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Sample records for accidental third-party damage

  1. 24 CFR 982.456 - Third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Third parties. 982.456 Section 982... Owner Responsibility § 982.456 Third parties. (a) Even if the family continues to occupy the unit, the... is not a party to or third party beneficiary of the HAP contract. Except as provided in paragraph...

  2. 24 CFR 982.456 - Third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Third parties. 982.456 Section 982... Owner Responsibility § 982.456 Third parties. (a) Even if the family continues to occupy the unit, the... is not a party to or third party beneficiary of the HAP contract. Except as provided in paragraph...

  3. Third-party punishers are rewarded, but third-party helpers even more so.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-04-01

    Punishers can benefit from a tough reputation, where future partners cooperate because they fear repercussions. Alternatively, punishers might receive help from bystanders if their act is perceived as just and other-regarding. Third-party punishment of selfish individuals arguably fits these conditions, but it is not known whether third-party punishers are rewarded for their investments. Here, we show that third-party punishers are indeed rewarded by uninvolved bystanders. Third parties were presented with the outcome of a dictator game in which the dictator was either selfish or fair and were allocated to one of three treatments in which they could choose to do nothing or (1) punish the dictator, (2) help the receiver, or (3) choose between punishment and helping, respectively. A fourth player (bystander) then sees the third-party's decision and could choose to reward the third party or not. Third parties that punished selfish dictators were more likely to be rewarded by bystanders than third parties that took no action in response to a selfish dictator. However, helpful third parties were rewarded even more than third-party punishers. These results suggest that punishment could in principle evolve via indirect reciprocity, but also provide insights into why individuals typically prefer to invest in positive actions. PMID:25756463

  4. Third-party punishers are rewarded, but third-party helpers even more so.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-04-01

    Punishers can benefit from a tough reputation, where future partners cooperate because they fear repercussions. Alternatively, punishers might receive help from bystanders if their act is perceived as just and other-regarding. Third-party punishment of selfish individuals arguably fits these conditions, but it is not known whether third-party punishers are rewarded for their investments. Here, we show that third-party punishers are indeed rewarded by uninvolved bystanders. Third parties were presented with the outcome of a dictator game in which the dictator was either selfish or fair and were allocated to one of three treatments in which they could choose to do nothing or (1) punish the dictator, (2) help the receiver, or (3) choose between punishment and helping, respectively. A fourth player (bystander) then sees the third-party's decision and could choose to reward the third party or not. Third parties that punished selfish dictators were more likely to be rewarded by bystanders than third parties that took no action in response to a selfish dictator. However, helpful third parties were rewarded even more than third-party punishers. These results suggest that punishment could in principle evolve via indirect reciprocity, but also provide insights into why individuals typically prefer to invest in positive actions.

  5. Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of nonaggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations. PMID:23494773

  6. Third-party reprocessing of endoscopic accessories.

    PubMed

    Furman, P J

    2000-04-01

    Third-party reprocessing of medical devices labeled for single use is a safe, FDA regulated practice that helps hospitals reduce costs without compromising patient care. Simply because a device is labeled as single use does not mean it cannot be safely reprocessed. To the contrary, the single use label is chosen by the manufacturer, sometimes for economic gain, as there are no formal FDA regulations or standards to distinguish between reusable and single use devices. The current FDA regulatory framework for third-party reprocessors, which emphasizes compliance with FDA quality assurance requirements, is presently under review, and the agency is in the process of developing a new regulatory scheme for reprocessing.

  7. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch; Jay L. Fisher

    2004-04-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes a technology assessment, development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, and experimental measurements on a buried pipe at a test site. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

  8. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

    2005-04-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

  9. Third-Party Contract Negotiations for CEOs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Joe

    1990-01-01

    New and incumbent presidents sometimes are reticent about discussing the specifics of compensation and benefit packages. Third-party negotiators might help bring these issues into the open. A negotiation process and nine specific topics for inclusion in negotiation discussions are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  10. Third Party Intervention Style and Intergroup Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartunek, Jean M.; And Others

    The present study compared the effects of content, process, and passive types of third party intervention on the bargaining behavior of pairs of group representatives. The setting was a simulated school board-teacher's union dispute over a new contract. Each side was represented by one person who was instructed to bargain tenaciously and obtain as…

  11. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  12. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  13. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Burkhardt

    2005-12-31

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given

  14. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOCIETY FOR REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE Third-party Reproduction Sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy A Guide for ... third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs , sperm , or embryos that have been donated by ...

  15. 24 CFR 572.140 - Third party rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Third party rights. 572.140 Section 572.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.140 Third party rights. The rights of third parties...

  16. 42 CFR 433.138 - Identifying liable third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identifying liable third parties. 433.138 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Third Party Liability § 433.138 Identifying liable third parties. (a) Basic provisions. The agency must take reasonable...

  17. 7 CFR 1782.19 - Third party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Third party agreements. 1782.19 Section 1782.19... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.19 Third party agreements. The State Director may authorize third party operation, maintenance, and management of an Agency financed...

  18. 20 CFR 702.281 - Third party action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Third party action. 702.281 Section 702.281... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Third Party § 702.281 Third party action. (a) Every person claiming benefits under this Act (or the...

  19. 7 CFR 1951.224 - Third party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Third party agreements. 1951.224 Section 1951.224... Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.224 Third party agreements. The State Director may authorize all or part of a facility to be operated, maintained or managed by a third party under a contract,...

  20. 49 CFR 260.29 - Third party consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Third party consultants. 260.29 Section 260.29... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Applications for Financial Assistance § 260.29 Third party consultants. Applicants may utilize independent third-party consultants to prepare a financial evaluation...

  1. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  2. Use of Third-Party Credibility in Hostile Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Carole M.

    A study analyzed the use of third-party credibility as a deliberate and systematic public relations strategy to regain credibility for an organization faced with public hostility. Four types of third-party usage are: citizen participation, outside investigation, adversarial advocacy, and employee dissemination. Third-party credibility as a public…

  3. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur... administration has made arrangements with the United States to allow amateur stations to be used for transmitting... supervising the third party's participation; and (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service...

  4. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur... administration has made arrangements with the United States to allow amateur stations to be used for transmitting... supervising the third party's participation; and (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service...

  5. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur... administration has made arrangements with the United States to allow amateur stations to be used for transmitting... supervising the third party's participation; and (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service...

  6. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur... administration has made arrangements with the United States to allow amateur stations to be used for transmitting... supervising the third party's participation; and (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service...

  7. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur... administration has made arrangements with the United States to allow amateur stations to be used for transmitting... supervising the third party's participation; and (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service...

  8. Nosy Neighbors: Third-Party Actors in Central American Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Beardsley, Kyle

    2004-01-01

    Scholars argue that third parties make rational calculations and intervene to influence interstate dispute outcomes in favor of their own objectives. Third parties affect not only conflict outcomes but also escalation and duration. Theories of third-party involvement are applied to understand the dynamics of intrastate war. An analysis of event…

  9. 20 CFR 10.705 - When must an employee or other FECA beneficiary take action against a third party?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to take action against that third party. (b) The Office of the Solicitor of Labor (SOL) is hereby... SOL can require a FECA beneficiary to assign his or her claim for damages to the United States or...

  10. 20 CFR 10.705 - When must an employee or other FECA beneficiary take action against a third party?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to take action against that third party. (b) The Office of the Solicitor of Labor (SOL) is hereby... SOL can require a FECA beneficiary to assign his or her claim for damages to the United States or...

  11. 28 CFR 115.354 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.354 Section 115.354 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.354 Third-party reporting. The agency...

  12. 28 CFR 115.254 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.254 Section 115.254 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.254 Third-party reporting....

  13. 28 CFR 115.154 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.154 Section 115.154 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Reporting § 115.154 Third-party reporting. The agency shall establish...

  14. 28 CFR 115.154 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.154 Section 115.154 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Reporting § 115.154 Third-party reporting. The agency shall establish...

  15. 28 CFR 115.154 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.154 Section 115.154 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Reporting § 115.154 Third-party reporting. The agency shall establish...

  16. 28 CFR 115.354 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.354 Section 115.354 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.354 Third-party reporting. The agency...

  17. 28 CFR 115.254 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.254 Section 115.254 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.254 Third-party reporting....

  18. 28 CFR 115.54 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.54 Section 115.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Reporting § 115.54 Third-party reporting. The agency...

  19. 28 CFR 115.54 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.54 Section 115.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Reporting § 115.54 Third-party reporting. The agency...

  20. 28 CFR 115.254 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.254 Section 115.254 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.254 Third-party reporting....

  1. 28 CFR 115.354 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.354 Section 115.354 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.354 Third-party reporting. The agency...

  2. 28 CFR 115.54 - Third-party reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third-party reporting. 115.54 Section 115.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Reporting § 115.54 Third-party reporting. The agency...

  3. 29 CFR 552.109 - Third party employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third party employment. 552.109 Section 552.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.109 Third party...

  4. 29 CFR 552.109 - Third party employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third party employment. 552.109 Section 552.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.109 Third party...

  5. 29 CFR 552.109 - Third party employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third party employment. 552.109 Section 552.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.109 Third party...

  6. 29 CFR 552.109 - Third party employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Third party employment. 552.109 Section 552.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.109 Third party...

  7. 29 CFR 552.109 - Third party employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Third party employment. 552.109 Section 552.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.109 Third party...

  8. 17 CFR 146.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to third parties... MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS § 146.6 Disclosure to third parties. (a) The Commission shall not disclose to any... government or political subdivision or any department or agency thereof is a party. (b) The Commission...

  9. 6 CFR 27.410 - Third party actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Third party actions. 27.410 Section 27.410 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.410 Third party actions. (a) Nothing in this part shall confer upon any person...

  10. 6 CFR 27.410 - Third party actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Third party actions. 27.410 Section 27.410 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.410 Third party actions. (a) Nothing in this part shall confer upon any person...

  11. 6 CFR 27.410 - Third party actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Third party actions. 27.410 Section 27.410 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.410 Third party actions. (a) Nothing in this part shall confer upon any person...

  12. 6 CFR 27.410 - Third party actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Third party actions. 27.410 Section 27.410 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.410 Third party actions. (a) Nothing in this part shall confer upon any person...

  13. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disclosure to third parties. 505.10 Section 505.10 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PRIVACY ACT REGULATION § 505.10 Disclosure to third parties. We will not disclose any information about you to any person or another agency...

  14. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disclosure to third parties. 505.10 Section 505.10 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PRIVACY ACT REGULATION § 505.10 Disclosure to third parties. We will not disclose any information about you to any person or another agency...

  15. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disclosure to third parties. 505.10 Section 505.10 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PRIVACY ACT REGULATION § 505.10 Disclosure to third parties. We will not disclose any information about you to any person or another agency...

  16. 10 CFR 781.66 - Third-party termination proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals, 10 CFR part 1023, modified as the Board may determine to be necessary or appropriate. (f) If... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Third-party termination proceedings. 781.66 Section 781.66 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Procedures § 781.66 Third-party...

  17. 19 CFR 163.8 - Third-party recordkeeper summons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Third-party recordkeeper summons. 163.8 Section 163.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.8 Third-party recordkeeper summons. (a)...

  18. 19 CFR 163.8 - Third-party recordkeeper summons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Third-party recordkeeper summons. 163.8 Section 163.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.8 Third-party recordkeeper summons. (a)...

  19. 19 CFR 163.8 - Third-party recordkeeper summons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Third-party recordkeeper summons. 163.8 Section 163.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.8 Third-party recordkeeper summons. (a)...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7603-2 - Third-party recordkeepers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attorney under section 7603(b)(2)(E) for purposes of determining whether that person is a third-party... pursuant to Circular 230, 31 CFR Part 10. (5) Owner or developer of certain computer code and data. An... listed in section 7603(b)(2) is a third-party recordkeeper for purposes of section 7609(c)(2)(E)...

  1. 6 CFR 27.410 - Third party actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Third party actions. 27.410 Section 27.410 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.410 Third party actions. (a) Nothing in this Part shall confer upon any person...

  2. Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents.

    PubMed

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2015-09-01

    Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. PMID:26232745

  3. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement.

  4. 49 CFR 383.75 - Third party testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... third party examiner to administer CDL skills tests for the classes and types of commercial motor... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S...

  5. 49 CFR 383.75 - Third party testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... third party examiner to administer CDL skills tests for the classes and types of commercial motor... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S...

  6. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  7. Economics on trial: the use and abuse of economic methods in third party tobacco litigation

    PubMed Central

    Max, Wendy; Tsoukalas, Theo

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse how the tobacco industry responded to economic models and methods used in third party payer tobacco litigation that has occurred since 1994. Methods Identified 12 third party payer cases and reviewed the transcripts using WinMax qualitative software. Focused on defendant's opening and closing statements, followed by trial testimony, depositions, and plaintiff's transcripts. Results Tobacco industry defendants tried to create doubt and confusion about whether or not smoking caused disease and by extension led to health care costs; argued that the economic models used were not legitimate and were not appropriate for estimating the costs incurred by plaintiffs; and criticised the data sources used because they did not consist of the individuals whose health care costs were being sought. Conclusions Faced with a new and unprecedented wave of anti‐tobacco litigation from third party payers, the tobacco industry tried to adapt strategies that had been used successfully in the past—creation of unfounded doubt and confusion, and manipulation of the discovery process to force plaintiffs to withdraw or concede defeat. The strategies failed because credible economic models of the health care costs of smoking had been developed that were able to quantify the damages to a large group of health care recipients, because plaintiff's attorneys were able to commit significant resources and willing to undertake substantial financial risk to defend their new legal approaches, and because previous arguments related to individual responsibility were deemed irrelevant in third party litigation. PMID:17130627

  8. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  9. What's so important about conducting research involving third parties?

    PubMed

    Murrelle, L; McCarthy, C R

    2001-01-01

    Controversy has arisen over the long-standing practice of collecting family health and behavioral history information in the course of conducting biomedical research. Identifiable individuals (third parties) on whom investigators collect private data through primary research subjects (probands) also are considered research subjects. At issue is whether informed consent is required from third parties prior to obtaining information about them from probands. A recent federal regulatory ruling dictates that investigators must either obtain informed consent from all third parties or their research must qualify for a waiver of consent. Because of the ruling, a traditional family medical history questionnaire, typical of those routinely used in genetic epidemiologic studies of familial risk, failed to meet the criteria for the waiver. The implications of this ruling are far-reaching. They could influence the quality of research in the United States on the causes of most human diseases. To enable continuing medical and bioethical education on the topic, in March 2001, Virginia Commonwealth University hosted a 2-day open conference, "Third Party Rights and Risks: A Forum on Informed Consent from Persons Affected by the Study of Human Subjects." International leaders from the fields of biomedical ethics and law convened with federal regulatory officials, Institutional Review Board members, academic and industry scientists, and patient-family rights advocates to discuss and debate this critical topic. Conference presenters submitted papers to clarify the issues, promote continued debate, and assist in the formulation of policy recommendations regarding third-party rights and risks.

  10. [Clinical characteristics of renal damage in patients with accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, S; Tomonari, H; Numata, M; Imasawa, T; Hosoya, T

    1999-08-01

    We have investigated the clinical characteristics of renal damage and associated complications of 79 patients with accidental hypothermia whom we encountered over the last 5 years. All patients were male, with an average age of 58.9 +/- 9.2 years. Most of these patients were homeless. Body temperature on admission was 29.3 +/- 3.0 degrees C. The most common clinical manifestations on admission were consciousness disturbance and severe hypotension. Complications, including increase in serum transaminase, alcoholism, pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, sepsis, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, acidosis, and an increased level of serum CPK and amylase were found frequently on admission. Death within 48 hours after admission occurred in 23 cases (the death rate; 23/79 = 29%). Renal damage was found in 36 cases (36/79 = 46%), consisting of acute renal failure (ARF) in 27, and acute on chronic in 6. Urinary diagnostic indices suggested that the etiological factor for ARF was pre-renal, which responded well to passive rewarming and an appropriate fluid replacement therapy, resulting in full recovery in most of the cases (the recovery rate; 25/27 = 93%). Among patients with renal damage, there were no cases requiring dialysis. The present data suggest that accidental hypothermia is a fatal condition with an extremely high death rate. It also is associated with multiple complications including ARF. The main cause for ARF is pre-renal, possibly caused by cold diuresis or dehydration superimposed on the underlying diseases such as alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis. Such complications, independent of renal damage, determine the patient's prognosis. PMID:10502943

  11. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    PubMed

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.

  12. 36 CFR 223.114 - Acquisition by third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acquisition by third party. 223.114 Section 223.114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  13. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  14. 32 CFR 199.12 - Third party recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations pertaining to the FMCRA) shall... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Third party recoveries. 199.12 Section 199.12...) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.12 Third...

  15. Third-party financing of central-receiver repowering projects

    SciTech Connect

    Munjal, P. K.; Walter, J.; Mathur, P. N.

    1981-12-01

    An innovative third party financing approach for the first solar thermal repowering plants is investigated that may reduce the need for direct DOE cost sharing during the early application of central receiver technology by industry. Third party refers to a corporation, partnership, or a joint venture that can take advantage of existing financial incentives. The available financial incentives are summarized, including the guaranteed market for central receiver power provided by Section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act, and federal and state tax credits and depreciation schedules. The economics of third party central receiver repowering plant financing is analyzed, and the case history of the Arizona Public Service Utility Saguaro Plant No. 1 is used as an example. Finally, a sensitivity analysis examines the effects of variations of different financial parameters on the return on investment. It is found that a substantial portion of investment equity can be recovered in the first few years of plant operation, and good future years cash flows appear possible. Third party financing appears capable of helping stimulate mass production of heliostats and a rapid transfer of central receiver technology to utilities and industry, with attending economic benefits. (LEW)

  16. 13 CFR 120.921 - Terms of Third Party loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Loan lender waives, as to the CDC/SBA financing, any provision in its deed of trust, or mortgage, or... Party Lender must give the CDC and SBA written notice of default within 30 days of the event of default... Third Party Lender's lien will be subordinate to the CDC/SBA lien regarding any prepayment...

  17. 13 CFR 120.921 - Terms of Third Party loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan lender waives, as to the CDC/SBA financing, any provision in its deed of trust, or mortgage, or... Party Lender must give the CDC and SBA written notice of default within 30 days of the event of default... Third Party Lender's lien will be subordinate to the CDC/SBA lien regarding any prepayment...

  18. 13 CFR 120.921 - Terms of Third Party loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Loan lender waives, as to the CDC/SBA financing, any provision in its deed of trust, or mortgage, or... Party Lender must give the CDC and SBA written notice of default within 30 days of the event of default... Third Party Lender's lien will be subordinate to the CDC/SBA lien regarding any prepayment...

  19. 13 CFR 120.921 - Terms of Third Party loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Loan lender waives, as to the CDC/SBA financing, any provision in its deed of trust, or mortgage, or... Party Lender must give the CDC and SBA written notice of default within 30 days of the event of default... Third Party Lender's lien will be subordinate to the CDC/SBA lien regarding any prepayment...

  20. 13 CFR 120.921 - Terms of Third Party loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Loan lender waives, as to the CDC/SBA financing, any provision in its deed of trust, or mortgage, or... Party Lender must give the CDC and SBA written notice of default within 30 days of the event of default... Third Party Lender's lien will be subordinate to the CDC/SBA lien regarding any prepayment...

  1. Young children remedy second- and third-party ownership violations.

    PubMed

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2015-09-01

    When responding to ownership violations, children can focus on the victim's needs, the perpetrator's punishment, or both. Recent studies show that 3- and 5-year-olds are equally likely to respond to second- and third-party violations, and 3-year-olds return objects to their rightful owners. Children's interventions are consistent with justice for victims. PMID:26250861

  2. 36 CFR 223.114 - Acquisition by third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acquisition by third party. 223.114 Section 223.114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  3. 36 CFR 223.114 - Acquisition by third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acquisition by third party. 223.114 Section 223.114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7603-2 - Third-party recordkeepers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pursuant to Circular 230, 31 CFR Part 10. (5) Owner or developer of certain computer code and data. An... Examination and Inspection § 301.7603-2 Third-party recordkeepers. (a) Definitions—(1) Accountant. A person is an accountant under section 7603(b)(2)(F) for purposes of determining whether that person is a...

  5. Building Sustainable Collections of Free Third-Party Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitschmann, Louis A.

    The purpose of this report is to identify and synthesize existing practices used in developing collections of free third-party Internet resources that support higher education and research. A review of these practices and the projects they support confirms that developing collections of free Web resources is a process that requires its own set of…

  6. 32 CFR 199.12 - Third party recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.12 Third party..., the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations pertaining to the FMCRA) shall... of § 199.10 of this part. However, the proper exercise of the right to appeal benefit or...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that the brother states that he fears harm from the taxpayer should the taxpayer learn of the contact... third party has expressed a fear of reprisal. The IRS employee is not required to make further inquiry into the nature of the brothers' relationship or otherwise question the brother's fear of...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that the brother states that he fears harm from the taxpayer should the taxpayer learn of the contact... third party has expressed a fear of reprisal. The IRS employee is not required to make further inquiry into the nature of the brothers' relationship or otherwise question the brother's fear of...

  9. 34 CFR 682.416 - Requirements for third-party servicers and lenders contracting with third-party servicers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administratively responsible if it— (1) Provides the services and administrative resources necessary to fulfill its... provisions of 34 CFR 668.15(b) (1)-(4) and (6)-(9) to determine that a third-party servicer is financially... in 34 CFR part 85), is— (A) Debarred or suspended under Executive Order (E.O.) 12549 (3 CFR,...

  10. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    PubMed

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud. PMID:10351055

  11. Third parties belief in a just world and secondary victimization.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh

    2013-02-01

    This commentary focuses on how third parties impact the course of acts of revenge based on their world views, such as belief in a just world. Assuming this belief to be true, the following questions could be asked: (a) What are the consequences of a third party’s worldview in terms of secondary victimization? (b) Are bystanders actually aware of these consequences? (c) If so, then why do they let it happens?

  12. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior.

  13. 13 CFR 120.920 - Required participation by the Third Party Lender.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Third Party Lender. (a) Amount of Third Party Loans. A Project financing must include one or more... for the acquisition, construction, conversion or expansion of a limited or single purpose asset....

  14. Curated eutherian third party data gene data sets.

    PubMed

    Premzl, Marko

    2016-03-01

    The free available eutherian genomic sequence data sets advanced scientific field of genomics. Of note, future revisions of gene data sets were expected, due to incompleteness of public eutherian genomic sequence assemblies and potential genomic sequence errors. The eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol was proposed as guidance in protection against potential genomic sequence errors in public eutherian genomic sequences. The protocol was applicable in updates of 7 major eutherian gene data sets, including 812 complete coding sequences deposited in European Nucleotide Archive as curated third party data gene data sets.

  15. Mission Planning and Sequencing Investigation of Third Party Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozingo, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) maintains a system called the Automated Sequence Processor(ASP) which is responsible for checking non?interactive commands and preparing them for radiation to spacecraft. In order to streamline the process and increase maintainability MPS is looking to use a third party workflow engine to control the ASP. In addition to increasing productivity, another driver for the workflow paradigm is the new way that the software is going to represent the spacecraft state. The spacecraft state is going to be represented by a timeline data structure.

  16. Quantum private comparison with a malicious third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling; Wu, Chunhui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will show that quantum private comparison protocol is secure when a malicious third party is presented. The security of the protocol is considered in a cheat-sensitive model, in which the TP is kept honest by the possibility of being caught cheating. Besides, we enhance the privacy of the quantum private comparison protocol, where the participants' inputs and the comparison result can be preserved. Furthermore, in contrast to pervious protocols requiring a large amount of quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum memory, our protocol is based on BB84 protocol, which is more feasible for practical applications. Finally, we analyze the security of the presented protocol.

  17. Curated eutherian third party data gene data sets

    PubMed Central

    Premzl, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The free available eutherian genomic sequence data sets advanced scientific field of genomics. Of note, future revisions of gene data sets were expected, due to incompleteness of public eutherian genomic sequence assemblies and potential genomic sequence errors. The eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol was proposed as guidance in protection against potential genomic sequence errors in public eutherian genomic sequences. The protocol was applicable in updates of 7 major eutherian gene data sets, including 812 complete coding sequences deposited in European Nucleotide Archive as curated third party data gene data sets. PMID:26862561

  18. 78 FR 23545 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity... collection regarding a form used to evaluate whether third party conformity assessment bodies meet the requirements to test for compliance to specified children's product safety rules. Third party...

  19. 76 FR 58202 - TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party Billing Agents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB49 TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party... authority to sanction third-party billing agents by invoking the administrative remedy of exclusion or... on the part of third-party billing agents that prepare or submit claims presented to TRICARE...

  20. 78 FR 49280 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile Transmittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation... of the need for the information and proposed use: The use of the Third-Party Documentation...

  1. 32 CFR 728.35 - Coordination of benefits-third party payers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to third-party payers for the cost of such care. Admission office personnel must obtain insurance, medical service, or health plan (third-party payer) information from retirees and dependents upon.... 1095 directs the services to collect from third-party payers the reasonable costs of inpatient...

  2. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits.

    PubMed

    Birkmire, John C; Lay, James R; McMahon, Mona C

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  3. Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan; Shaw, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent.

  4. Innovation adoption processes for third party property management companies

    SciTech Connect

    Shockman, Chris; Piette, Mary Ann

    2000-07-01

    Innovation adoption studies have never been applied to third party property management companies. These companies manage buildings for a fee as their primary business. Property management companies are influential in the adoption process for new technologies because they act as gatekeepers for technical information. This study analyzes radical and routine adoption process that are found in large, professionally operated property management companies. The process is explicated. The technical managers, and their role as technology gate keepers, are described. The distinction to the technical managers between routine and radical technology is that routine technologies do something in a new way and radical technologies do something new. Observations concerning evaluation and adoption of information technologies are described. The findings suggest methods of successfully tailoring and introducing technologies to this market.

  5. Three-party quantum summation without a trusted third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai; Sun, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Xiang; Long, Dong-Yang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum summation protocol, in which the genuinely maximally entangled six-qubit states found by Borras et al., are employed. Because of the excellent properties of the genuinely maximally entangled six-qubit states, the presented protocol allows three participants to compute the summation of their inputs without the help of a trusted third party and preserve the privacy of their inputs, respectively. The participants do not need any unitary operations. In addition, the proposed protocol utilizes the one-step quantum transmission and therefore is congenitally free from Trojan horse attacks. We have also shown that our protocol is secure against other well-known attacks over lossy and noisy quantum channels.

  6. Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Bloom, Paul; Rand, David G

    2016-02-25

    Third-party punishment (TPP), in which unaffected observers punish selfishness, promotes cooperation by deterring defection. But why should individuals choose to bear the costs of punishing? We present a game theoretic model of TPP as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Our model is based on individual differences in the costs and/or benefits of being trustworthy. We argue that individuals for whom trustworthiness is payoff-maximizing will find TPP to be less net costly (for example, because mechanisms that incentivize some individuals to be trustworthy also create benefits for deterring selfishness via TPP). We show that because of this relationship, it can be advantageous for individuals to punish selfishness in order to signal that they are not selfish themselves. We then empirically validate our model using economic game experiments. We show that TPP is indeed a signal of trustworthiness: third-party punishers are trusted more, and actually behave in a more trustworthy way, than non-punishers. Furthermore, as predicted by our model, introducing a more informative signal--the opportunity to help directly--attenuates these signalling effects. When potential punishers have the chance to help, they are less likely to punish, and punishment is perceived as, and actually is, a weaker signal of trustworthiness. Costly helping, in contrast, is a strong and highly used signal even when TPP is also possible. Together, our model and experiments provide a formal reputational account of TPP, and demonstrate how the costs of punishing may be recouped by the long-run benefits of signalling one's trustworthiness.

  7. Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Bloom, Paul; Rand, David G

    2016-02-25

    Third-party punishment (TPP), in which unaffected observers punish selfishness, promotes cooperation by deterring defection. But why should individuals choose to bear the costs of punishing? We present a game theoretic model of TPP as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Our model is based on individual differences in the costs and/or benefits of being trustworthy. We argue that individuals for whom trustworthiness is payoff-maximizing will find TPP to be less net costly (for example, because mechanisms that incentivize some individuals to be trustworthy also create benefits for deterring selfishness via TPP). We show that because of this relationship, it can be advantageous for individuals to punish selfishness in order to signal that they are not selfish themselves. We then empirically validate our model using economic game experiments. We show that TPP is indeed a signal of trustworthiness: third-party punishers are trusted more, and actually behave in a more trustworthy way, than non-punishers. Furthermore, as predicted by our model, introducing a more informative signal--the opportunity to help directly--attenuates these signalling effects. When potential punishers have the chance to help, they are less likely to punish, and punishment is perceived as, and actually is, a weaker signal of trustworthiness. Costly helping, in contrast, is a strong and highly used signal even when TPP is also possible. Together, our model and experiments provide a formal reputational account of TPP, and demonstrate how the costs of punishing may be recouped by the long-run benefits of signalling one's trustworthiness. PMID:26911783

  8. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-01

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  9. Third party laboratory data management: Perspective with respect to clinical data management

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jasmin; Kanagali, Vishwanath; Prabu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Third party lab vendor provides support for laboratory, biological samples analytics data, collected during the clinical trial. Third party laboratory data is considered to be very significant for the clinical trial data management process. Although outsourcing these services is considered to be advantageous for clinical trials, there are some risks involved. Hence, pharmaceutical companies proactively select, track and evaluate third party vendors on a regular basis before, during and after the completion of the contract. The data manager has a significant role to play in effective management of third party vendor data. PMID:24551587

  10. Third party laboratory data management: Perspective with respect to clinical data management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jasmin; Kanagali, Vishwanath; Prabu, D

    2014-01-01

    Third party lab vendor provides support for laboratory, biological samples analytics data, collected during the clinical trial. Third party laboratory data is considered to be very significant for the clinical trial data management process. Although outsourcing these services is considered to be advantageous for clinical trials, there are some risks involved. Hence, pharmaceutical companies proactively select, track and evaluate third party vendors on a regular basis before, during and after the completion of the contract. The data manager has a significant role to play in effective management of third party vendor data.

  11. Sex, Attractiveness, and Third-Party Punishment in Fairness Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual. PMID:24709987

  12. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  13. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    PubMed

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators.

  14. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    PubMed

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

  15. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    PubMed

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  16. Third Party Project Management: A Coming Reality for an Increasingly Unrealistic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Third party management of the development and facilities delivery process is a response to trends in the design, construction, and legal industries. Changes in the process and the architect's organization, the role of the project manager, drawbacks to third party management, and the relevance for educational construction projects are discussed.…

  17. Imitative Learning from a Third-Party Interaction: Relations with Self-Recognition and Perspective Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Katherine H.; Akhtar, Nameera

    2008-01-01

    Young children's ability to learn something new from a third-party interaction may be related to the ability to imagine themselves in the third-party interaction. This imaginative ability presupposes an understanding of self-other equivalence, which is manifested in an objective understanding of the self and an understanding of others' subjective…

  18. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry... parties to submit to FDA comments on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendation regarding third-party governance of industry-sponsored tobacco product research. DATES: Submit electronic or...

  19. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants’ choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone’s benefit; and (iii) disputants’ cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties’ intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution. PMID:26038546

  20. The Legal and Policy Implications of Third Party Reimbursement for Early Childhood Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments have led agencies serving young children with disabilities to obtain third-party reimbursement (Medicaid, private insurance, etc.) for services. An examination of the legal and policy implications of increased third-party billing reveals serious drawbacks including loss of confidentiality, burdens on informed consent, hidden…

  1. Enacting Third-Party Certification: A Case Study of Science and Politics in Organic Shrimp Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konefal, Jason; Hatanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    As third-party certification has become a prominent governance mechanism, conflicting understandings of it have emerged. Proponents advance third-party certification as a technical and objective governance mechanism, while critics argue that politics and relations of power characterize it. We reject this dichotomization both in terms of how TPC is…

  2. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...

  3. 48 CFR 1427.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing background... Government Contracts. 1427.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. Any proposed determination to be made to require third party licensing shall be submitted by the HCA through the...

  4. 32 CFR 806b.18 - Third party information in a Privacy Act System of Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Third party information in a Privacy Act System... party information in a Privacy Act System of Record. Ordinarily a person is entitled to their entire... information that is not “about” him or her (for example, the home address of a third party contained in...

  5. 22 CFR 1101.8 - Disclosure of records to third-parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disclosure of records to third-parties. 1101.8 Section 1101.8 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.8 Disclosure of records to third-parties. (a)...

  6. 77 FR 31086 - Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., e.g., 73 FR 54564 (September 22, 2008) (Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party...); 74 FR 45428 (September 2, 2009) (Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity... (a)(8) of Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations); 75 FR 70911 (November 19, 2010) (Third...

  7. 48 CFR 1427.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patent rights to third parties. 1427.306 Section 1427.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts. 1427.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. Any...

  8. 48 CFR 27.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... patent rights to third parties. 27.306 Section 27.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. (a) A contract with a...

  9. 48 CFR 3027.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights to third parties. 3027.306 Section 3027.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. (b) The CPO shall make the required determinations and...

  10. 48 CFR 27.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights to third parties. 27.306 Section 27.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. (a) A contract with a...

  11. 22 CFR 1101.8 - Disclosure of records to third-parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disclosure of records to third-parties. 1101.8 Section 1101.8 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.8 Disclosure of records to third-parties. (a)...

  12. 25 CFR 43.19 - Transfer of information by third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer of information by third parties. 43.19 Section 43.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.19 Transfer of information by third parties....

  13. 25 CFR 43.19 - Transfer of information by third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of information by third parties. 43.19 Section 43.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.19 Transfer of information by third parties....

  14. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history record information. 906.2 Section 906.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS § 906.2 Third party...

  15. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history record information. 906.2 Section 906.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS § 906.2 Third party...

  16. 32 CFR 728.35 - Coordination of benefits-third party payers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of benefits-third party payers. 728... MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Retired Members and Dependents of the Uniformed Services § 728.35 Coordination of benefits—third party payers. Title 10...

  17. The Development of Gaze Following in a Third-Party Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collicott, Cherie; Collins, Stephanie; Moore, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Infants follow the gaze of an individual with whom they are directly interacting by the end of the first year. By 18 months infants are capable of learning novel words in observational (or third-party) contexts (Floor & Akhtar, 2006). To examine third-party gaze following in 12- and 18-month-olds, the parent and experimenter engaged in a…

  18. 75 FR 42311 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Vinyl Plastic Film: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1611 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Vinyl Plastic Film... regulations under the Flammable Fabrics Act relating to vinyl plastic film. The Commission is issuing this... Products; Vinyl Plastic Film: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Assessment...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party verification and validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent third party verification and validation. 236.1017 Section 236.1017 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent third party Verification and Validation. 236.1017 Section 236.1017 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  1. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the...

  2. 7 CFR 1942.313 - Plan to provide financial assistance to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Plan to provide financial assistance to third parties... Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.313 Plan to provide financial assistance to third... to third parties the applicant shall develop a plan which outlines the purpose and administration...

  3. THIRD PARTY TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION DATA FROM A STAKEHOLD-DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY TESTING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Technology Verification Center is one of 12 independently operated verification centers established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Center provides third-party performance data to stakeholders interested in environmetnal technologies tha...

  4. 78 FR 12829 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for EFTPS Individual Enrollment with Third Party...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Party Authorization Form AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... comments concerning EFTPS Individual Enrollment with Third Party Authorization Form. DATES: Written....R.Brinson@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: EFTPS Individual Enrollment with Third...

  5. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.

  6. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment. PMID:24997554

  7. 78 FR 11204 - Accreditation and Reaccreditation Process for Firms Under the Third Party Review Program: Part I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... the Third Party Review Program: Part I; Draft Guidance for Industry, Food and Drug Administration Staff, and Third Party Reviewers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Accreditation and Reaccreditation Process for Firms Under the Third Party Review Program: Part...

  8. Looking Under the Hood of Third-Party Punishment Reveals Design for Personal Benefit.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2016-03-01

    Third-party intervention, such as when a crowd stops a mugger, is common. Yet it seems irrational because it has real costs but may provide no personal benefits. In a laboratory analogue, the third-party-punishment game, third parties ("punishers") will often spend real money to anonymously punish bad behavior directed at other people. A common explanation is that third-party punishment exists to maintain a cooperative society. We tested a different explanation: Third-party punishment results from a deterrence psychology for defending personal interests. Because humans evolved in small-scale, face-to-face social worlds, the mind infers that mistreatment of a third party predicts later mistreatment of oneself. We showed that when punishers do not have information about how they personally will be treated, they infer that mistreatment of other people predicts mistreatment of themselves, and these inferences predict punishment. But when information about personal mistreatment is available, it drives punishment. This suggests that humans' punitive psychology evolved to defend personal interests.

  9. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  10. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation. PMID:24778231

  11. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children’s cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner’s level of cooperation. PMID:24778231

  12. Potential approaches to the management of third-party impacts from groundwater transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater extraction can have varied and diffuse effects. Negative external effects may include costs imposed on other groundwater users and on surrounding ecosystems. Environmental damages are commonly not reflected in market transactions. Groundwater transfers have the potential to cause spatial redistribution, concentration, and qualitative transformation of the impacts from pumping. An economically and environmentally sound groundwater transfer scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, accounting for all third-party impacts, including those of a non-monetary nature as well as delayed effects. This paper proposes a menu of possible management strategies that would help preclude unacceptable impacts by restricting transfers with certain attributes, ideally ensuring that permitted transfers are at least welfare-neutral. Management tools would require that transfers limit or reduce environmental impacts, and provide for the compensation of financial impacts. Three management tools are described. While these tools can limit impacts from a given level of extraction, they cannot substitute for sustainable overall withdrawal limits. Careful implementation of transfer limits and exchange rates, and the strategic use of management area boundaries, may enable a transfer system to restrict negative externalities mainly to monetary costs. Provision for compensation of these costs could be built into the system.

  13. Transformation of California's Residential Photovoltaics Market Through Third-Party Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Miller, M.; Macal, C. M.; Graziano, D. J.; Heimiller, D.; Ozik, J.; Perry, T. D.

    2012-03-01

    Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption.

  14. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    SciTech Connect

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  15. The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Different kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor’s decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party information regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trusting followed by friend’s gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information. PMID:26882013

  16. Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Naoki; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test.

  17. The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability.

    PubMed

    Bozoyan, Christiane; Vogt, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Different kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor's decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party information regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trusting followed by friend's gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information.

  18. Testing the function of reconciliation and third-party affiliation for aggressors in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Colmenares, Fernando; Aureli, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    In social groups, agonistic conflicts can have different negative consequences. Several post-conflict interactions have been suggested as post-conflict management behaviors to mitigate those negative effects. In this study, we investigated the function of two post-conflict behaviors--reconciliation and aggressor-initiated third-party affiliation--on the aggressor's levels of post-conflict anxiety and aggression in a large colony of hamadryas baboons. We also examined variation in the aggressor's levels of post-conflict anxiety as a function of relationship quality between the opponents as predicted by the Integrated Hypothesis. We found that after conflicts hamadryas baboon aggressors showed increased rates of anxiety-related behaviors and that they were also more likely to be involved in renewed aggressive interactions. Although both reconciliation and aggressor-initiated third-party affiliation reduced the probability of receiving post-conflict aggression, only reconciliation reduced the rates of anxiety-related behaviors, suggesting that the aggressors' post-conflict anxiety might be owing mainly to the damage that the conflict causes to their relationship with the victim. Furthermore, aggressor's rates of post-conflict anxiety were higher after conflicts with individuals with whom they had a high-quality relationship, supporting the idea that levels of post-conflict anxiety mediate the occurrence of reconciliation depending on the quality of the relationship with former opponent as predicted by the Integrated Hypothesis.

  19. Antitrust law and collective physician negotiations with third parties: the relative value guide object lesson.

    PubMed

    Pfizenmayer, R F

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the role of collective physician participation in the third-party reimbursement system. It critiques the Havighurst-Kissam analysis of the antitrust implications of professionally-developed relative value guides and, using lessons derived from the only litigated case on relative value guides, argues that collective physician input into third-party reimbursement plans can be made in a manner which is consistent with the antitrust law as and cost-containment policy objectives. In particular, collective "negotiations" by organized physicians with third parties, unaccompanied by fee agreements among physicians or by actual or threatened physician boycotts, are found to be procompetitive and hence permissible under the rule of reason.

  20. Antitrust law and collective physician negotiations with third parties: the relative value guide object lesson.

    PubMed

    Pfizenmayer, R F

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the role of collective physician participation in the third-party reimbursement system. It critiques the Havighurst-Kissam analysis of the antitrust implications of professionally-developed relative value guides and, using lessons derived from the only litigated case on relative value guides, argues that collective physician input into third-party reimbursement plans can be made in a manner which is consistent with the antitrust law as and cost-containment policy objectives. In particular, collective "negotiations" by organized physicians with third parties, unaccompanied by fee agreements among physicians or by actual or threatened physician boycotts, are found to be procompetitive and hence permissible under the rule of reason. PMID:7108165

  1. Third Party Interaction in the Medical Context: Code-switching and Control

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Goble, Ryan; Deckert, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the micro-interactional co-construction of power within Spanish language concordant medical consultations in California involving a third party family member. Findings indicate the third party instigates code-switching to English on the part of medical providers, a language that the patient does not understand, rendering the patient a non-participant in the medical consultation. In these consultations involving a third party family member, monolingual Spanish-speaking patients are stripped of control in ways that are similar to other powerless groups in medical consultations. Implications include the need to further examine how micro-level interactions reproduce societal ideologies and shape policy on the ground. PMID:27667896

  2. Third-party CD4+ invariant natural killer T cells protect from murine GVHD lethality.

    PubMed

    Schneidawind, Dominik; Baker, Jeanette; Pierini, Antonio; Buechele, Corina; Luong, Richard H; Meyer, Everett H; Negrin, Robert S

    2015-05-28

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is driven by extensive activation and proliferation of alloreactive donor T cells causing significant morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a potent immunoregulatory T-cell subset in both humans and mice. Here, we explored the role of adoptively transferred third-party CD4(+) iNKT cells for protection from lethal GVHD in a murine model of allogeneic HCT across major histocompatibility barriers. We found that low numbers of CD4(+) iNKT cells from third-party mice resulted in a significant survival benefit with retained graft-versus-tumor effects. In vivo expansion of alloreactive T cells was diminished while displaying a T helper cell 2-biased phenotype. Notably, CD4(+) iNKT cells from third-party mice were as protective as CD4(+) iNKT cells from donor mice although third-party CD4(+) iNKT cells were rejected early after allogeneic HCT. Adoptive transfer of third-party CD4(+) iNKT cells resulted in a robust expansion of donor CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that were required for protection from lethal GVHD. However, in vivo depletion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells abrogated both Treg expansion and protection from lethal GVHD. Despite the fact that iNKT cells are a rare cell population, the almost unlimited third-party availability and feasibility of in vitro expansion provide the basis for clinical translation.

  3. Protecting the privacy of third-party information: recommendations for social and behavioral health researchers.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, David W; Reynolds, Thomas C; Rapkin, Bruce D; Robson, Mark E; Ostroff, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    In psychosocial and health-behavioral research, we often request that research participants provide information on significant individuals in their lives, so-called "third parties". Recently there has been a greater recognition of privacy issues and risks in research pertaining to third parties. Reaction on the part of USA federal regulatory authorities to one study [Amber, D. (2000). Case at vcu bring ethics to forefront. , 14, 1], which attempted to collect survey data about the psychiatric history of respondents' parents, has generated such concern and caution that longstanding practices for the collection of social determinants of health data are being questioned and are at risk of being disallowed by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). In this paper, we consider third party research rights and risks from the perspective of social and behavioral scientists. Focusing on research about health and quality of life, we first discuss the rationale for research methods that elicit contextual information about family members, friends, co-workers, and other social contacts. Second, we discuss the matter of 'privacy' and its central role in the current third party rights and risks dialogue. Next, we describe ways to effectively manage third-party information, building upon current recommendations by the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) and Botkin's [(2001). Protecting the privacy of family members in survey and pedigree research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(2), 207-211] treatment of the matter for survey and pedigree research. Lastly, we discuss the implications of applying these data collection and management strategies in social and behavioral research. We assert that these recommendations protect the rights of, and minimize the risks to, third parties without impeding social and behavioral health research.

  4. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and graphite fibers are known to be electrically conductive. The rapidly accelerating use of carbon fibers as the reinforcement in filamentary composite materials brought up the possibility of accidental release of carbon fibers from the burning of crashed commercial airliners with carbon composite parts. Such release could conceivably cause widespread damage to electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results of a comprehensive investigation of the various elements necessary to assess the extent of such potential damage in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence are presented. A review of NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials to overcome any electrical hazards from the use of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

  5. 76 FR 46598 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toys: Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Sports Program Area, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland... Hazardous Substances Act, 15 U.S.C. 1261-1278. See 74 FR 68588, 68591 (Dec. 28, 2009) (Notice of Commission... Act, 15 U.S.C. 1191-1204. See 75 FR 70911, 70913 (Nov. 19, 2010) (Third Party Testing for...

  6. Third Party Payments for Related Services: Policy Issues and Implications for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John W.

    Insurance carriers and state directors of special education were contacted for information regarding policies regarding third party payments for related services mandated for handicapped students under P. L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Insurance companies were queried regarding reimbursable services, conditions for…

  7. 22 CFR 1101.8 - Disclosure of records to third-parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disclosure of records to third-parties. 1101.8 Section 1101.8 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO... census or survey or related activity pursuant to the provisions of title 13 of the U.S. Code; (v) To...

  8. 22 CFR 1101.8 - Disclosure of records to third-parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure of records to third-parties. 1101.8 Section 1101.8 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO... census or survey or related activity pursuant to the provisions of title 13 of the U.S. Code; (v) To...

  9. 7 CFR 614.16 - Participation of third parties in NRCS proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of third parties in NRCS proceedings. 614.16 Section 614.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS NRCS APPEAL...

  10. 76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... testing (75 FR at 51018). We addressed testing performed by a third party conformity assessment body prior...). In the Federal Register of August 18, 2010 (75 FR 51016), we published a notice of requirements... 1610. 75 FR at 51019 through 51020. II. Requests for Revision On December 2, 2010, the American...

  11. Contemplating the Presence of Third Party Observers and Facilitators in Psychological Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Randy K.; Krauss, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Significant controversy surrounds how psychologists should balance competing interests when considering whether and under what conditions third parties should be permitted to be present during psychological evaluations. This is especially true in forensic contexts where much is often at stake for those being assessed. Unfortunately, existing…

  12. Third Party Scholarships and the Students Who Receive Them: Increasing Opportunity or Perpetuating Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo, Rebekah Hoppel

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary financial aid (including scholarship awards) in the United States are as complicated and diverse in their function as they are in their long-term implications and outcomes. Through an examination of third party scholarships and the students who receive them, this study seeks to understand the dynamic intersection between a…

  13. 75 FR 22746 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Register of February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396), the Commission announced a stay of enforcement of... Register (74 FR 68588) revising the terms of the stay. One section of the December 28, 2009 notice... COMMISSION Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Notice of Requirements for Accreditation...

  14. 75 FR 51016 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... section 14(a) of the CPSA in a notice published in the Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396... December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the... COMMISSION Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements...

  15. 13 CFR 120.972 - Third Party Lender participation fee and CDC fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fee and CDC fee. 120.972 Section 120.972 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... and CDC fee. (a) Participation fee. For loans approved by SBA after September 30, 1996, SBA must... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee....

  16. 13 CFR 120.972 - Third Party Lender participation fee and CDC fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fee and CDC fee. 120.972 Section 120.972 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... and CDC fee. (a) Participation fee. For loans approved by SBA after September 30, 1996, SBA must... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee....

  17. 13 CFR 120.972 - Third Party Lender participation fee and CDC fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fee and CDC fee. 120.972 Section 120.972 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... and CDC fee. (a) Participation fee. For loans approved by SBA after September 30, 1996, SBA must... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee....

  18. 13 CFR 120.972 - Third Party Lender participation fee and CDC fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fee and CDC fee. 120.972 Section 120.972 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... and CDC fee. (a) Participation fee. For loans approved by SBA after September 30, 1996, SBA must... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee....

  19. 13 CFR 120.972 - Third Party Lender participation fee and CDC fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fee and CDC fee. 120.972 Section 120.972 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... and CDC fee. (a) Participation fee. For loans approved by SBA after September 30, 1996, SBA must... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee....

  20. 75 FR 31688 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... section 14(a) of the CPSA in a notice published in the Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396... December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath...

  1. 75 FR 35282 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Walkers: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... section 14(a) of the CPSA in a notice published in the Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396... December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1216 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Walkers:...

  2. Use and Impact of Informal Third-Party Discussions in Interpersonal Conflicts at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkema, Roger J.; Bergmann, Thomas J.; Farquhar, Katherine

    1997-01-01

    States that interpersonal conflicts in the workplace frequently involve conversations with coworkers and outsiders. Examines informal third-party discussions in the workplace, as described by 396 professionals attending graduate business programs and executive seminars. Indicates that conflict intensity and relative power are likely to affect the…

  3. 27 CFR 6.42 - Indirect inducement through third party arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect inducement through third party arrangements. 6.42 Section 6.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.42 Indirect...

  4. 27 CFR 6.42 - Indirect inducement through third party arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect inducement through third party arrangements. 6.42 Section 6.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.42 Indirect...

  5. 27 CFR 6.42 - Indirect inducement through third party arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect inducement through third party arrangements. 6.42 Section 6.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.42 Indirect...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.110 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1304.110 Section 1304.110 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.110 Disclosure of... at 10 CFR part 1303. (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the Federal...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6775 - Exclusion of third-party benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6775 Exclusion of third-party benefits. The Cooperative Agreement benefits only the signatories to the Cooperative Agreement....

  8. Third Party Payment for Funding Special Education and Related Services. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreb, Roberta A.

    This book provides information necessary to establish and implement a third party reimbursement system for special education and related services within the public school setting. The first chapter traces the legal and historical precedent from the enactment of Public Law 94-142 through the interpretation of P.L. 100-360. The second chapter…

  9. 10 CFR 1705.09 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1705.09 Section 1705.09 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.09 Disclosure of records to..., 10 CFR part 1703; (b) Prior consent for disclosure is obtained in writing from the individual to...

  10. 10 CFR 1705.09 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1705.09 Section 1705.09 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.09 Disclosure of records to..., 10 CFR part 1703; (b) Prior consent for disclosure is obtained in writing from the individual to...

  11. 10 CFR 1705.09 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1705.09 Section 1705.09 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.09 Disclosure of records to..., 10 CFR part 1703; (b) Prior consent for disclosure is obtained in writing from the individual to...

  12. 10 CFR 1705.09 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1705.09 Section 1705.09 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.09 Disclosure of records to..., 10 CFR part 1703; (b) Prior consent for disclosure is obtained in writing from the individual to...

  13. 13 CFR 108.825 - Purchasing securities from an underwriter or other third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchasing securities from an underwriter or other third party. 108.825 Section 108.825 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC...

  14. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing...

  15. 78 FR 22518 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... party testing. The NOR can be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-10/pdf/2011-19678.pdf... COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the... primarily intended for children 12 years old and younger, the lead content must be no greater than 100...

  16. 76 FR 18645 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... products for conformity with the lead paint ban under 16 CFR part 1303 (73 FR 54564). In response to the... Conformity Assessment Bodies, (75 FR 70911 (November 19, 2010)); Third Party Testing for Certain Children's... Bodies, (75 FR 52616 (August 27, 2010)). II. Accreditation Requirements The notice of requirements...

  17. 16 CFR 1112.25 - What are a third party conformity assessment body's recordkeeping responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conformity assessment body must make copies of the original (non-English language) available to the CPSC... body's recordkeeping responsibilities? 1112.25 Section 1112.25 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT BODIES General Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment...

  18. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  19. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  20. 21 CFR 1311.300 - Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications. 1311.300 Section 1311.300 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... to conduct a SysTrust, WebTrust, or SAS 70 audit. (2) A Certified Information System Auditor...

  1. 21 CFR 1311.300 - Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications. 1311.300 Section 1311.300 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... to conduct a SysTrust, WebTrust, or SAS 70 audit. (2) A Certified Information System Auditor...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.110 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1304.110 Section 1304.110 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.110 Disclosure of... at 10 CFR part 1303. (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the Federal...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.110 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1304.110 Section 1304.110 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.110 Disclosure of... at 10 CFR part 1303. (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the Federal...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.110 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1304.110 Section 1304.110 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.110 Disclosure of... at 10 CFR part 1303. (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the Federal...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.110 - Disclosure of records to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of records to third parties. 1304.110 Section 1304.110 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.110 Disclosure of... at 10 CFR part 1303. (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the Federal...

  6. 7 CFR 4290.1240 - Funding of RBIC's draw request through sale to third-party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Conditional Commitments to Reserve Leverage for A Rbic § 4290.1240 Funding of RBIC's draw request through sale to third-party. (a... request for a draw of Debenture Leverage, you authorize the Secretary, or any agent or trustee...

  7. 13 CFR 107.550 - Prior approval of secured third-party debt of leveraged Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approval of secured third-party debt of leveraged Licensees. 107.550 Section 107.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Borrowing by...

  8. 21 CFR 1311.300 - Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications. 1311.300 Section 1311.300 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... security and determine that the application meets the requirements of this part. (e) If a...

  9. 21 CFR 1311.300 - Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application provider requirements-Third-party audits or certifications. 1311.300 Section 1311.300 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... to conduct a SysTrust, WebTrust, or SAS 70 audit. (2) A Certified Information System Auditor...

  10. 75 FR 42315 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Carpets and Rugs: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396); the stay applied to testing and certification of various products, including carpets and rugs. On December 28, 2009, the Commission published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1630 and 1631 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Carpets and...

  11. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS § 906.2 Third party handling... reference a security and management control outsourcing standard approved by the Compact Council after consultation with the United States Attorney General. The security and management control outsourcing...

  12. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... are not limited to: Reconstituted wood product manufacturing (NAICS code 321219). Engineering services... used for decades by a number of industries such as engineering, electronics, energy, software, automotive, and food and consumer products. The standards used in third-party certification are...

  13. 76 FR 22030 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toddler Beds: Requirements for Accreditation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1217 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toddler Beds: Requirements... regulation relating to toddler beds. The Commission is issuing this notice of requirements pursuant to... pursuant to the safety standard for toddler beds, which appears elsewhere in this issue of the...

  14. 76 FR 49286 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Notice of Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. CPSC-2011- 0052, by any of the following methods: Electronic Submissions... banned hazardous product or substance.'' Under section 14(a)(3)(A) of the CPSA, each manufacturer... third party conformity assessment bodies for testing pursuant to the following test methods:...

  15. 32 CFR 220.2 - Statutory obligation of third party payer to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is the reasonable charge for the care provided less the appropriate deductible or copayment amount... claimant's statement or coordination of benefits form. (e) Preemption of conflicting State laws. Any..., for any health care services for which payment by the third party payer under 10 U.S.C. 1095 or...

  16. 7 CFR 11.15 - Participation of third parties and interested parties in Division proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in Division proceedings. 11.15 Section 11.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION National Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.15 Participation of third parties and interested parties in Division proceedings. In two situations, parties other than...

  17. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  18. 37 CFR 401.12 - Licensing of background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.12 Licensing of background patent rights to third parties. (a) A funding agreement with a small business...

  19. 17 CFR 248.10 - Limits on disclosure of nonpublic personal information to nonaffiliated third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on disclosure of nonpublic personal information to nonaffiliated third parties. 248.10 Section 248.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information...

  20. 48 CFR 27.306 - Licensing background patent rights to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.306 Licensing background patent rights to third parties. (a) A contract with a small business concern or nonprofit organization shall not contain a provision allowing the Government to...

  1. 16 CFR 240.11 - Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations. 240.11 Section 240.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND...

  2. 16 CFR 240.11 - Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations. 240.11 Section 240.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND...

  3. Therapeutic Process in the Context of Third Party Determined Time Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tracey; Simpson-Young, Virginia; Lennings, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological services are increasingly provided within a context in which third party payers impose limits on the number of sessions available to the client and therapist. Considerable research has addressed the effect of time limits on therapeutic outcomes, while effects on therapeutic process have received less attention. This…

  4. 43 CFR 1823.13 - Is additional documentation needed when a third party requests a refund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is additional documentation needed when a third party requests a refund? 1823.13 Section 1823.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and...

  5. 37 CFR 1.535 - Reply by third party requester in ex parte reexamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reply by third party requester in ex parte reexamination. 1.535 Section 1.535 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... requester within two months from the date of service of the patent owner's statement. Any reply by the...

  6. 37 CFR 1.535 - Reply by third party requester in ex parte reexamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reply by third party requester in ex parte reexamination. 1.535 Section 1.535 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... requester within two months from the date of service of the patent owner's statement. Any reply by the...

  7. 37 CFR 1.535 - Reply by third party requester in ex parte reexamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reply by third party requester in ex parte reexamination. 1.535 Section 1.535 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... requester within two months from the date of service of the patent owner's statement. Any reply by the...

  8. Third-party rights and risks: a forum on informed consent of persons affected by the study of human subjects--conditions, experiences, and concerns in a Nordic country.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T I

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark, health research using personal information can be conducted only with permission from a regional scientific ethical committee and the national Data Protection Office. There are no rules applying to the rights and risks of third parties. In this article, the implications for third-party rights and risks of the type and level of involvement of the subjects are discussed from a Danish point of view. Particular emphasis is put on the current conditions, experiences, and concerns with regard to use of already registered personal information, which in the Nordic countries offers unique opportunities for large-scale, longitudinal, population-based studies also involving third parties. These opportunities have recently been challenged by a European Community Directive, with which all member states must comply, requiring informed consent on every transaction of personal data, but through a political process, it was possible to obtain a series of amendments allowing the special register-based research to continue. Crucial arguments favoring the amendments were that no damage has been observed so far and that such research has no interest in the individual data, only in the statistical distributions and associations. Finally, the article suggests that the rights and risks of third parties might be considered on the basis of use: third-party information provided by the subject only as a source of such information distinct from use of the information as an integral part of the subjects' information about themselves and their lives.

  9. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  10. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that...

  11. 77 FR 448 - Changes To Implement the Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... IFW. See Legal Framework for Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web), 74 FR 55200, 55202, 55206-7... Preissuance Submissions by Third Parties Provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United... implement the preissuance submissions by third parties provision of the Leahy-Smith America Invents...

  12. 78 FR 40442 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Registration Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... April 19, 2013 (76 FR 23545), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) published a... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Registration... used to evaluate whether third party conformity assessment bodies meet the requirements to test...

  13. 75 FR 49821 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ..., 2009, the Treasury Department and the IRS published in the Federal Register (74 FR 61294) proposed... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... payment card and third party network transactions. The final regulations implement section 6050W...

  14. 75 FR 9142 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... (74 FR 61294), announced that a public hearing on proposed regulations relating to information... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... withholding requirements for payment card and third party network transactions. DATES: The public...

  15. 37 CFR 1.948 - Limitations on submission of prior art by third party requester following the order for inter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...

  16. 37 CFR 1.948 - Limitations on submission of prior art by third party requester following the order for inter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...

  17. 37 CFR 1.948 - Limitations on submission of prior art by third party requester following the order for inter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...

  18. 37 CFR 1.948 - Limitations on submission of prior art by third party requester following the order for inter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...

  19. 37 CFR 1.948 - Limitations on submission of prior art by third party requester following the order for inter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prior art by third party requester following the order for inter partes reexamination. 1.948 Section 1... Responses (before the Examiner) in Inter Partes Reexamination § 1.948 Limitations on submission of prior art... partes reexamination order, the third party requester may only cite additional prior art as defined...

  20. What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproduction.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby

    2015-12-01

    The terminology used to discuss third-party reproduction, as with other new biomedical processes, can ease or impede communication and even influence behaviour. In an effort to sensitize analysts and stakeholders to variations in terminology and to facilitate communication on issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements, this paper examines variations in terms used. We introduce some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction. We then survey the terms used in English-language discussions to denote specific actors, including 'surrogates,' 'intended parents,' gamete providers and children, as well as terms used to describe 'surrogacy arrangements.' We conclude with a discussion on navigating and negotiating the use of these various and value-laden terms.

  1. Weaker entanglement between two parties guarantees stronger entanglement with a third party

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masahito; Chen Lin

    2011-07-15

    The monogamy of entanglement is one of the basic quantum mechanical features, which says that when two partners Alice and Bob are more entangled then either of them has to be less entangled with the third party. Here we qualitatively present the converse monogamy of entanglement: given a tripartite pure system and when Alice and Bob are weakly entangled, then either of them is generally strongly entangled with the third party. Our result leads to the classification of tripartite pure states based on bipartite reduced density operators, which is an effective way to this longstanding problem compared to the means by stochastic local operations and classical communications. We also systematically indicate the structure of the classified states and generate them.

  2. Occupational health nursing interventions to reduce third-party liability in workplace injuries.

    PubMed

    Delk, Kayla L

    2012-03-01

    This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees. PMID:22387245

  3. Three-year-old children intervene in third-party moral transgressions.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Amrisha; Missana, Manuela; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-03-01

    We investigated children's moral behaviour in situations in which a third party was harmed (the test case for possession of agent-neutral moral norms). A 3-year-old and two puppets each created a picture or clay sculpture, after which one puppet left the room. In the Harm condition, the remaining (actor) puppet then destroyed the absent (recipient) puppet's picture or sculpture. In a Control condition, the actor acted similarly but in a way that did not harm the recipient. Children protested during the actor's actions, and, upon the recipient's return, tattled on the actor and behaved prosocially towards the recipient more in the Harm than in the Control condition. This is the first study to show that children as young as 3 years of age actively intervene in third-party moral transgressions. PMID:21288257

  4. What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproduction.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby

    2015-12-01

    The terminology used to discuss third-party reproduction, as with other new biomedical processes, can ease or impede communication and even influence behaviour. In an effort to sensitize analysts and stakeholders to variations in terminology and to facilitate communication on issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements, this paper examines variations in terms used. We introduce some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction. We then survey the terms used in English-language discussions to denote specific actors, including 'surrogates,' 'intended parents,' gamete providers and children, as well as terms used to describe 'surrogacy arrangements.' We conclude with a discussion on navigating and negotiating the use of these various and value-laden terms. PMID:26526414

  5. Multi-party quantum private comparison with an almost-dishonest third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sheng-Liang; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta

    2015-11-01

    This article proposes the first multi-party quantum private comparison protocol with an almost-dishonest third party, where many participants can compare their secrets in either ascending or descending order without revealing any secret information to anyone. In order to do that, the participants need not to pre-share any secret key between them. As a consequence, the proposed scheme can be enforced in several environments such as multi-party ranking and multi-data ranking protocol.

  6. Design, Implementation, and Experiences of Third-Party Software Administration at the ORNL NCCS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nicholas A; Fahey, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    At the ORNL NCCS, the structure and policy surrounding how we install third-party applications. This change is most notable for its effect on our quad-core Cray XT4 (Jaguar) computer. Of particular interest is the addition of many scripts to automate installing and testing system software, as well as the addition of automated reporting mechanisms. We will present an overview of the design and implementation, and also present our experiences to date

  7. Third-party reproduction in the Internet Age: the new, patient-centered landscape.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julia T

    2015-09-01

    The rise of the Internet Age has brought a host of sweeping changes to the landscape of third-party reproduction. What began as a dyadic relationship between doctor and patient has evolved into a more complex system in which patients are able to access information online from a variety of external sources. Patients often seek to play a more active role in their third-party reproductive care, and the Internet allows them to do so. Further, demand for both medical and psychosocial information about donors and donor-conceived siblings, available online through patient forums and genetic registries, has altered the perception of gamete donation from a one-time event to an ongoing relationship. The advantages and disadvantages for patients and providers of this freer flow of information between third-party participants are examined. Search motivations of recipients and offspring, as well as types of information sought, are detailed. Recommendations are made regarding strategies fertility programs can use to optimally support their patients and navigate this new landscape. PMID:26070518

  8. Old duties and new: recovered memories and the question of third-party liability.

    PubMed

    Behnke, S H

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses how courts have analyzed the question of third-party liability in a class of cases that has recently challenged settled law. In these cases a patient recovers apparent memories of sexual abuse during the course of a therapy. Based on these memories and perhaps with the therapist's aid and encouragement, the patient identifies a family member as the perpetrator, often in a legal or other public forum. The accused family member then brings a lawsuit against the therapist for negligent treatment of the patient. The legal question to be determined is whether the therapist owes a duty of care to the third-party family member. The article first examines the concept of duty from a historical perspective. The article next looks at the method of analysis courts have used to approach the question of third-party liability in recovered memory cases. The article's third section examines how several state courts have applied this analysis to actual cases. Finally, the article evaluates the most compelling arguments on both sides of the issue and raises additional arguments suggested by the state court analyses.

  9. The risk management of third parties during construction in multifunctional urban locations.

    PubMed

    Suddle, Shahid

    2009-07-01

    Buildings above roads, railways, and existing buildings themselves are examples of multifunctional urban locations. The construction stage of those buildings is in general extremely complicated. Safety is one of the critical issues during the construction stage. Because the traffic on the infrastructure must continue during the construction of the building above the infrastructure, falling objects due to construction activities form a major hazard for third parties, i.e., people present on the infrastructure or beneath it, such as car drivers and passengers. This article outlines a systematic approach to conduct quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and risk management of falling elements for third parties during the construction stage of the building above the infrastructure in multifunctional urban locations. In order to set up a QRA model, quantifiable aspects influencing the risk for third parties were determined. Subsequently, the conditional probabilities of these aspects were estimated by historical data or engineering judgment. This was followed by integrating those conditional probabilities, now used as input parameters for the QRA, into a Bayesian network representing the relation and the conditional dependence between the quantified aspects. The outcome of the Bayesian network-the calculation of both the human and financial risk in quantitative terms-is compared with the risk acceptance criteria as far as possible. Furthermore, the effect of some safety measures were analyzed and optimized in relation with decision making. Finally, the possibility of integration of safety measures in the functional and structural building design above the infrastructure are explored.

  10. The effect of altruistic tendency on fairness in third-party punishment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lu; Tan, Peishan; Cheng, You; Chen, Jingwei; Qu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Third-party punishment, as an altruistic behavior, was found to relate to inequity aversion in previous research. Previous researchers have found that altruistic tendencies, as an individual difference, can affect resource division. Here, using the event-related potential (ERP) technique and a third-party punishment of dictator game paradigm, we explored third-party punishments in high and low altruists and recorded their EEG data. Behavioral results showed high altruists (vs. low altruists) were more likely to punish the dictators in unfair offers. ERP results revealed that patterns of medial frontal negativity (MFN) were modulated by unfairness. For high altruists, high unfair offers (90:10) elicited a larger MFN than medium unfair offers (70:30) and fair offers (50:50). By contrast, for low altruists, fair offers elicited larger MFN while high unfair offers caused the minimal MFN. It is suggested that the altruistic tendency effect influences fairness consideration in the early stage of evaluation. Moreover, the results provide further neuroscience evidence for inequity aversion. PMID:26191009

  11. The effect of altruistic tendency on fairness in third-party punishment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Tan, Peishan; Cheng, You; Chen, Jingwei; Qu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Third-party punishment, as an altruistic behavior, was found to relate to inequity aversion in previous research. Previous researchers have found that altruistic tendencies, as an individual difference, can affect resource division. Here, using the event-related potential (ERP) technique and a third-party punishment of dictator game paradigm, we explored third-party punishments in high and low altruists and recorded their EEG data. Behavioral results showed high altruists (vs. low altruists) were more likely to punish the dictators in unfair offers. ERP results revealed that patterns of medial frontal negativity (MFN) were modulated by unfairness. For high altruists, high unfair offers (90:10) elicited a larger MFN than medium unfair offers (70:30) and fair offers (50:50). By contrast, for low altruists, fair offers elicited larger MFN while high unfair offers caused the minimal MFN. It is suggested that the altruistic tendency effect influences fairness consideration in the early stage of evaluation. Moreover, the results provide further neuroscience evidence for inequity aversion.

  12. Banning reproductive travel: Turkey's ART legislation and third-party assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gürtin, Zeynep B

    2011-11-01

    In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example.

  13. Third-party reproduction in the Internet Age: the new, patient-centered landscape.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julia T

    2015-09-01

    The rise of the Internet Age has brought a host of sweeping changes to the landscape of third-party reproduction. What began as a dyadic relationship between doctor and patient has evolved into a more complex system in which patients are able to access information online from a variety of external sources. Patients often seek to play a more active role in their third-party reproductive care, and the Internet allows them to do so. Further, demand for both medical and psychosocial information about donors and donor-conceived siblings, available online through patient forums and genetic registries, has altered the perception of gamete donation from a one-time event to an ongoing relationship. The advantages and disadvantages for patients and providers of this freer flow of information between third-party participants are examined. Search motivations of recipients and offspring, as well as types of information sought, are detailed. Recommendations are made regarding strategies fertility programs can use to optimally support their patients and navigate this new landscape.

  14. Effects of a third party observer and anxiety on tests of executive function.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Julie E; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    For the past 10 years, research on the effects of observer presence on test performance has expanded in the neuropsychological literature. Previous studies have shown that the presence of a third party observer is associated with poorer performance on tests of effort, attention, concentration, learning, and memory. The present study was designed to investigate whether performance on tests of executive function is similarly impaired by the presence of a third party observer. The study also sought to examine associations among examinee anxiety, observer presence, and performance. Seventy-nine college undergraduates were recruited for the study, and 70 were included in the final analyses. Participants were randomly assigned to either the observation or control condition, and were administered verbal fluency tests, the Trail Making Test (parts A and B), and the Tactual Performance Test, as well as the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that performance on the combined dependent variables was significantly associated with observer presence. A significant observation condition by trait anxiety interaction was also found. Univariate analyses revealed that performances on semantic fluency and TPT-localization were most strongly associated with observation and trait anxiety, with performance being poorer in the presence of a third party observer. Additionally, effects of trait anxiety on performance in the presence of an observer appear to vary depending on task characteristics. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:18400466

  15. 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about third-party communicative actions.

    PubMed

    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur B; Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Infants expect people to direct actions toward objects, and they respond to actions directed to themselves, but do they have expectations about actions directed to third parties? In two experiments, we used eye tracking to investigate 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about communicative actions addressed to a third party. Experiment 1 presented infants with videos where an adult (the Emitter) either uttered a sentence or produced non-speech sounds. The Emitter was either face-to-face with another adult (the Recipient) or the two were back-to-back. The Recipient did not respond to any of the sounds. We found that 2-, but not 1-year-olds looked quicker and longer at the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected her to respond to speech. These effects were specific to the face-to-face context. Experiment 2 presented 1-year-olds with similar face-to-face exchanges but modified to engage infants and minimize task demands. The infants looked quicker to the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected a response to speech. The study suggests that by 1 year of age infants expect communicative actions to be directed at a third-party listener.

  16. The effect of altruistic tendency on fairness in third-party punishment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Tan, Peishan; Cheng, You; Chen, Jingwei; Qu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Third-party punishment, as an altruistic behavior, was found to relate to inequity aversion in previous research. Previous researchers have found that altruistic tendencies, as an individual difference, can affect resource division. Here, using the event-related potential (ERP) technique and a third-party punishment of dictator game paradigm, we explored third-party punishments in high and low altruists and recorded their EEG data. Behavioral results showed high altruists (vs. low altruists) were more likely to punish the dictators in unfair offers. ERP results revealed that patterns of medial frontal negativity (MFN) were modulated by unfairness. For high altruists, high unfair offers (90:10) elicited a larger MFN than medium unfair offers (70:30) and fair offers (50:50). By contrast, for low altruists, fair offers elicited larger MFN while high unfair offers caused the minimal MFN. It is suggested that the altruistic tendency effect influences fairness consideration in the early stage of evaluation. Moreover, the results provide further neuroscience evidence for inequity aversion. PMID:26191009

  17. 7 CFR 1942.314 - Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television demonstration projects, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... parties, television demonstration projects, and technical assistance programs. 1942.314 Section 1942.314...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.314 Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television...

  18. 7 CFR 1942.314 - Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television demonstration projects, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... parties, television demonstration projects, and technical assistance programs. 1942.314 Section 1942.314...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.314 Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television...

  19. 7 CFR 1942.314 - Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television demonstration projects, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... parties, television demonstration projects, and technical assistance programs. 1942.314 Section 1942.314...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.314 Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television...

  20. 7 CFR 1942.314 - Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television demonstration projects, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parties, television demonstration projects, and technical assistance programs. 1942.314 Section 1942.314...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.314 Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television...

  1. 7 CFR 1942.314 - Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television demonstration projects, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... parties, television demonstration projects, and technical assistance programs. 1942.314 Section 1942.314...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.314 Grants to provide financial assistance to third parties, television...

  2. Dual processing and organizational justice: the role of rational versus experiential processing in third-party reactions to workplace mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Skarlicki, Daniel P; Rupp, Deborah E

    2010-09-01

    The moral perspective of justice proposes that when confronted by another person's mistreatment, third parties can experience a deontic response, that is, an evolutionary-based emotional reaction that motivates them to engage in retribution toward the transgressor. In this article, we tested whether the third party's deontic reaction is less strong when a rational (vs. experiential) processing frame is primed. Further, we tested whether third parties high (vs. low) in moral identity are more resistant to the effects of processing frames. Results from a sample of 185 French managers revealed that following an injustice, managers primed to use rational processing reported lower retribution tendencies compared with managers primed to use experiential processing. Third parties high in moral identity, however, were less affected by the framing; they reported a high retribution response regardless of processing frame. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 – 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. Methods We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. Results We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). Conclusion The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this Page

  4. The Effect of Differing Third Party Roles and Behaviors on Conciliatory and Retaliatory Negotiator Behavior Involved in a Simulated Intergroup Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, W. Frank; And Others

    Little experimental research exists concerning third party mediation. Possible dimensions for study are type of control, including outcome control (of the third party over negotiation outcomes) and process control (third party influence on the negotiation process); and type of intervention, i.e., process or issue oriented interventions. To examine…

  5. Protection of privacy by third-party encryption in genetic research in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gulcher, J R; Kristjánsson, K; Gudbjartsson, H; Stefánsson, K

    2000-10-01

    As the new human genetics continues its dramatic expansion into many laboratories and medical institutions, the concern for the protection of the personal privacy of individuals who participate increases. It seems that even the smallest of laboratories must confront the issue of how to protect the genetic and phenotypic information of participants in their research. Some have promoted the use of anonymity as a way out of this dilemma. But we are reminded by others that the future cannot be predicted, and that future benefits may be lost when the links to these benevolent volunteers are gone forever. More recently, some ethical bodies have suggested, without specific recommendations, that a reversible third-party encryption system may be a solution to this problem. However, they have not provided a route or even examples of how to proceed. We present here the Icelandic approach to this issue by developing a third-party encryption system in direct collaboration with the Data Protection Commission (DPC) of Iceland. We have incorporated the encryption system within our sample collection and storage software, which minimises inconvenience but enhances security. The strategy assures a barrier between the laboratory and the outside world that can only be crossed by the DPC. PMID:11039572

  6. Development of in-group favoritism in children’s third-party punishment of selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jillian J.; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-01-01

    When enforcing norms for cooperative behavior, human adults sometimes exhibit in-group bias. For example, third-party observers punish selfish behaviors committed by out-group members more harshly than similar behaviors committed by in-group members. Although evidence suggests that children begin to systematically punish selfish behavior around the age of 6 y, the development of in-group bias in their punishment remains unknown. Do children start off enforcing fairness norms impartially, or is norm enforcement biased from its emergence? How does bias change over development? Here, we created novel social groups in the laboratory and gave 6- and 8-year-olds the opportunity to engage in costly third-party punishment of selfish sharing behavior. We found that by age 6, punishment was already biased: Selfish resource allocations received more punishment when they were proposed by out-group members and when they disadvantaged in-group members. We also found that although costly punishment increased between ages 6 and 8, bias in punishment partially decreased. Although 8-y-olds also punished selfish out-group members more harshly, they were equally likely to punish on behalf of disadvantaged in-group and out-group members, perhaps reflecting efforts to enforce norms impartially. Taken together, our results suggest that norm enforcement is biased from its emergence, but that this bias can be partially overcome through developmental change. PMID:25136086

  7. The processing course of conflicts in third-party punishment: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lulu; Dou, Wei; You, Cheng; Qu, Chen

    2014-09-01

    In social decision-making games, uninvolved third parties usually severely punish norm violators, even though the punishment is costly for them. For this irrational behavior, the conflict caused by punishment satisfaction and monetary loss is obvious. In the present study, 18 participants observed a Dictator Game and were asked about their willingness to incur some cost to change the offers by reducing the dictator's money. A response-locked event-related potential (ERP) component, the error negativity or error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), which is evoked by error or conflict, was analyzed to investigate whether a trade-off between irrational punishment and rational private benefit occurred in the brain responses of third parties. We examined the effect of the choice type ("to change the offer" or "not to change the offer") and levels of unfairness (90:10 and 70:30) on Ne/ERN amplitudes. The results indicated that there was an ERN effect for unfair offers as Ne/ERN amplitudes were more negative for not to change the offer choices than for to change the offer choices, which suggested that participants encountered more conflict when they did not change unfair offers. Furthermore, it was implied that altruistic punishment, rather than rational utilitarianism, might be the prepotent tendency for humans that is involved in the early stage of decision-making. PMID:26271939

  8. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  9. Third party EPID with IGRT capability retrofitted onto an existing medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Odero, D O; Shimm, D S

    2009-07-01

    Radiation therapy requires precision to avoid unintended irradiation of normal organs. Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs), can help with precise patient positioning for accurate treatment. EPIDs are now bundled with new linear accelerators, or they can be purchased from the Linac manufacturer for retrofit. Retrofitting a third party EPID to a linear accelerator can pose challenges. The authors describe a relatively inexpensive third party CCD camera-based EPID manufactured by TheraView (Cablon Medical B.V.), installed onto a Siemens Primus linear accelerator, and integrated with a Lantis record and verify system, an Oldelft simulator with Digital Therapy Imaging (DTI) unit, and a Philips ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS). This system integrates well with existing equipment and its software can process DICOM images from other sources. The system provides a complete imaging system that eliminates the need for separate software for portal image viewing, interpretation, analysis, archiving, image guided radiation therapy and other image management applications. It can also be accessed remotely via safe VPN tunnels. TheraView EPID retrofit therefore presents an example of a less expensive alternative to linear accelerator manufacturers' proprietary EPIDs suitable for implementation in third world countries radiation therapy departments which are often faced with limited financial resources.

  10. Protection of privacy by third-party encryption in genetic research in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gulcher, J R; Kristjánsson, K; Gudbjartsson, H; Stefánsson, K

    2000-10-01

    As the new human genetics continues its dramatic expansion into many laboratories and medical institutions, the concern for the protection of the personal privacy of individuals who participate increases. It seems that even the smallest of laboratories must confront the issue of how to protect the genetic and phenotypic information of participants in their research. Some have promoted the use of anonymity as a way out of this dilemma. But we are reminded by others that the future cannot be predicted, and that future benefits may be lost when the links to these benevolent volunteers are gone forever. More recently, some ethical bodies have suggested, without specific recommendations, that a reversible third-party encryption system may be a solution to this problem. However, they have not provided a route or even examples of how to proceed. We present here the Icelandic approach to this issue by developing a third-party encryption system in direct collaboration with the Data Protection Commission (DPC) of Iceland. We have incorporated the encryption system within our sample collection and storage software, which minimises inconvenience but enhances security. The strategy assures a barrier between the laboratory and the outside world that can only be crossed by the DPC.

  11. The use of third-party information in forensic assessments: a two-state comparison.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, K; Rosenfeld, B; Warren, J; Collins, S

    1994-01-01

    There is virtually no research on the normative characteristics of forensic mental health assessment, despite the significant increase in conceptual and empirical attention devoted to such assessment within the last 10 years. The present study addressed this deficit by examining the use of third-party information, a crucial component of forensic mental health assessment, by forensic clinicians in two states: Florida (a total of 277 evaluations on the issues of competency to stand trial and sanity at the time of the offense) and Virginia (316 evaluations addressing the same legal issues). Evaluations in each state were performed in either a community or a hospital setting. Basic information about the offense, records of prior mental health evaluation or treatment, and specific statements by victims or witnesses were the variables examined comprising "third-party information" in this study. More than three fourths of all evaluations across states and settings incorporated this information. There was less consistency in the use of mental health records and victim/witness statements, with significant differences observed across settings and states. Results are discussed in light of potential influences of state, setting, and study methodology.

  12. Development of in-group favoritism in children's third-party punishment of selfishness.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jillian J; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-09-01

    When enforcing norms for cooperative behavior, human adults sometimes exhibit in-group bias. For example, third-party observers punish selfish behaviors committed by out-group members more harshly than similar behaviors committed by in-group members. Although evidence suggests that children begin to systematically punish selfish behavior around the age of 6 y, the development of in-group bias in their punishment remains unknown. Do children start off enforcing fairness norms impartially, or is norm enforcement biased from its emergence? How does bias change over development? Here, we created novel social groups in the laboratory and gave 6- and 8-year-olds the opportunity to engage in costly third-party punishment of selfish sharing behavior. We found that by age 6, punishment was already biased: Selfish resource allocations received more punishment when they were proposed by out-group members and when they disadvantaged in-group members. We also found that although costly punishment increased between ages 6 and 8, bias in punishment partially decreased. Although 8-y-olds also punished selfish out-group members more harshly, they were equally likely to punish on behalf of disadvantaged in-group and out-group members, perhaps reflecting efforts to enforce norms impartially. Taken together, our results suggest that norm enforcement is biased from its emergence, but that this bias can be partially overcome through developmental change.

  13. Federal government provision of third-party liability insurance to space vehicle users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Support decisions concerning the provision by the Federal Government of third-party liability insurance for commercial space activities were studied. The practices associated with third-party liability insurance in the marine, aviation, and electric utility industries in addition to those industries associated with space missions were reviewed. Theoretical considerations of rate setting are discussed and a methodology to determine the period of time over which the insurers of each industry intend to set aside reserves to recover from a maximum liability loss should one occur is introduced. The data were analyzed to determine the setaside period in each industry, and to suggest reasonable standards from the insurer's point of view. Criteria for Federal provision of insurance are discussed, an interpretation of the Price-Anderson Act, determinants of the availability of commercial insurance, potential insurer liability, and measures of reasonableness for premium rates from the user's point of view are presented. Options available to the government regarding third part liability protection are presented.

  14. An Approach of Vulnerability Testing for Third-Party Component Based on Condition and Parameter Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weihe

    2013-01-01

    The research on component vulnerability testing is critical. In this paper, an approach of vulnerability testing is proposed based on condition mutation and parameter mutation in order to effectively detect the explicit vulnerabilities of third-party components. To start with, the Pre-condition Mutation Algorithm (PCMA) is presented to generate mutants set of the pre-condition and test cases are generated based on these mutants. Then, the Single Parameter Mutated Values (SPMV) procedure is addressed to generate parameter values based on mutation operators of parameter specification. These values are then taken as the input of the Test Case Generation Algorithm based on the Parameter Constraint (TCGPC), which is addressed to generate test case set violating the parameter constraint. The explicit vulnerabilities can be detected by the vulnerability detecting algorithm based on the test cases of condition and parameter mutation. The experiments show that our approach can detect explicit vulnerability faults of third-party components. Furthermore, the proposed approach can detect more vulnerability faults than other related approaches such as condition coverage methods, fuzzy testing method and boundary value method. PMID:24194686

  15. Hiding in the Shadows: Philip Morris and the Use of Third Parties to Oppose Ingredient Disclosure Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Velicer, Clayton; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1996 Massachusetts proposed regulations that would require tobacco companies to disclose information about the ingredients in their products on a by-brand basis. This paper examines the strategies employed by Philip Morris to stop these regulations from being implemented. Methods and Finding We used previously secret tobacco industry documents and published literature to examine the activities of the tobacco companies after the regulations were proposed. Philip Morris hired a public relations firm to establish a coalition that was instructed to oppose the regulations by linking them to other industrial sectors (the slippery slope) and stating they would damage the state's economy. Philip Morris also retained a polling firm to test the popularity of specific arguments against ingredient disclosure and developed a strategic plan for opposing similar regulations in Vermont. Conclusion Tobacco companies have historically used third parties to form coalitions to oppose ingredient disclosure regulations. These coalitions have had success preventing regulations from being implemented after they are initially proposed by creating the appearance of local opposition. With countries around the world currently implementing ingredient disclosure regulations in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco, governments and regulatory agencies should be aware of the political strategies that the tobacco companies have used to create the impression of popular opposition to these measures. PMID:26717245

  16. Parsing the Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Bonnie, Richard J.; Hoffman, Morris B.; Shen, Francis X.; Simons, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood. Using fMRI, here we implement a novel experimental design to functionally dissociate the mechanisms underlying evaluation, integration, and decision that were conflated in previous studies of third-party punishment. Behaviorally, the punishment decision is primarily defined by a superadditive interaction between harm and mental state, with subjects weighing the interaction factor more than the single factors of harm and mental state. On a neural level, evaluation of harms engaged brain areas associated with affective and somatosensory processing, whereas mental state evaluation primarily recruited circuitry involved in mentalization. Harm and mental state evaluations are integrated in medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate structures, with the amygdala acting as a pivotal hub of the interaction between harm and mental state. This integrated information is used by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at the time of the decision to assign an appropriate punishment through a distributed coding system. Together, these findings provide a blueprint of the brain mechanisms by which neutral third parties render punishment decisions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Punishment undergirds large-scale cooperation and helps dispense criminal justice. Yet it is currently unknown precisely how people assess the mental states of offenders, evaluate the harms they caused, and integrate those two components into a single punishment decision. Using a

  17. An integrated fuzzy approach for strategic alliance partner selection in third-party logistics.

    PubMed

    Erkayman, Burak; Gundogar, Emin; Yilmaz, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing some of the logistic activities is a useful strategy for companies in recent years. This makes it possible for firms to concentrate on their main issues and processes and presents facility to improve logistics performance, to reduce costs, and to improve quality. Therefore provider selection and evaluation in third-party logistics become important activities for companies. Making a strategic decision like this is significantly hard and crucial. In this study we proposed a fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach to effectively select the most appropriate provider. First we identify the provider selection criteria and build the hierarchical structure of decision model. After building the hierarchical structure we determined the selection criteria weights by using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique. Then we applied fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain final rankings for providers. And finally an illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. PMID:23365520

  18. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  19. Investigating the neural basis of empathy by EEG hyperscanning during a Third Party Punishment.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Laura; Toppi, Jlenia; Casper, Chantal; Freitag, Christine; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed technique of hyperscanning consists of the simultaneous recording of brain activity from multiple subjects involved in social interaction. The multivariate analysis of data coming from different subjects allows to model a system made of multiple brains interacting, and to characterize it in relation with different processes at the basis of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the empathy established between two subjects during a Third Party Punishment paradigm, in terms of the properties of the multiple-brain network obtained from EEG hyperscanning. Preliminary results show that significantly different multiple-brain network structures characterize a social situation operated by a human agent with respect to a computer based condition, and that the different levels of empathy induced by a fair or unfair treatment received by one of the subjects are characterized by denser inter-subjects connectivity and lower divisibility in the two single brain networks.

  20. The impact of payer-specific hospital case mix on hospital costs and revenues for third-party patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Roh, M P H Chul-Young

    2007-02-01

    Competition among hospitals and managed care have forced hospital industry to be more efficient. With higher degrees of hospital competition and managed care penetration, hospitals have argued that the rate of increase in hospital cost is greater than the rate of increase in hospital revenue. By developing a payer-specific case mix index (CMI) for third-party patients, this paper examined the effect of hospital case mix on hospital cost and revenue for third-party patients in California using the hospital financial and utilization data covering 1986-1998. This study found that the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model were greater than those in the hospital cost model until 1995. Since 1995, however, the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model have been less than those in hospital cost models. Over time, the differences in coefficients for CMIs in hospital revenue and cost models for third-party patients have become smaller and smaller although those differences are statistically insignificant.

  1. Facilitation of Third-party Development of Advanced Algorithms for Explosive Detection Using Workshops and Grand Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R; Beaty, J S; Castanon, D

    2011-02-15

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future explosive detection scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. The purposes of this presentation are to review DHS's objectives for involving third parties in the development of advanced algorithms and then to discuss how these objectives are achieved using workshops and grand challenges. Terrorists are still trying and they are getting more sophisticated. There is a need to increase the number of smart people working on homeland security. Augmenting capabilities and capacities of system vendors with third-parties is one tactic. Third parties can be accessed via workshops and grand challenges. Successes have been achieved to date. There are issues that need to be resolved to further increase third party involvement.

  2. 75 FR 51020 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Mattresses, Mattress Pads, and/or Mattress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6396); the stay applied to testing and certification of various products, including... Federal Register (74 FR 68588) revising the terms of the stay. One section of the December 28, 2009... COMMISSION Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Mattresses, Mattress Pads, and/or...

  3. 13 CFR 108.1240 - Funding of NMVC Company's draw request through sale to third-party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding of NMVC Company's draw request through sale to third-party. 108.1240 Section 108.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for...

  4. 49 CFR 234.307 - Use of third-party telephone service by dispatching and maintaining railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY... Systems for Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234... crossings pursuant to § 234.303. If a dispatching railroad chooses to use a third-party telephone...

  5. 49 CFR 234.307 - Use of third-party telephone service by dispatching and maintaining railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY... Systems for Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234... crossings pursuant to § 234.303. If a dispatching railroad chooses to use a third-party telephone...

  6. 49 CFR 234.307 - Use of third-party telephone service by dispatching and maintaining railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY... Systems for Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234... crossings pursuant to § 234.303. If a dispatching railroad chooses to use a third-party telephone...

  7. 76 FR 36400 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... peak and off-peak energy prices or selling ancillary services; and similar to a transmission asset (e.g... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Chapter I Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting...

  8. 42 CFR 102.84 - The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors. 102.84 Section 102.84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment...

  9. 42 CFR 102.84 - The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors. 102.84 Section 102.84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment...

  10. 42 CFR 102.84 - The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors. 102.84 Section 102.84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment...

  11. 42 CFR 102.84 - The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors. 102.84 Section 102.84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment...

  12. 42 CFR 102.84 - The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Secretary's right to recover benefits paid under this program from third-party payors. 102.84 Section 102.84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment...

  13. 16 CFR 1112.13 - How does a third party conformity assessment body apply for CPSC acceptance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... body is located; if that language is different than English, an English translation of the executed... body apply for CPSC acceptance? 1112.13 Section 1112.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... ASSESSMENT BODIES General Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies § 1112.13...

  14. 49 CFR 512.9 - What are the requirements if the information comes from a third party?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements if the information comes from a third party? 512.9 Section 512.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Additional Requirements...

  15. 75 FR 72944 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Mattresses, Mattress Pads, and/or Mattress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert ``Jay'' Howell, Assistant Executive Director for The Office of Hazard...), Public Law 110-314, directs the CPSC to publish a notice of requirements for accreditation of third party...). In the Federal Register of August 18, 2010 (75 FR 51020), we published a notice of...

  16. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  17. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  18. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  19. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  20. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  1. 36 CFR 1202.62 - What are the procedures for disclosure of records to a third party?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for... Disclosure of Records § 1202.62 What are the procedures for disclosure of records to a third party? (a) To... verify your right to obtain access to documents pursuant to § 1202.60. Upon verification, the...

  2. 78 FR 69603 - Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies To Conduct Food Safety Audits and To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... comment period for the proposed rule. DATES: For the proposed rule published on July 29, 2013 (78 FR 45782... of July 29, 2013 (78 FR 45782), we published a proposed rule entitled ``Accreditation of Third-Party... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals'' (78...

  3. A Third Party Evaluation of the Region V, Regional Education Service Agency, Career Oriented Education Program: 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Floyd L.; Hartnett, Richard A.

    A comprehensive third-party evaluation of a regional career education project covering an eight-county area in West Virginia focused on the project's most recent year of operation (1975-76). The evaluation attempted to measure the degree of attainment of stated goals and objectives and was designed to develop a guide and lend direction to local…

  4. 77 FR 16036 - Guidance for Industry, Third Parties and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Device ISO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... System; the European Union Notified Body Accreditation System; the Therapeutics Goods Administration of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry, Third Parties and Food and Drug... manufacturer whose establishment has been audited under one of the regulatory systems implemented by the...

  5. 16 CFR 1112.53 - Can the CPSC immediately withdraw its acceptance of the accreditation of a third party conformity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PERTAINING TO THIRD PARTY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT BODIES Adverse Actions: Types, Grounds, Allegations... portion of its CPSC scope while the CPSC pursues an investigation and potential adverse action under... assessment body's accreditation, the investigation and adverse action procedures described in § 1112.51...

  6. 16 CFR 1112.41 - What are the possible adverse actions the CPSC may take against a third party conformity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TO THIRD PARTY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT BODIES Adverse Actions: Types, Grounds, Allegations, Procedural Requirements, and Publication § 1112.41 What are the possible adverse actions the CPSC may take against a third... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the possible adverse actions...

  7. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  8. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  9. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research. PMID:26276809

  10. Information, the decision forum, and third-party effects in water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Susan Christopher; Ingram, Helen M.

    1988-04-01

    Transfers of water from irrigation to municipal and industrial uses are seen as a low-cost approach to the water supply problems of western cities. Rural areas of origin protest that market transfers ignore indirect economic, political, social, fiscal, and environmental effects of changes in water use. The capacity of five different water transfer institutions: the market, courts, legislature, special purpose districts, and administrative agencies, to develop and weigh information about indirect and nonuser impacts is analyzed and compared. All five forums are found to have biases regarding the type of information used. Markets process information on direct economic costs and benefits well but ignore third-party costs; legislative bodies are sensitive to information about indirect and nonuser impacts but distort information on direct benefits and costs; neither the judiciary nor the water agency is likely to consider community and social impacts of water transfers. Special districts could consider both direct and indirect values but are often controlled by a leadership elite, pursuing narrow goals with minimum membership participation. The appropriate forum for decision making depends upon our priorities among values and on the values that are at stake in particular issues.

  11. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.

    PubMed

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so. PMID:24335985

  12. Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Schneider, Gudrun; Flauger, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour toward threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group.

  13. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research.

  14. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.

    PubMed

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so.

  15. A consumer perspective on informed consent and third-party issues.

    PubMed

    Terry, S F; Terry, P F

    2001-01-01

    Our two children were diagnosed with a rare genetic disorder, which led us to establish a research foundation. This led to in-depth consideration of issues surrounding informed consent from a consumer perspective. Third-party issues arose as central to the formulation of ethical policy in the establishment of a blood and tissue bank and an epidemiologic study. We suggest that a number of myths--privacy is possible, samples can be stripped of identifiers, humans are subjects, voluntary informed consent is attainable, genetics is about the individual only, genetic information is different than other medical information, research is altruistic, the public will learn truths about genetic research via media, and research is culturally competent--make it difficult to resolve the issues intrinsic to informed consent. A number of important elements could make policy decisions less complicated. These include conducting culturally competent research; conveying noncoercive hope, not hype; contacting the voluntary informant only; asking the informant to extend contact to other family members; requiring a comprehensive informed consent process for all contacted; and engaging in state-of-the-art data protections. There is a need for a "Genomic Hippocratic Oath," creating an ethical basis for research similar to the one vowed by health care professionals. Establishing ethical policies as a result of the collaboration of policy makers, researchers, and consumers will allow research to progress ethically at a rapid rate. If regulations are oppressive, they will thwart research; if they are too lenient, participants will not receive protections needed to participate safely.

  16. Children and Adults Use Physical Size and Numerical Alliances in Third-Party Judgments of Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Bonny, Justin W.; Schwartz, Bari L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other social animals interact regularly with conspecifics as part of affiliative groups. Many of these interactions are cooperative, but many others involve competition for resources. Competitive exchanges are often resolved on the basis of dominance relationships, with higher-ranking individuals receiving priority access to desired goods. Although no single cue can establish permanent dominance relationships, there are some cues that predict dominance fairly reliably across context. In the present study, we focused on two such cues relevant to competing groups: (i) the physical sizes of individual members, and (ii) their relative number. Using a social competition task, we examined whether, and how, preschool-aged children and adults used differences in physical size and numerical alliances to judge which of two groups should prevail in a competitive exchange for a desired object. These judgments were made when either physical size or number differed between groups (Experiment 1), and when both were available but pitted against each other (Experiments 1 and 2). Our findings revealed that by 3 years of age, humans use multiple perceptible cues in third-party judgments of dominance. Our findings also revealed that 3-year-olds, like adults, weighted these cues flexibly according to the additional factor of overall group size, with the physical sizes of individuals determining dominance in smaller groups (e.g., 2 vs. 4 characters) and the relative number of individuals determining dominance in larger groups (e.g., 15 vs. 30 characters). Taken together, our findings suggest that a basic formula for determining dominance in competitive exchanges, which weights physical size of individuals and numerical alliances as a function of overall group size, is available to young children and appears fairly stable through to adulthood. PMID:26793158

  17. A consumer perspective on informed consent and third-party issues.

    PubMed

    Terry, S F; Terry, P F

    2001-01-01

    Our two children were diagnosed with a rare genetic disorder, which led us to establish a research foundation. This led to in-depth consideration of issues surrounding informed consent from a consumer perspective. Third-party issues arose as central to the formulation of ethical policy in the establishment of a blood and tissue bank and an epidemiologic study. We suggest that a number of myths--privacy is possible, samples can be stripped of identifiers, humans are subjects, voluntary informed consent is attainable, genetics is about the individual only, genetic information is different than other medical information, research is altruistic, the public will learn truths about genetic research via media, and research is culturally competent--make it difficult to resolve the issues intrinsic to informed consent. A number of important elements could make policy decisions less complicated. These include conducting culturally competent research; conveying noncoercive hope, not hype; contacting the voluntary informant only; asking the informant to extend contact to other family members; requiring a comprehensive informed consent process for all contacted; and engaging in state-of-the-art data protections. There is a need for a "Genomic Hippocratic Oath," creating an ethical basis for research similar to the one vowed by health care professionals. Establishing ethical policies as a result of the collaboration of policy makers, researchers, and consumers will allow research to progress ethically at a rapid rate. If regulations are oppressive, they will thwart research; if they are too lenient, participants will not receive protections needed to participate safely. PMID:11803770

  18. 26 CFR 1.6050W-1 - Information reporting for payments made in settlement of payment card and third party network...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... settlement of payment card and third party network transactions. 1.6050W-1 Section 1.6050W-1 Internal Revenue... card and third party network transactions. (a) In general—(1) General rule. Every payment settlement... party network transaction (as defined in paragraph (c)(1) of this section). (4) Payment...

  19. 75 FR 81789 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... . In the Federal Register of October 22, 2008 (73 FR 62965), the Commission published a notice of... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1219 and 1220 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity...

  20. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  1. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  6. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    PubMed

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  7. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts. PMID:27021310

  8. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts.

  9. The impact of residency match information disseminated by a third-party website.

    PubMed

    Kutikov, Alexander; Morgan, Todd M; Resnick, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a dramatic shift has occurred toward web-based applications and information dissemination both for medical students applying to residency programs and for current housestaff seeking specialty-specific information. This shift has been witnessed in urology with adoption of the Internet-based Electronic Residency Application Service for residency application submission. Currently, most residency programs devote significant attention to developing and maintaining an attractive web page, as studies have suggested departmental websites may impact applicants' decisions regarding residency preference lists.(1,2) Recently, some third-party websites have been established to provide information to medical students and residents in a variety of specialties. No studies are available that evaluate the impact of these external websites on residency decision making. In 2003, a website under the domain name www.UrologyMatch.com was created by 2 coauthors (A.K. and T.M.M.) with the purpose of assisting medical students through the American Urological Association (AUA) match process. Additionally, by providing a discussion forum for students, residents, and faculty, it sought to aid with the dissemination of information between urology programs and applicants. The website has been gradually expanded to provide educational content for urology trainees at a wide range of levels. Components of the website include an introduction to the field of urology, a detailed description of the match process, an "expert advice" section from urologic leaders, a library of relevant Internet links, a digital surgical atlas, and program-specific questionnaire responses provided by residency directors and department chairs. A discussion board providing an uncensored forum for visitors is integrated into the website to aid with the dissemination of information between and among urology programs, residents, and applicants. The high usage of this site has suggested that external

  10. Helping or punishing strangers: neural correlates of altruistic decisions as third-party and of its relation to empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Strang, Sabrina; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a cornerstone of human society. When social norms are violated (e.g., fairness) people can either help the victim or punish the violator in order to restore justice. Recent research has shown that empathic concern influences this decision to help or punish. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the neural underpinnings of third-party help and punishment and the involvement of empathic concern. Participants saw a person violating a social norm, i.e., proposing unfair offers in a dictator game, at the expense of another person. The participants could then decide to either punish the violator or help the victim. Our results revealed that both third-party helping as well as third-party punishing activated the bilateral striatum, a region strongly related with reward processing, indicating that both altruistic decisions share a common neuronal basis. In addition, also different networks were involved in the two processes compared with control conditions; bilateral striatum and the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during helping and bilateral striatum as well as left lPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during punishment. Further we found that individual differences in empathic concern influenced whether people prefer to help or to punish. People with high empathic concern helped more frequently, were faster in their decision and showed higher activation in frontoparietal regions during helping compared with punishing. Our findings provide insights into the neuronal basis of human altruistic behavior and social norm enforcement mechanism.

  11. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from burning composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The potential damage to electrical equipment caused by the release of carbon fibers from burning commercial airliners is assessed in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence. A materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials for aircraft structures is reviewed.

  12. Helping or punishing strangers: neural correlates of altruistic decisions as third-party and of its relation to empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Strang, Sabrina; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a cornerstone of human society. When social norms are violated (e.g., fairness) people can either help the victim or punish the violator in order to restore justice. Recent research has shown that empathic concern influences this decision to help or punish. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the neural underpinnings of third-party help and punishment and the involvement of empathic concern. Participants saw a person violating a social norm, i.e., proposing unfair offers in a dictator game, at the expense of another person. The participants could then decide to either punish the violator or help the victim. Our results revealed that both third-party helping as well as third-party punishing activated the bilateral striatum, a region strongly related with reward processing, indicating that both altruistic decisions share a common neuronal basis. In addition, also different networks were involved in the two processes compared with control conditions; bilateral striatum and the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during helping and bilateral striatum as well as left lPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during punishment. Further we found that individual differences in empathic concern influenced whether people prefer to help or to punish. People with high empathic concern helped more frequently, were faster in their decision and showed higher activation in frontoparietal regions during helping compared with punishing. Our findings provide insights into the neuronal basis of human altruistic behavior and social norm enforcement mechanism. PMID:25741254

  13. Third-party brachytherapy source calibrations and physicist responsibilities: Report of the AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Bice, William S. Jr.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Hevezi, James M.; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rivard, Mark J.; Seuntjens, Jan P.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2008-09-15

    The AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group was formed to investigate and recommend quality control and quality assurance procedures for brachytherapy sources prior to clinical use. Compiling and clarifying recommendations established by previous AAPM Task Groups 40, 56, and 64 were among the working group's charges, which also included the role of third-party handlers to perform loading and assay of sources. This document presents the findings of the working group on the responsibilities of the institutional medical physicist and a clarification of the existing AAPM recommendations in the assay of brachytherapy sources. Responsibility for the performance and attestation of source assays rests with the institutional medical physicist, who must use calibration equipment appropriate for each source type used at the institution. Such equipment and calibration procedures shall ensure secondary traceability to a national standard. For each multi-source implant, 10% of the sources or ten sources, whichever is greater, are to be assayed. Procedures for presterilized source packaging are outlined. The mean source strength of the assayed sources must agree with the manufacturer's stated strength to within 3%, or action must be taken to resolve the difference. Third party assays do not absolve the institutional physicist from the responsibility to perform the institutional measurement and attest to the strength of the implanted sources. The AAPM leaves it to the discretion of the institutional medical physicist whether the manufacturer's or institutional physicist's measured value should be used in performing dosimetry calculations.

  14. Third-party brachytherapy source calibrations and physicist responsibilities: report of the AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group.

    PubMed

    Butler, Wayne M; Bice, William S; DeWerd, Larry A; Hevezi, James M; Huq, M Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Palta, Jatinder R; Rivard, Mark J; Seuntjens, Jan P; Thomadsen, Bruce R

    2008-09-01

    The AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group was formed to investigate and recommend quality control and quality assurance procedures for brachytherapy sources prior to clinical use. Compiling and clarifying recommendations established by previous AAPM Task Groups 40, 56, and 64 were among the working group's charges, which also included the role of third-party handlers to perform loading and assay of sources. This document presents the findings of the working group on the responsibilities of the institutional medical physicist and a clarification of the existing AAPM recommendations in the assay of brachytherapy sources. Responsibility for the performance and attestation of source assays rests with the institutional medical physicist, who must use calibration equipment appropriate for each source type used at the institution. Such equipment and calibration procedures shall ensure secondary traceability to a national standard. For each multi-source implant, 10% of the sources or ten sources, whichever is greater, are to be assayed. Procedures for presterilized source packaging are outlined. The mean source strength of the assayed sources must agree with the manufacturer's stated strength to within 3%, or action must be taken to resolve the difference. Third party assays do not absolve the institutional physicist from the responsibility to perform the institutional measurement and attest to the strength of the implanted sources. The AAPM leaves it to the discretion of the institutional medical physicist whether the manufacturer's or institutional physicist's measured value should be used in performing dosimetry calculations. PMID:18841836

  15. Dogs Identify Agents in Third-Party Interactions on the Basis of the Observed Degree of Contingency.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor; Kovács, Krisztina; Topál, József

    2016-08-01

    To investigate whether dogs could recognize contingent reactivity as a marker of agents' interaction, we performed an experiment in which dogs were presented with third-party contingent events. In the perfect-contingency condition, dogs were shown an unfamiliar self-propelled agent (SPA) that performed actions corresponding to audio clips of verbal commands played by a computer. In the high-but-imperfect-contingency condition, the SPA responded to the verbal commands on only two thirds of the trials; in the low-contingency condition, the SPA responded to the commands on only one third of the trials. In the test phase, the SPA approached one of two tennis balls, and then the dog was allowed to choose one of the balls. The proportion of trials on which a dog chose the object indicated by the SPA increased with the degree of contingency: Dogs chose the target object significantly above chance level only in the perfect-contingency condition. This finding suggests that dogs may use the degree of temporal contingency observed in third-party interactions as a cue to identify agents. PMID:27268590

  16. The use of technology assessment by hospitals, health maintenance organizations, and third-party payers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Luce, B R; Brown, R E

    1995-01-01

    A case study design was used to determine the reliance on technology assessment of decisionmakers in hospitals, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and third-party payers. Thirty different organizations were contacted and semistructured interviews conducted. The study found that hospitals, HMOs, and insurers are conducting technology assessments, but the form and sophistication of these analyses range widely. Hospitals are particularly focused on traditional financial analyses ("prudent purchasing") with the exception of pharmacy committees, which generally conduct more sophisticated socio-economic analyses. HMOs and insurers conduct outcome assessments for coverage of expensive or controversial technologies but exclude economics. Technology assessment will become increasingly important in resource allocation decision making and it is in the interest of technology providers to foster better information, a more comprehensive assessment process, and a more efficient assessment system.

  17. Reach out to one and you reach out to many: social touch affects third-party observers.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

  18. Both loved and feared: third party punishers are viewed as formidable and likeable, but these reputational benefits may only be open to dominant individuals.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David S; Madden, Joah R; Lea, Stephen E G

    2014-01-01

    Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1), when there was variation in the success of punishment (Study 2), and variation in the status of the punisher and the type of punishment used (Study 3). Third party punishers were judged to be more likeable than (but equally dominant as) those who engaged in other types of dominant behaviour (Study 1), were judged to be equally likeable and dominant whether their intervention succeeded or failed (Study 2), and participants believed that only a dominant punisher could intervene successfully (regardless of whether punishment was violent or non-violent) and that subordinate punishers would face a higher risk of retaliation (Study 3). The results suggest that dominance can dramatically reduce the cost of punishment, and that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment, these benefits are only open to dominant individuals. Taking the status of punishers into account may therefore help explain the evolution of third party punishment.

  19. Both loved and feared: third party punishers are viewed as formidable and likeable, but these reputational benefits may only be open to dominant individuals.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David S; Madden, Joah R; Lea, Stephen E G

    2014-01-01

    Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1), when there was variation in the success of punishment (Study 2), and variation in the status of the punisher and the type of punishment used (Study 3). Third party punishers were judged to be more likeable than (but equally dominant as) those who engaged in other types of dominant behaviour (Study 1), were judged to be equally likeable and dominant whether their intervention succeeded or failed (Study 2), and participants believed that only a dominant punisher could intervene successfully (regardless of whether punishment was violent or non-violent) and that subordinate punishers would face a higher risk of retaliation (Study 3). The results suggest that dominance can dramatically reduce the cost of punishment, and that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment, these benefits are only open to dominant individuals. Taking the status of punishers into account may therefore help explain the evolution of third party punishment. PMID:25347781

  20. Both Loved and Feared: Third Party Punishers Are Viewed as Formidable and Likeable, but These Reputational Benefits May Only Be Open to Dominant Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, David S.; Madden, Joah R.; Lea, Stephen E. G.

    2014-01-01

    Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1), when there was variation in the success of punishment (Study 2), and variation in the status of the punisher and the type of punishment used (Study 3). Third party punishers were judged to be more likeable than (but equally dominant as) those who engaged in other types of dominant behaviour (Study 1), were judged to be equally likeable and dominant whether their intervention succeeded or failed (Study 2), and participants believed that only a dominant punisher could intervene successfully (regardless of whether punishment was violent or non-violent) and that subordinate punishers would face a higher risk of retaliation (Study 3). The results suggest that dominance can dramatically reduce the cost of punishment, and that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment, these benefits are only open to dominant individuals. Taking the status of punishers into account may therefore help explain the evolution of third party punishment. PMID:25347781

  1. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  2. 30 CFR 285.528 - May I use a third-party guaranty to meet the financial assurance requirement for lease or grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use a third-party guaranty to meet the financial assurance requirement for lease or grant activities? 285.528 Section 285.528 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...

  3. 20 CFR 10.706 - How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action against a third party is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL... Third Party Liability § 10.706 How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action... is transferred to SOL, a second notification may be issued....

  4. 20 CFR 10.706 - How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action against a third party is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL... Third Party Liability § 10.706 How will a beneficiary know if OWCP or SOL has determined that action... is transferred to SOL, a second notification may be issued....

  5. Attachment in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Attachment Scale-Third Party Observational Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…

  6. Predicting Student Performance in Statewide High-Stakes Tests for Middle School Mathematics Using the Results from Third Party Testing Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meylani, Rusen; Bitter, Gary G.; Castaneda, Rene

    2014-01-01

    In this study regression and neural networks based methods are used to predict statewide high-stakes test results for middle school mathematics using the scores obtained from third party tests throughout the school year. Such prediction is of utmost significance for school districts to live up to the state's educational standards mandated by the…

  7. Polyclonal Recipient nTregs Are Superior to Donor or Third-Party Tregs in the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Nina; Klaus, Christoph; Hock, Karin; Baranyi, Ulrike; Unger, Lukas; Mahr, Benedikt; Farkas, Andreas M; Wrba, Fritz; Wekerle, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Induction of donor-specific tolerance is still considered as the "Holy Grail" in transplantation medicine. The mixed chimerism approach is virtually the only tolerance approach that was successfully translated into the clinical setting. We have previously reported successful induction of chimerism and tolerance using cell therapy with recipient T regulatory cells (Tregs) to avoid cytotoxic recipient treatment. Treg therapy is limited by the availability of cells as large-scale expansion is time-consuming and associated with the risk of contamination with effector cells. Using a costimulation-blockade based bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) model with Treg therapy instead of cytoreductive recipient treatment we aimed to determine the most potent Treg population for clinical translation. Here we show that CD4(+)CD25(+) in vitro activated nTregs are superior to TGFβ induced iTregs in promoting the induction of chimerism and tolerance. Therapy with nTregs (but not iTregs) led to multilineage chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in mice receiving as few as 0.5 × 10(6) cells. Moreover, we show that only recipient Tregs, but not donor or third-party Tregs, had a beneficial effect on BM engraftment at the tested doses. Thus, recipient-type nTregs significantly improve chimerism and tolerance and might be the most potent Treg population for translation into the clinical setting.

  8. Polyclonal Recipient nTregs Are Superior to Donor or Third-Party Tregs in the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Nina; Klaus, Christoph; Hock, Karin; Baranyi, Ulrike; Unger, Lukas; Mahr, Benedikt; Farkas, Andreas M.; Wrba, Fritz; Wekerle, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Induction of donor-specific tolerance is still considered as the “Holy Grail” in transplantation medicine. The mixed chimerism approach is virtually the only tolerance approach that was successfully translated into the clinical setting. We have previously reported successful induction of chimerism and tolerance using cell therapy with recipient T regulatory cells (Tregs) to avoid cytotoxic recipient treatment. Treg therapy is limited by the availability of cells as large-scale expansion is time-consuming and associated with the risk of contamination with effector cells. Using a costimulation-blockade based bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) model with Treg therapy instead of cytoreductive recipient treatment we aimed to determine the most potent Treg population for clinical translation. Here we show that CD4+CD25+ in vitro activated nTregs are superior to TGFβ induced iTregs in promoting the induction of chimerism and tolerance. Therapy with nTregs (but not iTregs) led to multilineage chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in mice receiving as few as 0.5 × 106 cells. Moreover, we show that only recipient Tregs, but not donor or third-party Tregs, had a beneficial effect on BM engraftment at the tested doses. Thus, recipient-type nTregs significantly improve chimerism and tolerance and might be the most potent Treg population for translation into the clinical setting. PMID:26273682

  9. Effects of parental presence and child characteristics on children's neuropsychological test performance: third party observer effect confirmed.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christine L; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    An observer's presence during neuropsychological testing can impair task performance in adults, but this phenomenon has yet to be examined as it pertains to neuropsychological testing of children. The current study focused on parental presence effects on nonverbal intelligence and verbal learning performance of children aged 6 to 8 years. Each of 53 children completed one form of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3rd Edition (TONI-3) and the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) with his/her parent in the room and an alternate form of each with only the experimenter with the child in the testing room. Of several possible covariates, only the child's age was significant and included in final analyses. Using a doubly multivariate MANCOVA it was discovered that parent's observation status significantly interacted with the order of observation to impact task performance. This significant effect can mainly be attributed to a steeper positive slope (i.e., children's greater improvement over time) for TONI-3 T scores in children whose parent observed first; children whose parents were absent for the first half of testing improved to a lesser extent over time. No significant relationship was found between observation and SRT scores. These results lend some support to the assertion of previous studies that the presence of third party observers may affect the validity of neuropsychological test results. PMID:18609333

  10. ‘To quarterback behind the scenes, third-party efforts’: the tobacco industry and the Tea Party

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Background The Tea Party, which gained prominence in the USA in 2009, advocates limited government and low taxes. Tea Party organisations, particularly Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks, oppose smoke-free laws and tobacco taxes. Methods We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the Wayback Machine, Google, LexisNexis, the Center for Media and Democracy and the Center for Responsive Politics (opensecrets.org) to examine the tobacco companies’ connections to the Tea Party. Results Starting in the 1980s, tobacco companies worked to create the appearance of broad opposition to tobacco control policies by attempting to create a grassroots smokers’ rights movement. Simultaneously, they funded and worked through third-party groups, such as Citizens for a Sound Economy, the predecessor of AFP and FreedomWorks, to accomplish their economic and political agenda. There has been continuity of some key players, strategies and messages from these groups to Tea Party organisations. As of 2012, the Tea Party was beginning to spread internationally. Conclusions Rather than being a purely grassroots movement that spontaneously developed in 2009, the Tea Party has developed over time, in part through decades of work by the tobacco industry and other corporate interests. It is important for tobacco control advocates in the USA and internationally, to anticipate and counter Tea Party opposition to tobacco control policies and ensure that policymakers, the media and the public understand the longstanding connection between the tobacco industry, the Tea Party and its associated organisations. PMID:23396417

  11. Cord blood transplants supported by co-infusion of mobilized hematopoietic stem cells from a third-party donor.

    PubMed

    Bautista, G; Cabrera, J R; Regidor, C; Forés, R; García-Marco, J A; Ojeda, E; Sanjuán, I; Ruiz, E; Krsnik, I; Navarro, B; Gil, S; Magro, E; de Laiglesia, A; Gonzalo-Daganzo, R; Martín-Donaire, T; Rico, M; Millán, I; Fernández, M N

    2009-03-01

    This open label clinical study provides updated evaluation of the strategy of single unit cord blood transplants (CBTs) with co-infusion of third-party donor (TPD) mobilized hematopoietic stem cells (MHSC). Fifty-five adults with high-risk hematological malignancies, median age 34 years (16-60 years) and weight 70 kg (43-95 kg), received CBTs (median 2.39 x 10(7) total nucleated cell (TNC) per kg and 0.11 x 10(6) CD34+ per kg) and TPD-MHSC (median 2.4 x 10(6) CD34+ per kg and 3.2 x 10(3) CD3+ per kg). Median time to ANC and to CB-ANC >0.5 x 10(9)/l as well as to full CB-chimerism was 10, 21 and 44 days, with maximum cumulative incidences (MCI) of 0.96, 0.95 and 0.91. Median time to unsupported platelets >20 x 10(9)/l was 32 days (MCI 0.78). MCI for grades I-IV and III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 0.62 and 0.11; 12 of 41 patients (29%) who are at risk developed chronic GVHD, becoming severely extensive in three patients. Relapses occurred in seven patients (MCI=0.17). The main causes of morbi-mortality were post-engraftment infections. CMV reactivations were the most frequent, their incidence declining after the fourth month. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival (Kaplan-Meier) were 56 % and 47% (63% and 54% for patients

  12. Rotational output and beam quality evaluations for helical tomotherapy with use of a third-party quality assurance tool.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Koji; Iwata, Manabu; Kawai, Minoru; Nakashima, Kuniyasu; Kubota, Takashi; Osaki, Hikaru; Nakayama, Masashi; Yoshimoto, Manabu; Kodaira, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether a third-party quality assurance (QA) tool was suitable for the measurement of rotational output and beam quality in place of on-board detector signals. A Rotational Therapy Phantom 507 (507 Phantom) was used as a QA tool. The rotational output constancy (ROC507) and the beam quality index ([Formula: see text]) were evaluated by analysis of signals from an ion chamber inserted into the 507 Phantom. On-board detector signals were obtained for comparisons with the data from the 507 Phantom. The rotational output (ROC(detector)) and beam quality (corrected cone ratio; CCR) were determined by analysis of on-board detector signals that were generated by irradiation. The tissue phantom ratio at depth 20 and 10 cm (TPR20, 10) was measured with a Farmer-type ionization chamber inserted in a plastic-slab phantom. For rotational output measurement, the correlation coefficient between ROC507 and ROC(detector) values was 0.68 (p < 0.001). ROC507 and ROC(detector) values showed a reduced coefficient of variation after magnetron replacement, which was done during the measurement period. In addition, ROC507 values were reduced significantly along with ROC(detector) values after target replacement (p < 0.001). Regarding the beam quality index, [Formula: see text] showed a change similar to CCR and an increase similar to TPR20, 10 after magnetron/target replacement. This QA tool could check for daily rotational output and detect changes in rotational output and beam quality caused by magnetron or target failure as well as when on-board detector signals were used. Without needing a tomotherapy quality assurance license, we could effectively and quantitatively estimate the rotational output and beam quality at a low cost.

  13. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  14. The Multi-TASTE Validation System: Tasting the Evolution of Reactive and Greenhouse Gas Data Products from Envisat and Third Party Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, D.; Keppens, A.; Lambert, J.-C.; Granville, J.; Hendrick, F.; Verhoelst, T.

    2015-06-01

    Over the past two decades the Multi-TASTE validation system has proven its value in the characterisation and support to the development of atmospheric composition measurements by ESA’s GOME, Envisat and Third Party Missions (TPMs). We give an overview of the capabilities and the latest results of this comprehensive, versatile and semi-operational system and address its relevance regarding the recommendations voiced at ATMOS 2012.

  15. Accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Corneli, Howard M

    2012-05-01

    Accidental hypothermia has produced many cases of intact survival even after prolonged cardiac arrest, but it is also often fatal. In recent years, alterations in resuscitation care that sometimes confused or discouraged resuscitation teams have largely been supplanted by an emphasis on safe, rapid, effective rewarming. Rewarming decisions and even the simple recognition of hypothermia remain challenging. This review seeks to update and demystify some of these challenges. PMID:22561323

  16. [Accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Soteras Martínez, Iñigo; Subirats Bayego, Enric; Reisten, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an infrequent and under-diagnosed pathology, which causes fatalities every year. Its management requires thermometers to measure core temperature. An esophageal probe may be used in a hospital situation, although in moderate hypothermia victims epitympanic measurement is sufficient. Initial management involves advance life support and body rewarming. Vigorous movements can trigger arrhythmia which does not use to respond to medication or defibrillation until the body reaches 30°C. External, passive rewarming is the method of choice for mild hypothermia and a supplementary method for moderate or severe hypothermia. Active external rewarming is indicated for moderate or severe hypothermia or mild hypothermia that has not responded to passive rewarming. Active internal rewarming is indicated for hemodynamically stable patients suffering moderate or severe hypothermia. Patients with severe hypothermia, cardiac arrest or with a potassium level below 12 mmol/l may require cardiopulmonary bypass treatment.

  17. Non-destructive testing and assessment of dynamic incompatibility between third-party piping and drain valve systems: an industrial case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Keen Kuan; Noroozi, Siamak; Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Dupac, Mihai; Eng, Hoe Cheng; Chao Ong, Zhi; Khoo, Shin Yee; Vinney, John E.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the outcome of an industrial case study that involved condition monitoring of piping system that showed signs of excess fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. Due to operational requirements, a novel non-destructive assessment stratagem was adopted using different vibration analysis techniques - such as experimental modal analysis and operating deflection shapes - and complemented by visual inspection. Modal analysis carried out near a drain valve showed a dynamic weakness problem (several high-frequency flow-induced vibration frequency peaks), hence condition-based monitoring was used. This could easily be linked to design problem associated with the dynamic incompatibility due to dissimilar stiffness between two third-party supplied pipe and valve systems. It was concluded that this is the main cause for these problem types especially when systems are supplied by third parties, but assembled locally, a major cause of dynamic incompatibility. It is the local assembler's responsibility to develop skills and expertise needed to sustain the operation of these plants. This paper shows the technique used as result of one such initiative. Since high amplitude, low-frequency displacement can cause low cycle fatigue, attention must be paid to ensure flow remains as steady state as possible. The ability to assess the level of design incompatibility and the level of modification required using non-destructive testing is vital if these systems are to work continuously.

  18. Changing trends in treatment of substance abuse: a look at some of the factors involved in third-party providers and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Pourciau, T; Sanders, A F; Buckel, B

    1992-07-01

    In order to better focus our care in providing patients with treatment that matched their needs, an inpatient study was done on patient discharges for 1990 involving 267 patients. Our study points out the influence of the changing drug scene in this country. In approximately 40% of the patients admitted, the drug of choice is other than alcohol. The importance of family and employer involvement in effective treatment stands out. Fewer patients are being admitted but those admitted are sicker and require more treatment. Chemical dependency programs in Louisiana and the United States are experiencing significant declines in the utilization of their service and many are closing. The patient census has been impaired primarily by the expense of or lack of insurance coverage by third-party payors. For patients with insurance coverage the criteria for inpatient treatment by third-party reviewers are so stringent that staff assessment recommendations are frequently over-ruled. Substance abuse is a chronic relapsing illness, yet many insurance companies limit coverage both in time and money. In no other field of medicine do patients leave treatment prematurely as they do in substance abuse.

  19. Accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Paton, B C

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of hypothermia has increased greatly over the past 25 yr. Thousands of patients have been cooled intentionally in the operating room, and hundreds of thousands of living hearts have been temporarily stopped by cold cardioplegia and restarted without difficulty or apparent ill-effect. Yet in spite of the acquisition of this vast body of clinical experience an aura of mystery stills surrounds the patient who becomes hypothermic accidentally. The best treatment in any particular case is not always clear, and published accounts do not always give the impression that the hypothermic patient is treated with the same rational approach with which other sick and comatose patients are treated. In summarizing, therefore, conclusions that might be reached from reviewing past experience several important points emerge. The severely hypothermic patient should be treated in an intensive care unit where appropriate monitoring of temperature, cardiovascular function and respiratory function are available, and where full respiratory support including assisted ventilation can be given. The final outcome depends upon the etiology. The young healthy victim of exposure has a good chance of surviving. The patient poisoned by alcohol or barbiturates has a good chance of surviving provided the level of intoxication is not itself lethal. The elderly without severe underlying disease have a good chance of surviving. The patient with severe underlying disease of the endocrine, cardiovascular or neurologic system probably has, at best, a 50% chance of surviving and, at worst, a chance of only 10-20%, depending upon the associated disease. There is no statistical evidence that any one method of rewarming is significantly better than any other. But there is anecdotal evidence that in the absence of full monitoring and support systems slow rewarming is safer than over-energetic external rewarming. Internal rewarming, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, inhalation of warmed

  20. Assessing the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located influenza vaccination program with third-party billing in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julie J; Humiston, Sharon G; Long, Christine E; Kennedy, Allison M; Dimattia, Kimberly; Kolasa, Maureen S

    2012-10-01

    This study qualitatively assesses the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located vaccination for influenza (SLIV) project that was conducted in New York State in 2009-2011, from the perspectives of project participants with different roles. Fourteen in-depth semistructured interviews with participating schools' personnel and the mass vaccinator were tape-recorded and transcribed. Interviewees were randomly selected from stratified lists and included five principals, five school nurses, two school administrators, and two lead personnel from the mass vaccinator. A content analysis of transcripts from the interviews was completed and several themes emerged. All participants generally found the SLIV project acceptable. School personnel and the vaccinator viewed the SLIV project process as feasible and beneficial. However, the vaccinator identified difficulties with third-party billing as a potential threat to sustainability. PMID:22786984

  1. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Programs; Medicaid Managed Care, CHIP Delivered in Managed Care, and Revisions Related to Third Party Liability. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    This final rule modernizes the Medicaid managed care regulations to reflect changes in the usage of managed care delivery systems. The final rule aligns, where feasible, many of the rules governing Medicaid managed care with those of other major sources of coverage, including coverage through Qualified Health Plans and Medicare Advantage plans; implements statutory provisions; strengthens actuarial soundness payment provisions to promote the accountability of Medicaid managed care program rates; and promotes the quality of care and strengthens efforts to reform delivery systems that serve Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries. It also ensures appropriate beneficiary protections and enhances policies related to program integrity. This final rule also implements provisions of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) and addresses third party liability for trauma codes.

  2. Assessing the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located influenza vaccination program with third-party billing in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julie J; Humiston, Sharon G; Long, Christine E; Kennedy, Allison M; Dimattia, Kimberly; Kolasa, Maureen S

    2012-10-01

    This study qualitatively assesses the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located vaccination for influenza (SLIV) project that was conducted in New York State in 2009-2011, from the perspectives of project participants with different roles. Fourteen in-depth semistructured interviews with participating schools' personnel and the mass vaccinator were tape-recorded and transcribed. Interviewees were randomly selected from stratified lists and included five principals, five school nurses, two school administrators, and two lead personnel from the mass vaccinator. A content analysis of transcripts from the interviews was completed and several themes emerged. All participants generally found the SLIV project acceptable. School personnel and the vaccinator viewed the SLIV project process as feasible and beneficial. However, the vaccinator identified difficulties with third-party billing as a potential threat to sustainability.

  3. [Support provided by third parties and the reaction of close female caregivers in the care of elderly persons with loss of autonomy].

    PubMed

    Demers, A; Lavoie, J P; Drapeau, A

    1992-01-01

    This article is about the relation between, on the one hand, support provided by third parties and, on the other, the burden and the depression experienced by the main female supporters who care for the elderly suffering from physical or cognitive problems. The authors examine the hypothesis that social support is not homogeneous across the board and that the different types of support are likely to have different effects on elders with adverse reactions to the caring process. Data originates from a study that was conducted in the Montréal area in 1990 with 159 female supporters living with an elder requiring care who requested support services from formal and informal networks. Hierarchical regression analyses show that the variables in connection with care dispensed by the network play a limited role in attempting to explain the depression and burden levels. Furthermore, these analyses confirm the hypothesis of the variables' narrow range of influence.

  4. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Programs; Medicaid Managed Care, CHIP Delivered in Managed Care, and Revisions Related to Third Party Liability. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    This final rule modernizes the Medicaid managed care regulations to reflect changes in the usage of managed care delivery systems. The final rule aligns, where feasible, many of the rules governing Medicaid managed care with those of other major sources of coverage, including coverage through Qualified Health Plans and Medicare Advantage plans; implements statutory provisions; strengthens actuarial soundness payment provisions to promote the accountability of Medicaid managed care program rates; and promotes the quality of care and strengthens efforts to reform delivery systems that serve Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries. It also ensures appropriate beneficiary protections and enhances policies related to program integrity. This final rule also implements provisions of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) and addresses third party liability for trauma codes. PMID:27192729

  5. Exploring the market for third-party-owned residential photovoltaic systems: insights from lease and power-purchase agreement contract structures and costs in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010-2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time.

  6. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy from third-party donors: characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    PubMed Central

    Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus (ADV) are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs) derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood (CB) transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells. Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore, frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  7. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  8. Statement of Work Third Party Algorithm Development and Evaluation of Detection of Liquid Explosives in Dual-Energy Digital Radiographic/TIP Ready X-ray Images - Public Version

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Martz, Jr., H E

    2009-09-23

    The purpose of this statement of work is for third party collaborators to train, validate and have Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) evaluate algorithms to detect liquid threats in digital radiography (DR)/TIP Ready X-ray (TRX) images that will be provided by LLNS through the Transportation and Security Administration (TSA). LLNS will provide a set of images with threat(s) to determine detection rates and non-threat images from airports to determine false alarm rates. A key including a bounding box showing the locations of the threats and non-threats will be provided for the images. It is expected that the Subcontractor shall use half of the images with their keys for training the algorithms and the other half shall be used for validation (third party evaluation) purposes. The Subcontractor shall not use the key to the second half of the data other than for the validation and reporting of the performance of its algorithm (not for training). The Subcontractor has 45 business days from the receipt of datasets and the Subcontract to: (1) Run their detection/classification algorithms on the data; (2) Deliver a final report describing their performance by generating Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves using their algorithm; and (3) Deliver a copy of the third party's executable software (already trained and validated by the datasets) to LLNL accompanied by a user manual. LLNS will evaluate the performance of the same algorithm on another separate set of data. LLNS evaluation of the Subcontractor's algorithm will be documented in a final report within 30 days of receiving the executable code. This report will be sent to TSA and the report may be disseminated to the Subcontract at TSA's discretion.

  9. 20 CFR 10.707 - What must a FECA beneficiary who is required to take action against a third party do to satisfy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... one capacity, such as a joint payment to a husband and wife for personal injury and loss of consortium...”? At a minimum, a FECA beneficiary must do the following: (a) Seek damages for the injury or death...

  10. 20 CFR 10.707 - What must a FECA beneficiary who is required to take action against a third party do to satisfy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... one capacity, such as a joint payment to a husband and wife for personal injury and loss of consortium...”? At a minimum, a FECA beneficiary must do the following: (a) Seek damages for the injury or death...

  11. Doctor Ward's Accidental Terrarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the story of the accidental invention of the Wardian case, or terrarium, by Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward. Advocates the use of this story in teaching precollege biology as an illustration of how a chance event can lead to a major scientific advancement and as an example of the common occurrence of multiple discovery in botany. Contains 34…

  12. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  13. Accidental acute exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Curran, C F; Luce, J K

    1989-12-01

    Accidental ocular exposure to doxorubicin was followed by no reaction or rapidly resolving conjunctivitis in 13 of 15 cases (87%). In the two remaining cases, persistent photophobia and chronic inflammation were reported. Of 28 accidental exposures to sites other than the eyes, no reactions or rapidly resolving local reactions were reported in 24 cases (86%). Nurses are at particular risk for accidental exposure to doxorubicin and accounted for 20 of the 43 reported exposures (47%). PMID:2590899

  14. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  15. Idiosyncratic deals: coworkers as interested third parties.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lei; Rousseau, Denise M; Chang, Klarissa Ting Ting

    2009-03-01

    Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals for short) are personalized employment arrangements negotiated between individual workers and employers and intended to benefit them both (D. M. Rousseau, 2005). Coworkers' acceptance of another's i-deal can ultimately impact its overall effectiveness for the organization. By using a network approach to the study of work group dynamics, this research addresses the contributions coworker relationships with both the i-dealer and their employer make to coworker's willingness to accept a peer's i-deal. In a study of 65 employees in 20 research and development groups, coworker acceptance of i-deals is greater for group members who are their close personal friends than for members who are not. The coworkers' social exchange relationship with their employers is positively related to acceptance, while economic exchange is negatively related. Coworkers' belief in the likelihood of obtaining comparable future opportunity is positively related to their acceptance of another's i-deal. Results suggest that the relationship of both economic and social exchange with acceptance is likely to be mediated by beliefs regarding comparable future opportunity. Implications for both research and practice are discussed. PMID:19271808

  16. Orienting to Third-Party Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Sussmann, Carmen; Akhtar, Nameera; Diesendruck, Gil; Markson, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Children as young as two years of age are able to learn novel object labels through overhearing, even when distracted by an attractive toy (Akhtar, 2005). The present studies varied the information provided about novel objects and examined which elements (i.e. novel versus neutral information and labels versus facts) toddlers chose to monitor, and…

  17. Induction of anti-allo-class I H-2 tolerance by inactivation of CD8+ helper T cells, and reversal of tolerance through introduction of third- party helper T cells

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The intravenous sensitization of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with class I H-2- disparate B6-C-H-2bm1 (bm1) spleen cells resulted in the abrogation of CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-bm1 (proliferative and interleukin 2- producing) T helper (Th) cell activities. In vitro stimulation of lymphoid cells from these mice with bm1 cells, however, generated a reduced, but appreciable, anti-bm1 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Moreover, the anti-bm1 CTL response, upon stimulation with [bm1 x B6-C-H-2bm12 (bm12)]F1 spleen cells, was enhanced when compared with the response induced upon stimulation with bm1 cells. These in vitro results were reflected on in vivo graft rejection responses; bm1 skin grafts engrafted in the bm1-presensitized B6 mice exhibited prolonged survival, whereas (bm1 x bm12)F1 grafts placed collateral to bm1 grafts (dual engrafted mice) inhibited the tolerance to bm1. In the B6 mice 1-2 d after rejecting the bm1 grafts, anti-bm1 Th activities remained marginal, whereas potent anti-bm1 CTL responses were found to be generated from their spleen cells. Administration in vivo of anti- CD4 antibody into bm1-presensitized, dual graft-engrafted mice prolonged bm1 graft survival and interfered with enhanced induction of anti-bm1 CTL activity. These results indicate that anti-class I alloantigen (bm1) tolerance as induced by intravenous presensitization with the relevant antigens is not ascribed to the elimination of CD8+ CTL precursors, but to the specific inactivation of CD8+ Th cells, whose function can be bypassed by activating third-party Th cells. PMID:2141624

  18. [Accidental hypothermia (a case report)].

    PubMed

    Erkalp, Kerem; Yangin, Zehra; Başaranoğlu, Gökçen; Erden, Veysel

    2006-07-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia (core body temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. We report a 70-year-old male patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 28 degrees C). The homeless man was found in the street. He died, in spite of all resuscitation efforts and rewarming methods. In this case report reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of accidental hypothermia. PMID:16850366

  19. Estimating emissions from accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have an objective sources of air emissions through programs such as Title III, which is aimed at reducing hazardous air pollutant emissions. However, under Section 112(r) of the CAAA of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also developed requirements for owners and operators of facilities regulated for hazardous substances to implement accidental release prevention programs for non-continuous emissions. Provisions of 112(r) include programs for release prevention, emergency planning and risk management. This paper examines methodologies available to regulated facilities for estimating accidental release emissions and determining off-site impacts.

  20. Assessment of war and accidental nerve injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Barisić, N; Perović, D; Mitrović, Z; Jurenić, D; Zagar, M

    1999-07-01

    Eleven children with war-related peripheral nerve injury and 16 children with accident-related nerve injury between the ages of 3 and 15 years were assessed clinically and electromyoneurographically for 1-15 months. Lesions of 32 peripheral nerves were registered in children with war injuries. Children with accidentally acquired injuries had lesions of 27 peripheral nerves. A complete loss of voluntary motor unit potentials and signs of total axonal damage were recorded in the upper arms of seven of 11 children with war injuries and in five of 16 children with accidental injuries. There was a diminished number of motor unit potentials and a reduction in compound muscle action potential amplitudes, indicating partial nerve lesions, in 11 of 16 children with accidental injuries (mostly after humeral fracture) and in three of 11 children with brachial plexus war injuries. Reinnervation signs first occurred after 5-9 months (mean = 6.2 months) in war-injured children receiving conservative treatment and after 2-7 months (mean = 3.4 months) in children with accidentally acquired injuries. War-related peripheral nerve injuries in children are more frequently associated with complete denervation followed by slower or delayed nerve regeneration. In children with accidentally acquired nerve injuries the course is significantly better.

  1. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  2. 76 FR 69595 - Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28336), we published a proposed rule titled, ``Testing and Labeling Pertaining to... Consumer Products'' (75 FR 28208); the proposed rule would establish requirements regarding the testing of... November 8, 2011 Part VI Consumer Product Safety Commission 16 CFR Chapter II Application of Third...

  3. [Management of severe accidental hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Avellanas, M L; Ricart, A; Botella, J; Mengelle, F; Soteras, I; Veres, T; Vidal, M

    2012-04-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an environmental condition with basic principles of classification and resuscitation that apply to mountain, sea or urban scenarios. Along with coagulopathy and acidosis, hypothermia belongs to the lethal triad of trauma victims requiring critical care. A customized healthcare chain is involved in its management, extending from on site assistance to intensive care, cardiac surgery and/or the extracorporeal circulation protocols. A good classification of the degree of hypothermia preceding admission contributes to improve management and avoids inappropriate referrals between hospitals. The most important issue is to admit hypothermia victims in asystolia or ventricular fibrillation to those hospitals equipped with the medical technology which these special clinical scenarios require. This study attempts to establish the foundations for optimum management of accidental hypothermia from first emergency care on site to treatment in hospital including, resuscitation and rewarming with extracorporeal circulation.

  4. The big chill: accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert Allan

    2012-01-01

    A potential cause of such emergent issues as cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and fluid and electrolyte shifts, accidental hypothermia can be deadly, is common among trauma patients, and is often difficult to recognize. The author discusses predisposing conditions, the classic presentation, and the effects on normal thermoregulatory processes; explains how to conduct a systems assessment of the hypothermic patient; and describes crucial management strategies. PMID:22186703

  5. Accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine.

    PubMed

    D'Addario, Adriana; Galuppo, Juan; Navari, Carlos; Schultz, Marcelo; Cuello, Nélida; Troncoso, Juan C; Riudavets, Miguel Angel

    2010-03-01

    We describe a case of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine in a 33-year-old man with clinical diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient died 20 days after receiving the drug. Clinically, the patient developed acute ascending paralysis with motor and sensory dysfunctions, and respiratory failure. Neuropathological investigation revealed lesions in spinal cord, roots, and cerebellum characterized by rarefaction of the neuropil, axonal, and myelin degeneration, accompanied by macrophagic infiltration.

  6. Accidental poisoning in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

    1982-01-01

    Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

  7. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  8. Non-accidental salt poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features of 12 children who incurred non-accidental salt poisoning are reported. The children usually presented to hospital in the first six months of life with unexplained hypernatraemia and associated illness. Most of the children suffered repetitive poisoning before detection. The perpetrator was believed to the mother for 10 children, the father for one, and either parent for one. Four children had serum sodium concentrations above 200 mmol/l. Seven children had incurred other fabricated illness, drug ingestion, physical abuse, or failure to thrive/neglect. Two children died; the other 10 remained healthy in alternative care. Features are described that should lead to earlier detection of salt poisoning; the importance of checking urine sodium excretion, whenever hypernatraemia occurs, is stressed. PMID:8503665

  9. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  10. Accidental release prevention: Recent EPA actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, Z.C.

    1995-05-01

    Industry should expect a resurgence in EPA accidental release prevention mandates. Among recent federal rulemakings, a list of substances and their thresholds for accidental releases were addressed in a final rule March 1994. Risk management of accidental releases was addressed in a related, proposed rule. The rules will affect an estimated 118,000 facilities nationwide. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are the driving force. CAAA Title 3 Section 112 (r) requires EPA to formulate and implement requirements for accidental release prevention. Section 112 (r) provisions can be viewed as the culmination of federal legislative efforts to prevent accidental releases and protect the public. Federal interest was fanned by a number of serious accidents in the US and worldwide in the past 20 years.

  11. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed. PMID:22966472

  12. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  13. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

  14. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  15. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  16. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  17. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  18. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  19. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    PubMed

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  20. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  1. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  2. 36 CFR 223.114 - Acquisition by third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and approved by the Forest Service except in writing, signed by the officer approving the sale, his... Forest Service as a purchaser of timber under the conditions and requirements then in effect for similar timber sales and assumes in writing all of the obligations to the Forest Service under the terms of...

  3. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... asks that the taxpayer call him. The second call is answered by the office answering machine, on which... party (the receptionist) or leave a message on the answering machine, which may be heard by a third... taxpayer. Both the receptionist and the answering machine are only intermediaries in the process...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... asks that the taxpayer call him. The second call is answered by the office answering machine, on which... party (the receptionist) or leave a message on the answering machine, which may be heard by a third... taxpayer. Both the receptionist and the answering machine are only intermediaries in the process...

  5. 26 CFR 301.7602-2 - Third party contacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... asks that the taxpayer call him. The second call is answered by the office answering machine, on which... party (the receptionist) or leave a message on the answering machine, which may be heard by a third... taxpayer. Both the receptionist and the answering machine are only intermediaries in the process...

  6. The Emerging Neuroscience of Third-Party Punishment.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Hoffman, Morris

    2016-08-01

    Although it is far too early to say that cognitive neuroscience will have any direct impact on how we sentence criminals, patterns are nevertheless emerging that suggest a neural framework for punishment that could one day have important legal and social consequences. PMID:27369844

  7. 40 CFR 6.303 - Third-party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contain analyses and conclusions that adequately assess the relevant environmental issues. (b) In order to....303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA...

  8. 40 CFR 6.303 - Third-party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contain analyses and conclusions that adequately assess the relevant environmental issues. (b) In order to....303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA...

  9. 40 CFR 6.303 - Third-party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contain analyses and conclusions that adequately assess the relevant environmental issues. (b) In order to....303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA...

  10. 40 CFR 6.303 - Third-party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contain analyses and conclusions that adequately assess the relevant environmental issues. (b) In order to....303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA...

  11. 40 CFR 6.303 - Third-party agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contain analyses and conclusions that adequately assess the relevant environmental issues. (b) In order to....303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA...

  12. Third-Party Software’s Trust Quagmire

    PubMed Central

    Voas, J.; Hurlburt, G.

    2016-01-01

    Current software development has trended toward the idea of integrating independent software sub-functions to create more complete software systems. Software sub-functions are often not homegrown – instead they are developed by unknown 3rd party organizations and reside in software marketplaces owned or controlled by others. Such software sub-functions carry plausible concern in terms of quality, origins, functionality, security, interoperability, to name a few. This article surveys key technical difficulties in confidently building systems from acquired software sub-functions by calling out the principle software supply chain actors. PMID:27110033

  13. 32 CFR 199.12 - Third party recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations pertaining to the FMCRA) shall... of § 199.10 of this part. However, the proper exercise of the right to appeal benefit or provider...) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.12 Third...

  14. 32 CFR 199.12 - Third party recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations pertaining to the FMCRA) shall... of § 199.10 of this part. However, the proper exercise of the right to appeal benefit or provider...) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.12 Third...

  15. 32 CFR 199.12 - Third party recoveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations pertaining to the FMCRA) shall... of § 199.10 of this part. However, the proper exercise of the right to appeal benefit or provider...) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.12 Third...

  16. 42 CFR 433.138 - Identifying liable third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... insurance information: Initial application and redetermination processes for Medicaid eligibility. (1) If the Medicaid agency determines eligibility for Medicaid, it must, during the initial application and... applicant or beneficiary during the initial application and each redetermination process, of...

  17. 42 CFR 433.138 - Identifying liable third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance information: Initial application and redetermination processes for Medicaid eligibility. (1) If the Medicaid agency determines eligibility for Medicaid, it must, during the initial application and... recipient during the initial application and each redetermination process, of health insurance...

  18. The Application used RFID in Third Party Logistics*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingxiu, Zheng; Chunchang, Fu; Minggen, Yang

    RFID is a non-contact automatic identification technology, which will be the future information storage extraction and processing technology. In recent years the mainstream of the large-scale development has manifested the situation. RFID is the key technology of tripartite logistics information and automation. RFID-based logistics system can enlarge the logistics operation capacity, and improve labor productivity to reduce logistics operations mistakes.

  19. 19 CFR 163.8 - Third-party recordkeeper summons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... served on the person, or on any officer or employee of the person, with respect to whose liability for... intimidation, bribery, or collusion; or (iii) To flee to avoid prosecution, testifying, or production...

  20. 42 CFR 433.138 - Identifying liable third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this section are deemed to be met. (e) Diagnosis and trauma code edits. (1) Except as specified under... trauma code edits: Frequency. Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, the agency must... intervals specified in § 435.948 of this chapter, and diagnosis and trauma edits required in paragraphs...

  1. 42 CFR 433.138 - Identifying liable third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this section are deemed to be met. (e) Diagnosis and trauma code edits. (1) Except as specified under... trauma code edits: Frequency. Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, the agency must... intervals specified in § 435.948 of this chapter, and diagnosis and trauma edits required in paragraphs...

  2. 36 CFR 223.114 - Acquisition by third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223... purchaser under a timber sale contract may be recognized and approved by the Forest Service except in... not relieve the purchaser of his responsibilities or liabilities under the timber sale contract...

  3. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertising plan. The newspaper should not send the retailer two bills, one at the national rate and another... rate for spot announcements, subject to volume discounts. A retailer buys enough spots to qualify for... actual net cost or the discount rate. Example 4: An advertising agent buys a large volume of...

  4. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertising plan. The newspaper should not send the retailer two bills, one at the national rate and another... rate for spot announcements, subject to volume discounts. A retailer buys enough spots to qualify for... actual net cost or the discount rate. Example 4: An advertising agent buys a large volume of...

  5. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... advertising plan. The newspaper should not send the retailer two bills, one at the national rate and another... rate for spot announcements, subject to volume discounts. A retailer buys enough spots to qualify for... actual net cost or the discount rate. Example 4: An advertising agent buys a large volume of...

  6. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... advertising plan. The newspaper should not send the retailer two bills, one at the national rate and another... rate for spot announcements, subject to volume discounts. A retailer buys enough spots to qualify for... actual net cost or the discount rate. Example 4: An advertising agent buys a large volume of...

  7. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....10 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PRIVACY ACT REGULATION § 505.10 Disclosure to... individual are not permitted under the Privacy Act. (8) Disclosure under emergency circumstances. For the safety or health of an individual (e.g., medical records on a patient undergoing emergency treatment)....

  8. 22 CFR 505.10 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....10 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PRIVACY ACT REGULATION § 505.10 Disclosure to... individual are not permitted under the Privacy Act. (8) Disclosure under emergency circumstances. For the safety or health of an individual (e.g., medical records on a patient undergoing emergency treatment)....

  9. Protecting Investments: Third-Party Warranty Coverage for Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Austin

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, only a handful of K-12 schools and universities had integrated tablets into their curricula. Today, not one week passes with out another iPad rollout announcement. The reasons that schools use tablets are as varied as the schools themselves. Hawaii Preparatory Academy uses iPads to encourage budding physicists, linguists, and…

  10. 26 CFR 301.7603-2 - Third-party recordkeepers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) to C, a customer. When C makes a credit purchase from R using the R card, C signs a sales slip in... pursuant to Circular 230, 31 CFR Part 10. (5) Owner or developer of certain computer code and data. An... illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. V issues a credit card (the V card) that is honored by R,...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7603-2 - Third-party recordkeepers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) to C, a customer. When C makes a credit purchase from R using the R card, C signs a sales slip in... pursuant to Circular 230, 31 CFR Part 10. (5) Owner or developer of certain computer code and data. An... illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. V issues a credit card (the V card) that is honored by R,...

  12. 49 CFR 1007.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government, or for evaluation by the Administrator of General Services or his designee to determine whether the record has such value. (9) The... shall include: (i) The date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a record made to any person or...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6110-4 - Communications from third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., from the Department of Justice with respect to any pending civil or criminal case or investigation, or... agency for assistance involving the expertise of such agency. (c) Action to obtain disclosure of...

  14. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... liability. (a) Customer's liability: Sections 2 (d) and (e) apply to sellers and not to customers. However... brokers, perform in-store services for their grocery retailer customers, such as stocking of shelves...” rate and a lower “local” rate. A retailer places an advertisement with the newspaper at the local...

  15. 49 CFR 383.75 - Third party testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... party tester to administer a CDL skills testing program for the classes and types of commercial motor... examiner to administer CDL skills tests for the classes and types of commercial motor vehicles listed; (C... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  16. 49 CFR 383.75 - Third party testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... party tester to administer a CDL skills testing program for the classes and types of commercial motor... examiner to administer CDL skills tests for the classes and types of commercial motor vehicles listed; (C... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  17. 49 CFR 383.75 - Third party testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE... local government) to administer the skills tests as specified in subparts G and H of this part, if...

  18. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  19. Existing and Emerging Third-Party: Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Dan

    2012-01-01

    When one considers the necessary elements of a green cleaning program, it is tough to know where to begin. After all, green cleaning has evolved considerably from the days when a program simply involved using a couple of "green" chemicals. Over the last several years, successful green cleaning programs have grown in sophistication and are now…

  20. 8 CFR 208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear... that a specific alien has applied for asylum, received a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear review shall also be protected from disclosure. The...

  1. 8 CFR 1208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... application, records pertaining to any credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.31, shall not be... a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear...

  2. 8 CFR 208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear... that a specific alien has applied for asylum, received a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear review shall also be protected from disclosure. The...

  3. 8 CFR 1208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... application, records pertaining to any credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.31, shall not be... a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear...

  4. 8 CFR 1208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... application, records pertaining to any credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.31, shall not be... a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear...

  5. 8 CFR 1208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... application, records pertaining to any credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.31, shall not be... a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear...

  6. 8 CFR 208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear... that a specific alien has applied for asylum, received a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear review shall also be protected from disclosure. The...

  7. 8 CFR 1208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... application, records pertaining to any credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear determination conducted pursuant to § 1208.31, shall not be... a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear...

  8. 8 CFR 208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear... that a specific alien has applied for asylum, received a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear review shall also be protected from disclosure. The...

  9. 8 CFR 208.6 - Disclosure to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credible fear determination conducted pursuant to § 208.30, and records pertaining to any reasonable fear... that a specific alien has applied for asylum, received a credible fear or reasonable fear interview, or received a credible fear or reasonable fear review shall also be protected from disclosure. The...

  10. Priming Third-Party Ostracism Increases Affiliative Imitation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are intensely social creatures and, as such, devote significant time and energy to creating and maintaining affiliative bonds with group members. Nevertheless, social relations sometimes collapse and individuals experience exclusion from the group. Fortunately for adults, they are able to use behavioral strategies such as mimicry to…

  11. Third-Party Social Interaction and Word Learning from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, very young children have learned words while "overhearing" a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in…

  12. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  13. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  14. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  15. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  16. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  17. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870..., accidental death benefits are equal to the amount of Option A. (c)(1) Under Basic insurance, accidental... automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  18. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  19. Finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Sik; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radial artery puncture, an invasive procedure, is frequently used for critical patients. Although considered safe, severe complications such as finger necrosis can occur. Herein, we review the clinical course of finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture. A 63-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with left second and third finger pain after undergoing intravenous (IV) access in her wrist for procedural sedation. During the IV access, she experienced wrist pain, which increased during the 12 hours prior to her ED presentation. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in her left radial artery and absence of blood flow to the proper palmar digital artery. Subsequent angiointervention and urokinase thrombolysis failed. The second finger was eventually amputated owing to gangrene. Radial artery puncture can occur accidentally during IV wrist access, resulting in severe morbidity. Providers should carefully examine the puncture site and collateral flow, followed by multiple examinations to ensure distal circulation.

  20. Analysis of the accidental explosion at PEPCON, Henderson, Nevada, on May 4, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jack W.

    1992-05-01

    The damage generated by a large accidental explosion are presently surveyed and interpreted for their causative airblast overpressures. The uncertainties of the results are associated with window-glass response as well as weather effects. The total pattern of estimated overpressures vs distances is in general agreement with a 1-kt nuclear-explosion assumption for the airburst source strength; this is duplicated by a 227-Mg high-explosive surface burst.

  1. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  2. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  3. 14 CFR 25.571 - Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., corrosion, or accidental damage. Repeated load and static analyses supported by test evidence and (if... accidental damage. Repeated load and static analyses supported by test evidence and (if available) service... catastrophic failure of the airplane; and (iii) An analysis, supported by test evidence, of the...

  4. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  5. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  6. Accidental firearm fatalities. Forensic and preventive implications.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Billeb, E; Koops, E

    2002-12-01

    Out of a total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from Münster and Hamburg, Germany, 32 cases (5.1%) were accidental. The accidents were self-inflicted in 3 cases while another person fired the gun in the remaining 29 cases. More than half of the victims were younger than 25 years and 75% were male. A single gunshot injury was present in all cases and the head was struck in 47% but a detailed analysis of the entrance wound sites did not show any preferential anatomical sites. A surprising finding was the presence of five contact or near contact gunshots (16%). The reasons for these and most other accidents were extreme carelessness when handling a firearm, the involvement of children or adolescents or a foolish behaviour with a gun intended to impress others. Gun-cleaning accidents occurred rarely and there were no major technical defects of the weapons. Preventive measures should concentrate on strict inaccessibility of guns to children and on increased educational efforts to subgroups at risk such as hunters and members of the armed forces. A single non-contact gunshot injury from a long-barrelled firearm can be considered typical for an accident but the great variety and the possible presence of "disguised" suicides and homicides requires a careful forensic investigation including inspection of the scene and reconstruction of the events. It is recommended that a case should always be considered to be non-accidental in the beginning of an investigation. PMID:12461643

  7. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  8. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bipin T; Thomas, Shaji; Nair, Balakrishnan; Mathew, P C; Sebastian, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL) flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions. PMID:21321664

  9. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  10. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  11. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  12. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  13. Pinellas Plant Accidental Discharge Protection/Slug Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-07-01

    This Accidental Discharge Protection/Slug Control Plan is in accordance with the requirements of Pinellas County Code, Chapter 126, and 40 CFR 403.8(f)(2)(v), Pretreatment Program Requirements. The plan provides guidance for the prevention of accidental slug discharges and for emergency response and cleanup measures in the event of accidental slug discharges. The plan also specifies procedures for the discharge of other substances regulated by Pinellas Plant Industrial Wastewater Permit, 153-IE, issued by the Pinellas County Utilities (PCU).

  14. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  15. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  16. Accidental Childhood Iron Poisoning: A Problem of Marketing and Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Hoff, Julie V.

    1979-01-01

    The article indicates that accidental iron poisoning represents a significant hazard in children less than five years of age. Attractiveness of dosage, high availability, and ambiguity in product labeling contribute to the problem. Journal availability: see EC 114 125. (CL)

  17. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper.

  18. Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

  19. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    PubMed

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-07-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  20. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000. PMID:8813872

  1. Accidental Thawing of Embryos, Cryopreserved for Transfer. Two Italian cases, Milan and Rome.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco P; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bolino, Giorgio; Vullo, Annamaria; Frati, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The bioethical and juridical debate on the status of frozen embryos sometimes adds new issues arising from new scientific evidence or by accidental occurrences that bring to the attention of the scientific community the need for new practical solutions. Within this scenario, there have been, in recent years, episodes concerning the accidental thawing of embryos, which have been cryopreserved for transfer. Two Italian cases (the Milan and the Rome cases) are here reported: the Milan case involves a couple undergoing artificial insemination. Three eggs were collected for insemination and two of them had been fertilized. During the night of 8/9 May 2007 a short circuit occurred, resulting in an electricity blackout, which caused the loss of the embryos in culture, which should have been transferred to the woman's uterus on 9 May. The couple applied for damage compensation from the hospital following the loss of the embryos. The case went to Court and the result was a judgment issued by the Milan civil court, which recognized that the centre was to blame for irreparable damage to the embryos. The Rome case, involves two couples (A and B) affected by sterility who applied to an authorized public centre to undergo an ART program. Following the medical procedures, two of the embryos produced were transferred to the woman in couple A and five were frozen, whereas three embryos produced by couple B were transferred to the uterus of the woman and six eggs were cryopreserved in the centre. Two years after the procedure there was an electricity blackout, and the backup electricity generator failed to function, causing the loss of the gametes and the embryos cryopreserved in the centre. Legal proceedings begun by the couples to obtain compensation for damages are still underway. The above reported cases have significantly intensified the bioethical debate on the lawfulness of such practices and on the fate of the cryopreserved embryos, at the same time opening new frontiers in

  2. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  3. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Tataounoff, Juliana; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to assess factors associated with non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma among adolescents in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. A total of 387 students from 12 to 15 years of age (mean = 14 SD = 0.9) were randomly selected. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, data were collected through dental examinations of permanent incisors. Secondly, a thorough interview was held with 85 adolescents who exhibited dental trauma in the dental examinations. The interview consisted of a detailed description of the incident and physical environment in which it occurred. Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test (P < 0.05) were performed. The prevalence of dental injury was 22% (n = 85). Dental trauma was more prevalent in boys (P = 0.001) and individuals with overjet >3 mm (P = 0.007) and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.013). Analysis of the event revealed that 22.3% of the cases of dental trauma occurred because of non-accidental collision. Non-accidental collision followed by injury occurred mainly at school (P < 0.001) and in an environment with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor (P = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between non-accidental collision and gender, age or mother's schooling. It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor.

  4. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  5. Review of oil and HNS accidental spills in Europe: identifying major environmental monitoring gaps and drawing priorities.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2012-06-01

    The European Atlantic area has been the scene of a number of extensive shipping incidents with immediate and potential long-term impacts to marine ecosystems. The occurrence of accidental spills at sea requires an effective response that must include a well executed monitoring programme to assess the environmental contamination and damage of the affected marine habitats. Despite a number of conventions and protocols developed by international and national authorities that focused on the preparedness and response to oil and HNS spills, much remains to be done, particularly in relation to the effectiveness of the environmental monitoring programmes implemented after oil and HNS spills. Hence, the present study reviews the status of the environmental monitoring programmes established following the major spill incidents over the last years in European waters, aiming at identifying the key monitoring gaps and drawing priorities for an effective environmental monitoring of accidental spills.

  6. A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.

    PubMed

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2014-02-15

    In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in accidentally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Hongbiao; Wang, Ji; Wu, Jing; Liu, Xiaohong

    2013-03-01

    This study examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in 180 accidentally injured patients of mainland China in their convalescence stage, investigating its relationships with demographic and accidental injury variables, personality, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and coping styles. Our results showed that posttraumatic growth (PTG) presented mostly in the domain of Relating to Others and indicated that PTG was significantly related to marital status, educational level, personality, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Avoidance of PTSD symptoms, Openness to experience, and positive coping were significant predictors of PTG. The findings emphasize that when promoting PTG of accidentally injured patients, healthcare providers should facilitate patients utilizing personal resources, understand PTG coexists with PTSD symptoms, and adjust interventions based on the coping styles the patients have adopted.

  8. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  10. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  11. [Successful resuscitation in accidental hypothermia following drowning].

    PubMed

    Fritz, K W; Kasperczyk, W; Galaske, R

    1988-05-01

    After breaking through thin ice, a 4-year-old boy drowned in a lake. A quickly alerted rescue helicopter found and recovered the child, drifting underneath the clear, thin ice. Primary resuscitation by the helicopter crew was unsuccessful. Upon arrival in the hospital the child had fixed, dilated pupils and asystole. Core temperature was 19.8 degrees C. Rewarming was conducted slowly while cardiopulmonary resuscitation was continued. Twenty minutes after arrival at the hospital, ventricular complexes appeared in the ECG (temperature 22.1 degrees C); after another 10 min this converted to sinus rhythm. At short intervals, blood gas analyses and electrolyte determinations were carried out and corrected adequately. For cerebral protection methohexital was given and the child was hyperventilated. Seventy minutes after arrival at the hospital the child was brought to the pediatric ICU with stable circulation. There, further rewarming (centrally/peripherally combined) was carried out, aiming at 1 degree C rewarming per hour until a normal temperature was reached. The patient had to be kept on the ventilator for 10 days and after another 2 weeks was discharged home. He had recovered completely without any cerebral damage. One of the reasons why 88 min of cardiac arrest were tolerated by this patient without sequelae may have been rapid and deep hypothermia.

  12. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  13. Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, K. C.

    1966-01-01

    Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

  14. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information.

  15. The accidental transgressor: morally-relevant theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Killen, Melanie; Lynn Mulvey, Kelly; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-05-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a morally-relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind.

  16. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  17. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  18. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed.

  19. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  20. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Aranda, María L.; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24558554