Science.gov

Sample records for accidental nuclear war

  1. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  2. Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, B.G.; Kendall, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become the most plausible path to nuclear war. Both superpowers, as well as France, Great Britain and China - long-standing members of the nuclear club - are potential sources of accidental missile launch. The emergence of fledgling nuclear powers such as India, Pakistan and Israel - some armed with ballistic missiles - pushes nuclear safeguards even closer to the top of the international security agenda. The chances of unwanted nuclear war would be reduced significantly if tamper proof, coded locks were installed on all nuclear weapons and if methods were put in place to disarm nuclear forces even after launch. In addition, the US and the Soviet Union should reduce their reliance on the dangerous policy of launch on warning and reduce the launch readiness of their nuclear forces. The social and political upheavals in the Soviet Union underscore fears of unintended nuclear war. Civil turmoil raises the possibility that rebellious ethnic groups or splinter organizations could capture nuclear weapons. Other, deeper fault lines run through the whole of Soviet society and may be capable of cracking the foundations of its nuclear command system. Although the US faces no such civil unrest, the country's system of nuclear command carries some risk that nuclear weapons might be used contrary to the intentions of legitimate authorities.

  3. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  4. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  5. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  6. Effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

  7. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  8. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  9. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  10. Preventing nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1981-03-01

    By focusing on military hardware, we ignore the human side of the nuclear war problem and how we think about nuclear weapons. Three sets of assumptions are examined: our goals, the means of pursuing these goals, and how to allocate responsibility. The quest for power and peace, for example, will not be attained by a war of mutual destruction. The assumption that every problem has a military solution forecloses diplomacy and negotiation, approaches that require understanding and reconciling different interests. With no military solution, a new security system should be one of shared responsibility in which each person will seize opportunities that help to educate the public, lead to wiser decisions, and reduce the risk of war. (DCK)

  11. To Win a Nuclear War: The Pentagon's secret war plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    Kaku and Axelrod trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star Wars. To Win a Nuclear War takes readers beyond the details of the costs of nuclear attack into the attitudes of war planners and Presidents from Eisenhower to Reagan.

  12. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  13. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  14. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  15. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  16. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  17. Teaching About Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Accuses the National Education Association (NEA) of encouraging its teacher-members to indoctrinate children on the benefits of a nuclear freeze. Holds that a new study guide, produced by the Union of Concerned Scientists in conjunction with the NEA, is political propaganda. (GC)

  18. Just war theory in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.D.; Griesbach, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include the morality of war, the normative alternatives to war, national defense in the nuclear age, the environment of nuclear deterrence (empirical factors and moral judgments), morality and nuclear weaponry, the morality of nuclear deterrence and national defense in a changing strategic environment, alternatives to nuclear deterrence, and strengthening broadcasting capabilities into the USSR (e.g., Radio Liberty and Voice of America).

  19. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  20. Perceptions of nuclear war. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrow, N.

    1987-05-01

    Mutual deterrence has been the keystone of U.S. nuclear strategic policy with respect to the Soviet Union. But for mutual deterrence to be viable, the perceptions of nuclear weapons and nuclear war must be shared by both nations. There are currently many misconceptions in the West about Soviet views of nuclear war. These misconceptions have been reinforced over the years by Soviet public pronouncements. Through an examination of the mindset of the Soviet people, Soviet doctrinal literature, and Soviet offensive and defensive systems, this paper provides compelling evidence for the way the Soviet Union really perceives nuclear war.

  1. Toward understanding the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.; White, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    The authors discuss the scientific justifications for studying the consequences of nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war and nuclear winter - biotic impoverishment, climate change, pollution of the air, water, and soil - recapitulate in compressed time the patterns of ecological change humankind is even now imposing on the planet. By studying the biological consequences of nuclear war, important discoveries about the intricate nature of the global ecosystem may be made. Wiser management practices and more thorough appreciation of alterations in the physical and biological environment could results.

  2. To win a nuclear war: The Pentagon's secret strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a survey of U.S. plans concerning nuclear war from 1945 through the present. The authors explain U.S. nuclear war plans and contingencies. They also trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star wars.

  3. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  4. Climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.

    1984-05-01

    Projecting comprehensively the climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war brings into question the perceived security ascribed to policies of deterrence, as well as the efficacy of civil preparedness measures, particularly relocation plans. It is presumed the probability that nuclear war will occur is low, but the potential consequences are so great that the issue must be given full attention. Nuclear war is the greatest environmental threat we face. Yet the problem should be solvable. It is especially important that environmentally concerned citizens and scientists apply their knowledge and understanding to the problem because many of the changes in environmental quality that concerns us today, such as air and water pollution by a host of organic and inorganic agents, represent the principle mechanism whereby life could be threatened in the aftermath of nuclear war. 29 references.

  5. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  6. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  7. Nuclear war: the facts on our survival

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    Unless we reject the premise that a nuclear war can be waged rationally and one side can emerge victorious, a nuclear war could happen. Goodwin describes what will happen during and after a nuclear exchange. He describes the effects of heat and blast, and the effects and treatment of radiation exposure, then outlines simple protective steps individuals can take to improve their margin of safety. He describes a variety of civil defense and individual shelters that can be built, but questions how many will go to the necessary trouble. Photographs of Hiroshima and nuclear test sites illustrate the text. Public policy should focus first on sustaining deterrence and preventing war, according to Goodwin. 36 references, 40 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  8. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The medical implications of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, F.; Marston, R.Q.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is divided into five parts. The first provides an overview of the physical and environmental effects of nuclear war, setting the stage for later sections that address the medical impact of various types of nuclear attack. Part III reviews the demand for medical resources after a nuclear attack and estimates the actual supply likely to be available. If a single one-megaton bomb were exploded over the city of Detroit, for example, it is calculated that survivors would need about forty times the number of burn beds currently available throughout the entire United States. Contributors to Part IV address the nuclear arms race from a psychosocial point of view: How does the threat of nuclear war affect the attitudes and behavior of adults and children. Studies provide evidence that many young children are worried about the possibility of nuclear war; most learn about nuclear war from television or the media and rarely discuss it with their parents. Finally in this section is a call for improving the screening system used to select nuclear weapons handlers.

  10. Children's conceptions of conventional and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the development of the conceptions of conventional and nuclear war in the preadolescent and adolescent child. Subjects consisted of children in three age groups: 5-6, 9-10, and 13-14 year olds (N = 63) drawn from public and private schools in the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Children were administered an interview and supplementary measures. Parents were administered questionnaires examining related areas. The principal findings were as follows: (1) The development of the war concepts. Regarding the concept of conventional war, by the age of five or six, the child usually can recognize the word war and indicate that the word has to do with fighting between two or more parties. However, the notion of nationality is evidently not solidly grasped until around the ages of 8-11 years old. In this study, 45% of the 5 and 6 year olds were minimally aware of the concept of nuclear war. By the time the child reaches the age of 9 or 10, the proportion of those with minimal awareness rises to about 80%. By 13 and 14 years old, 100% are familiar with the concept. (2) Levels of Worry. Of the children aware of the subject of nuclear war, 76% indicated that they were very worried by its possibility.

  11. The continuing risk of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC. PMID:17987978

  12. Middle School Students, Science Textbooks, Television and Nuclear War Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary

    The extent to which the issue of nuclear war technology is treated in middle-school science texts, and how students learn about nuclear war and war technology were studied. Five raters compared the most widely used textbooks for grades 6 and 7 to determine the amount of content on: (1) population growth; (2) world hunger; (3) war technology; (4)…

  13. Psychologists and Nuclear War: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyson, James; And Others

    A questionnaire was mailed to 530 randomly selected members of the American Psychological Association to determine their views on the nuclear war threat and on efforts by the American Psychological Association to reduce that threat. Completed questionnaires were received from 290 psychologists. The two-page questionnaire asked respondents whether…

  14. The effects of a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Alred, W.T. )

    1990-10-01

    Many factors influence the impact that a nuclear war would have on both the environment and survivors. These factors include, although are not limited to, the type of nuclear weapons used, the amount of these weapons, and the time of year a war would take place. The effects that a major nuclear war would have on the environment would vary greatly depending on the factors previously mentioned. Some effects that would occur are: major climatic changes, destruction of most food crops, contamination of current food and water supplies, and the deaths of animals and insects that are crucial to the balance of the environment. The factors that influence the survivors also vary; however, certain problems have been predicted by researchers. Among these problems are psychological disorders, lack of food supplies, the elimination of medical relief, and exposure from both radiation and the changing environment. All these effects, as well as others, tend to give researchers a much different view of the effects that a nuclear war would have on the environment and survivors than has been predicted since before the mid nineteen-eighties.

  15. Strategy for terminating a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Avoiding a nuclear war, or ending one if avoidance fails, is an important but relatively unexplored aspect of nuclear doctrine. Dr. Abt examines the feasibility of antagonists agreeing to exclude their open cities from nuclear targeting and to replace strategic bombardment with retaliatory invasion to create less of a hair-trigger deterrent. Critical net assessments by US strategists and the effects of such a strategy on the Soviet Union and the US allies are considered, along with problems implementation might pose. The author contends that both deterrence and the potential for limiting damage are strengthened by prewar plans for a nuclear ceasefire and stalemate short of holocaust.

  16. Teaching Children about Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Paul

    1985-01-01

    The existence of nuclear weapons is the most pervasive political and military fact of the past 40 years, and children need to be informed about nuclear concerns if they are to become good citizens. It is therefore educators' responsibility to teach the subject, however uncomfortable. (PGD)

  17. Nuclear weapons and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.B.; Markusen, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 12 sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the section titles are: Is Hiroshima Our Text.; Nuclear Weapons and Their Effects; Can Nuclear War be Survived.; The Debate Over U.S. Strategic Nuclear Weapons Policy; and Costs of the Arms Race.

  18. Star Wars in a nuclear world

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, L.

    1987-01-01

    Lord Zuckerman is a world authority on the rivalries and politics of the nuclear age. Few scientists distinguished in their own right have had as much experience as he has of both the national and international corridors of power. During World War Two he was Strategic Planning Adviser to Air Marshal Tedder and General Eisenhower. From 1960 to 1971 he was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and to the British Government as a whole. He is an unrelenting critic of the Star Wars programme introduced by President Reagan in 1983. He writes, ''Had anyone other than the American President ever invited scientists to try to render 'nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete' the suggestion would probably have attracted no more attention than had they been asked to square the circle or solve the problem of perpetual motion. But it happened to be the President, and he spelled out his vision of a future over which the nuclear bomb no longer casts a shadow in such homely terms that it all sounded real. How could the message fail to appeal.'' Lord Zuckerman is critical not only of Star Wars but also of the futility of the nuclear arms race. ''The arms-race has absorbed enormous resources. The nuclear arsenals of East and West have continued to grow. But, paradoxically, national security seems to have lessened everywhere.

  19. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  20. The threat of nuclear war: Some responses

    PubMed Central

    Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World. PMID:22478648

  1. Dirty snow after nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S. G.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that smoke from fires started by nuclear explosions could continue to cause significant disruption even after it has fallen from the atmosphere, by lowering the reflectivity of snow and sea ice surfaces, with possible effects on climate in northern latitudes caused by enhanced absorption of sunlight. The reduced reflectivity could persist for several years on Arctic sea ice and on the ablation area of the Greenland ice sheet.

  2. British nuclear deterrent after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Trident nuclear deterrent program is one of the United Kingdom`s largest-ever military acquisitions. Planned and initiated in the depths of the Cold War, it is now coming to fruition, when the most obvious justification for it--the Soviet threat to Western Europe--has disappeared. The continuation of the program is not in doubt; the money is largely spent or committed, and the main political parties agree on deploying the force. But the rationale needs refurbishment. Britain has traditionally preferred to represent her nuclear capability primarily as a contribution to NATO`s collective deterrence. The second center of decisionmaking concept defined a particular value for that contribution. This rationale seized the moral high ground (by associating Britain`s deterrent with NATO`s strategy to prevent war), guarded the proliferation flank, and underpinned Anglo-American relations.

  3. Nuclear War Media and Firebreaks II: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Ground Zero is an organization whose intent is to provide factual information on nuclear war issues. Ground Zero has published a simulation called "Firebreaks II: A War-Peace Game" about the ways nuclear war might be prevented. The impact of Firebreaks II on college students' attitudes was assessed in 79 student volunteers of whom 40 percent were…

  4. Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Mills, M. J.; Stenke, A.; Helfand, I.

    2014-12-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using 100 15-kt atomic bombs, could inject 5 Tg of soot into the upper troposphere from fires started in urban and industrial areas. Simulations by three different general circulation models, GISS ModelE, WACCM, and SOCOL, all agree that global surface temperature would decrease by 1 to 2°C for 5 to 10 years, and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Local summer climate changes over land would be larger. Using the DSSAT crop simulation model forced by these three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 23 Mt (24%), maize production by 41 Mt (23%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (50%). This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Results from simulations in other major grain producing regions produce similar results. Thus a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  5. Climate changes associated with nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear war, featuring explosion of half the world arsenal of nuclear weapons, would cause urban and forest fires that would inject 20-650 megatons of smoke into the atmosphere. The Northern Hemisphere optical depth would increase to between 0.5-14. All models indicate an increase in optical depths, a large net radiation gain in the smoke layer, and an antigreenhouse effect at the surface. Significant global cooling would proceed, transforming the global climate to a large degree toward that of an airless world. Persisting deficiencies in the models are identified, noting research areas which would improve the accuracies of the predictions.

  6. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  7. Waging nuclear peace: The technology and politics of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.

    1985-01-01

    Since the explosions of the first atomic bombs, a large literature has appeared on the effects and risks of nuclear war. The most widely quoted recent publications have concentrated on the impossibility of any meaningful survival after a superpower nuclear exchange. By contrast, Dr. Ehrlich tries to show both sides of the various arguments involved. As a result, he undoubtedly succeeds in his avowed intention of angering both hawks and doves. He offers a critical analysis of most considerations apposite to the current nuclear-weapon impasse, including the nature of current nuclear arms, the possibility of limited nuclear war, the short-term and long-term effects of nuclear weapons, the value of civil defense, the importance of public opinion, and the feasibility of arms control.

  8. Psychology and the prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about our ways of thinking and about how they need to be and can be changed. It is not about the ''unparalleled catastrophe.'' By now many of us know much about that, and unless we an see clear, acceptable, and practical ways to prevent it, our minds recoil from the whole horrible subject. Therefore, the book is about the prevention of nuclear war and nothing else. At least, that is its purpose. Yet its method is primarily descriptive and analytical rather than action-oriented. It explores from different perspectives the possible causes of a world war that could be at the outset, or become, nuclear, with a special focus on the often-neglected psychological aspects of those causes. It is diagnosis more than prescription. In fact, it might be described as a many-sided effort to understand the nature and roots of the ''madness'' of our present drift toward a great war that each side is urgently-desperately-anxious to avoid. In so doing it draws on some of the insights of psychiatry (from the psychiatrists Robert Jay Lifton, John E. Mack, Jerome D. Frank, and Erich Fromm), as well as on the three disciplines that provide the chief foundation for the book: history, political science, and social psychology.

  9. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area. (JMT)

  10. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  11. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  12. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  13. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  14. Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke D.

    2011-01-01

    We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

  15. Civil defense: a deterrent to nuclear war. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, G.C.

    1982-04-19

    Nuclear war has been feared by the entire world since the end of World War II. Since the early 1960s, the Soviet Union has been continually improving both its capability to wage nuclear war and, more important, to protect its population. Population protection or civil defense is the principal issue discussed, with emphasis on Soviet accomplishments and fluctuation of US policy. This issue is discussed from the viewpoint of many noted authors. The conclusion reached indicates that there can be deterrence to nuclear war through civil protection. This conclusion is reinforced with the efforts of the Soviets and the gains made by the US over the past three years.

  16. Nuclear War Education: Teaching the Most Important Academic Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringler, Dick

    1983-01-01

    The state of nuclear war education in the college curriculum is briefly discussed, and a successful interdisciplinary course is described. Readings are listed for each course emphasis: nuclear science and weapons; consequences of their use; visions and nightmares; paths toward war: language, psychology, and politics; and paths toward peace. (MSE)

  17. Climatic consequences of nuclear war: Working Group No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.

    1985-12-01

    Research needs on the climate consequences of nuclear war were discussed. These include: (1) a better definition of the emissions from massive urban fires; (2) the exploration of prescribed forest burns; (3) the dirty cloud problem; (4) microphysical studies of soot; and (5) simulation of the second summer season after nuclear war. (ACR)

  18. The Measurement of Nuclear War Attitudes: Methods and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Measures of adults' attitudes toward nuclear war are briefly discussed, and Mayton's Modified World Affairs Questionnaire (MWAQ) is described. The 23-item MWAQ was developed from Novak and Lerner's World Affairs Questionnaire, a nuclear war attitude measure by Mayton and Delamater, and related interview items by Jeffries. When the MWAQ was…

  19. The Biological Consequences of Nuclear War: Initiating National Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Mark A.; Freeman, Ann C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the second volume of the environmental consequences of nuclear war (ENUWAR) study of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) which involves the potential consequences for the Earth's biological systems. Discusses case studies in areas where the indirect effects of nuclear war would be the greatest danger. (CW)

  20. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  1. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  2. Day after midnight: the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, M.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an important contribution to the nuclear-weapons debate. Based on a widely circulated OTA report, The Effects of Nuclear War, it depicts in graphic detail the likely social and economic effects of nuclear war on both the United States and the Soviet Union. The book does not try to assess the probability that nuclear conflict, once initiated, would escalate into an all-out war. Rather, it examines four militarily plausible nuclear-attack scenarios ranging from single-weapons detonations to all-out, massive attacks. The one consistent conclusion in all cases is that nuclear war would be an unmitigated catastrophe unlike anything the world has ever experienced. The inherent uncertainties in these analyses, including the possibility of unbridled escalation, are tremendous. Thus, the total extinction of humanity cannot be completely ruled out. 60 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all perceived…

  4. SCOPE 28: Environmental consequences of nuclear war. Volume II. Ecological and agricultural effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the environmental and biological impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include ecological principles relevant to nuclear war, the vulnerability of ecological systems to the climatic effects of nuclear war, additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems, the potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity, food availability after nuclear war, experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the integration of effects on human populations.

  5. Adolescents' Knowledge of Nuclear Issues and the Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; Goodwin, Megan P.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 357 college students to assess awareness of the status of nuclear arms development and possible effects of nuclear war on people and environment. Results suggest that older adolescents are extremely uninformed regarding the current status of nuclear issues and consequences of nuclear war. Indicates a strong need to educate young people…

  6. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  7. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  8. Station blackout at nuclear power plants: Radiological implications for nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-12-01

    Recent work on station blackout is reviewed its radiological implications for a nuclear war scenario is explored. The major conclusion is that the effects of radiation from many nuclear weapon detonations in a nuclear war would swamp those from possible reactor accidents that result from station blackout.

  9. Proceedings of a conference on nuclear war: The search for solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, T.L.; DeMille, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference on the problem of nuclear war. Topics include civil defense; nuclear winter; the psychological consequences of nuclear war, arms control and verification.

  10. The Role of Education in Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markusen, Eric; Harris, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the role of education in the Holocaust of Nazi Germany, discusses U.S. nuclear weapons policy and factors of psychological resistance that have limited citizen participation in decision making, and explores the potential of education to help prevent nuclear war. (Author/SK)

  11. Hawks, doves, and owls: An agenda for avoiding nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, G.T.; Carnesale, A.; Nye, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores five paths toward nuclear conflict, concentrating on how changes in forces, technology, and political life affect the way events might travel down each path. The authors suggest ways to move the world back from danger. Their agenda is an extensive list of detailed policy recommendations to reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  12. The medical profession and nuclear war. A social history.

    PubMed

    Day, B; Waitzkin, H

    1985-08-01

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the United States have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues. PMID:3892071

  13. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-08-02

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues.

  14. Modelling dispersion processes of hypothetical nuclear accidental release on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, R.; Lagzi, I.; Molnár, F., Jr.; Vincze, Cs.; Leelőssy, Á.; Kovács, T.

    2010-09-01

    An increased attention of anthropogenic effects on the environment was observable in the last decades. As more nuclear, biological and industrial accidents occurred in the different part of the world, there is an increased demand both on the part of population and scientific society for the understanding and effective prediction of the environmental, social or economical effects of continuous or a possible accidental release. On the basis of sophisticated dispersion model calculations, the decision makers could make important arrangements, which can save human lives. For this purpose, accidental release models for different spatial and time scales were developed. Model estimations of radionuclide dispersions from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) were also carried out from regional to local scales. With the TREX-Euler, multi-layered, Eulerian passive tracer dispersion model, the transport and deposition of air pollutants over the Central European region were simulated under different weather conditions. For mesoscale simulation of accidental release, the stochastic TREX-Lagrangian particle model was chosen and developed. Both hypothetical accidental releases and continuous environmental loads were simulated. Additionally, near the point source, CFD simulations with A2C model were evaluated. Model estimations on different scales and their sensitivity analyses are presented in this study.

  15. Alvin Weinberg and averting nuclear war: defenses and disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1985-08-01

    Alvin Weinberg has contributed substantially to the debate over strategic nuclear weapons policy on averting nuclear war. His views over the past 25 years have been remarkably consistent, involving a strong preference for combining defensive systems with offensive disarmament. These principles have placed him at odds with the core of conventional strategic thought in this country, which has argued against the construction of defenses. President Reagan's ''Star Wars'' proposal, however, has led to a rethinking of fundamental first principles, and reintroduced the possibility of defenses. Weinberg's latest contribution to this debate, something he calls ''Defense-Protected Builddown,'' has the potential to be quite influential in guiding future strategic thought.

  16. Global climatic effects of a nuclear war: An interdisciplinary problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    In summary, an elucidation of the global-scale response to a nuclear war is a problem of great breadth, involving many of the sub-disciplines of aerosol physics, meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric chemistry and ecology. As diverse as these fields are, communication between the sub-disciplines has been remarkably effective, with two major interdisciplinary reports published in the last few years. It is my belief that, in addition to addressing the global-scale implications of a nuclear war, the global effects effort also serves as an excellent example of an interdisciplinary research program. 23 refs.

  17. Atmospheric Dispersion Code System for Evaluating Accidental Radioactivity Releases from Nuclear Power Stations.

    1983-06-28

    Version: 00 PAVAN estimates down-wind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Options can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features.

  18. The arms race and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Barash, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Addressing the history, physics, biology, economics, politics, psychology, and ethics of nuclear armaments, the author provides a survey of diverse facets of the nuclear controversy. The study encompasses such key areas as nuclear hardware and technology; the short- and long-term effects of nuclear weapons; strategic doctrine, deterrence and defense policy; the arms race, arms control, and nuclear proliferation; and the economic impact, psychology, and ethics of nuclear armaments. A ''Policy Issues'' section, presenting both the advocate and opponent sides of the debate, is included with each chapter.

  19. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  20. Post-cold war nuclear dangers: Proliferation and terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1995-02-24

    This article discusses several aspects of post cold war nuclear problems facing both the world and the USA. Included are the following topics: four nuclear nightmare scenarios; availability of nuclear weapons, materials, and expertise; US programs to reduce smoggling of nuclear weapons and materials; US options in the future; Global options; and priority actions, including effective nuclear intelligence; read teams to find vulverablities and evaluate countermeasures to nuclear terrorism; accelerate development of advanced detection and disarmament technologies; implement urgent CISAC recommendation on management of nuclear materials and inherent security technologies; accelerate research and development of a globle space-based missile defence; ensure crediability of nuclear deterrent; accelerate development of conventional weapons that reduce the role of nuclear weapons. 9 refs.

  1. Long-Term Biological Consequences of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents evidence suggesting that the longer-term biological effects resulting from climactic changes may be at least as serious as the immediate ones. Primarily considers results of a nuclear war in which sufficient dust/soot are injected into the atmosphere to attenuate most incident solar radiation. (JN)

  2. Teaching about Conflict, Nuclear War and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John; Sieck, Reny

    Designed for teachers of students in grades 5-12, the guide provides over 25 lesson plans and 45 student handouts for teaching units on conflict, nuclear war, and future studies. In the first unit, students define conflict, learn conflict-related vocabulary, illustrate knowledge of conflict types through the use of cartoons, recognize common…

  3. The Environmental Effects of Nuclear War: Consensus and Uncertainties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Frederick

    1988-01-01

    Describes the creation and activities of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) and its study on the environmental consequences of Nuclear War (ENUWAR). Reviews the major conclusions of the 1986 SCOPE ENUWAR report and highlights the workshop that occurred in Moscow, March 1988. (CW)

  4. Decadal reduction of Chinese agriculture after a regional nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Stenke, Andrea; Helfand, Ira

    2015-02-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could decrease global surface temperature by 1°C-2°C for 5-10 years and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Using a crop simulation model forced by three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 30 megaton (Mt) (29%), maize production by 36 Mt (20%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (53%). With different agriculture management—no irrigation, auto irrigation, 200 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer, and 10 days delayed planting date—simulated national crop production reduces 16%-26% for rice, 9%-20% for maize, and 32%-43% for wheat during 5 years after the nuclear war event. This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Assuming these impacts are indicative of those in other major grain producers, a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  5. Spontaneous Concern about Nuclear War by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    The results of this study show that college students from small towns in the Rocky Mountain states are very concerned about nuclear war. One hundred eighty-six undergraduates from a small college in the Pacific Northwest were asked to respond to five presentations each of two incomplete sentences: "I worry about...," and "My greatest fear…

  6. People's Reactions to Nuclear War: Implications for Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Susan T.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews available data documenting modal adults' beliefs, feelings, and actions regarding nuclear war. Examines discrepancies between peoples's beliefs and their relative lack of affective and behavioral response. Reviews data on possible psychological and social sources of those reactions. Contrasts average citizens, antinuclear activists, and…

  7. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, we might have to deliberately manipulate global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT crop model. We first evaluate the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations using NASA GISS ModelE. For stratospheric geoengineering, we consider the injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year into the tropical lower stratosphere. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper troposphere by a war between India and Pakistan using only 100 Hiroshima-size atomic bombs dropped on cities. We perturbed each year of the 31-year climate record with anomalies from each year of

  8. Nuclear proliferation after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, M.; Litwak, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Today, former Soviet republics threaten to gain control over nuclear weapons sited on their territories, and reports on North Korea, Pakistan, India, and Iraq reveal current or recent weapon development programs. This document offers a timely assessment of the prospects for nuclear nonproliferation.

  9. Materials for Children about Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiss, Harry

    President Reagan's Fiscal Year 1987 budget was an attempt to increase dramatically spending on national defense, on nuclear weapons, while cutting back on social programs. The increases for almost all nuclear weapons indicate the Administration of the United States saw its major responsibility as one of providing a strong military, one centered on…

  10. Final epidemic: physicians and scientists on nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.; Cullen, S.

    1981-01-01

    Symposia held by Physicians for Social Responsibility and the Council for a Livable World are part of an aggressive assault on the threat of thermonuclear war as a preventable disease. This collection, mostly by doctors, examines the issues of nuclear war in terms of the medical mission that doctors accept of preserving public health. The authors find that prevention is the only viable answer, while civil defense is only an illusion. The papers are grouped under the headings: Symptoms, Causes, Pathogenesis, Prognosis, and Treatment. 121 references, 10 figures, 22 tables. (DCK)

  11. The climatic effects of nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various US-USSR nuclear-exchange scenarios on global climate are investigated by means of computer simulations, summarizing the results of Turco et al. (1983) and follow-up studies using 3D global-circulation models. A nuclear-scenario model is used to determine the amounts of dust, smoke, radioactivity, and pyrotoxins generated by a particular type of nuclear exchange (such as a general 5,000-Mt exchange, a 1,000-Mt limited exchange, a 5,000-Mt hard-target counterforce attack, and a 100-Mt attack on cities only): a particle-microphysics model predicts the evolution of the dust and smoke particles; and a radiative-convective climate model estimates the effects of the dust and smoke clouds on the global radiation budget. The findings are presented in graphs, diagrams, and a table. Thick clouds blocking most sunlight over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes for weeks or months and producing ground-temperature reductions of 20-40 C, disruption of global circulation patterns, and rapid spread of clouds to the Southern Hemisphere are among the 'nuclear-winter' effects predicted for the 5,000-Mt baseline case. The catastrophic consequences for plant, animal, and human populations are considered, and the revision of superpower nuclear strategies is urged.

  12. Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas. PMID:6015741

  13. The Soviet calculus of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkowicz, R.; Mickiewicz, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East European militaries.

  14. After nuclear war: possible worlds and the cult of expertise

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the effects of nuclear war are common, and have been often analyzed; they have been seen as contemporary eschatologies or as evidence in the nuclear-arms debate. They are of interest, though, for another reason. Written by students from many fields, they constitute attempts to portray the geographical conditions of a possible, post-nuclear-war world. Explicitly, these accounts express the view that the world is composed of objects and their properties; that it is objectively knowable through the use of the scientific method by neutral observers; and that the results of such studies can and ought to be presented in a thoroughly neutral mode of discourse. Closer observation reveals that these accounts fall short of the Cartesian ideal. Current philosophical scholarship suggests that there is little reason to believe that an adequate account of the human world can be fashioned merely from a set of objects, properties, and relationships. A more adequate account of the effects of nuclear war must rest on a more adequate notion of possible worlds. The contextual and ethnographic approach of philosophers and anthropologists provides a possible basis for such a notion.

  15. Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear War and the Health Professions: Curriculum Development in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Christine K.; McCally, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a 10-week course entitled Medical Consequences of Nuclear War, offered to medical and nursing students at the Oregon Health Sciences University. Other curriculum models and teaching materials are also discussed. (SK)

  16. Psychological Effects of the Threat of Nuclear War

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Systematic studies are emerging on the prevailing harmful psychological effect of the threat of nuclear war. The most recent surveys have identified populations which are particularly vulnerable. Anxiety was found to be a factor in criminal behavior, and threat of nuclear war to be a factor in anxiety. Psychiatric morbidity has been correlated with work deprivation and threat of annihilation. Many studies have focused on children, finding that anxiety about social issues is high, but that cynicism and apathy set in rapidly. Conclusions from such studies show that denial and avoidance are some of the worst results, since they are a barrier to meaningful reaction. The most vulnerable groups are children, adolescents, the unemployed, and those responsible for the welfare of others. Appropriate action is seen to be acknowledgement of fear and disillusionment as valid feelings, education towards a stronger sense of reality, and mobilization of goal-directed activity. PMID:21274254

  17. Nuclear Winter: Uncertainties Surround the Long-Term Effects of Nuclear War. Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Nuclear winter, a term used to describe potential long-term climate and environmental effects of nuclear war, has been a subject of debate and controversy. This report examines and presents scientific and policy implications of nuclear winter. Contents include: (1) an executive summary (highlighting previous and current studies on the topic); (2)…

  18. Nuclear war group survival: Structures and camp site

    SciTech Connect

    David, C.V.

    1987-06-09

    A nuclear war group survival camp is described including a combination of structures, facilities, equipment and other camp site improvements and further comprising: means for protecting people inside structures located above ground against the effects of blast caused by the explosion of a nuclear weapon, on and above ground, within a distance that would create a lethal environment inside any conventionally constructed building structure at such distance; means for removing fallout debris (dust) generated by the explosion in a manner such that the total radiation dosage received by any and all so sheltered people remains below the radiation dose level considered critical.

  19. Living in the Nuclear Age: Families and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Demorest, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main interest of this research was to add to the body of knowledge about the possible psychological impact of the nuclear threat on the family unit. Data were utilized from the Family Interaction, Stress and Nuclear War study conducted by Jules Riskin, M.D. and Victoria Dickerson, Ph.D. at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The sample consisted of ten families who were recruited for this study. In order to examine family-interaction variables and the impact of the threat of nuclear war, a standardized semi-structured family interview was conducted. Topics ranged from ordinary activities to external, non-nuclear stresses such as landslides or hurricanes, to the topic of nuclear war. A distinction is drawn between a family's level of nuclear concern while they discuss nuclear issues and a family's level of nuclear concern when viewed in the context of their overall pattern of family communication. In terms of family coping, family nuclear concern was found to be significantly related to two family-coping strategies. Families who utilized the coping strategies of seeking spiritual support and mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help were significantly less concerned about the threat of nuclear war.

  20. The longest illness. Effects of nuclear war in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kappy, M.S.

    1984-03-01

    The destruction of civilization that would follow a nuclear war would render any disaster ever recorded insignificant. Millions of people would perish during the first few hours, and many more would die in the months to come. Survival would exist only in the strictest sense of the word, since societal disorganization, famine, drought, darkness, and nuclear winter would envelope the earth. The comparative frailty of children and their dependence on adults would render them most susceptible to the acute effects of a nuclear holocaust. Furthermore, studies of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan bombings showed a disproportionate propensity for children to experience leukemias and other cancers years after the bombings. There were also great increases in perinatal deaths and cases of microcephaly and retardation in children exposed in utero to the bombs. In the event that there are future generations after a nuclear war, the issue of heritable genetic effects will become important. Suggestions of permanent genetic damage are emerging from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies. By comparison, the genetic effects of modern weaponry will be incalculable.

  1. Nuclear war between Israel and Iran: lethality beyond the pale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The proliferation of nuclear technology in the politically volatile Middle East greatly increases the likelihood of a catastrophic nuclear war. It is widely accepted, while not openly declared, that Israel has nuclear weapons, and that Iran has enriched enough nuclear material to build them. The medical consequences of a nuclear exchange between Iran and Israel in the near future are envisioned, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments. Methods Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. Further development for thermal burn casualties was based on Brode, as modified by Binninger, to calculate thermal fluence. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Results Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for three Israeli and eighteen Iranian cities. Nuclear weapon detonations in the densely populated cities of Iran and Israel will result in an unprecedented millions of numbers of dead, with millions of injured suffering without adequate medical care, a broad base of lingering mental health issues, a devastating loss of municipal infrastructure, long-term disruption of economic, educational, and other essential social activity, and a breakdown in law and order. Conclusions This will cause a very limited medical response initially for survivors in Iran and Israel. Strategic use of surviving medical response and collaboration with international relief could be expedited by the predicted casualty

  2. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    PubMed

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system. PMID:24236362

  3. Are nuclear and nonnuclear war related. Final report, August 1986-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Tritten, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    This report analyzes relationship of nuclear and non-nuclear warfare during the actual conduct of a war in either the conventional or nuclear stage and the relationship relative to deterrence and strategy.

  4. Physicians confront the apocalypse. The American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    Boyer, P

    1985-08-01

    Boyer traces the American medical profession's involvement with the nuclear war issue from World War II to 1963. Research on the effects of radiation began with the Manhattan Project in 1942, and continued in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the war. Interest in the narrow clinical aspects of radiation was rarely matched by an awareness of the social and medical implications of nuclear war, as attention focused instead on optimistic predictions about the benefits of atomic medicine. The medical community entered wholeheartedly into Cold War civil defense planning, and physicians and the public were encouraged to believe that a nuclear attack was survivable with advance planning. Medical activism against nuclear war began in the late 1950s and peaked in 1962 to 1963 with a series of New England Journal of Medicine articles, laying the foundation for physicians' renewed involvement in the 1980s. PMID:3892070

  5. The environmental consequences of nuclear war (SCOPE 28), Vol. 2: Ecological, agricultural, and human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Offerred in this book is an appraisal of the possible environmental consequences of nuclear war. It presents a consensus among leading scientists of the effects on climate, ecosystems, and food supply. Volume 2 reviews ecosystems structure and function relevant to nuclear war effects, plant and animal responses and recovery, agricultural productivity, vulnerability of world food production and storage, estimated population affected, and research needs.

  6. Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

    1993-06-01

    The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

  7. Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

  8. Beyond apocalypse: Recent representations of nuclear war and its aftermath in U. S. narrative film

    SciTech Connect

    Perrine, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of nuclear weapons and their destructive potential influences human consciousness and cultural production including US commercial narrative films that deal with the idea of nuclear war. Such films can be read to reflect and mediate cultural attitudes about nuclear war and the increasingly technological future. These issues are investigated through a close examination of several recent US narrative films. An historical outlines of the important events of the nuclear age and a survey of critical approaches to the study of nuclear war texts provide the context for this work. The ways in which popular cinema has constructed the idea of nuclear war are enumerated. A discussion of the formal and thematic concerns of the science fiction film genre follows since SF is the narrative category into which nuclear war films are frequently placed. Nuclear war is represented in quite a number of entertainment films recently which suggests our societal preoccupation with the possibility. At the same time, the representations of nuclear war have been limited to a fairly restricted range of scenographic and narrative options which often serve to trivialize or distanciate the subject.

  9. Summary Proceedings of the Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (2nd, Cambridge, England, April, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This conference was held to alert physicians worldwide of the mortal peril of nuclear war to public health, with the hope that they will help educate their communities about the effects of nuclear war. Summary papers prepared during the conference include: medical consequences of nuclear war with special reference to Europe--immediate problems for…

  10. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G.; Barke, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  11. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable. PMID:25980291

  12. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  13. Nuclear education campaign: on how to eliminate the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Markusen, E.; Dunham, J.; Bee, R.

    1981-05-01

    The threat of a nuclear war creates a chronic erosion of moral and intellectual integrity and places the future of humanity in the hands of a few hundred people. The nuclear elite probably requires a degree of psychological numbing and desensitization in order to separate themselves emotionally from decisions that might require exercise of their power. They may also lose the ability to question basic assumptions and may identify themselves with the rightness of their policies and the need to use nuclear technology to preserve those policies. To reform the nuclear-industrial complex, the American public must become educated to give the prevention of nuclear war a higher priority than the economy. Fears and anxieties may underlie apparent apathy, taking the form of denial and a focus on immediate problems. A campaign by knowledgeable people to educate the public should stress the empirical data necessary for objectivity and should use a multidisciplinary approach in the same way that recent death education programs have broken the taboos about discussing the Nazi holocaust. An outline of a nuclear-education program suggests a number of social and economic benefits. 13 references. (DCK)

  14. James B. Conant, nuclear weapons, and the cold war, 1945-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberg, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the impact of James B. Conant -- president of Harvard University, adviser to the U.S. government on atomic matters, national public figure -- on the transition period from the end of World War II to the crystallization of the Cold War with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. The dissertation delves into Conant's role in formulating U.S. policy on the international control of atomic weapons; his reaction to Cold War pressures on U.S. universities and education; his unsuccessful efforts to lessen official atomic secrecy; his evolving view of the Cold War and nuclear policy; and his part in the controversy over the decision to build the hydrogen bomb. Using newly-available sources, and going beyond the account provided in Conant's memoirs, the dissertation attempts to shed new light on an important figure of the early Cold War period whose actions influenced both U.S. public opinion and secret government policy.

  15. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  16. The Psychological Impact of an Educational Unit about Conflict and Nuclear War on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Hanley, C. Patricia

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological impact of nuclear issues education on preadolescents in order to obtain data that might be useful in developing public policy concerning the role of nuclear issues education. Teachers presented "Choices," an educational unit on nuclear war and conflict, to sixth, seventh, and eighth grade…

  17. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  18. Chinese attitudes toward nuclear weapons: China and the United States during the Korean War

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental Chinese attitudes related to nuclear disarmament and proliferation, civil defense against nuclear attack, and the likely repercussions of nuclear war were set during the Korean War. Chinese viewpoints were heavily influenced by Western writings on nuclear matters from 1945-1950 and were characterized by an integrated military, political, and psychological realism. Previous studies, failing to make use of relevant Chinese-language materials, have neglected this crucial formative period. Both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations considered using nuclear weapons in Korea and China and attempted to shape the political settlement of the war through nuclear threats. The Chinese reaction was notable for its efforts to counteract the effects of fear among its population. They acknowledged the unprecedented destructiveness, not the military decisiveness, of the weapons, but they adamantly denied that nuclear threats would cow them. Chinese propaganda stressed the Soviet deterrent and skillfully appealed to worldwide opposition to nuclear weapons, often utilizing Western spokesmen and playing upon the theme of US misuse of science. The Chinese considered a nuclear attack relatively unlikely but were prepared to absorb an attack and fight a war of long duration. In Korea both the terrain and the extensive tunneling by Chinese troops afforded significant protection from nuclear weapons.

  19. Israeli nuclear weapons and war in the Middle East. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Harden, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines the influence of the Israeli nuclear weapons capability on conflict in the Middle East. There are two perspectives regarding the impact of nuclear proliferation on strategic stability. Three paths to strategic instability are examined: preventive attacks, preemptive attacks, and the escalation of conventional conflict to nuclear war. The optimistic perspective argues that nuclear weapons make preventive and preemptive attacks less likely, and keep conventional conflict from escalating to nuclear war. The pessimistic perspective argues the opposite that nuclear weapons make preventive and preemptive attacks more likely, and raise the likelihood of escalation to nuclear war. My analysis of the Israeli cases shows that opaque nuclear proliferation decreases the pressure for preventive attacks, increases the chances for miscalculation, and creates sufficient concern about nuclear weapons to reduce the likelihood of preemptive attacks. Two factors help reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation as posed by proliferation pessimists, opaque nuclear weapons programs and nondeclaratory nuclear weapons policies. The implication of this research is that if the United States cannot dissuade a country from going nuclear, it should reinforce its incentives to maintain opacity and a nondeclaratory policy. Particular attention should be given to states which resist these efforts, as they represent the greatest risk of nuclear weapons use.

  20. Thinking about the threat of nuclear war: relevance to mental health

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, S.; LaCombe, S.; Levinson, D.; Parker, K.R.; Ross, C.; Sommers, F.

    1985-10-01

    Ontario students in grades 7-13 responded to open-ended and multiple-choice questions about future concerns, particularly unemployment, job/career plans, and the nuclear threat. Although worries about nuclear war were more frequent than those in other areas, their expression was associated with a sense of social efficacy rather than with feelings of helplessness.

  1. Problems in experimental and mathematical investigations of the accidental thermalhydraulic processes in RBMK nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K.; Blinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.

  2. Student attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war: Friends as influential reference persons

    SciTech Connect

    Marasch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    A renewed interest in research into the psychology of the threat of nuclear war occurred in the past decade as national attention focused increasingly on the arms race between the US and the USSR. Some of this research began the task of exploring the social influences upon attitudes and responses to the nuclear threat. Research on friends as potential influences upon nuclear attitudes was minimal. The present study investigated the role of college friends as potential reference persons in the formation of nuclear attitudes. A battery of questionnaires addressing various nuclear war and non-nuclear war attitudes was completed by 200 student-friend dyads from introductory psychology and sociology courses at the University of North Dakota. Three hypotheses were presented in this study. One hypothesis was that students would perceive their friends as having similar attitudes toward the threat of nuclear war. A second hypothesis was that the actual attitudes between pairs of students and friends would be similar. The third hypothesis was that the attitudes would have become more similar over the course of the development of the friendship (as measured retrospectively). The first hypothesis was borne out by the data. The second and third hypotheses were not supported. There are several implications of the findings. One implication is that the nuclear issue may not be as salient to college students as other, more immediate, issues. Another implication is that a relative lack of communication between college students on political issues precludes more effective mutual influence upon the development and change of such attitudes. A false consensus bias appeared to be operative when the students perceived that their attitudes were similar. Further discussion is presented in regard to past and future psychological research upon nuclear war attitudes.

  3. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  4. Glossary on the environmental impact of a nuclear war. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraete, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The glossary defines a number of words, expressions, and acronyms used in the description of the impact of nuclear war on the environment, and associated issues. Selected additional words related to the problems of armaments, disarmament, and nuclear war in general were also added for convenience, although terms and expressions specifically related to the medical aspects of the problem were not included. The glossary is an enlarged and updated version of the glossary that was published as part of the SCOPE-Enuwar study on the same subject, and published by Wiley (Pittock et al., 1986).

  5. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-26

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  6. From a United Nations Study: The Climatic and Other Global Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents excerpts from the first chapter of a report presented to the General Assembly of the United Nations during the Special Session on Disarmament. Discussed are key scientific issues regarding the global effects of nuclear war, and the findings and conclusions presented in the report. (CW)

  7. The Day After: Report of a Survey of Effects of Viewing and Beliefs about Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; Saxe, Leonard

    The psychological effects on viewers of the television film "The Day After," designed to dramatize the possibility of nuclear war and its horrible consequences, were examined by this study. Subjects were 435 residents of the Boston metropolitan area who were randomly sampled from area telephone directories and interviewed by telephone. It appears…

  8. Global Effects of Nuclear War: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, R. P.; Golitsyn, G. S.

    1988-01-01

    Provided is an update on nuclear winter research based on reports made at the Moscow meeting of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) including early results from a major field experimentation program. Describes the development and effects of smoke produced from nuclear detonations. (CW)

  9. Choices: A Unit on Conflict and Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Teachers Association, Boston.

    Ten lessons on the evolution of the nuclear arms race, the nature and consequences of using nuclear weapons, and new ways that conflicts among nations might be resolved are presented for the junior high school level. The unit contains age-appropriate materials to equip students with skills and knowledge to understand what choices can be made to…

  10. The Nuclear Family: Correspondence in Cognitive and Affective Reactions to the Threat of Nuclear War among Older Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between family members' cognitive and affective responses to nuclear war issues, 317 college students and their parents independently completed a multifaceted questionnaire that included items concerning personal reactions, predictions, opinions, and attitudes about nuclear war. (Author/LMO)

  11. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon

  12. The last traffic jam: psychologic consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, J.E.

    1983-02-01

    Probable psychologic problems resulting from a nuclear explosion are described. The attendant stresses are difficult to predict but the behavior of victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki serve as models. Behavior patterns during evacuation, shelter period and postattack are described. (JMT)

  13. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  14. A Day of Dialogue. Planning & Curriculum Resource Guide. Dealing with Issues of Nuclear War in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educators for Social Responsibility, Cambridge, MA.

    Elementary and secondary teachers and parents can use these resource materials to educate students about the issues related to war and peace. There are three major parts. The first part discusses how to implement a "day of dialogue," during which the dangers of nuclear war are examined. Included are tips on how to organize, meet resistance, and…

  15. The Fight for Fusion: A Modern Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Adam; Sereda, David

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of Bogdan Maglich with helium-based fusion and barriers to its development resulting from lack of government support, competition for funding, and political pet projects. Compares tritium-based to helium-based fusion and the potential for nonradioactive nuclear power to supply the world's energy requirements with no negative…

  16. Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on

  17. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

  18. Managing terrorism or accidental nuclear errors, preparing for iodine-131 emergencies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R

    2014-04-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world's leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15-30 mg or 1-2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

  19. Nuclear war in human perspective: a survivor's report

    SciTech Connect

    Thurlow, S.

    1982-10-01

    A first-hand account of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, as it was experienced by a 13-year-old girl, is presented. The experience is considered in terms of the physical, social, and psychological consequences--and the interaction among them--for the survivors. The role of the survivors in the move to abolish nuclear weapons, and the significance of that role in their own psychological recovery, is emphasized.

  20. Impacts on Chinese Agriculture of Geoengineering and Smoke from Fires Ignited by Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, society might consider deliberately manipulating global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for 24 provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations. For geoengineering, we consider the G2 scenario of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), which prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% per year increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2). We used results from ten climate models participating in G2. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper

  1. Gender differences and the influence of classroom discussion on adolescents' relationship to the threat of nuclear war after international crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the differences in attitudes of females and males to the stress of living under the threat of nuclear war with respect to sex and nuclear education. The differences in attitudes of 231 adolescents, from five California schools, aged 15-18, were analyzed. They were asked three questions regarding nuclear war within 2 weeks of the shooting down of Korean Airliner 007 in 1983. A quantitative content analysis was used to assess gender and educational influences on the responses to the three questions which were: Do I think there will be a war Do I care Why and What do I think about fallout shelters Theoretical constructs of Chodorow and Gilligan were used to relate recent developments in the psychology of women to issues of war and peace. There were significant gender differences with respect to adolescents' opinions on nuclear war. Compared to males, the expression of loss of family or friends, fear, humanitarian concerns, and blaming was significantly higher in females, while knowledge of fallout shelters was significantly lower. For both males and females, verbal anger was expressed equally. One hundred twelve students who had no education on nuclear war were compared with 119 students who had informal classroom discussion on nuclear war. With informal nuclear education, females had decreased expression of local loss and males increased expression of self loss. Both males and females with informal nuclear education had decreased their expression of blame. For females, the knowledge of fallout shelters was increased. Both males and females cited the shooting down of KAL/007, only 12.6% suggesting that psyche numbing can occur for knowledge as well as affect. Both males and females offered few solutions to nuclear war, a possible manifestation of an attitude of hopelessness in our youth.

  2. What about the Children? The Threat of Nuclear War and Our Responsibility To Preserve This Planet for Future Generations. Samantha Smith Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Glenn W.; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to encourage global action that will protect children from the threat of nuclear war. A number of specific steps are suggested to reduce this threat, including: (1) finding 10 minutes per week to work on an anti-war project; (2) supporting anti-nuclear organizations; (3) joining anti-war organizations; (4) sharing…

  3. Report of workshop on radiological effects of nuclear war, SCOPE-ENUWAR workshop, Moscow, USSR, March 21-25, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1988-03-01

    The workshop on radiological consequences of nuclear war addressed specific issues that built on the foundation of the results that were published in the SCOPE-ENUWAR report (SCOPE-28) in 1986. 14 refs.

  4. Reagan's energy war: can deregulation and the Pentagon save the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mr. Feeney feels that Administration energy policies claiming to protect democracy and reduce government interference will transfer money and political control from the people to the energy corporations and the Pentagon. Critics deplore the hard-path approach of downgrading conservation and solar energy in favor of nuclear energy, which some see as setting the stage for a nuclear war in this decade. They see the plan to abolish DOE as providing an opportunity to bail out the nuclear industry, bury environmental and alternative energy research, and block regulations. Critics question why Reagan's devotion to the free market is not applied to the nuclear industry, although they disagree on the linkage with nuclear weapons of new fuel cycle proposals and the use of national security to solve the waste disposal problem by nationalizing and militarizing the fuel cycle. (DCK)

  5. Atmospheric entry of nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental/inadvertent termination of operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul; Tauber, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The entries of the radioactive components into earth's atmosphere resulting from an accident or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal-rockets are investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the trans-Mars-injection maneuver due to simultaneous multiple failures of its component systems. The three different accident/abort modes considered are the following: (1) a constant-rate angular pitching motion of the vehicle, (2) a constant-acceleration angular pitching motion of the vehicle, and (3) the rocket engine breaks away from the rest of the vehicle with a finite relative (dispersion) velocity. The speeds and angles of the atmospheric entries are calculated for each mode for different values of the time of the accident, pitching rate, acceleration, and dispersion velocity. For the most severe entry speeds and flight-path angles, the stagnation-point pressures, heat transfer rates, thickness, and mass per unit area of the heat shields necessary to protect the radioactive components from disintegrating, deceleration g-loads, and high ground-impact velocities are calculated. The study points out that the high g-loads and high ground-impact velocities are the most serious problems that must be addressed.

  6. Another Inconvenient Truth: Even a Small Nuclear War Could be Much Worse Than you Think

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-05-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. Based upon observations of the damage caused by nuclear explosions in World War II and in nuclear tests, a group of researchers has estimated the area that might be consumed in firestorms following a regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100, 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). Based upon observations of large forest fires these firestorms should inject smoke into the upper troposphere. Using estimates of the mass of flammable material in the areas that would burn we find that 5x1012 g of elemental carbon could be injected into the upper troposphere in a regional nuclear war. A suite of numerical models show that this upper tropospheric soot will be transported due to solar heating into the stratosphere and will rise to altitudes above 40 km. The elemental carbon will absorb sunlight, heating the stratosphere and cooling the ground. The heating of the stratosphere could cause column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at mid-latitudes, and 50- 70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts would remain near or below 220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extra-tropical "ozone hole". The cooling at the ground would reduce precipitation globally by about 10%, create lower

  7. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the results of atmosphere dispersion modeling using CALPUFF code that are based on computational simulation to evaluate the environmental characteristics of the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP) in west area of UAE. According to meteorological data analysis (2012~2013), the winds from the north(7.68%) and west(9.05%) including NNW(41.63%), NW(28.55%), and WNW(6.31%) winds accounted for more than 90% of the wind directions. East(0.2%) and south(0.6%) direction wind, including ESE(0.31%), SE(0.38%), and SSE(0.38%) were rarely distributed during the simulation period. Seasonal effects were not showed. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and night-time was observed. Approximately 87% of the wind speed was distributed below 5.4m/s (17%, 47% and 23% between the speeds of 0.5-1.8m/s 1.8-3.3m/s and 3.3-5.4m/s, respectively) during the annual period. Seasonal wind speed distribution results presented very similar pattern of annual distribution. Wind speed distribution of day and night, on the other hand, had a discrepancy with annual modeling results than seasonal distribution in some sections. The results for high wind speed (more than 10.8m/s) showed that this wind blew from the west. This high wind speed is known locally as the 'Shamal', which occurs rarely, lasting one or two days with the strongest winds experienced in association with gust fronts and thunderstorms. Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs) dispersion test were simulated under hypothetic severe accidental condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. From the test cases, east-south area of the BNPP site was mainly influenced by 137Cs dispersion. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. Surface roughness tests were performed for the analysis of topographic conditions. According to the surface condition, there are various surface roughness length. Four types

  9. Nuclear war in the Middle East: where is the voice of medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Cham E; Burkle, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Once again, the politically volatile Middle East and accompanying rhetoric has escalated the risk of a major nuclear exchange. Diplomatic efforts have failed to make the medical consequences of such an exchange a leading element in negotiations. The medical and academic communities share this denial. Without exaggeration, the harsh reality of the enormous consequences of an imminently conceivable nuclear war between Iran and Israel will encompass an unprecedented millions of dead and an unavoidable decline in public health and environmental devastation that would impact major populations in the Middle East for decades to come. Nuclear deterrence and the uncomfortable but real medical and public health consequences must become an integral part of a broader global health diplomacy that emphasizes health security along with poverty reduction and good governance. PMID:22509536

  10. Conceptions of politics, morality, and war in the nuclear policy debates

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    During the resurgent nuclear debates from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, analysts sharply disagreed about the appropriate means and ends of strategy. Deterrence dominance strategists argued that America required a countervailing capacity to sustain a viable deterrent posture and to contain Soviet adventurism. Proponents of pure deterrence claimed that the risks endemic to mutual vulnerability would suffice to moderate the superpower rivalry. Advocates of denuclearization charged that reliance on nuclear weaponry posed the greatest danger to human well-being and called for diplomatic measures to establish a disarmament regime. While scholars have systemically explored the strategic and technological components of the controversy, few studies have examined the political theoretic dimensions. Through a textual exegesis of the writings of key participants, this work seeks to demonstrate that contending conceptions of politics and morality inform dissension about the viability of coercive power in the nuclear age. Justifications of deterrence dominance proposals generally conflate political and ethical considerations through variants of Hobbesian skepticism or liberal just war interventionism. Such arguments perceive the state as the locus of societal values and sovereignty as sanctioning extensive activities in the global system. Pure deterrence notions posit an irreconcilable tension between politics and morality that corresponds with a tragic vision: war may be a necessary element of sociality, but it seldom has truly creative consequences. From this perspective, the state is a morally ambiguous agent that can preserve and endanger societal well-being. Finally, associated with the denuclearization school is a conviction that progressive social movements can conform politics to essential ethical precepts by minimizing the role of coercive power. In this view, the state and its claim to sovereignty are primary sources of the war system, hence must be radically altered.

  11. Testing times: A nuclear weapons laboratory at the end of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Gusterson, H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of discursive and other practices in the construction of two alternative regimes of truth in regard to nuclear weapons, and in the cultural production of persons at the Livermore Laboratory and in the local anti-nuclear movement. In the 1980s the scientists' regime of truth was challenged by a heterogeneous anti-nuclear movement recruited largely from the humanistic middle class - a class fragment profoundly hostile to the policies of the Reagan Administration. The movement attacked the Laboratory in a number of ways, ranging from local ballot initiatives and lobbying in Washington to civil disobedience at the Laboratory. By the end of the 1980s this movement, in combination with Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union and a decade of internal scandals at the Laboratory, left the Laboratory weakened - though Laboratory scientists and managers are currently working to adapt the system of ideas and practices evolved during the Cold War to legitimate continued weapons work in a post-Cold War environment.

  12. Nuclear war: short-term chemical and radiative effects of stratospheric injections

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, F.M.

    1983-10-01

    Earlier investigations of the atmospheric effects of a nuclear war focused primarily on the potential reduction in stratospheric ozone. The numerical models used in those assessments were one-dimensional and calculated the average ozone reduction over the Northern Hemisphere. The results presented here are the first assessment of the potential reduction in total ozone on a subcontinental scale. The purpose is to determine whether regions of large ozone reduction (sometimes called ozone holes) are possible, and to identify the important parameters affecting the magnitude of the ozone reduction and rate of recovery.

  13. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  14. Waging modern war: An analysis of the moral literature on the nuclear arms debate

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer-Fernandez, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary aim was to examine the dominant views on the subject of deterrence and the use of nuclear weapons, to compare them with each other, and to consider objections that have or might be made against them. A second, more controversial and substantive, aim was to show that nuclear weapons and war-fighting plans engender some disturbing moral dilemmas that call into question fundamental ways of thinking about morality and some of the common intuitions on the relation of intentions and actions. The author examines the moral literature, both religious and secular, on nuclear arms policy written between the early 1960s and the late 1980s. Three different schools of thought, or parties,' are identified. To establish the differences among these parties, the author shows the various ways in which judgments on the use of nuclear weapons and on deterrence are linked either by a prohibitive moral principle which draws a moral equivalence going from action to intention or by a factual assumption about the nature of nuclear weapons. He concludes with the suggestion that the dilemmas that arise in the moral evaluation of nuclear deterrence represent a profound and much wider problem in moral theory between the ideals of character and the moral claims of politics.

  15. Peace and war: a study of morality and US strategic nuclear policies. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ginder, D.B.; Hicks, I.

    1983-05-01

    The paper examines the quesitons of peace and war and the morality of nuclear deterrence. These vital and enduring questions have been again become a focus of societal debate, especially in the light of the Catholic Bishop's pastoral letter. The nuclear debate is all encompassing, raising philosophical, political, social, strategic an religious questions. These issues present problems that each informed citizen will have to discern both morally and politically. The purpose of the paper is not to evaluate the morality of the defense and deterrent policies/strategies of the United States, but to provide the reader with the information to allow him to formulate judgment on this important question and be able to reconcile personal moral values with national policy and strategy.

  16. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS" (Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky).…

  17. Summary Proceedings of the Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (1st, Airlie, Virginia, March 20-25, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.

    Physicians charged with the responsibility for the lives of their patients and the health of the community must begin to explore a new province of prevention medicine, the prevention of nuclear war. This conference was held to alert these physicians worldwide, of the mortal peril to public health which could result from nuclear war. The hope is…

  18. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  19. An Inventory Designed To Measure the Impact of the Threat of Nuclear War on Adolescents: Dimensions of Fear, Futurelessness, and Powerlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, C. Patricia; Christie, Daniel J.

    This document reports on the history of social and behavioral research studies concerning nuclear war since 1945, highlighting those studies that focused on adolescents and their feelings of fear, hopelessness, powerlessness, and denial. A study, designed to assess the reactions of adolescents in grades six to eight to the threat of nuclear war is…

  20. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly.

  1. Two-dimensional simulations of possible mesoscale effects of nuclear war fires: 1. Model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Filippo

    1989-01-01

    In this paper and the companion paper by Giorgi and Visconti [this issue] a two-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model is coupled to an aerosol model to investigate possible mesoscale effects of nuclear war fires. The meteorological model used in this study is a two-dimensional analog of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model with enhancements in the areas of radiative transfer, surface physics, and moisture physics. The aerosol model solves equations for the hygroscopic and hydrophobic fractions of particulate material and includes particle transport, sedimentation, dry-deposition, in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging, and a first order term accounting for aerosol aging. In this paper the meteorological model and the aerosol model are first described and then applied, as an illustrative example, to a simulation of the development of sea-breezelike circulations induced by contrasts in soil moisture available for evaporation.

  2. Two-dimensional simulations of possible mesoscale effects of nuclear war fires 1. Model description

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, F.

    1989-01-20

    In this paper and the companion paper by Giorgi and Visconti (this issue) a two-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model is coupled to an aerosol model to investigate possible mesoscale effects of nuclear war fires. The meteorological model used in this study is a two-dimensional analog of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model with enhancements in the areas of radiative transfer, surface physics, and moisture physics. The aerosol model solves equations for the hygroscopic and hydrophobic fractions of particulate material and includes particle transport, sedimentation, dry-deposition, in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging, and a first order term accounting for aerosol aging. In this paper the meteorological model and the aerosol model are first described and then applied, as an illustrative example, to a simulation of the development of sea-breezelike circulations induced by contrasts in soil moisture available for evaporation. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences.

  4. What About the Children? The Threat of Nuclear War and Our Responsibility to Preserve this Planet for Future Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Glenn W.

    Part of a global effort, this brochure was written to increase understanding of the threat nuclear war poses to children. Several issues are raised and briefly discussed, including (1) the present capacity for annihilating the next generation or ending human life on this planet, (2) the inadequacy of deterrence, (3) the suffering of children after…

  5. A Nuclear Tech Course = Nuclear Technology in War and Peace: A Study of Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    A nuclear technology college course for engineering students is outlined and described. The course begins with an historical account of the scientific discoveries leading up to the uranium experiments of Hahn and Strassman in Germany and the subsequent explanation of nuclear fission by Meitner and Frisch. The technological achievements of the…

  6. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  7. Atmospheric and climatic consequences of a major nuclear war: Results of recent research

    SciTech Connect

    Golitsyn, G.S.; MacCracken, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    During the last several years, comprehensive three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models, including detailed parametric formulations of a wide range of climatologically significant processes, have been applied to study the potential consequences of a major nuclear war involving the injection of smoke which could result from the large-scale fires ignited by such an exchange. For plausible smoke injections during the warm season of the year, all model calculations suggest that a significant climatic perturbation would result. In the lower range of smoke injection scenarios (producing of order 10 Tg of highly carbonaceous smoke), smoke would act primarily to inhibit convection and rainfall, especially over land areas, including possibly some disruption of the summer monsoon. The upper range of smoke scenarios (of order 100 Tg of highly carbonaceous smoke) would cause not only rapid and sharp decreases in land temperature and precipitation (a mid-latitude average land-temperature drop of the order of 20/sup 0/C, up to perhaps twice this amount in continental interiors), but also seems likely to leave enough smoke in the atmosphere to persist into the following warm season, inducing a cooling of several degrees.

  8. A computer code to estimate accidental fire and radioactive airborne releases in nuclear fuel cycle facilities: User's manual for FIRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1989-02-01

    This manual describes the technical bases and use of the computer code FIRIN. This code was developed to estimate the source term release of smoke and radioactive particles from potential fires in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. FIRIN is a product of a broader study, Fuel Cycle Accident Analysis, which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The technical bases of FIRIN consist of a nonradioactive fire source term model, compartment effects modeling, and radioactive source term models. These three elements interact with each other in the code affecting the course of the fire. This report also serves as a complete FIRIN user's manual. Included are the FIRIN code description with methods/algorithms of calculation and subroutines, code operating instructions with input requirements, and output descriptions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K; Watson, E C

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  10. Influence of solar heating and precipitation scavenging on the simulated lifetime of post-nuclear war smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, R. C.; Auer, L. H.; Glatzmaier, G. A.; Wood, M. C.; Toon, O. B.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of smoke injected into the atmosphere by massive fires that might follow a nuclear war was simulated. Studies with a three-dimensional global atmospheric circulation model showed that heating of the smoke by sunlight would be important and might produce several effects that would decrease the efficiency with which precipitation removes smoke from the atmosphere. The heating gives rise to vertical motions that carry smoke well above the original injection height. Heating of the smoke also causes the tropopause, which is initially above the smoke, to reform below the heated smoke layer. Smoke above the tropopause is physically isolated from precipitation below. Consequently, the atmospheric residence time of the remaining smoke is greatly increased over the prescribed residence times used in previous models of nuclear winter.

  11. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  12. On the home front: The cold war legacy of the Hanford nuclear site

    SciTech Connect

    Stenehjem Gerber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford plutonium factory in Washington State is among the oldest and largest relics of the Cold War and is also among the dirtiest. In this book, the author states that the release of radiaoactive and toxic waste without public knowledge poses fundamental questions about American democracy. No conclusive answers to the problems at Hanford are presented, although the important questions are addressed. The reviewer feels the book may be of use as a reference catalog, within its context as a piece essentially concerned with public relations.

  13. Reagan and the Nuclear Freeze: "Stars Wars" as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Rebecca S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between nuclear freeze activists and proponents of a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Argues that SDI strengthens Reagan's rhetorical position concerning nuclear weapons policy because it reduces the argumentative ground of the freeze movement by envisioning a defensive weapons system that would nullify nuclear weapons.…

  14. Nuclear Technology in War and Peace: A Study of Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This is the syllabus of a course that explores the technology of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy for electric power generation, and considers some problems of nuclear weapons proliferation and technical alternatives. It provides a course description, a course outline, a list of required readings, and information on the films shown in the…

  15. Hope, connectedness, and action: responses of adolescents and young adults to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Fernald, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study undertook to assess the degree to which a person's sense of interconnectedness with others may have a mediating effect on whether one reacts to the consciousness of nuclear threat with feelings of despair (helplessness and hopelessness) or with a sense of empowerment (hope, efficacy, and action for change). Subjects included 119 public high school students and 14 Friends' school students, ranging from 12-18 years of age; 58 university students ranging from 18-25 years of age; and 24 parents of public school students, 10 adult Friends, and 38 members of Physicians for Social Responsibility, ranging from 20-83 years of age. A self-rating questionnaire was administered to assess subjects' conscious level of concern about nuclear issues, feelings of connectedness with others in general and about nuclear concerns, feelings of hope and efficacy in general and with regard to nuclear issues, and participation in activities reflecting concerns about nuclear threat. Correlational analyses (multiple regression, Spearman Rho, Kendall's Tau) showed that general feelings of hope, level of activity, and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns were the best predictors of hope about nuclear concerns. Conscious level of concern and feelings of connectedness about nuclear concerns, along with age and SES were the best predictors of an active response to nuclear threat; additionally, parents' level of concern about nuclear issues was predictive of their children's degree of activity in response to nuclear threat. Adolescents' level of concern and degree of connectedness with others was predicted by their parents' degree of connectedness.

  16. War gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. January 1970-January 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning non-quick war gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. Analyses and comparative evaluations, based upon computerized simulations, are considered as are manuals and specification for the various computer programs employed. Stage 64 and Satan II and III are covered prominently. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Accidental sexual strangulation.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, M; Frangoulis, M; Koutselinis, A

    1986-03-01

    Accidental death by manual strangulation among homosexuals during the act of sodomy is an uncommon event. In our recent case, the pattern of injuries indicates that strangulation resulted from the forearm application on the neck in a manner better known as "choke holding." PMID:3728426

  18. Watermelons Not War! A Support Book for Parenting in the Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Kate; And Others

    The Nuclear Education Project (NEP), a group of five women concerned about parenting in a nuclear age, developed this guide to help parents and others develop a sense of hope and promote a greater involvement in the democratic political process. Chapter I, "The Heart of the Matter," presents sections on answering possible questions children might…

  19. Growing up with the threat of nuclear war: some indirect effects on personality development

    SciTech Connect

    Escalona, S.K.

    1982-10-01

    The effects of the nuclear peril upon youngsters in middle childhood are considered, with particular emphasis on the extent to which ego strengths and weaknesses are influenced by adult behavior. It is suggested that the adult response to a pervasive danger such as the nuclear arms build-up shapes children's views of the trustworthiness of adult society and defines the limits of their growth and development.

  20. Effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers: implications for professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Schwebel, M.

    1982-10-01

    Interview studies of youngsters are cited as evidence of their pervasive awareness of the possibility of nuclear cataclysm. It is suggested that the nuclear threat is a contributing factor in anxiety and other disorders noted among these youth. The role of mental health and other professionals in educating and guiding youngsters, and in working with them to reduce the anxiety and alleviate its causes, is outlined.

  1. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  2. From Confrontation to Cooperation: 8th International Seminar on Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichichi, A.; Dardo, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * OPENING SESSION * A. Zichichi: Opening Statements * R. Nicolosi: Opening Statements * MESSAGES * CONTRIBUTIONS * "The Contribution of the Erice Seminars in East-West-North-South Scientific Relations" * 1. LASER TECHNOLOGY * "Progress in laser technology" * "Progress in laboratory high gain ICF: prospects for the future" * "Applications of laser in metallurgy" * "Laser tissue interactions in medicine and surgery" * "Laser fusion" * "Compact X-ray lasers in the laboratory" * "Alternative method for inertial confinement" * "Laser technology in China" * 2. NUCLEAR AND CHEMICAL SAFETY * "Reactor safety and reactor design" * "Thereotical analysis and numerical modelling of heat transfer and fuel migration in underlying soils and constructive elements of nuclear plants during an accident release from the core" * "How really to attain reactor safely" * "The problem of chemical weapons" * "Long terms genetic effects of nuclear and chemical accidents" * "Features of the brain which are of importance in understanding the mode of operation of toxic substances and of radiation" * "CO2 and ultra safe reactors" * 3. USE OF MISSILES * "How to convert INF technology for peaceful scientific purposes" * "Beating words into plowshares: a proposal for the peaceful uses of retired nuclear warheads" * "Some thoughts on the peaceful use of retired nuclear warheads" * "Status of the HEFEST project" * 4. OZONE * "Status of the ozone layer problem" * 5. CONVENTIONAL AND NUCLEAR FORCE RESTRUCTURING IN EUROPE * 6. CONFLICT AVOIDANCE MODEL * 7. GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE WORLD LAB PROJECTS * "East-West-North-South Collaboration in Subnuclear Physics" * "Status of the World Lab in the USSR" * CLOSING SESSION

  3. Design of a Course on the Medical Consequences of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Christine; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A course is described in which students were to: learn about nuclear weapons and their medical, social, and ecological consequences; identify principles of social ethics defining health professionals' roles; and define professional activities consistent with these principles. Student attitudes toward the course and its content were measured. (MSE)

  4. Who Decides: A Citizen's Guide to Government Decision-Making on Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Norman

    This guide helps people understand where and how decisions on nuclear warfare are made in the United States government. The guide is organized into five main sections. "The Nature of the American Political System" covers the development of a republican form of democracy governed by checks and balances and designed so that power is shared by…

  5. Children's Attitudes about Nuclear War: Results of Large-Scale Surveys of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald M.; And Others

    A three-section survey instrument was developed to provide descriptive and expressive information about teenagers' attitudes and fear reactions related to the nuclear threat. The first section consisted of one open-ended statement, "Write down your three greatest worries." The second section consisted of 20 areas of potential worry or concern…

  6. Reserve policy for the nuclear age: the development of post-war American reserve policy, 1943-1955

    SciTech Connect

    Sinks, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    This study isolates three key themes: the influence of non-military considerations in reserve policy; inter-service differences over reserve policy; and the conflict between traditional reserve policies and the strategic requirements of the post-war era. After a brief review of Army and Navy reserve policy from the turn of the century to World War II, the wartime plans of the War Department for post-war reserve policy are examined. Key problems are UMT, the post-war role of the National Guard and the unit-pool conflict. The dissertation then traces the activation phase of Army reserve policy in 1946-47. The post-war development and implementation of Navy and Army Air Forces reserve policies are also examined. The differences in reserve policy among the four services are highlighted. The various attempts to review and refashion reserve policy in 1948-49 are then reviewed in detail. The second half of the dissertation focuses on the impact of the Korean War and the New Look on reserve policy. It is concluded that given the tremendous obstacles to the development of a coherent, rational reserve policy in the post-war era, the reserve structure created after World War II must be regarded as a significant achievement.

  7. Putting World War III on ice: the nuclear freeze movement takes off

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, P.

    1982-07-01

    Mr. Pringle observes that grassroots support for the anti-nuclear movement is behind both early- and late-comers among scientists and statesmen. He notes that the freeze movement has grown even faster than its organizers expected, forcing the administration's attention as US-Soviet strategic-arms talks get underway. The opposition of religious groups swelled beyond the traditional peace groups as people questioned the moral acceptability of counterforce policies. The development of this movement was further strengthened by the arguments of physicians that medical science cannot deal with the aftermath of a nuclear exchange. Senators Kennedy and Hatfield called for a bilateral freeze that is gaining support in Congress and putting additional pressure on the administration. (DCK)

  8. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  9. Accidental acute exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Curran, C F; Luce, J K

    1989-12-01

    Accidental ocular exposure to doxorubicin was followed by no reaction or rapidly resolving conjunctivitis in 13 of 15 cases (87%). In the two remaining cases, persistent photophobia and chronic inflammation were reported. Of 28 accidental exposures to sites other than the eyes, no reactions or rapidly resolving local reactions were reported in 24 cases (86%). Nurses are at particular risk for accidental exposure to doxorubicin and accounted for 20 of the 43 reported exposures (47%). PMID:2590899

  10. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East.

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-04-08

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D&D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D&D projects.

  11. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  12. How nuclear war might start: Scenarios from the early 21st century. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Digby, J.; Millot, M.D.; Schwabe, W.L.

    1988-10-01

    Scenarios are a useful way to make responsible officials think hard about the future. For officials in the Department of Defense, some of these scenarios must consider the actual use of nuclear weapons, so that they will be better prepared to avoid such situations. To encourage breadth in the formulation of games for official purposes, RAND responded to a request from the Director of Net Assessment to create a number of scenarios for the early 21st century in which conflict would occur or be likely and in which due attention would be given to the political and technological conditions that might then be operational. This Note presents a wide range of such scenarios in sketch form. Several of the scenarios assume varying degrees of success for elements of the current Strategic Defense Initiative program, for new applications of stealth technology, for the National Aerospace Plane, for nonnuclear strategic weapons, and for new surveillance techniques. Applications range from battlefield uses to strategic options.

  13. Priorities for modeling biological processes in climates altered by nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Detling, J.K.; Kercher, J.R.; Post, W.M.; Cowles, S.W.; Harwell, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research that has been accomplished or currently models the effects of reduced light and temperature on terrestrial systems. We shall divide the systems to be studied into cultivated lands and uncultivated lands. The cultivated class consists of monoculture systems in which the individual plants belong to the same age and size class. The systems in the uncultivated class consist of uneven age, multi-species assemblies of interacting plants and animals. The uncultivated class ranges from minimally managed systems, e.g., rangelands and some forests, to completely unmanaged wildlands. For the cultivated case, the variable of concern is the annual yield of the crop under consideration. The models should be able to estimate percent yield loss as a function of reductions of light and temperature. The models should be accurate for the range of environments predicted for the growing season immediately following or during which the hypothetical nuclear exchange occurs. The models should be able to estimate yield loss in any subsequent year for which climatic conditions still differ significantly from normal. For the uncultivated case, the modelling program needs to be able to predict the effects on individual plants much the same as in the cultivated case; but in addition, the modelling program will have the task of estimating the effect that these changes in individual organisms will have at higher levels of organization, i.e., on populations, communities, and regional distributions of species. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  14. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  15. Stabilizing Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Barkenbus, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    An orderly replacement of offensive with defensive nuclear weapons is part of the defense-protected build-down (DPB) strategy described by Weinberg and Barkenbus. Differing from the administration's Star Wars approach by relying on interceptor missiles rather than costly and unproven lasers and particle beams, the plan also calls for a simultaneous freeze on offensive weapons. (DCK)

  16. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  17. Code System for Real-Time Prediction of Radiation Dose to the Public Due to an Accidental Release from a Nuclear Power Plant.

    1987-01-20

    Version 00 The suite of computer codes, SPEEDI, predicts the dose to the public from a plume released from a nuclear power plant. The main codes comprising SPEEDI are: WIND04, PRWDA, and CIDE. WIND04 calculates three-dimensional mass-conservative windfields. PRWDA calculates concentration distributions, and CIDE estimates the external and internal doses. These models can take into account the spatial and temporal variation of wind, variable topography, deposition and variable source intensity for use in real-time assessment.more » We recommend that you also review the emergency response supporting system CCC-661/ EXPRESS documentation.« less

  18. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Rutherford's war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  20. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  1. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being. PMID:24128314

  2. Water Wars

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  3. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  4. Survival following accidental scarf strangulation.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ullasa; Deepak, M; Hussain, Syed Ather; Usmani, Hadi; Osama, Muhammad; Pereira, Kiran Godwin; Menezes, Ritesh George

    2016-09-01

    Injury or death by strangulation, unless otherwise explained, is almost always homicidal. Accidental strangulation may occur but only very rarely. We present such a case of accidental strangulation and survival in a motorbike pillion rider. A long scarf (dupatta) clad woman, sitting at the back of a two wheeler motorbike, fell after her long scarf got caught in the back wheel. The lady was first taken to a local clinic and then later was referred to a hospital for a suspected spine injury where she made an uneventful recovery. This case report exposes the precarious position of women pillion riders wearing a long scarf and emphasizes the need for extra caution and the need for wheel guards on spoked wheels in particular. PMID:27048761

  5. The big chill: accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert Allan

    2012-01-01

    A potential cause of such emergent issues as cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and fluid and electrolyte shifts, accidental hypothermia can be deadly, is common among trauma patients, and is often difficult to recognize. The author discusses predisposing conditions, the classic presentation, and the effects on normal thermoregulatory processes; explains how to conduct a systems assessment of the hypothermic patient; and describes crucial management strategies. PMID:22186703

  6. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  7. Functions and structure of nuclear deterrence in the post-cold war world. More for less - an arms control strategy for the 1990s. A SIOP for Perestroika. Theater nuclear forces and extended deterrence in a multipolar world. Special series report

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, D.M.; Wooten, R.E.; Sundberg, E.E.; Szafranski, R.; Booker, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    This Publication includes: Essay (1). The Function and Structure of Nuclear Deterrence in the Post-Cold War World. Essay (2). More for Less-An Arms Control Strategy for the 1990s. Essay (3). A SIOP for Perestroika. Essay (4). Theater Nuclear Forces and Extended Deterrence in a Multipolar World.

  8. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; Jameton, A.

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  9. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  10. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  11. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  12. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  13. Toward quantifying the source term for predicting global climatic effects of nuclear war: applications of urban fire codes

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; Kang, S.W.; Takata, A.N.

    1985-06-15

    Calculating urban-area fire development is critical to estimating global smoke production effects due to nuclear warfare. To improve calculations of fire starts and spread in urban areas, we performed a parameter-sensitivity analysis using three codes from IIT Research Institute. We applied improved versions of the codes to two urban areas: an infinite ''uniform city'' with only one type of building and the ''San Jose urban area'' as of the late 1960s. We varied parameters and compared affected fuel consumption and areas with a baseline case. The dominant parameters for the uniform city were wind speed, atmospheric visibility, frequency of secondary fire starts, building density, and window sizes. For San Jose (1968), they were wind speed, building densities, location of ground zero (GZ), height of burst (HOB), window sizes, and brand range. Because some results are very sensitive to actual fuel-distribution characteristics and the attack scenario, it is not possible to use a uniform city to represent actual urban areas. This was confirmed by a few calculations for the Detroit area as of the late 1960s. Many improvements are needed, such as inclusion of fire-induced winds and debris fires, before results can be extrapolated to the global scale.

  14. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

  15. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  16. Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about unexplained illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War appeared soon after that conflict ended. Many environmental causes have been suggested, including possible exposure to depleted uranium munitions, vaccines and other drugs used to protect troops, deliberate or accidental exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides and smoke from oil-well fires. To help resolve these issues, US and UK governments have sought independent expert scientific advice from prestigious, independent scientific and public health experts, including the US National Academies of Science and the UK Royal Society and Medical Research Council. Their authoritative and independent scientific and medical reviews shed light on a wide range of Gulf War environmental hazards. However, they have added little to our understanding of Gulf War veterans' illnesses, because identified health effects have been previously well characterized, primarily in the occupational health literature. This effort has not identified any new health effects or unique syndromes associated with the evaluated environmental hazards. Nor do their findings provide an explanation for significant amounts of illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Nevertheless, these independent and highly credible scientific reviews have proven to be an effective means for evaluating potential health effects from deployment-related environmental hazards. PMID:16687269

  17. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

  18. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  19. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  20. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  1. Science and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

  2. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  3. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  4. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  5. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  6. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  7. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  8. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  9. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  10. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  11. Climatic, biological, and strategic effects of nuclear war. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A panel of experts, including Carl Sagan, Jay Gould, and Edward Teller, testified along with climate and atmospheric science experts from the Soviet Union on the long-term effects of a nuclear war. The scientists warned that such an event could repeat the biological and climatic disruption that ended the age of dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The purpose of the hearing was to inform committee members about the nature and outcome of a nuclear winter. The scientists also described international research programs designed to ascertain these long-term effects. They pointed out that, while the effects of a single explosion are well known, little is known of overlapping effects from multiple explosions. Two appendices with additional material submitted for the record and additional questions and answers follows the testimony.

  12. Accidental paraffin poisoning in Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Lang, T; Thuo, N; Akech, S

    2008-06-01

    A serious and common accident in rural Kenyan homesteads is accidental ingestion of paraffin when it has been mistaken for water and offered to a young child. Here we report the incidence, parental practices and outcome of severe paraffin poisoning, requiring admission at Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Over a 2-year period, 48 children (0.5% of all admissions) were admitted with kerosene poisoning, constituting 62% of all poisoning cases. All cases were accidental. Ten per cent had induced vomiting. One child (2%) died. We suggest these data support assessment followed by implementation of practical and affordable measures to prevent paraffin poisoning. PMID:18363584

  13. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  14. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  15. Workbook to End War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA. Peace Literature Service.

    A workbook, written for use in local churches and synagogues, suggests projects and programs for concerned individuals who wish to contribute to an effort to end war. An introduction presents the rationale of the workbook, the creation of a network to end war, and ways in which groups and individuals can become involved in this endeavor. A chapter…

  16. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  17. In Time of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  18. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  19. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  20. Strategy: The logic of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Luttwak, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book expounds a new way of thinking about the conduct of war and the diplomacy of peace, a theory Luttwak calls ''paradoxical logic,'' and illustrates, through abundant historical examples, the failure of commonsense logic in matters of military strategy and international politics. Topics considered include nuclear weapons, military strategy, decision making, historical aspects, political aspects, global aspects, and warfare.

  1. 10 CFR 70.82 - Suspension and operation in war or national emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. 70... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Modification and Revocation of Licenses § 70.82 Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. Whenever Congress declares that a state of war or national emergency exists,...

  2. 10 CFR 70.82 - Suspension and operation in war or national emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. 70... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Modification and Revocation of Licenses § 70.82 Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. Whenever Congress declares that a state of war or national emergency exists,...

  3. 10 CFR 70.82 - Suspension and operation in war or national emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. 70... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Modification and Revocation of Licenses § 70.82 Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. Whenever Congress declares that a state of war or national emergency exists,...

  4. 10 CFR 70.82 - Suspension and operation in war or national emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. 70... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Modification and Revocation of Licenses § 70.82 Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. Whenever Congress declares that a state of war or national emergency exists,...

  5. 10 CFR 70.82 - Suspension and operation in war or national emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. 70... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Modification and Revocation of Licenses § 70.82 Suspension and operation in war or national emergency. Whenever Congress declares that a state of war or national emergency exists,...

  6. Effects of a didactic and guided-imagery intervention regarding horrendous death by nuclear war upon fear of death, health locus of control, and social responsibility in health education college students

    SciTech Connect

    Campanelli, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation studied the effects of a videotaped lecture explaining horrendous death theory, with a guided imagery component describing horrendous death of a beloved other, upon action toward anti-nuclearism and three individual difference variables. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a videotaped lecture on college students' fear of death, health locus of control, and social responsibility. A second purpose was to determine whether participants who viewed the videotape were likely to sign a petition against nuclear war, in support of the Physicians for Social Responsibility's position against nuclearism. One hundred fifty-two (152) college students participated in this study; approximately 55% were female and 50% were seniors. No significant differences were found regarding individual difference variables, except concerning fear of death of self between death education and non-death education experimental groups. Although an interaction effect was found, the hypothesis that experimental groups would be more likely to sign the petition against nuclear was not confirmed.

  7. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  8. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  9. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  10. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  11. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  12. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  13. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  14. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  15. Radiation injuries from military and accidental explosions: a brief historical review.

    PubMed

    Bice-Stephens, W M

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear radiation was discovered in the late 1800s. Advances in nuclear physics split the atom to herald the atomic age soon afterward. Now, a century later, health care providers remain acutely aware that nuclear hazards may present instantly and unexpectedly, with devastating and massive results. This article highlights known radiation injuries from military and accidental explosions. This information is critical for the preparedness of health care providers in view of aging nuclear power plants, potential industrial and medical accidents, and the buildup of military weapons by other countries. PMID:10802999

  16. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    PubMed

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient. PMID:26204649

  17. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  18. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

  19. Fatal accidental burns in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhal

    2003-09-01

    Burning incidents amongst women are a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. They may be homicidal, suicidal or accidental in nature. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of accidental burns in the married women. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 70 (46%) were accidental victims and these cases were analyzed accordingly for their different medicolegal and epidemiological aspects. Data were collected from personal interview and from examining the different documents related to death. In this series, most of the women were illiterate Hindu housewives hailing from joint families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) of rural community. The majority (60%) of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age at the time of the accident and sustained less than 90% total body surface area burn injury. Most had the survival period more than 1 day, and more than half of them died of septicaemia. PMID:14568773

  20. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  1. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  2. Adolescents' Response to Unconventional War Threat Prior to the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingman, Avigdor; Goldstein, Zehava

    1994-01-01

    Examined Israeli adolescents' responses to impending unconventional warfare by administering Nuclear Threat Index to 269 junior high school students 2 months prior to Persian Gulf War. Younger adolescents and females reported more activity, pessimistic thoughts, and concerns than older adolescents and males, respectively; and "internal" females…

  3. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations. PMID:18356568

  4. Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914–1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist’s war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations. PMID:18356568

  5. Limited war, escalation control, and command, control and communications. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Waltensperger, G.M.

    1986-03-01

    This thesis is an unclassified examination from a Western perspective of the concepts of limited war, and escalation control in the context of nuclear conflict and command, control and communications (C3). Limited war and escalation control are intrinsically related. To better understand the relationships betweenlimited war, escalation control and C3, as applied to the question of protracted nuclear war, this thesis considers strategic control from a cybernetic view, using a widely accepted model for the command and control process. US strategic C3 systems are discussed from the perspective of limiting war and controlling escalation. Requirements such as, a viable National Command Authority, effective command and control, positive/negative control, damage control/assessment, a shared concept of limited war, civil defense, and a mechanism to terminate conflict are presented as necessary to control escalation, thus, limiting war.

  6. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  7. European research in accidental release phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, P.J.; Cole, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    The European Commission (CEC) has an ongoing research program in the field of the environment. Part of this work concerns the consequences of accidental releases from industrial plants, and covers hazards posing an off-site threat. This paper reviews some of the main results arising from this work. In addition to consequence modeling, the research has also included work on risk assessment and management. After a brief introduction to CEC research, the work is presented in five sections corresponding the main areas of work: flashing flow, atmospheric dispersion, jet-flame attack on vessels, gas explosions and storage fires.

  8. Life without war.

    PubMed

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war. PMID:22605769

  9. War Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

  10. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants. PMID:12117658

  11. Accidental gamma dose measurement using commercial glasses.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, K R; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses have been investigated for their application in accidental gamma dose measurement using Thermoluminescent (TL) techniques. Some of the glasses have been found to be sensitive enough that they can be used as TL dating material in radiological accident situation for gamma dosimetry with lower detection limit 1 Gy (the dose significant for the onset of deterministic biological effects). The glasses behave linearly in the dose range 1-25 Gy with measurement uncertainty +/- 10%. The errors in accidental dose measurements using TL technique are estimated to be within +/- 25%. These glasses have shown TL fading in the range of 10-20% in 24 h after irradiation under room conditions; thereafter the fading becomes slower and reaches upto 50% in 15 d. TL fading of gamma-irradiated glasses follows exponential decay pattern, therefore dosimetry even after years is possible. These types of glasses can also be used as lethal dose indicator (3-4 Gy) using TL techniques, which can give valuable inputs to the medical professional for better management of radiation victims. The glasses are easy to use and do not require lengthy sample preparation before reading as in case of other building materials. TL measurement on glasses may give immediate estimation of the doses, which can help in medical triage of the radiation-exposed public. PMID:18285317

  12. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bipin T; Thomas, Shaji; Nair, Balakrishnan; Mathew, P C; Sebastian, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL) flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions. PMID:21321664

  13. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  14. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  15. The Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

  16. Waging War on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closing the Gap, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Focusing on the theme of violence, this newsletter issue includes information about resources for violence information, a list of funding and grant agencies, conference information, and the following brief articles: (1) Waging War on Violence; (2) Minority Health Perspective (Clay Simpson); (3) Inmates Learn Alternatives to Violence; (4) National…

  17. Grading the War Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the emotional and psychological complexities of responding to personal narratives when the focus is war. The author teaches at a community college and she always begins her semester with a narrative assignment for the usual reasons: students write better when they write what they know; teachers should scaffold writing…

  18. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  19. War, Terrorism, and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…

  20. Education and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

  1. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  2. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  3. End the Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

  4. Iowa and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of these posters.…

  5. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  6. Alternatives to War in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that human history is a story of paradoxes: cooperation and conflict, war and peace. States that, throughout history, various individuals and groups have sought alternatives to war. Describes attempts to keep the peace, to manage conflict, and to initiate social reforms that eliminate the causes of war. (CFR)

  7. The Great War: Online Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  8. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R

    1994-03-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars. PMID:8185865

  9. War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

  10. Accidental infant death and stroller-prams.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Beal, S M; Simpson, A; Carter, R F; Khong, T Y

    1996-08-01

    A three-month-old boy and an eight-month-old boy died from accidental positional asphyxia and hanging, respectively, after being placed to sleep unsupervised in stroller-prams. Both infants had moved down towards the fronts of the stroller-prams. The younger infant fell out when the footplate collapsed and he was found hanging from a metal bar on the side. The older infant had partly slipped through the front and was suspended with his head and arms within the stroller-pram and with his face pushed firmly into the mattress by a horizontal metal bar. Stroller-prams are a potentially dangerous sleeping environment unless infants are closely supervised, gaps in the front of stroller-prams closed and upright footplates stabilised. PMID:8709876

  11. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  12. [Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

    2008-09-01

    Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

  13. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.

    PubMed

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  14. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  15. Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.

    PubMed

    Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

    2007-07-01

    Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

  16. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  17. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  18. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  19. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion,...

  20. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion,...

  1. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against accidental overpressuring. 192.195 Section 192.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Pipeline Components § 192.195 Protection against accidental overpressuring. (a) General...

  3. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. PMID:22424957

  4. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  5. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  6. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  7. Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.; Whorton, M.

    1999-03-08

    The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that had acquired historical value in the context of the Cold War. In response, the US Department of Defense in 1991 initiated a broad effort to inventory properties of this era. US Air Force installations in Alaska were in the forefront of these evaluations because of the role of the Cold War in the state's development and history and the high interest on the part of the Alaska State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in these properties. The 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) owns many of Alaska's early Cold War properties, most were associated with strategic air defense. The 611 ASG determined that three systems it operates, which were all part of the integrated defense against Soviet nuclear strategic bomber threat, were eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and would require treatment as historic properties. These systems include the Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W) System, the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, and Forward Operating Bases (FOBs). As part of a massive cleanup operation, Clean Sweep, the 611 ASG plans to demolish many of the properties associated with these systems. To mitigate the effects of demolition, the 611 ASG negotiated agreements on the system level (e.g., the DEW Line) with the Alaska SHPO to document the history and architectural/engineering features associated with these properties. This system approach allowed the US Air Force to mitigate effects on many individual properties in a more cost-effective and efficient manner.

  8. [Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].

    PubMed

    Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

    1987-01-01

    The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

  9. Accidental overdose of multiple chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, I S; Gratwohl, A; Stebler, C; Hausmann, M; Tichelli, A; Stern, A; Speck, B

    1989-07-01

    A 35-year-old man with refractory low grade diffuse centroblastic centrocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated accidentally with an overdose of multiple chemotherapeutic agents. He was given adriamycin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2 for 6 days followed by 4 days of vincristine 1 mg/m2 and bleomycin 10 mg/m2. He was transferred when he developed pancytopenia, fever, severe mucositis, ileus and peripheral neuropathy. He was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, red cell and single donor platelet transfusions and strict parenteral nutrition. In addition, he was given a continuous infusion of 400 micrograms daily human recombinant granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rh GM-CSF) for 17 days. Intractable severe bleeding from his oral mucositis necessitated treatment with a continuous infusion of 8-ornithine-vasopressin for 8 days. He recovered and could be discharged home after 36 days of hospitalization with normal blood counts and without severe sequelae. PMID:2486848

  10. Accidental Overdose of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Soon; Gratwohl, A.; Stebler, C.; Hausmann, M.; Tichelli, A.; Stern, A.; Speck, B.

    1989-01-01

    A 35-year-old man with refractory low grade diffuse centroblastic centrocytic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was treated accidentally with an overdose of multiple chemotherapeutic agents. He was given adriamycin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2 for 6 days followed by 4 days of vincristine 1 mg/m2 and bleomycin 10 mg/m2. He was transferred when he developed pancytopenia, fever, severe mucositis, ileus and peripheral neuropathy. He was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, red cell and single donor platelet transfusions and strict parenteral nutrition. In addition, he was given a continuous infusion of 400 ug daily human recombinant granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rh GM-CSF) for 17 days. Intractable severe bleeding from his oral mucositis necessitated treatment with a continuous infusion of 8-ornithine-vasopressin for 8 days. He recovered and could be discharged home after 36 days of hospitalization with normal blood counts and without severe sequelae. PMID:2486848

  11. Objections to nuclear defence

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, N.; Pole, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include nuclear warfare, nuclear deterrence and the use of the just war doctrine, political aspects, human survival, moral aspects, the nuclear arms race, the ideology of nuclear deterrence, arms control, proliferation, and public opinion.

  12. Living with the Bomb: Young People's Images of War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, James A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes children's conceptions of war and peace, their fear of nuclear war, and the different attitudes of boys and girls. Suggested steps to help raise children's consciousness of the issues involved include teaching conflict-resolution skills (cooperation, negotiation, and compromise), and peace studies, including disarmament and world order.…

  13. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  14. Frequent detection of stomach contents in accidental drowning.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    We analysed forensic autopsies of 536 consecutive adults to determine the relationship between the presence of stomach contents and the manner of death. Stomach contents were identified in 27 (79.4%) of 34 accidental drownings and in 22 (43.1%) of 51 suicidal drownings (P < 0.01). Accidental drowning was the manner of death most frequently associated with the presence of stomach contents, and stomach contents were found significantly more often in this type of death than in suicidal drowning. These findings indicate that food intake is a factor possibly related to accidental drowning and suggest that fasting may be required before swimming or taking a bath to prevent accidental drowning. PMID:21905572

  15. Accidental Childhood Iron Poisoning: A Problem of Marketing and Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Hoff, Julie V.

    1979-01-01

    The article indicates that accidental iron poisoning represents a significant hazard in children less than five years of age. Attractiveness of dosage, high availability, and ambiguity in product labeling contribute to the problem. Journal availability: see EC 114 125. (CL)

  16. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper. PMID:25181505

  17. Suicide among War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  18. Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

  19. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000. PMID:8813872

  20. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  1. War, Peace, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

    Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

  2. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  3. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  4. WORLD WAR III The 1960's Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklebank, Roy

    2005-09-01

    This article is based on a lecture to the Royal Institute of Navigation History of Air Navigation Group at Tangmere Museum on 12 May 2004. The author served as a navigator-radar or a radar bomb aimer within RAF Bomber Command during the mid-1960s. This article is based on his experience of this time in Bomber Command and describes how the Medium Bomber Force would have carried out their war operations had nuclear deterrence failed. In its day these plans were TOP SECRET.

  5. The poison gas debate in the inter-war years.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Poison gas, together with nuclear and biological weapons, has been classified as a 'weapon of mass destruction'. This has not always been the case; in the years after World War I it was claimed that poison gas was the most humane weapon thinkable, as it did not kill in the numbers that machine guns and artillery did - today's 'conventional' weapons. Gas only made soldiers unconscious, so that they could be taken prisoner, and when the war was over could return safely to their friends and families. This stand was fiercely disputed in the inter-war years by those who saw gas as one step, even the final step, crossing the boundaries of civilization. Moreover, gas showed clearly that medical intervention to cure the agonies of war was senseless; prevention could be the only answer. Nevertheless, the fact remains that almost all of the nine million deaths of World War I - now mostly remembered as a war of gas and madness - were due to shells and bullets. PMID:18763643

  6. World War II in Social Studies and Science Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    2000-01-01

    Western educators are forgetting the need to impart knowledge about modern warfare's consequences. Science texts contain little about radiation damage. The nuclear bomb's destructiveness to humans and the biosphere should be a teacher responsibility in several curriculum areas. "War is hell" should be educators' main message. (Contains 11…

  7. Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" Address: Mythic Containment of Technical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Views Reagan's "Star Wars" address as part of the culturally evolving myth of the New Frontier. Discusses how the speech creates the illusion of both preserving and transcending science by (1) subordinating technical reasoning to prevent nuclear holocaust and (2) using technoscience to rescript history and remove temporal and spacial markers. (JD)

  8. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  9. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  10. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  11. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    PubMed

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  12. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. )

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  13. War and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Colson, E

    1995-01-01

    A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

  14. De-alerting of U.S. nuclear forces: a critical appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K C; Barish, F

    1998-08-21

    Since the end of the Cold War, there have been pressures by disarmament advocates to move more quickly to draw down, toward zero, the number of nuclear weapons in U.S. and Russian arsenals. They criticize the process of negotiating arms control agreements as being too slow, and point out that treaty implementation is hampered by the necessity of ratification by the U.S. Senate and Russian Duma. One method of moving more rapidly toward nuclear abolition suggested by some analysts is de-alerting of nuclear-weapon delivery systems. De-alerting is defined as taking steps that increase significantly the time required to launch a given delivery vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead. Although there is little inclination by the U.S. Government to de-alert its nuclear forces at present, some academic literature and press stories continue to advocate such steps. This paper offers a critique of de-alerting proposals together with an assessment of the dangers of accidental, unauthorized, or unintended use of nuclear weapons. It concludes that de-alerting nuclear forces would be extremely de-stabilizing, principally because it would increase the value to an opponent of launching a first strike.

  15. Nuclear War in High School History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Daniel B.

    1983-01-01

    A review of 19 recently published, secondary-level United States and world history textbooks found only brief coverage of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan) bombings, slight attention to the arms race and disarmament, and concentration on scientific and technical developments behind the atomic bomb rather than on its effects. (Author/RW)

  16. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  17. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  18. Another Side to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Education about nuclear arms should be balanced. Most of the supplementary materials dealing with nuclear war that are available to teachers are published by anti-war groups. Basic problems with these materials are discussed and information which can be used to present the other side of the story is provided. (RM)

  19. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  20. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  1. Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  2. American Women and the Great War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  3. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  4. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  6. How Much War Should Be Included in a Course on World War II?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that end of Cold War increases need for students to understand causes and aftermath of World War II. Recommends spending less time on military aspects of the war and more time on the economic, social, and cultural impact of total war. Provides a selected list of resources to be used in a college level course on the war. (CFR)

  7. Star Wars software debate

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.

    1986-02-01

    David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

  8. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  9. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  10. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. PMID:27035455

  11. [Protection of the Croatian population from accidental radioactive contamination of the food chain].

    PubMed

    Lokobauer, N; Franić, Z; Bauman, A

    1993-03-01

    The paper indicates the importance of investigating radionuclide translocation in the human food chain, and the contribution of selected food components in total exposure of the population after accidental radioactive contamination. Data on radioactive contamination and risk assessment of the Croatian population after the Chernobyl nuclear accident are given and possibilities of decontamination of food chain components are discussed. Literature data on radionuclide removal from the human food chain are compared to the results of own investigations. Emphasis is placed on biologically most important radionuclides, 131I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and the most effective means of protection are sought. The preventive measures following a nuclear accident should be based on the cost-benefit principle i.e. the damage from applying radiation protection measures should not exceed the benefit from possible dose reduction. PMID:8347101

  12. Potential Nuclear Conflict: Attention Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleazer, Edmund J.

    1983-01-01

    Teaching about potential nuclear conflict is increasing in schools, colleges, and universities. A group of faculty from many universities across the United States has formed United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM) to produce teaching materials and publish summaries of courses on nuclear war. One such course at Lafayette College…

  13. Nuclear obligations: Nuremberg law, nuclear weapons, and protest

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear weapons use and deployment and nonviolent anti-nuclear protests are evaluated. Use of nuclear weapons would constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity as defined in both the Nuremberg Charter and Allied Control Council Law No. 10 and applied by the International Military Tribunal and other Nuremberg courts. Strategic and atomic bombing during World War 2 did not set a precedent for use of nuclear weapons. The consequentialist argument for World War 2 bombing fails and the bombing has also been repudiated by codification of the law of war in Protocol 1 to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The legality of deploying nuclear weapons as instruments of geopolitical policy is questionable when measured against the Nuremberg proscription of planning and preparation of aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity and the United Nations Charter's proscription of aggressive threat of force. While states' practice of deploying the weapons and the arms-control treaties that regulate but do not prohibit mere possession provide some support for legality, those treaties recognize the imperative of preventing nuclear war, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear-armed states to good-faith negotiation of nuclear disarmament.

  14. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. PMID:24961713

  15. Epidemiology of violence and war.

    PubMed

    Cvjetanović, B

    2000-06-01

    The magnitude of the threat that violence and war pose to the health, the quality of life, and the very survival of humanity is obvious. A number of scientific disciplines have provided, each through its own methodology, insights into the causation, genesis, and dynamics of violence and war. Although epidemiological and psychological methodologies received priority, the multidisciplinary approach to this problem seems to be the most appropriate. This essay attempts to approach holistically the study of epidemiology of violence and war and the ways of preventing these severe problems of the contemporary society. Conceptual models of the causative mechanisms and dynamics of violence and war, mapping the various psychic, social, and environmental factors, are presented. These models, besides advancing abstract ideas, also provide a concrete framework for determining and exploring the interactions and dynamics of the factors and processes which lead to violence and war. The types of interventions outlined for control and prevention are intended to make an impact upon "critical points" within the dynamics of the process which produces violence and war, and are conceived to be implemented on both the national and international level. The importance of family, community, and school influences is considered, but the role of international organizations, including the United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations is also stressed. Discussion is focused on the factors which favour peace and hamper aggression, on "internationalization" and global society versus xenophobia and nationalism. The conclusions state that there is sufficient knowhow to devise and implement a reasonable and effective international programme for the control and prevention of violence and war, provided there is adequate public and political willingness and support. PMID:10895528

  16. Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, K. C.

    1966-01-01

    Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

  17. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    PubMed

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  18. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  19. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  20. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  1. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  2. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY...

  3. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  4. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  5. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  6. Parental Anti-Nuclear Activism and Children's Response to the Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der-Karabetian, Aghop; And Others

    Since the onset of the nuclear age in 1945, the world has lived with the constant threat of nuclear war and its devastating consequences for all of humanity. While such a threat has led some to "psychic numbing" it has led others to action. Research on how children were being affected by the threat of nuclear war began in the early 1960s. This…

  7. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

  8. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  9. War and the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Last, J M

    1993-08-28

    Advice is offered on alleviating environmental damage and the suffering of women and children from the effects of war. It is postured that the demographic trap, which was described by King and Elliott, is responsible for environmental stress and many wars. The surface cause may be identified as ideology, politics, or ethnicity, but as in the case of Bosnia, the "ethnic cleansing" makes farmland available to sustain expanding Serbian or Croatian populations. If the land is environmentally damaged by war, then there is little hope of sustainable development. Conflicts in many countries have driven people to urban areas or periurban slums because of displacement and the failure of subsistence economics. Mortality from wars has reached more than a 100 million since the early 1990s. A comparable number have died indirectly from famine and disease associated with the disruption of agriculture and infrastructure from wars. Since 1945, 66-75% of mortality victims have been civilians, of whom 15 million have been women and children. In 1993, there were at least 30 conflicts ongoing throughout the world. Not all of these conflicts are as "ferocious" as the Bosnian conflict, but these "so called low intensity wars" nonetheless disrupt and kill. The manifestations of the demographic trap can be alleviated through interventions that focus on multisectoral aid and conflict resolution. There must be a cooperative effort on the part of health workers, agricultural scientists, mediators, and development personnel. Unfortunately, the amount of development assistance from Europe and America has been reduced in recent years. The recession has affected the provision of international aid. African nations, in particular, have been affected, yet these countries remain the neediest in the world. It would appear that aid agencies have given up hope that the demographic trap can be closed. Population growth must be limited, as the only hope for relieving environmental stress, ecological

  10. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

  11. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  12. Leo Szilard and the role of physicists in countering nuclear threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleppner, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Even before the first nuclear bomb was tested, Leo Szilard led efforts by physicists to assert leadership on the use of nuclear weapons. He warned about the future possibility of delivering nuclear weapons by missiles and also pointed out the ease by which nuclear bombs could simply be carried across borders. The U.S. has had an anti-ballistic missile program since the 1950's. Initially it was intended to counter a Soviet nuclear threat but with the end of the cold war the goal was changed to dealing with accidental or unauthorized launches of Russian ICBMs. More recently, the goal of the U.S. missile defense program was shifted to countering a possible future threat posed by emerging missile states. The APS Study of boost- phase intercept was carried out in the Szilard tradition of physicists providing leadership on public policy issues involving science ad technology, in the hope that factual analysis of technical problems can contribute to better public policy.

  13. Glut, war slow Mideast activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-20

    Oilpatch activity in the Middle East has been on the slow side recently, and with a heated-up war between Iran and Iraq throwing off violent sparks around the Arabian Gulf, it's difficult to keep one's mind on business-as-usual. The article deals with the rising cost of insurance for shipping because of the war and the effects on drilling, production and the environment (oil spills). The development and production of offshore oil and gas in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates is also discussed.

  14. Why Star Wars is not like the Manhattan Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.

    1985-03-01

    The absence of a viable plan appears to enhance the strength of the Strategic defense initiative (SDI) advocates' position that this is their opportunity to emulate the Manhattan Project. The author argues that this is a false analogy, that the critics need a less glamorous argument than identifying SDI with Star Wars. Quoting from Freemon Dyson's Weapons and Hope, he notes that the goal of rendering nuclear weapons obsolete is a grant technical folly more analogous to the nuclear airplane project. Rationalizations enable special-interest groups to pursue narrow technical concerns without worrying about the original goal. The driving force of the arms race has made the hydrogen bomb almost irrelevant through technical obsolescence, yet a decision not to test it might have deterred the Soviets as well. A rejection of Star Wars offers a similar opportunity to preclude a new arms race.

  15. Western economies and the Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A prolonged Iran/Iraq war could mean economic and even political-military disaster for western countries dependent on Persian Gulf oil. The percentage of gross national product loss that the US, western Europe, and Japan would suffer is estimated for three levels of interruption and illustrates how global effects can be felt even when direct imports are not involved. Although the US has few options for projecting power into the Gulf region, a long-run expansion of military capability is essential. The economic damage of continued disruptions can be eased by using more coal, nuclear power, and natural gas even if it means removing some environmental and economic barriers. A combination of financial incentives and additions to the strategic oil and gas storage would help, but important change will come from a reappraisal of our military position. (DCK)

  16. Star wars: A question of initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Ennals, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses U.K. and European participation in the Strategic Defense Initiative. The author, a cofounder of The Strategic Research Initiative, participated in research and research management concerned with developing tools for analyzing the complexity of nuclear diplomacy and how international politics are affected by the new technology. It covers research and varying national strategies for applying advanced information technology, intelligent machinery, logic programming in both education and training, and artificial intelligence issues. It introduces the field of computational politics, examining the political importance of computer systems and computational concepts that can help analyze complex political phenomena. It also gives special attention to the American SDI, ''Star Wars,'' which has necessitated the development and deployment of new techniques of political analysis. A section on constructive alternatives to SDI is also included.

  17. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  18. Space technologies and the war in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getsov, Petar

    The paper presents a description of the application of aerospace technologies during the war in Iraq. The specific instrumentation used by the USA and its allies in the field of communication, navigation, and control of weapons and ammunition to schedule war activities is presented. Conclusions are made on the ever growing application of space technologies in modern wars and their impact on the efficiency of decision-making at war times.

  19. Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail S.

    Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

  20. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  1. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  2. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.

    PubMed

    Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

    2003-01-01

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

  3. Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear. PMID:24147245

  4. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  5. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

  6. Accidental ligature strangulation by an ironing machine: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case of a 53-year-old woman who had her headscarf catch on the cylinder ironing machine in the laundry of the hospital where she worked. The hospital workers found the woman dead with her head stuck to the ironing machine. After the death scene investigation and autopsy were completed, it was determined that the death occurred as a result of accidental ligature strangulation. Accidental ligature strangulation in which an article of clothing is caught in such an electrical machine and strangles the wearer is very rare. This case highlights the fact that these kinds of machines can be hazardous to work around and that increased safety measures should be taken to insure worker safety; additionally, the people who use these machines should be educated on the potential hazards. PMID:20002258

  7. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  8. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

  9. Young Children and War Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  10. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  11. Images of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  12. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  13. The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

  14. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  15. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  16. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  17. [World War II 50th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeniffer, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This edition of "Loblolly," a periodical published by Texas high school students, commemorates the 50th anniversary of World War II. The volume features remembrances of the War by veterans of Panola County, Texas. In addition to transcriptions of conversations with veterans, reproductions of photographs--some from the war period, some from more…

  18. Peace-keeping Forces: YA War Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe Chris

    2000-01-01

    Argues that good young adult books about war can help teenagers appreciate the blessings of peace and the horrors of war, and perhaps may inspire them to do what they can to preserve peace. Describes briefly 71 young adult war books worth reading. (SR)

  19. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  20. Fighting the War on Academic Terrorism. Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2005-01-01

    While the attention of the country is focused on the global and national war on terrorism, the war on academic terrorism is being waged in classrooms, infiltrating the gifted programs, and altering the outcomes derived for students participating in gifted programs. The war on academic terrorism is related to the broad areas of curriculum and…

  1. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8654 of April 12, 2011 Civil War Sesquicentennial By the President of the... in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across 4..., 2011, as the first day of the Civil War Sesquicentennial. I call upon all Americans to observe...

  2. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  3. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  4. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  5. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures. PMID:22167036

  6. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  7. Compact fluorescent lamp phosphors in accidental radiation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K V R; Pallavi, S P; Ghildiyal, Rahul; Parmar, Manish C; Patel, Y S; Ravi Kumar, V; Sai Prasad, A S; Natarajan, V; Page, A G

    2006-01-01

    The application of lamp phosphors for accidental dosimetry is a new concept. Since the materials used in fluorescent lamps are good photo luminescent materials, if one can either use the inherent defects present in the phosphor or add suitable modifiers to induce thermoluminescence (TL) in these phosphors, then the device (fluorescent lamp) can be used as an accidental dosemeter. In continuation of our search for a suitable phosphor material, which can serve both as an efficient lamp phosphor and as a good radiation monitoring device, detailed examination has been carried out on cerium and terbium-doped lanthanum phosphate material. A (90)Sr beta source with 50 mCi strength (1.85 GBq) was used as the irradiation source for TL studies. The TL response as a function of dose received was examined for all phosphors used and it was observed that the intensity of the TL peak vs. dose received was a linear function in the dose range 0.1-200 Gy in each case. Incidentally LaPO(4): Ce,Tb is a component of the compact fluorescent lamp marketed recently as an energy bright light source. Besides having very good luminescence efficiency, good dosimetric properties of these phosphors render them useful for their use in accidental dosimetry also. PMID:16816401

  8. Accidental dural puncture rates in UK obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, C M; Reynolds, F

    1998-10-01

    Headache following epidural analgesia is a common cause of complaint, but accidental dural puncture rates vary among hospitals and with techniques. We were therefore interested to discover the extent of audit of dural puncture, the dural puncture rates in those UK centres that kept reliable records, and the techniques they used for detecting the epidural space. Consultants in charge of anaesthetic services to all 257 obstetric units in the UK were sent a questionnaire requesting numbers of obstetric epidurals, techniques used to detect the epidural space and the numbers of accidental dural punctures in the years 1991-1995. Replies were received from 191 respondents (74%) of whom 104 were able to provide some information about dural puncture rates. Dural puncture rate was inversely related to the number of epidurals performed; the highest recorded rate was 3.6% in a unit with < 300 epidurals annually, and the lowest 0.19% in a unit with > 1000. Most respondents did not record the loss of resistance technique used but among those who did, the dural puncture rate using mainly saline was 0.69% and using mainly air was 1.11% (P<0.001). Since accurate patient information is crucial for informed consent, audit needs to be improved in many centres. Though the accidental dural puncture rate may be under-reported in this survey, our data are in agreement with other findings that loss of resistance to saline is safer than loss of resistance to air. PMID:15321187

  9. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  10. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules. PMID:22043659

  11. Nuclear Education in Public Health and Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Alvin E.; Stanitis, Mary Anne

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 20 public health schools and 240 university schools of nursing found that nuclear war related content was most likely to be appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention. (FMW)

  12. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  13. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  14. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations. PMID:26035580

  15. War zone paediatrics in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1996-08-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to injury and death in two types of 20th century conflicts; terrorist attack and civil war. This account describes some first-hand experiences of the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War of 1994. Events leading to the conflict are described, eye witness accounts of child trauma during the war are recorded and the medical problems (currently ongoing) affecting children are described. Over a period of 3 months from April to June 1994, between half and one million Rwandese, a significant proportion of them women and children, were murdered in brutal hand-to-hand killing, dying from close-quarter gunshot and machete slaughter. Nearly half of the population became refugees in neighbouring countries or displaced persons in their own land. UNAMIR II, the United Nations Emergency Humanitarian Response, grew to some 7000 persons by May 1995. Medical aid was provided by emergency medical contingents from the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, the latter through its Australian Medical Support Force, providing the definitive emergency medical infrastructure from August 1994. In the consequent post-war civil and social disruption, children suffered from burns, cholera and from motor vehicle trauma. Ongoing landmine blasts continue to affect children and adolescents especially. A new International humanitarian code to build a time-expiry device into landmines and other similar ordinance is urgently required as the post-conflict ongoing disasters in Rwanda, Afghanistan and Cambodia illustrate. Current problems affecting children include an increasing risk of HIV infection, trauma and the special humanitarian needs of thousands of orphans. PMID:8844531

  16. Nuclear Weapons and Communication Studies: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the body of work inspired by the late Cold War period, where nuclear weapons briefly became a compelling object for communication scholars. Considers the prospects for nuclear communication scholarship in post-Cold War culture. Discusses "nuclear criticism" and issues regarding the bomb in communication. (SC)

  17. Nuclear Strategy and World Order: The United States Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beres, Louis Rene

    The current U.S. nuclear strategy goes beyond the legitimate objective of survivable strategic forces to active preparation for nuclear war. The Reagan administration strategy rejects minimum deterrence and prepares for a nuclear war that might be protracted and controlled. The strategy reflects the understanding that a combination of counterforce…

  18. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  19. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  20. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental

  1. Lessons from post-war Iraq for the international full-scope safeguards regime

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinman, L.

    1993-04-01

    The discovery after the Gulf War of the extensive Iraqi nuclear weapon program severely shook public confidence in the nuclear non-proliferation regime in general, and the safeguards program of the IAEA under the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, in particular. Iraq provided the justification for evaluating the safeguards regime under new political circumstances, so that appropriate corrective measures could be taken when necessary. It is now up to the individual states within the international system to take advantage of this opportunity.

  2. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  3. An accidental decapitation resulting from head protruding out of bus.

    PubMed

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Tumram, Nilesh K; Umbare, Rahul; Kachare, R V; Dode, C R

    2016-06-01

    Decapitation is the separation of the head from the neck. Accidental decapitation is rare, and very few cases are cited in the literature. In this case, the victim was asleep during an overnight trip with her head sticking out of the window, and she was decapitated by a truck travelling in the opposite direction. Lack of security grilles on windows, high-speed driving, narrow roads and night travel were contributing factors. This case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injuries during the fatal mishap and to consider possible preventive measures. PMID:26857073

  4. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. PMID:26492946

  5. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Vinayagam, Stalin; Vajifdar, Homay

    2012-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB), but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning. PMID:22557834

  6. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed. PMID:22966472

  7. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  9. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  10. Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

  11. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  12. Heritage roundtable: the nuclear freeze

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.V.; Gray, C.; Kalicki, J.; Pfaltzgraff, R.; Scoville, H.

    1982-01-01

    The transcript of a panel of foreign policy experts, chaired by former National Security Adviser Richard Allen, debates the proposed nuclear freeze. They consider whether a freeze is a step in the right direction, acting to slow the arms race and contribute to world security, or whether it would aggravate strategic problems by perpetuating an umbalanced situation. Disagreement among the participants makes clear that no one favors nuclear war, but there are differing perspectives on how to continue preventing such a war.

  13. Care and meaning in war zone nursing.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Ernestine Tina

    2009-12-01

    During the past century, nurses have served as caregivers for United States military personnel in every major theater of war. Military nurses in the war zone deliver patient care while working in austere conditions, and are under constant threat of personal danger. This article gives a historical overview of the role of nurses in war zones, followed by a review from the perspectives of environment, safety, the nature of injuries, and treatment of military personnel and civilians. PMID:19850184

  14. [Accidental extubation in a pediatric intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Piva, J P; Amantéa, S; Luchese, S; Giugno, K; Maia, T R; Einloft, L

    1995-01-01

    It is an on-going practice in the pediatric ICUs to obtain and to maintain a working artificial airway. Nevertheless this procedure bears not infrequent risks of accidental extubation (AE) which ranges in several services from 0.9 to 3.3 for each 100 days of intubation. The risk factors that are involved in AE are related to: sedation level, age-group, intubation path, and others. The purpose of the authors in this article was to observe the incidence of AE in their service and to compare the relative risk in the rate of AE among orotracheal and nasotracheal intubation population. A prospective study was taken during six months, in which every patients with artificial airway admitted at the PICU of the Santo Antonio Hospital in Porto Alegre (Brazil) was included except those with tracheostomy. The total number of cases were 673 patients-day with artificial airway, with an average of 3.7 patients with tracheal tube per day. In the period there were 18 AE, with a rate of 2.7 AE/ 100 days. The incidence rate of AE in the orotracheal group was 3.1% and 1.6% in the nasotracheal group with no statistically significant difference (p=0.6). The authors concluded that the pathway of intubation in their study does not carry any additional risk in the incidence of accidental extubation. PMID:14689021

  15. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies. PMID:10890925

  16. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Botma, M; Colquhoun-Flannery, W; Leighton, S

    2001-05-11

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed. PMID:11335011

  17. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  18. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  19. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  20. Civil War Preservation Trust Two Week Curriculum for Teaching the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil War Preservation Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Civil War was perhaps the greatest turning point in U.S. history. The dual themes of slavery and power deeply divided the growing nation during the first half of the 19th century. The mission of the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) is to preserve the significant Civil War battlefields by protecting the land and educating the public about…

  1. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  2. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  3. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  4. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  5. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  6. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-12-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  7. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  8. Women as prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Skelton, W P; Skelton, N K

    1995-11-01

    American women are increasingly becoming involved in combat-related roles. Inevitably, our country will have several killed and taken prisoner. No National Academy of Science/National Research Council or VA study has ever been undertaken to examine the chronic sequelae of the experiences undergone by these captured women. This paper examines the after-effects of 3.5 years of incarceration on the 79 American women taken prisoner by the Japanese in the Philippines during World War II. Emphasis is given to their living conditions in a prisoner-of-war camp and their resulting long-term disabilities. Comparison of data reported in this paper with those of several epidemiological studies of male survivors of Philippine camps allows several novel points to be made. Overall, half of the women had a service-connected disability, exactly like the men. Furthermore, although the average degree of service-connected disability, 37%, is the same as that of the men, not one of the women in this study was service-connected for tuberculosis or peptic ulcer disease. This is a major finding, since, compared to age-matched combat controls, the men had a higher post-repatriation death rate for the first 7 years due to tuberculosis; likewise, peptic ulcer disease is so common in the male survivors that it is a presumptive service-connected disability. PMID:8538890

  9. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  10. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  11. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  12. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  13. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  14. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  15. The Origins of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

  16. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  17. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace. PMID:26754766

  18. "War of the Worlds" and the Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, G. Joseph

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of 1938 newspaper editorials about Orson Welles' notorious "War of the Worlds" broadcast reveals that they explained audience reaction on the grounds of gullibility, the ominous threat of war, and the technique of the broadcast, and that they offered radio a rather stern lecture on the relationship between freedom and responsibility.…

  19. Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Maria F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

  20. War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

    The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

  1. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  2. Creative Chaos: Learning from the Yugoslavian War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand more about the continued learning process of those who have experienced negative life experiences. This paper focuses on the various issues of learning and living through war, specifically encounters from the war in former Yugoslavia. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to understand lessons learned by…

  3. Native Americans and the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Arrell Morgan

    1985-01-01

    Details combat and conflicts between Native Americans and settlers before, during, and following the Civil War. Shows how the involvement of tribes in the Civil War and Reconstruction diminished their martial power and made them certain marks for conquest and relegation to reservations. (JHZ)

  4. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  5. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  6. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  7. Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

  8. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation. PMID:26907016

  9. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

  10. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Venkatanarasimha Karaddi, Nanda Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  11. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  12. Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

  13. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  14. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  15. Endless generations of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.B.

    1986-11-01

    The author feels that pursuit of Star Wars and continued US nuclear testing is blocking progress toward the eventual worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons. It is also bound to reveal new ways to attack military or civilian targets that will, in turn, stimulate further searches for new types of offensive and defensive nuclear weapons. Some of these developments could intensify the belief that limited nuclear wars can be fought and won. In short, development of new generations of nuclear weapons will provide the kind of positive feedback to the nuclear arms race that will greatly expand its dangers and its costs. Further proliferation of new types of nuclear weapons will increase the already extreme complexity of military planning and response, and the attendant dangers of nuclear war occurring by accident or through misinterpretation of information. Assessments of possible new military threats will become more uncertain as the complexities increase. Uncertainty can lead to catastrophic mistakes. Real or mistakenly perceived gaps in nuclear preparedness are likely to be used as further arguments for vast new military expenditures. We may all come to long for the relative simplicity of military nuclear issues during the first decade or so following the end of World War II. For these reasons, the author is convinced that there should be a halt to all nuclear tests, worldwide, as soon as possible. 2 references.

  16. Star Wars debate: Strategic Defense Initiative and anti-satellite weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, N.

    1987-01-01

    President Reagan in the Star Wars speech of March 23, 1983, promised that the Star Wars defense make the world much safer and more peaceful. This dissertation attempts to examine his Star Wars commitment. The hypothesis of this dissertation is the Star Wars would rather enhance the probability of confrontation between the two superpowers. The hypothesis is assessed by several criteria: technological feasibility; compatibility with the ABM treaty; Soviet responses to the SDI program; implications for deterrence and arms control prospects; and implications for the security of NATO Europe. SDI's technological feasibility is very questionable, given that its defensive mission is not only to intercept all incoming warheads, but to overcome Soviet countermeasures and to survive ASAT attacks. SDI's implications for the security of NATO Europe are further negative. While SDI might be an attractive option to address the security dilemma deriving from NATO's conventional inferiority vis-a-vis the Warsaw Pact, it would enhance the probability of Soviet preemption, in light of the Soviet perception that the Pershing II deployment combined with SDI constitutes a US first-strike posture. The Star Wars defense would not make the world much safer and more peaceful, as promised, but rather render international peace and security more precarious and destabilized by increased mutual distrust, suspicion and risk of nuclear war.

  17. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  18. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  19. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T.; Kogias, Evangelos; Rölz, Roland; Sircar, Ronen; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%). Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2; P = 0.0493). Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P = 0.0657). Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele) because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135. PMID:26075294

  20. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  1. Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

  2. Containing the accidental laboratory escape of potential pandemic influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent work on the modified H5N1 has stirred an intense debate on the risk associated with the accidental release from biosafety laboratory of potential pandemic pathogens. Here, we assess the risk that the accidental escape of a novel transmissible influenza strain would not be contained in the local community. Methods We develop here a detailed agent-based model that specifically considers laboratory workers and their contacts in microsimulations of the epidemic onset. We consider the following non-pharmaceutical interventions: isolation of the laboratory, laboratory workers’ household quarantine, contact tracing of cases and subsequent household quarantine of identified secondary cases, and school and workplace closure both preventive and reactive. Results Model simulations suggest that there is a non-negligible probability (5% to 15%), strongly dependent on reproduction number and probability of developing clinical symptoms, that the escape event is not detected at all. We find that the containment depends on the timely implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and contact tracing and it may be effective (>90% probability per event) only for pathogens with moderate transmissibility (reproductive number no larger than R0 = 1.5). Containment depends on population density and structure as well, with a probability of giving rise to a global event that is three to five times lower in rural areas. Conclusions Results suggest that controllability of escape events is not guaranteed and, given the rapid increase of biosafety laboratories worldwide, this poses a serious threat to human health. Our findings may be relevant to policy makers when designing adequate preparedness plans and may have important implications for determining the location of new biosafety laboratories worldwide. PMID:24283203

  3. On depleted uranium: gulf war and Balkan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duraković, A

    2001-04-01

    The complex clinical symptomatology of chronic illnesses, commonly described as Gulf War Syndrome, remains a poorly understood disease entity with diversified theories of its etiology and pathogenesis. Several causative factors have been postulated, with a particular emphasis on low level chemical warfare agents, oil fires, multiple vaccines, desert sand (Al-Eskan disease), botulism, Aspergillus flavus, Mycoplasma, aflatoxins, and others, contributing to the broad scope of clinical manifestations. Among several hundred thousand veterans deployed in the Operation Desert Storm, 15-20% have reported sick and about 25,000 died. Depleted uranium (DU), a low-level radioactive waste product of the enrichment of natural uranium with U-235 for the reactor fuel or nuclear weapons, has been considered a possible causative agent in the genesis of Gulf War Syndrome. It was used in the Gulf and Balkan wars as an armor-penetrating ammunition. In the operation Desert Storm, over 350 metric tons of DU was used, with an estimate of 3-6 million grams released in the atmosphere. Internal contamination with inhaled DU has been demonstrated by the elevated excretion of uranium isotopes in the urine of the exposed veterans 10 years after the Gulf war and causes concern because of its chemical and radiological toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Polarized views of different interest groups maintain an area of sustained controversy more in the environment of the public media than in the scientific community, partly for the reason of being less than sufficiently addressed by a meaningful objective interdisciplinary research. PMID:11259733

  4. Nuclear power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S. ); Hafemeister, D.W. ); Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N. ); Primack, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space.

  5. Assessing the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ackland, L.; McGuire, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include historical aspects, the arms race, nuclear power, flaws in the non-proliferation treaty, North-South issues, East-West confrontation, Soviet decision making with regard to national defense, US and Soviet perspectives on national security, ballistic missile defense (''Star Wars''), political aspects, nuclear winter, stockpiles, US foreign policy, and military strategy.

  6. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  7. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  8. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  9. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  10. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao; Sips, Patrick; Khin, Ester; Rotival, Maxime; Sun, Ximing; Ahmed, Rizwan; Widjaja, Anissa Anindya; Schafer, Sebastian; Yusoff, Permeen; Choksi, Pervinder Kaur; Ko, Nicole Shi Jie; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, David; Guan, Yuguang; Houštěk, Josef; Mracek, Tomas; Nuskova, Hana; Mikell, Brittney; Tan, Jessie; Pesce, Francesco; Kolar, Frantisek; Bottolo, Leonardo; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hubner, Norbert; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; MacRae, Calum; Cook, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary flow (CF) measured ex vivo is largely determined by capillary density that reflects angiogenic vessel formation in the heart in vivo. Here we exploit this relationship and show that CF in the rat is influenced by a locus on rat chromosome 2 that is also associated with cardiac capillary density. Mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Wars2), encoding an L53F protein variant within the ATP-binding motif, is prioritized as the candidate at the locus by integrating genomic data sets. WARS2(L53F) has low enzyme activity and inhibition of WARS2 in endothelial cells reduces angiogenesis. In the zebrafish, inhibition of wars2 results in trunk vessel deficiencies, disordered endocardial-myocardial contact and impaired heart function. Inhibition of Wars2 in the rat causes cardiac angiogenesis defects and diminished cardiac capillary density. Our data demonstrate a pro-angiogenic function for Wars2 both within and outside the heart that may have translational relevance given the association of WARS2 with common human diseases. PMID:27389904

  11. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao; Sips, Patrick; Khin, Ester; Rotival, Maxime; Sun, Ximing; Ahmed, Rizwan; Widjaja, Anissa Anindya; Schafer, Sebastian; Yusoff, Permeen; Choksi, Pervinder Kaur; Ko, Nicole Shi Jie; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, David; Guan, Yuguang; Houštěk, Josef; Mracek, Tomas; Nuskova, Hana; Mikell, Brittney; Tan, Jessie; Pesce, Francesco; Kolar, Frantisek; Bottolo, Leonardo; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hubner, Norbert; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; MacRae, Calum; Cook, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary flow (CF) measured ex vivo is largely determined by capillary density that reflects angiogenic vessel formation in the heart in vivo. Here we exploit this relationship and show that CF in the rat is influenced by a locus on rat chromosome 2 that is also associated with cardiac capillary density. Mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Wars2), encoding an L53F protein variant within the ATP-binding motif, is prioritized as the candidate at the locus by integrating genomic data sets. WARS2(L53F) has low enzyme activity and inhibition of WARS2 in endothelial cells reduces angiogenesis. In the zebrafish, inhibition of wars2 results in trunk vessel deficiencies, disordered endocardial-myocardial contact and impaired heart function. Inhibition of Wars2 in the rat causes cardiac angiogenesis defects and diminished cardiac capillary density. Our data demonstrate a pro-angiogenic function for Wars2 both within and outside the heart that may have translational relevance given the association of WARS2 with common human diseases. PMID:27389904

  12. Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. K.

    1998-10-01

    This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

  13. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal,...

  14. War casualties on the home front

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  15. The causes and prevention of war

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book seeks to answer what has become a species-survival question: how can humankind reduce the role of large-scale violence in society. Based partially on the serious thought of past scholars and statesmen on the determinants of war and the conditions for peace, but mainly on the author's own studies and observations of world politics, a wide-ranging examination of both small-scale and international acts of violence are provided. The author realistically appraises the efforts and means of reducing the role of war in international relations and concludes by offering an integrated strategy to prevent and control war.

  16. Epidemiological study of suicide in the Republic of Croatia -- comparison of war and post-war periods and areas directly and indirectly affected by war.

    PubMed

    Grubisić-Ilić, Mirjana; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Grubisić, Frane; Kovacić, Zrnka

    2002-09-01

    We examined the differences in the suicide characteristics between areas directly and indirectly affected by war activities and in war and post-war periods according to the following variables: suicide rate, sex, age and method of suicide. Analysis was done on 5349 suicides committed in the period 1993-1998 (war and post-war years). The suicide rates in the Republic of Croatia oscillated in the pre-war, war and post-war periods (1985-2000) but without significant differences. In the areas directly affected by war, the suicide rate was significantly lower than in other areas during the study period 1993-1998 (chi-square = 10.3245; P = 0.0017). The number of suicides in both sexes declined in the areas directly affected by war-more in men than in women; the difference between sexes was statistically significant (chi-square = 3.6697; P = 0.055). Middle- and old-aged people were the population with high suicide risk in both areas (t = 1.76; P = 0.078). There were significant differences in the methods of suicides between war and non-war areas (chi-square = 108.8473; P = 0.001). Firearms or explosive devices were the methods used more significantly for suicides in the areas directly affected by war than in other areas, whereas hanging was more frequently used in the areas indirectly affected by war. PMID:12381495

  17. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.

    1997-04-01

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase.

  18. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    PubMed

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms. PMID:23695004

  19. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  20. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...