milltown Reservoir and the Clark Fork River were not generally lethal to test organisms. However, both reduced growth and delayed sexual maturation of amphipods were associated with exposure to elevated concentrations of metals in sediments from the reservoir and river. Relative sensitivity (most sensitive to least sensitive) of organisms in whole-sediment toxicity tests was: Hyalella azteca > Chironomus riparius > rainbow trout > Daphnia magna. Relative sensitivity (most sensitive to least sensitive) of the three end points evaluated with Hyalella azteca was: length > sexual maturation > survival. The lack of lethal effects on organisms may be related to temporal differences in sediment, acid-volatile sulfide, or organic carbon.

  10. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  11. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  12. Pediatric Exposures to Ionizing Radiation: Carcinogenic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Lumen, Annie; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Children are at a greater risk than adults of developing cancer after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of their developing bodies and long life expectancy post-exposure, children require specific attention in the aftermath of nuclear accidents and when radiation is used for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In this review, we discuss the carcinogenic potential of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation from accidental, diagnostic, and therapeutic modalities. Particular emphasis is given to leukemia and thyroid cancers as consequences of accidental exposures. We further discuss the evidence of cancers that arise as a result of radiotherapy and conclude the review with a summary on the available literature on the links between computer tomography (CT) and carcinogenesis. Appropriate actions taken to mitigate or minimize the negative health effects of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation and future considerations are discussed. PMID:27801855

  13. Death of a toddler due to ingestion of sulfuric acid at a clandestine home methamphetamine laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burge, Meredith; Hunsaker, John C; Davis, Gregory J

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to strong acids such as sulfuric acid to either the skin or the gastrointestinal or respiratory mucosa will result respectively in significant-occasionally fatal-cutaneous chemical burns as well as devastating corrosive damage to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Most injuries are accidental, but there are reports of using acids as weapons or as a means of suicide. The primary mechanism of acid injury is coagulative necrosis of the tissues. Sulfuric acid is a chemical often used in industrial and chemical laboratories, and it is an ingredient in household products like drain cleaner. Easily accessible, over-the-counter, household drain cleaner is one of several common materials used to manufacture methamphetamine. With increasing clandestine methamphetamine laboratories in the United States, exposure to methamphetamine and the toxic chemicals used for its production is a growing problem. In many instances, children living in these laboratories qua homes are at risk for injury and death. We report the death of an unattended toddler, who ingested sulfuric acid drain cleaner in his home. The gross and histopathological autopsy findings in this case are similar to those of previously described cases of sulfuric acid injury.

  14. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  15. Oral Exposure of a Child to a Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Curran, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Battery exposure has the potential for severe morbidity and possible mortality. Accidental exposure is rising with the increased use of button batteries, and young children and older adults are at highest risk for accidental exposure. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of mouth exposure to a lithium ion battery in a boy. A review of the current literature on incidence, diagnosis, and outcomes of battery exposure is presented. When symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal distress of non-specific origin are present, battery ingestion should be included in the differential diagnosis. Dentists may be the first health professionals to encounter battery exposure, especially in the case of mouth exposures. Knowledge of signs and symptoms are necessary to properly diagnose and refer for medical management.

  16. 78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks for Combined License Applications--DC/COL-ISG-013 and Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks.../COL-ISG-013, Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials...

  17. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    PubMed

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  18. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion...

  19. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  20. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…